You are on page 1of 12


• Comparison Examples: She is kinder than his brother  His brother is not as kind as she is. She is more intelligent than his brother.  His brother is not so intelligent as she is. (“so”, cuando la primera frase es negativa). Exercises: 1. He works harder than I do. I don’t ______________________________________ 2. I am not as tall as she is She is _______________________________________ 3. He is better at mathematics than I am I am ________________________________________

Examples: before.

His attitude to life is not the same as it was

 His attitude to life is different from what it was before. Exercises: 1. The situation now is different from what it was five years ago. Five years ago, the situation was not _______________ 2. At university, you won’t meet the same sort of people as the ones you are used to in a village.

I become more irritable. I study hard. like him. Exercises: 1. the more irritable I become.  The older I get. In what way is it not the same as you expected? In what way __________________________________ Examples: He works in an engineering firm. The longer ____________________________________ Examples: He’s the rudest man I’ve ever met.  He works in an engineering firm. He plays football for England. . like Examples: As I get older. If you go on eating so much. They are going to Brighton for their holidays.The people you meet at university will be ___________ ______________________________________________ 3. as we are. __________________________________ 1. like me/ like his father. ________ 3. you will get father. as his father did. Exercises: _______________ 2. He plays football for England. I study hard. As the game went on. The more _____________________________________ 2. as I do/ as his father does. the players become more exhausted. They are going to Brighton for their holidays.

-except with “It’s worth”. It’s the most enjoyable holiday I’ve ever had. “It’s no use”) . I’ve never read such an interesting book.not’) Examples: We’ll be late unless the train arrives on time.. we won’t let him • Gerund and “it” … + Infinitive (the gerund form is preferred at the beginning of the sentence. If he doesn’t tell us who he is.  We’ll be late if the trains doesn’t arrive on time. “it”. I’ve never met such a rude man. You can’t take the examination ___________________ 3. Unless ______________________________________ 2. You can’t take the examination unless you pay the fee. I’ll ring my lawyer _____________________________ 1. I’ve _________________________________________ • “If” and “unless” (“unless” generally means ‘if…. Unless you apologise. This is such a big house!  This house is so big! Exercises: 1. It’s _________________________________________ 3. I’ll ring my lawyer. The infinitive is essential when we begin the sentence with an impersonal subject. It’s the best film I’ve ever seen. Exercises: in. I’ve _________________________________________ 2.

He solved the puzzle in five minutes. • “It” and coordinated relative clauses Examples: He made a fuss about nothing.Examples: Remembering grammatical rules is something difficult. After adjectives always to+inf. Marrying for love is better than marrying for It __________________________________________ 2. Meeting interesting people is always a pleasure. which was clever of him. It’s worth + ing. It’s no use + ing. They didn’t invite her to dinner. Exercises: 1. which was stupid. It is dangerous to walk on railway. It __________________________________________ 3.  It is sometimes difficult to remember grammatical rules. Exercises: money. It____________________________________________ 2. which was hurtful. 1. ___________________________________ dangerous. .  It was stupid of him to make a fuss about nothing.

She __________________________________________ • Present perfect and past tenses: “for”. Examples: The last came here at the end of June. Examples: The last time I saw her was in 1978. Clues For: present perfect Since: past simple and present perfect Ago: past simple Ex: I have worked here . Exercises: 1. “since” and “ago”.  He hasn’t come here since the end of June. The last time __________________________________ 2. .since 7 months ago.since September. The last time she travelled by air was in March. .for 7 months.  I haven’t seen her since 1978. It was unkind of her to take the child’s toys away from him. .It ___________________________________________ 3. I haven’t played tennis since December.

It’s many years since we last met.  It’s seven years since I last saw her. We last _______________________________________ Examples: The last time I saw her was seven years ago. Exercises: 1. He last _______________________________________ 2. I last played tennis nine months ago. He last came here six months ago.  He hasn’t came here for six months.She hasn’t ____________________________________ 3. It’s __________________________________________ 3. The last ______________________________________ 3.  I haven’t seen her for seven years. It’s a long time since they wrote to us. He has not been to see his mother for ages. Exercises: 1. We haven’t heard from them since 1990. We haven’t ___________________________________ 2. I haven’t heard from her for some time. He’s been away from school for six weeks. The last ______________________________________ Examples: I haven’t seen her for seven years. .

Examples: It is expected that the President will arrive tomorrow. despite having queued for an hour. Even though __________________________________ • Impersonal construction: “It said”. Although _____________________________________ 3. we have not made a profit. Despite ______________________________________ 2. It’s believed that the murder occurred at 3 o’clock. It’s said that the robbers are hiding in this area. he still lost the match. ThoughEven though In spite of. Exercises: 1. . In spite of the increase in production. he still lost the match.he played brilliantly.They haven’t___________________________________ • “Although”.  The President is expected to arrive tomorrow. They weren’t able to get into the cinema. It is thought that the pilot lost his way in the fog.  The murder is believed to have occurred at 3 o’clock. DespiteExercises: 1.playing brilliantly.  The robber are said to be hiding in this area. “though” and “even though” Examples: Although. although it was raining. We went on playing. etc.

Because of____________________________________ • “May” and “Might” Examples: Perhaps he will come tomorrow.  He may know the answer.  They were unable to play because of the rain. It’s just possible that he . . A lot of people are thought to be involved in the affair. They refused to fly because it was foggy. The robbers were thought to have used this car to make their scape. It was ________________________________________ • “Because” and “because of” Examples: They were unable to play because it was raining. Maybe he knows the answer.  He may come tomorrow.The pilot _____________________________________ 2. . It’s __________________________________________ 3.hasn’t heard the working in the garden. DespiteExercises: 1.

Your application form ___________________________ _______________________________________________ 3. He might . They did not send him a copy of the contract. Their ________________________________________ • Active and passive forms Examples: A croud of 50. Exercises: 1.000.  The tickets can be paid by cheque or in cash.  The math is being watched by a crowd of 50. She _________________________________________ 2. We are considering her application for the job. Perhaps she hasn’t received our letter. He __________________________________________ . It’s just possible that he is waiting for you to ring working in the garden. He __________________________________________ 3.not have heard the phone. Maybe their train is late.000 people are watching the match. Her application _______________________________ 2. . Exercises: 1. You should not post your application form later than 10th August. You can pay they tickets by cheque or in cash.

 Not only the management but also the staff are in favour of the changes.  I wish / If only they could come. Exercises: 1.  I wish / If only they didn’t live so far away. If _______ / I _________________________________ 2. The tragedy is that not only the negatives but also the films were destroyed. Both_________________________________________ 2. It’s a pity they live so far away. It’s a pity you don’t earn more money. The tragedy is that ______________________________ _______________________________________________ 3. His success depends both on hard work and on good business sense. . It’s a pity this dress costs so much.• “not only” and “both” Examples: Both the management and the staff are in favour of the changes. Exercises: 1. Not only the Government but also the Opposition voted in favour. His success depends ____________________________ ______________________________________________ • I wish / if only Examples: It’s a pity they can’t come.

Exercises: 1.  I wish you had been here to see the show. It’s a pity I didn’t take your advice. It was rather boring afterwards.If _______ / I _________________________________ 3.  I wish they hadn’t left the party so early. I ____________________________________________ 2. It’s such a nice day! If _______ / I ________________ ______________________________________________ Examples: It’s a pity you weren’t here to see the show. (“If only” no se usa con el Past Perfect) It’s a pity they left the party so early. It’s a pity we have lost contact with them. It’s such a nice day! It’s a pity we can’t go to the beach. I ____________________________________________ 3. I ____________________________________________ Examples: (Conditional  solo par hablar de cosas que nos enfadan mucho). It’s a pity they didn’t invite more people. .

Why don’t you pay attention to what I’m saying? I ____________________________________________ 2.  Let’s not quarrel! .  Let’s go to the beach. It would be a shame if we quarrelled. Why doesn’t the Government do something about unemployment? I ____________________________________________ • Let’s Examples: It’s a splendid idea to go to the beach. Why do you always drop your cigarette ash on the carpet? I wish you wouldn’t always drop your cigarette ash on the carpet! Why don’t you look where are you going?  I wish you would look where you’re going! Exercises: 1. Why aren’t you more careful? I ____________________________________________ 3.