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Alternate term is Stress Rupture Strength. creep-rupture strength The stress that will cause fracture in a creep test at a given time in a specified constant environment. Also called stress-rupture strength. Creep StrengthMaximum Stress required to cause a specified amount of creep in a specified time. Also used to describe maximum Stress that can be generated in a material at constant temperature under which creep rate decreases with time. An alternate term is creep limit. The concept of fatigue is very simple, when a motion is repeated, the object that is doing the work becomes weak. For example, when you run, your leg and other muscles of your body become weak, not always to the point where you can't move them anymore, but there is a noticeable decrease in quality output. This same principle is seen in materials. Fatigue occurs when a material is subject to alternating stresses, over a long period of time. Examples of where Fatigue may occur are: springs, turbine blades, airplane wings, bridges and bones. The Mean stress has the effect that as the mean stress is increased, fatigue life decreases. This occurs because the stress applied is greater. I mentioned previously that scratches and other imperfections on the surface will cause a decrease in the life of a material. Therefore making an effort to reduce these imperfections by reducing sharp corners, eliminating unnecessary drilling and stamping, shot peening, and most of all careful fabrication and handling of the material. Another Surface treatment is called case hardening, which increases surface hardness and fatigue life. This is achieved by exposing the component to a carbon-rich atmosphere at high temperatures. Carbon diffuses into the material filling interstisties and other vacancies in the material, up to 1 mm in depth. Exposing a material to high temperatures is another cause of fatigue in materials. Thermal expansion and contraction will weaken bonds in a material as well as bonds between two different materials. For example, in space shuttle heat shield tiles, the outer covering of silicon tetra boride (SiB4) has a different coefficient of thermal expansion than the Carbon-Carbon Composite. Upon re-entry into the earth's atmosphere, this thermal mismatch will cause the protective covering to weaken, and eventually fail with repeated cycles. Another environmental affect on a material is chemical attack, or corrosion. Small pits may form on the surface of the material, similar to the effect etching has when trying to find dislocations.
non-metallic inclusions and shrinkage voids can significantly reduce fatigue strength. Surface quality. Low Plasticity Burnishing. cutting. which decreases the fatigue strength. and ultrasonic impact treatment can also produce this surface compressive stress and can increase the fatigue life of the component. as well as the behavior during cyclic loading. Size and distribution of internal defects: Casting defects such as gas porosity. Compressive residual stresses can be introduced in the surface by e.g. biaxiality. fatigue strength depends on the direction of the principal stress. Factors that affect fatigue-life Cyclic stress state: Depending on the complexity of the geometry and the loading. Material Type: Fatigue life. . Surface roughness cause microscopic stress concentrations that lower the fatigue strength. Laser peening. in-phase or out-of-phase shear stress. casting. shot peening to increase fatigue life.This chemical attack on a material can be seen in unprotected surface of an automobile. whatever the mechanism used to produce the stress. whether it be by road salt in the winter time or exhaust fumes. mean stress. and other manufacturing processes involving heat or deformation can produce high levels of tensile residual stress. This problem can be solved by adding protective coatings to the material to resist chemical attack. Direction of loading: For non-isotropic materials. Geometry: Notches and variation in cross section throughout a part lead to stress concentrations where fatigue cracks initiate. such as stress amplitude.g. and load sequence. composites and polymers differ markedly from metals. varies widely for different materials. Residual stresses: Welding. e. Such techniques for producing surface stress are often referred to as peening. This improvement is normally observed only for highcycle fatigue. one or more properties of the stress state need to be considered.
” presumably analogous to human fatigue that results when a motion is repeated successively. the failure is sudden and catastrophic. A slip is a suspension in water of clay and/or other materials used in the production of ceramic ware. This allows a higher solids content to be used. many loadings. fail in fatigue. and not without much controversy along the way. Deflocculant. Poncelet (Ref 10. and frequently deflocculant. Grain size: For most metals. The impression seems to have developed that a part may function satisfactorily for many. Usually the mixing of slip is undertaken in a blunger although it can be done using other types of mixers or even by hand.” What the process consists of has been the subject of many studies over some 150 years. such as sodium silicate. Use .1) in France described this phenomenon as “fatigue. our understanding did not develop suddenly or smoothly. Fatigue comes on gradually in human endurance. an aqueous suspension of minerals. smaller grains yield longer fatigue lives. and what frequently is overlooked is that fatigue of a metallic part also develops gradually. and materials in general. As with the fatigue process itself. or gas-phase embrittlement. Temperature: Extreme high or low temperatures can decrease fatigue strength. however. which is important during slipcasting. the presence of surface defects or scratches will have a greater influence than in a coarse grained alloy. Slip (ceramics). can be added to the slip to disperse the raw material particles. Environment: Environmental conditions can cause erosion. As early as 1839. Corrosion fatigue is a problem encountered in many aggressive environments. or allows a fluid slip to be produced with the a minimum of water so that drying shrinkage is minimised. Failure is not really sudden but is the end result of progressive deterioration that eventually produces the failure “event. which all affect fatigue life. corrosion. but when metal fatigue occurs.  Fatigue mechanism There has always been an aura of mystery regarding why metals. and we now understand reasonably well the nature of the fatigue mechanism.
To join of sections of unfired ware. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification. Crystallographers classify twinned crystals by a number of twin laws. and near melting point. Slipware may be carved or burnished to change the surface appearance of the ware. painting or splashing. Decoratively when placed onto a wet or leather-hard clay body surface by dipping.In crystallography. such as handles and spouts. Such type of ware is often described as slipware.A slip may be made for various purposes in the production and decoration of ceramics. A twin boundary or composition surface separates the two crystals. Decorative slips may be a different color than the underlying clay body or offer other decorative qualities. creep is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under the influence of stresses. Elimination or reduction of machining 2. High Production Rates 3. Wide Variations in Compositions are Possible 5. Creep is more severe in materials that are subjected to heat for long periods. To shape ware by slip casting. Slip can be used: As a means of mixing the constituents of a clay body. To adhere figures or other motiffs to unfired ware to form a bas-relief. Specialized slip recipes may be applied to biscuit ware and then refired. This technique is known as sprigging. These twin laws are specific to the crystal system. Scrap is Eliminated or Reduced Disadvantages: . an example is Jasperware. crystal twinning refers to intergrown crystal forms that display a twin boundary Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner. Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy Advantages: 1. It occurs as a result of long term exposure to high levels of stress that are below the yield strength of the material. Creep always increases with temperature. Complex Shapes to be Produced 4. Colored slips are can be used to create pieces of ceramic art by techniques similar to paint in other media. Wide Variation in Properties are Available 6. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a variety of specific configurations.
Design Limitations 5. Relatively High Die Cost 3. Other Areas where Powder Metallurgy Products are used extensively: Household appliances Recreational equipment Hand tools Hardware items Business machines Industrial motors Hydraulics Areas of Rapid Growth : Aerospace applications Advanced composites . → it is commonly designated as P/M → it readily lends itself to the mass production of small. intricate parts of high precision. and then heated (sintered) in a controlled atmosphere to bond the contacting surfaces of the particles and establish the desired properties. and controlled degrees of porosity or permeability can be produce. Inferior Strength Properties 2. Health and Safety Hazards Powder Metallurgy → the name given to the process by which fine powdered materials are blended. unusual materials or mixtures can be utilized. → has a little material waste. often eliminating the need for additional machining or finishing. pressed into a desired shape (compacted). High Material Cost 4.1. Density Variations Produce Property Variations 6. Major areas of application tend to be those for which the P/M process has strong economical advantage or where the desired properties and characteristics would be difficult to obtain by any other method.
Important Properties and Characteristics of the metal or material powders that are used: Chemistry Purity Particle size Size distribution Particle shape Surface texture of the particles Process features of the powder particles that size and shape can varied and depend on : . Electronic components Magnetic materials Metalworking tools A variety of biomedical and dental applications High-volume Materials : Stainless steel High-strength and high-alloy steels Aluminum Aluminum alloys Iron Copper 4 Basic Steps of Powder Metallurgy : 1. Mixing or Blending 3. Sintering ♥ Optional Secondary processing often follows to obtain special properties or enhanced precision. Compacting 4. Powder Manufacture 2.
such as water atomization. and the cycle repeats. usually at room temperature. connected to the powder supply by a flexible tube. The feed shoe is an inverted container filled with powder.Velocity and media of the atomizing jets or the speed of electrode rotation Starting temperature of the liquid (which affects the time that surface tension can act on the individual droplets prior to solidification) Environmental provided for cooling When cooling is slow (such as in gas atomization) and surface tension is high. a feed shoe moves up into position over the die. The opposing force is probably a combination of: 1. Some methods can produce only elemental powder. While others can produce pre-alloyed particles. and the shoe retracts. Other methods of Powder Manufacture : Chemical reduction of particulate compounds (generally crushed oxides or ores) Electrolytic deposition from solutions of fused salts Pulverization or grinding of brittle materials (comminution) Thermal decomposition of hydrides or carbonyls Precipitation from solution Condensation of metal vapors Almost any metal. the powder particles move primarily in the direction of the applied force. The upper punch retracts and the bottom punch rises to eject the green compact. its forward edge clears the compact from the press. Green compact – loose powder is compressed and densified into shape. As the die shoe advances for the next cycle. Compacting – one of the most critical steps in the P/M process. Resistance by the bottom punch . polymer or wax or graphite lubricant can be converted into powder form by any of the methods. leveling the powder. With the feed shoe in position. During compacting. Irregular shapes are produced due to more rapid cooling. With the feed bottom punch in its fully raised position. spherical shapes can form before solidification. the bottom punch descends to a preset fill depth. metal alloy. often of high purity. or nonmetal like ceramic.
are preferred since they can reduce any oxide already present on Secondary operations are be performed to improve: 1. Reducing atmospheres.temperature stage is where the desired solid – state diffusion and bonding between the powder particles take place. is designed to combust any air. a cooling period is required to lower the temperature of the products while maintaining them in a controlled atmosphere. the burn-off or purge. This is critical since the compacted shapes have residual porosity and internal voids that are connected to exposed surfaces. -recently developed alternative to conventional powder metallurgy compaction. dissociated ammonia. the pressed. Most sintering operations involve three stage and many sintering furnaces employ three corresponding zones. -while the powdered material does not flow like a fluid: complex shapes can be produced by mixing ultrafine (usually less than 10 um) metal. complex-shaped components have been fabricated from plastic for many years by means of injection molding. Density 2. The second or the high. Strength 3. ceramic. commonly based on hydrogen. Finally. Shape 4. The first operation. These three stages must be conducted in a protective atmosphere.2. a cognate of English cinder. volatize and remove lubricants or binders that would interfere with good bonding and slowly raise the temperature of the compacts in a controlled manner. In the sintering operation.powder compacts are heated in a controlled – atmosphere environment to a temperature below the melting point but high enough to permit the solidstate diffusion and held for sufficient time to permit bonding of the particles. *A water-soluble methylcellulose binder is one attractive alternative to the thermoplastics. Friction between the particles and the die surfaces P/M Injection Molding -small. or carbide powder with a thermoplastic/wax material (up to 50% by volume). Corrosion Resistance Tolerances Properties of P/M Products . Sintering The word sinter comes from the Middle High German Sinter. or cracked hydrocarbons.
. Porosity actually promotes good sound and vibration damping. Physical Properties can also be affected by porosity Corrosion resistance tends to be reduced due to the presence of entrapment pockets and fissures. and many P/M parts are designed to take advantage of this feature. the strength of the P/M products approaches that of the wrought material. and magnetic properties all vary with density. If higher strength materials are used or the fracture-related tensile strength is specified. The yield strength of P/M products made from weaker metals is often equivalent to the same material in wrought form. With full density and fine grain size. ductility and fatigue life being more sensitive than strength and hardness. The voids in the P/M part act as stress concentrators and assist in starting and propagating fractures. with the fracture-limited properties of toughness. When larger presses or processes such as P/M forging or HIP are employed to produce higher density. Electrical. the P/M properties tend to fall below those of wrought equivalents by varying but usually substantial amounts. Since mechanical properties of powder metallurgy products are so dependent upon density. thermal. it is important that P/M products be designed and materials selected so that the final properties will be achieved with the anticipated amount of final porosity. P/M parts often have properties that exceed their wrought or cast equivalents.Mechanical properties show a strong dependence on product density. With full density and fine grain size.
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