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Identity Construction: New Issues, New Directions Author(s): Karen A. Cerulo Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.

23 (1997), pp. 385-409 Published by: Annual Reviews Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2952557 . Accessed: 26/08/2013 10:17
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Annu.Rev.Sociol. 1997.23:385-409 Copyright 1997 byAnnual Reviews Inc. All rights reserved

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IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION: New Issues,New Directions
KarenA. Cerulo
New Brunswick, New Jersey ofSociology, Department Rutgers University, 08903-5073;e-mail:cerulo@rci.rutgers.edu
social KEY WORDS: identity collective identification construction, identity, processes, movements, virtual identity

ABSTRACT The study of identity forms a critical cornerstone within modern sociological of Cooley and Mead, identity Introduced have thought. by theworks studies evolvedandgrown central to current sociological discourse. Microsociological perspectives dominated work published through the1970s. Sociologists focused primarily onthe formation ofthe"me," exploring thewaysinwhich interpersonal interactions moldan individual's senseof self. Recent literature constitutes an antithesis tosuchconcerns. refocus attention from theindividual to Manyworks others thecollective; discourse over thesystematic ofbehavior; prioritize scrutiny some researchers as a sourceof mobilization rather thana approach identity of it; andtheanalysis of virtual product identities nowcompetes with research on identities established in thecopresent world. This essay explores all such in keyworks since1980. I close with a looktoward agendaas raised published thefuture, aimedat synthesizing traditional and current suggesting trajectories concerns.

INTRODUCTION
The study of identity forms a critical cornerstone within modern sociological thought. Introduced by theworksof Cooley and Mead, identity studies haveevolved andgrown tocurrent central sociological discourse. Microsociologicalperspectives (socialpsychology, symbolic interactionism), perspectives focusedprimarily on theindividual, the dominated workpublished through 0360-0572/97/0815-0385$08.00 385

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3. race/ethnicity.theestablishment of "communities of themind.I limitdiscussion includes several nonsociological works. regional features. My review expanse. Writings attend. As a studies havebeenrelocated result. scholars are examining the mechanics bywhich distinctions arecreated. with the"holytrinity" ofthe andclass forming gender/sexuality. Intellectual concerns and self-direction havere-energized ofidentification study processes. a collective that result that which constitutes andthepolitical implications from collective definitions. 'For recent inthisliterature.""me. So rooted.stressing thesimilarities or sharedattributes around whichgroupmembers coalesce. largely bythree important movements 1. thenotion addresses the Verstehen. "we-ness' of a group. concerns." and thenegotiation of copresent and cyberspace identities. interpersonal research ofthepasttwodecadesproves antithetical to traditional But identity a shift fueled trends. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Earlyliterature theseattributes approached or"essential" as "natural" from emerging physiologcharacteristics-qualities ical traits.Becauseofthe literature's to keyworkspublished since 1980.67. maintained. New communication technologies havefreed interaction from therequirements ofphysical thesetechnologies copresence.ISociologists primarily exploring interactions moldan individual's thewaysinwhich senseofself. directions see Stryker (1992). Thisessayexplores eachofthese research agenda." and thegeneralized in a milieu other voidofplace.) The essaycloses with a look toward thefuture." conscience. and changed.91 on Mon. or theproperties psychological predispositions.386 CERULO ontheformation ofthe"me. Several fociemerge research from this development: the substance of "I. withagency the 2." focused 1970s. as I suggest trajectories aimedatsynthesizing traditional and current concerns. inparticular. haveexpanded thearray of generalized others contributing to theconstruction of theself.54. to field discursive (Appiah& Gates1995:1). This content downloaded from 193. a strategy demanded bythemakeup of thisfield." Weber's and Tonnies'Gemeinschaft.(I revisit thisissuein theconclusion. Social and nationalist of thepast three decadeshave shifted scholarly attention to issues of groupagencyand politicalaction. identity tothesiteofthecollective. THE "NATURE"OF COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Collectiveidentity is a conceptgrounded in classic sociologicalconstructs: Durkheim's "collective Marx's "class consciousness. Atthelevelofthecollective.

& Edwards1988). Atkin1982.2 TheAnti-Essentialist Social Constructionism: View In concert of WI Thomas. perspective.C Epstein 1988.g.91 on Mon.Eder 1995. presenting a postmodern to arguments ofunified challenge group experiences.theschools(e.Kaplan1983.g. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .AJDavis 1984.54. Probyn 1993. thesocial constructionist approach to identity rejects any category that setsforward essential orcorefeatures as theunique ofa property collective's From this members. Margolis 1985. and to thesymbols jectivedefinitions attending norms andsustain that initiate either/or classifications (e. with thewaysin which theaffective. Richardson 1989. Schwartz & Doniger 1995.Eilberg& Romatowski culture 1985). From change this stance.67.Sadker 1995. singular socialexperience.MacDonald& Parke1986.popular & Kalisch1984.Connell 1995. researchers alsoexplore suboffemininity andmasculinity.Coser 1986.Anti-essentialist inquiries promote thesocialconstrucas a more tionofidentity viablebasisofthecollective self. Such studieschallenge essentialist dichotomies of gender of and dismissnotions gender's primordial roots. cognitive.Hearn1992.g.Researchers dissect thedifferences problematize of and fully thevariety thesebroadlabels forease of presentation 2I employ acknowledge in eachcategory. Bem 1993.Wittig 1981. andmobilized inaccord with reigning cultural scripts andcenters ofpower. refabricated. Signorielli Whilesuchstudies reflect all are concerned numerous intellectual traditions. with theories Peter Berger. Sidel 1991.Fausto-Sterling 1985. 1990. Howard Becker. an identity via linguistic excontinually renegotiated andsocialperformance.Trepanier and media(e.Thorne 1994. Erving Goffman. subsumed perspectives This content downloaded from 193.Kupers Marshall 1993. every collective becomes a social artifact-an entity molded.Raissiguier & Sadker1994. Constructionist ofsocialization. Signorielli & Morgan1988).Gaines1991.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 387 of structural locations.Gerson & Peiss 1985.Hyde& Linn 1988. 1990. Wittenstrom works often scrutinize 1995. Best 1983.Kalisch CL Miller1987.Other works stress in collective theproblems inherent categorization. 1991.Gailey1987.1986). a single canvas against which socialactors constructed a senseofself. Caldera 1989. A collective's members werebelievedto internalize these qualities. Recent treatments ofcollective identity question the essentialism ofcollective attributes andimages. suggesting a unified.Constructionists conceptualize gender as an interactionalaccomplishment.Ross& Taylor family (e. socialization and agents organize project a gendered andbehavioral dataindividuals use toform self. and others.Gilligan1990. West & Zimmerman 1987. Hyde et al 1990.g. their roleingender the agents delineating identity acquisition: etal 1989. Social constructionism on gender informs muchofthework identity. of gender An important constructionism restswithworksthat outgrowth in male thegender-sex link. D Smith1987.Cookson& Persell Whiting 1985.

" alternatives. Smith writes effect powers that took(women's) ance . to andrecreate bothsuccumb social members as natural ensures that signals.Oakley1984. (1992) on lesbianidentity that both ofboundaries itemizing (a) theconstruction process. behaviors.Raymond of constructionism. another stronghold Race and ethnic studies represent historical excursion a fascinating example.67. (e.Nanda 1990. thebody(e. ofgender identity the"armor" literthegender complement to sexualidentity approaches Constructionist thework ofVerta andNancyWhittier Taylor ature. scripting attitudes. James Davis (1991).388 CERULO system inparticular. knowledge thatcan colorsexual thecultural also explores differences violence. these scripts andtreating emotions. andmeaning ofsex andtheroleofpleasure. meaning of biological tioning the facts.Important entries include Taylor & Whittier and lesbiansocial movements. as emergent from of gender dismantling notions multaneously 1988. theroleofthefamily. writing.Sault 1994. nonreproductive publicdiscourse. constructionists nature lighting thesubjective defined maleargue that socially Rather. sidoing. a muchbroader literature meaning. 1987.Theseworks identification and renegotiation theorigins. 1981. ofthe"onedrop a vehicle rule.Medicine1983. they theeffects ofgender categories.g. this literature demonstrates the inscription of gender on the body. nine"axes of constructed domains" identifies (p. definitions behavior.54. Irving exemplify as it occursin varying social locations.Davis documents of blackness that charts definitions therule's He unpacks for racialclassification.Bordo1993. ofprescribed in spheres imprison individuals alienation ofutterofthis within dubbing it"the scholarship. By quesbiology-thebodyandreproductive andfemale scholars expose the social rituals. andthinking (1990:199-201). toidentity experience: building contribute sexual languageand and behavior.91 on Mon. strategies reproductive sexual identities. sextoadolescent approach Janice (1994) takes a similar Irving minority status. andsexual ofthebody. exploring of sexualcommunities 1981.Corea 1985. 11) that ual identity.g. D'Emilio 1983.Spallone& Steinberg do notdeemphasize of gender. Subjective constrict human severely nessandfemaleness Dorothy action andexpectation.Faraday1981.. distinctions. 1988. Davis its over and competing development highlights triumph This content downloaded from 193. In highShilling1993. thepurpose sexuality.for thehistory in America.E Stein1992b.Arditi 1987. Gender of expression awayfrom us evenas we usedthem" andlanguage.Martin et al 1985. mapa three-step sexualcolfrom thedominant groups nonmainstream insulate anddifferentiate nonmainandgoalsamong consciousness ofshared lective.Papanek1990. In so into social transform such differences andpractices that symbols. (b) theemergence that valorize a group's and(c) processes ofpoliticization stream sexualgroups.. stereotypes.Bartky Acker1989.Faderman Troiden 1994).Whatley Plummer 1994. provides F. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . models ofspeaking. Irvine andidentity-based gender relations.Stacey& Thorne1985).

symbolic forward a constructed. for collective andthesearch for collective autonomy. Blending with nation raceinconjunction considering arerenowned. in strongly ethnic anchored that ethnic identity is no longer "concerned withthesymentity he presents ethnicity as a symbolic Rather.91 on Mon. toMary Waters's shifts arealsocentral (1990) andtheir implications Identity ethnicity. for Euro-descendents sheargues. Balibar demographic particularly landscape. as a shifts ethnic In another identity Nagel (1995) examines arena. lineage. within a broadanalytical & Wallerstein (1991) viewracialidentity constructionist andclass. in light ofitssocial scrutinizes ethnic identification Waters clingto ethnicity. struggle subject's voiceinto incorporate the identity Several works onracialandethnic Richard Alba's (1990) workon Europeantheir Examplesinclude inquiries.54. with experience theUS classification He also contrasts taintheslavesystem. Davis concludes in other racialcategorization ofUS racerelationsrule'simpact onthefuture lation theonedrop regarding inlight ofdeveloping shifts. bols of ethnic cultures to varyethnicities areeasilyreshaped in response Alba argues that symbolic one such social needs. prove negligible payoff-rewards. Herredecidetoadopt individuals choice-a socialcategory actively switch andamend thewaysinwhich those ofmixed search documents ancestry of affiliations.Joann US Census Nagel figures (1960-1990).Waters locatestheattraction their ethnic primary to idenCommitment ethnic American value. thoughtful specuwith nations.67. In thisway. In another arena. His datasuggest contexts andgrowing ingsituational under the descendents thatunitesEuropean renegotiation reconstruction-a that this umbrella ofa European-American Alba argues identity identity. with constructionist Alba argues Americans. Using phenomenon. themselves" rather thanwiththecultures (1990:306). shift bearssignificant a larger. theauthors lensesforwhich with thesocioeconomic premises andselfimposed racialization analyze both thoughtfully Balibar & Wallerstein repression. In keeping premises. within a double-edged ethnicity lacking a culturally based needforcommunity-community stemsfrom tity individual cost. non-Euro forAmericans of nonwhite. the andcollective racialidentity variantly considering racialization. brings research. shelter. face with more comfortable base as they videswhite-Euro descendents nonwhite a rapidinflux ofnon-Euro.CONSTRUCTION IDENTITY 389 to mainitsrolein thestruggle itemizing follows theone droprulein action. that white. sociopolitical She explains American identification. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . broad theshift prosocial benefits forthoseit encompasses. ofNative documents changing patterns federal factors: with to three shifts reference changing sociopolitical identity This content downloaded from 193.Waters withwhichindividuals herworkproblematizes therelentlessness However. immigrants. descended social structures. orstress. Ultiand potentially negative ofpersonal ethnic as theproduct Waters comesto understand identity mately. Like Alba.

Wagner-Pacifici & Schwartz 1991. Spillman 1997.Frankenberg 1993. collectives tiestoa terricitizen aredefined not increasingly bytheir primordial toentitlements a transnational but from both discourse tory. print technology) a particular historical collective moment. One also finds elaborations ofconstructionism. In related several studies with constructionist the work. thewaysinwhich policy andpolitics encouraged an ethnic renewal. effectively remaking imagesof the national self(also see Bloom 1990).Berezin1997.Skocpol1985).Giddens 1984. Dyson1993. Soysalexamines strategies bywhich European nations intothenational She arguesthat incorporate guestworkers citizenry.Schwartz 1987." which addresses definitions "postnational changing Western thedifferent bership.91 on Mon. inclusive.Lane 1981. Nagelargues that these factors raised Native American ethnic andshetraces consciousness. create. Bellahet al 1985.Boli 1987. D Smith thegreatest to construcAnthony (1991) poses perhaps challenge to national tionism.morethananyarenabefore workpresents a multivoiced with excursion. andultimately tional influence principles political agenda. grapple issuesas they consider constitution of theAmerican self(e. during in tural(language)and social factors convene (capitalism.Hobsbaum 1992.Beaune1991. andgrowing American Indian political activism. Kubik1994.Conzenet al 1992.Wade 1993.examining and organizastructures middle-range questions political andtheir on policy. Works nationalism tity probing to thestateand worldmarkets to thrive reference continue (e. according emerging human anda setofstructures & Alker celebrating rights (also see Shapiro 1995).Tilly1990).Hout& Goldstein 1994. allies. This content downloaded from 193. and chart thewaysin whichactors.Ignatiev 1995. linking socialconstructionism tomore views.g.andenemies (e. narrative. Fine 1996.DeVos 1992. Smith adoptsa middle-ground approach identity.Jepperson include Yasemin Meyer1991.He defines essentialist national identity as a product ofboth "natural" andconscious Natural continuity manipulation. Agulhon 1981.67.Jewell 1993.national idenYet.Hewitt 1989.Schudson1992. & collective self-definition (e. Newertrends Soysal's (1994) ofnational memmodel. theidentity scholar'seye. "Newinstitutionalism" brings to bear. 1991.Farley 1991.Shively 1992. theidentities ofnations. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .g.390 CERULO Indian policy.Gellner 1983. Armstrong 1982. 1989.g. Birnbaum 1988. 1991.Brubaker 1992. ofidentity culHe documents times which keymoments construction.) Social constructionism a multifaceted drives literature on national identity.Smedley 1993.Hobsbaum & Ranger 1983. innovative Meyer1987). A richcollection of sociohistorical works on commemoration.Williams 1990.Y Zerubavel 1995).Griswold 1992.(Also see Blakely1993.g.54.Gillis1994. symbolization particularly elites. such as Benedict Anderson's (1991) workon imagined community. citizenships. maordismantle nipulate. increased American ethnic politics.Corse 1996. Anderson apas a sociocognitive bothspatially proachesnational identity construct-one and temporally bothenabledand shapedby broader social forces.

JaneFlax (1990). logic levelofhistoricism" at thevery (Fuss 1989:20).91 on Mon. social arrangements.54. postmodernists citeserious flaws intheschool'sapproach. In Smith's view. Lyotard.In thespirit JacquesDerrida. making it themostfundamental and inclusive of collective identities. richest. rhetoric in an structs established and their identity categories accompanying thefull effort toexplore inthis callinto of"being. in evaluating Diane Fuss elaborates theconstructionist approach to gender: moreprecisely of 'woman'does notneces"specifying thesesubcategories woman'or 'Anglo-American essentialism.Judith Butler (1990).IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 391 continuity emerges from pre-existing ethnic identity andcommunity.'whilecrucially emphasizing very specificity nonetheless reinscribe an essentialist byno meansa monolithic category.67. ofpower. andother reasons present daypolitical why tiescontinue tobe invoked andoften felt" deeply (Calhoun1995:199). scholar deconand Jean-Francois thepostmodern-identity Foucault. Finally.Further. conscious manipulation is achieved viacommemoration. postmodernists with observation anddeduction andelevating concerns focus. works on gender postmodern prove Hill Collins(1991). as thevariation class-as important bewomen. Connell "a multidirectional flowof influ1987.Further. Smith compliments this duality with a socialpsychological dimension. (Complimentary positions includeConnor 1990. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ideology. Greenfield 1992." Works tradition range questionmodelsthat withtruth. 'French sarily preclude bourgeois in their that'woman'is lesbian.Gilman1985). Sucha stance theroleofpowerin theclassification underemphasizes process(e.mistakenly suggesting ence and agency" (Calhoun1995:199).Hutchinson 1987. postmodernists essentialist identiaminethe"real. Patricia This content downloaded from 193. suggesting that catalogues the construction identity process. Somefind constructionism's itsimply agendainsufficient. deemphasizing of JeanBaudrillard. this comtri-part bination distinguishes national identity. equatediscourse they exposethewaysin which objectified as truth and sustains collective discourse bothforms definitions. In an effort tobroaden thesocialconstructionist exagenda. andhierarchies and sexuality For students of identity. many contend that the constructionist approach implies identity categories built through interactive effort.e. they identity categories-i. viewthevariation within in thestudy ofidentity. Theseweaknesses leavepostmodern of social constructionism's identity theorists skeptical trajectory. Calhoun1993 and Hutchinson & extensive Smith 1994offer literature reviews. andsymbolism. fearing that theparadigm ultimately approximates thevery essentialism it fights against.) Postmodernism: Deconstructing Categories theantiessentialism Whilesupporting that constructionist on drives inquiries identity.g. Michel publicdiscourse. African-Americans. working a shift in analytic advocate tweenidentity categories. citing a "need as integral toidentity for community" work.

Whenqueertheorists visionsitcomLaverneand Shirley Hitchcock's film (Doty 1993) or Alfred a homosexual contest Rope (DA Miller 1991) from "subject-position." they current hierarchical structures of sexuality. queer theory's subject-positioned readings jolt & offer thevery of classification. forexample. ortransgenon identities excluded bythehetero/homo duality-e.current "queertheories" of simultaneous considerations catean inclusive approach. must assumetheconnotation ofhomosexuality in thereader must a product in thedenotation of heterosexuality. notesthatelements such as race and social class produce multiple variations of "women"and "men. Queertheorists of materials advocatea new "reading" usingan "inside/outside" opposition. etc). reinterpret the ofa cultural terms ofa homosexual presence.g. works onsexualidentity follow Corepostmodern a similar thrust.andlesbianandbisexual women.S.The existence categories us to theflawsof on thewaysin which us instead binary gender conceptualizations.Riley 1988). Reminiscent of Garfinkel's approach "invisible" normative structures. postmodern gender theorists thedualistic.Leps & Seidman1995. In contrast theconstruction sexualidentity identity (i.bellhooks(1984). nature ofcollective existence.Patricia Hill Collins(1991). often contradictory.67.Warner a provocative 1991). Further.Fraser ence(see alsoAgger1993.54.Raissiguier 1992. Anyworkunderanalysis mustbe readwithan eye forthatwhich it itemizes and thussimultaneously readteleimplies.Sedgwick 1990.91 on Mon. advohomosexual.392 CERULO Garber Marjorie (1992). heterosexual andhomosexual andsecond. thereader In suchan analysis. nature challenge oppositional by whichgender is traditionally framed.Connell toprior ofsexual 1987. giving voicetowomen ofcolor.DonnaHaraway (1991). In contrast tothesocialconstructionist.Theyexpose inapproaching thedangers gender collectives as homogeneous entities andurge careful consideration ofthecomplex. first.Nicholson1990. Epstein 1992. and Fuchs Ward 1994 process (Agger1991 reviews ofpostmodernism. alternative Constructing readings ofthe of a work'ssexualimplications deconstructs thetaken-for-grantedness to identifying dominant sexualmodel. thoseofvarious socialclasses. These basic tenets carry methodology. serious focus identity construction. studies of a particular exploring orcommunity-e. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . andTrinh T Minh-Ha (1989) reconsider gender identity. Theysuggest.Seidman treatments 1992).) recent.Stein1992. comprehensive This content downloaded from 193.g.e. explication product's must of sexuality direct readers to all excluded forms hetero/homo opposition as well." that distinctions societies use tobuildcomplex many hierarchical stratification of thesemultiple alerts systems. lesbian.Baca Zinn& Thornton 1989. focusing affiliations of human multiple identity qualitatively changethenature experiDill 1994.Nicholson 1994. bisexual deridentities (also see De Lauretis 1984. problemasexualcategories andcontesting sexualhierarchies tizing (Butler 1993.

agency This content downloaded from 193. differentiate. moved byissuesofcollective collectives these groups tooexemplify literature. confield. I suggest agencyincludes in a moralspace. or rather.g.Further. Spurred not properties. When than movements act rather or resource mobilization.. 1995.Burawoy 1993. thebasisofboth tobe. thehealth thediscursive protectionists. andpower.also see Calhoun1991a:51.. self-characterize.Giddens1991:207-17).Form1985. Identity politics also provides works on gender/sexuality ofsocialclass (e.Dudley1994. and coerce.Animal environmentalists.In post-material italism existence to a moremeaningful a further theright to existence. emerges anditscompetitor model.Carter 1989. fight react.CONSTRUCTION IDENTITY 393 andpostbysocialconstructionists issues raised differences. ofagencyform a special andnewsocialmovements suggest Identity politics ensue andmovements "collective Identities a self-conscious emerge agency.54.they in this notes: central area." members coordinate consciously becausecollectives action. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . current counterculture-in ofthe1960sstudent members scious.Gallie 1983.67. insulate. signification. typeof right.thehomeless. collectives takeon distinct moved by identity. borrowing a conscioussense thatcollective self(1985:287).Eichar 1985.Rather. than Alberto Melucci. politics ofidentity. 1986. consciously developoffenses enand compete.Katznelson Howal Cannon Wright 1989). identity-based byideology for choice to expand notto achieve mobilize it.1993. 1987.identity politicscreates"new social movements.Farrell & Zolberg & Weir1985. A is enacted collective of groupas agent.they freedom.91 on Mon. struggle attention toa collective's scholarly modernists alikedirect the Suchconcerns underscore andclaimsocialprerogative. industrial society industrial caphasbeen. agency persuade cooperate of one's social environandtransformation compassesmorethanthecontrol of agency andthe Charles discussion from Taylor's ment. the Despite their toself-name.1997). rather has beenreplaced to havewhichcharacterized bythe The freedom . group consciously and mark.Gans 1995. Blumin works on theformation andexperiencing for many & Hall 1987.andremains.'realsocialism'. and defenses. emancipation. collective In thisway.Garcia 1991. Mobilization and Collective Identity Politics an important andthepolitical movements itspurs constitute identity Collective cited scholars. (1989:177-78.Katznelson Halle 1984.Katz 1993. "holy trinity" of beyond this politics movescholars concerns with identity ever. McNall et Vanneman & 1991.Issues ofpolitics areraisedin previously concern foridentity thefocus andrace.Davidoff 1985. Theright toproperty freedom there society." actions on theexpressive areself-reflexive andsharply focused initiatives that ofcollective members (Melucci1989:60. 1989. In sucha context. definition.

Johnston 1994.Cohen articulation.Robert Benford.g.Further. cultural and socialconcerns. micro andmacroanalyses.Morris & Muellar1992. theseworksitemize thewaysin whichresulting collective identities then direct movement participants bydefining theparametersand appropriate arenasof collective action. forexample.Huntet al 1994.MichaelJPiore(1995).Snowetal 1986.Jasper 1991.Snow& Benford 1992.Johnston 1992.andothers address theframing and schematization of identity as it occurswithin social movein thisareadelineate ments. Fantasia1988. social structures.1994. Such analyses remain fully mindful of thewaysin which movement participants' perceptions of history. in America's rootsof individualism. Piore such groupsare narrowly focused and formed relative find themselves ofcross-boundary arguesthat they incapable exchange. Gerhards et al & Nelkin1992. Gamson.54.67.Benford & Rucht 1985. Recent literature raises concerns the socialconsequences regarding long-term writes of identityof identity politics. with By merging sociocognitive construction processes concerns for structural and organization thisliterature creates an exciting factors. literature exscholarly process establish plores the mechanicsby which collectivescreate distinctions. David William Snow.Tarrow 1992. of meaning. andcultural arrangements constrain orenhance theinterpretiveprocesses. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Doug McAdam.1988.Taylor & Whittier 1992). conceptual bridge. Usingcognitive theories derived from sociologyand anthropology.Studies theframe alignment processes that bring focus and shared bothgroup to particular collectives identity at specific historicalmoments. Based on theseobservations.Furoftheeconomic conditions he believes suchgroups often remain unaware ther. This content downloaded from 193. Benford 1993.Lichterman 1996.394 CERULO collective thefreedom pursues tobe because'that which frames thecollective's defines their identity existence as right andgood (Taylor 1989). as isolated. Such linking linking works a modelthat forces thesimultaneous consideration ofthought.Gamson1992.Laranaetal 1994. Piore their that collective mayconstrain goals." Because based movements cohesive"communities to distinctions.McAdam1982. provide andaction & Hunt1992. This work'sappealrestsin itsmultifaceted theoretical base. (see e.Gamsonet al 1982. Piorepresents a five-step with a shared planaimedatreplacing identity politics commitment to a unified national structure.91 on Mon. In connection withissuesof identity politics and collective agency. IDENTIFICATION PROCESSES Attention tocollectives andthe oftheir identities hasre-energized establishment in theidentification A growing interests itself. locatesidentity movements ideological He suggests thatcurrent socioeconomic conditions beckona changein this stance.

In related work. on theartsalso proves the mark research important. demonstrating variesacrossspace andtime. Bourdieu's theories ofdistinction. theroleof symbolic boundaries in the MicheleLamont(1992) documents ofvaluedidentities.Winn(1983). inwidely shared sufficiently strong togenerate hierargrounded meaning prove identities relative valuetocollective (Lamont 1995. linguistic pattern identity. andsociallensestoexplore Forbes(1995) use cultural Quadagno& Catherine identification and distinction The authors amongUS JobCorpsparticipants. and itsrole in theconstruction of Japanese on the identity. of bothsymbolic and structural examine theworkings boundaries barriers as togender andgender Concerns these factors contribute inequality.Thissection under study. including genealogy ofepistomes. also chyandconfer & Fournier Jill see Cohen1986. andage transitions occur. andZerubavel's elaborates ona variety ofidentification processes currently cation. Theseauthors areespecially concerned acterize various symbolic enabletheinvoking with thewaysin which socialcontext andsociallocation In thisregard.67.Sahlins1989). Waksler (1991).Lamont 1992. from interviews construction Usingrichdatadrawn with menin FranceandtheUnited Lamont the States. through his concepts of a specialedition that Eviatar Zerubavel brings (1997a) offers This content downloaded from 193. Works (1989).IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 395 Suchworks arecloselylinked hierarchies. 1987. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Building icality "uchi"(inside)and"soto"(outside).Her workalso emphatanceofboundary types herfindings indicate those boundaries sizes boundary that only firmly strength. thesemiotic Derrida's focuson difference. andZelizer(1985) helptorefocus whichage categories areconstructed. Modell (1989).91 on Mon. to important knowledge theories.1997. and cultural succonditions boundaries conditions ofsocioeconomic In contrast create inequality. Postman by Gaines (1991). DiMaggiodemonstrates and andclassification status solidify categories waysin whichartacquisition theelitefrom theordinary. distinguish In a different Jane Bachnik & Charles Quinn(1994) focuson indexarena.Elsewhere. various authors explore Japanese concepts thewaysin which these distinctions direct collective orientation and boundary In probing all authors consider comboth behavior. specifies upper-middleclass under whichmoral. focus.54. Paul DiMaggio's(1982.socioeconomic. their munication and social practice linkage to context.1992) landof suchrepertoires. age identities issuesofidenSomers White (1992) approach Margaret (1994) andHarrison ofmeaning that charthecultural orsystems tification byspecifying repertoires communities. cessfully objective Lamont maintains a tri-part theimporthat to Bourdieu. Foucault's work on sociomental classifimodelsofSaussure andPierce. andrenegotiate rulesofinclusion. on thecultural contexts within ologists arebuilt. Jeffreys soci(1982). reproduction in lifecourseresearch withsymbolic boundaries characterize recent inquiries as well.

Dauber's offormal French (1992) work onPueblopottery. O'Barr1994).commodities signs(Appadurai 1986. ethnocentrism. tagionandempathy.Aho buildsan interesting case foran enemy "them" and"us.orclothing Goldman 1992. As such.Aho situates his analysis incidents. andinterviews.and economic esobjectsareproduced. ditions that the enabledthree specific ideologies:theProtestant Reformation." Grappling thequestion "Can onestruggle effectively against evil without becometainted by it?".91 on Mon. His work mapsthe waysinwhich depersonalization permits socialstereotyping. this 1995)toarticulate Complimenting agenda. identity in thestudy ofdiscourse Severalworks. After sources of andMarxist thehistorical Enlightenment. processes (Turner & Luckman's fivestepsof James Aho (1994) invokes 1994). approach andpolitfication as a process that unfolds inrelation to economic. andaltruism.multitiered viewidentification atcritical investigations in a collective's junctures history. its institutionalization. Usingmediareports.Authors chart these complementary sociomental processes as they explore identification anddistinction in monetary exchange.396 CERULO and splitting lumping to life. action. cooperation emotional concollective andother et al 1987. Nippert-Eng (1996) andSilver(1996) offer in bridging excursions on theroleofpersonal peciallyinteresting possessions transitions. anchored and symbolization. Amongsocialpsychologists. Further. social. Severalworksnotethe ways in whichindividuals and groupsuse artobandcommodity jects (Martorella 1989). charting This content downloaded from 193. groupcohesiveness. Hennion &Meadel 1993. socialism. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Finally. In contrast support theories. thedissolution anda case study ofa Union. Robert Wuthnow's ofdiscourse the on communities (1989) work exemplifies Wuthnow thegeneral andeconomic conapproach. provide a multitiered of collective analysis identification and theideologies that to deterministic suchstudies identiit. (Rubenstein andproject identities. Finally. ofcollective Aho carefully explores thedevelopment moral righteousness. political. fetal classification. and other interesting areas(also see E Zerubavel 1991. contexts understand cultural. historical. Mukerji's (1994. John C Turner presents depersonalization as a process enabling collective identities. including periodsof identity production." that is both The study of objectsalso proveskeyto recent research on identification. explores cultural. works castidentity discourse andsymbols as mediators ofstructure andaction. government documents.1997)studies of use to structures and Zukin's gardens. KKK defection. including oftheSoviet theRubyRidgeaffair. Berger of political reification to elaborate boththeconstruction and deconstruction in a variety ofrecent enemies. (1991) exploration city objects better in which the thepolitical. and periodsof identity these interpretation.67.54. 1997b). He notestheprocesses bywhich suchsentiments legitimate thedestruction ofthe with "other. theconstruction of sexualidentities. ical contexts.

Herworks explore thewaysin which political climate andtheinstitutional of disstatus course toboth producers relates the nature andthe effect ofdiscursive strategies. andform newcollective configurations: Television has fostered theriseofhundreds of "minorities"-people a whoin perceiving wider toseethemselves as unfairly insomepocket isolated ofit.Television has world. Joshua the first tofully the (1985.too."Inthis physical NCTs way.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 397 theseagendas. andinterpretation reception elucidate faulty thusspecifying identity theconditions symbolization. variables that todelimit appear general rulesof symbolic expression. Finally." the form ofAmerican foreign policy. NCTs havechanged is constructed.91 on Mon. consider without reference identity to newcommunication thebackdrop technologies (NCTs). under whichsymbols can failto capture thefervency ofthose they portray. NCTs weaken According orsever the connections between andsocial"place.they meshpublicand private.Valentine Moghadam(1994) adoptsthe multitiered approach. taking readers through theschools.67. locatetheselfin newhybrid arenasof action.appliesa multitiered inherstudy ofnaperspective tional identity symbolization. thevarious ofanthem Probing contexts andflag sheidentifies a setofsocialstructural adoption. TECHNOLOGY AND IDENTITY In thepresent one cannot environment. a newtheoretical suggesting modelfor predicting symbol herinquiries on symbol change. Wuthnow's richinquiry demonstrates thecomplex chainby which movement andresulting ideologies identities areboth born andsustained.David Campbell(1992) examines theAmerican "discourse ofdanger.54. 1996) studies ofdiscourse on divorce andabortion. enemy "them. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Cerulo(1995). begin thedisabled andthe disenfranchised them accesstosocialinformation empowered bygiving This content downloaded from 193. Wuthnow examines audience reception andreaction." thewaysinwhich sucha discourse exploring ofthe shapesvisions American "us. Ceruloalso explores theinstitutionalization ofidentity symbols.1997)wasamong Meyrowitz explore link. FollowingWuthnow's example."the andultimately. beckonnewtypes ofperformances. Other multitiered worksincludeMichele Dillon's (1993.1989. organize toMeyrowitz. religious andscientific groups.Finally. Wuthnow traces themodesbywhich eachideology was institutionalized.His works thewaysin which examine electronic mediareNCT/identity thesites ofsocialinteraction. analyzing fundamentalist discourse and itsrelationship to genderand national identities. In a similar vein. andthegovernments andmediathat modeled anddisseminated eachperspective. which havereframed against the identity others they generalized andthe"generalized elsewheres" which theselftakes (Meyrowitz 1989) from itscues. analyzing thecollective application and experience of thethree ideologies through the decades.

NCTs create newenvironments forselfand identification. The linethat homefrom separates work to online/offline maynowpale in comparison borders. organizing. He argues technolthat keyboard a largemajority ofmodern ogyinitiates exchange.suggesting specific waysin which media-generated works describe techa "pseudo-gemeinschaft" provide experience. In thespirit ofMeyrowitz andAltheide. the placesenabled byNCTs reconfigure the boundariesthat distinguish collectives. He argues that NCTs enablenewcommunication formats-new modesofselecting. andplaysites. andwithout demanding that theaverage citizen leavehis orhereasychair (1986:309). power. But whilekeyboards may us to places noteasilyaccessedin thepast. ordismantle they modify current practices. theimpact ofNCTs on many explore formation andresulting collective community identity. theauthor casts controls. andpresenting information.keyboards adult work keyboard technology homogenizes merge workand playworlds. In theseand similar discussions. thekeyboard as a newdoorto interaction. In thisway. In considering human experience withtelephones. andtelevision computers. communication formats can "block"thesocial stage. Severalauthors nologically generated tangible the document theprocesses NCT's build"we-ness. Altheide's on keyboard illuswritings technology trate theseideas. these new formats reshape socialactivity.Television has givenwomen an outside viewof their incarceration in thehome. keyboard technology reduces thedistance between children often andadults.and reconfigure children's play via theworldof adulttools(1995: chaps. 3). some withthe and its resulting communication formats technology provide a social situation whileleaving others vulnerable to therealpowerto define ityof crafted Altheide outlines the images.2. David Altheide inhiswork (1995) posescomplementary positions onNCTs and theself. communication also explores theintersection Beyondspecific tools.398 CERULO in spiteof their physical isolation.67. Andtelevision has been ableto do this without requiring thedisabled toleavetheir wheelchairs. According toMeyrowitz. Beniger (1987) initiated communities thisagenda.Altheide transport that the argues limits anddirects theform and substance of thesocial interaction technology it enables.Altheide ofcommunication.54.91 on Mon. Television has weakened visibleauthorities by destroying the distance andmystery that onceenhanced their auraandprestige. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For example. without asking the housewife tostopcooking dinner. linkadultworkspaces and children's playspaces. ATMs.calculators. promoting Similarly. thedifferchildren encesdividing from adults be lessstark than those may that distinguish thecomputer literate from thenonliterate. newopportunities forcollective development they present affiliation andmobilization. a type ofreverse socialization. waysin which scripting action eveninrealms topossessan internal emergent thought logic." by which demonstrating This content downloaded from 193. Thusatthepresent socialmoment. and spuror shapenewones. He considers thewaysin which andsocialcontrol. In turn. videogames. Subsequent communities as more andreal.

Turkle's anyperspective places virtual In another secondto theconcrete. of a viridentity She follows members as they tualcommunity interact in "multi-user domains" (MUDS).Liebes 1990. CONCLUSION Theliterature here anantithesis reviewed constitutes totraditional studidentity built Theworks research fronts.anantithesis uponseveral This content downloaded from 193. designed anddisforms of NCT-generated tinguish bonds(see Calhoun199lb. Fisher's(1992) sociohistorical Similarly. humanviable"other" andthey outline thewaysinwhich building mirror Reeves& Nass to-machine human relationships purely relationships. Sherry Turkle onlinecommunities (1995).54. Butothers areless enthusiastic regarding theimpact ofNCTs on community andidentity. relevant theauthors efficacy. explores and their on personal impact construction.for example. thewaysinwhich ments individuals online relative toother negotiate identities oftheself. Reeves& Clifford experience arena.peoplearepolite eventhough ently to computers of TV screenimagesaffects theydon't need to be.Thesepatterns holdimplications foridentity studies and to communication beyond. notes both the potential andthesurprising failureofelectronic mediain constructing a unified European identity among the nations that comprise theEuro-community (also see Morley & Robins1995). of NCT's ability to reconfigure soOverall. that withfemale voicesdifferdiscover.Tichi1991).IDENTITYCONSTRUCTION 399 concrete effects oftechno-links andcharting emergent cultures ofreference that canunify oncedisparate socialactors (Cerulo etal 1992. Dayan 1992. Relatedworksmagnify identification processeswithin specific NCT domains.Cerulo & Ruane1997.Steuer 1992. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In essence.Fisher(1997) remains skeptical cial bonds(also see Postman 1992). Cerulo varying 1997). find that mediaobjects becomea theauthors building inthe ofself.91 on Mon.By probing thebalancebetween selvesand"real" facets "virtual" work forces us to question that selves. cited here refocus ies. These contradictory positions haveled sometoinitiate multidimensional models toaddress models. Schlesinger (1993). Further. forexample. forinstance. thesize and movement and perceptions in waysidentical of personal physical responses bodyspace to real-life motion. Testimony ofMUD members. research on thetelephone suggests that structure can be remarkably resilient to technological community change.Indeed. provide a uniquepicture the andexperiencing ofonline detailing building Turkle docupersona. Byron Nass (1996) approach to identitycommunication mediaas objectsrelevant interactions. suggest that thehuman brain evolved totechnology's has notsufficiently relative rapidadvancement.Purcell1997. peopletreat computers than thosewith malevoices.67. alongwith Turkle's keeninsights. Reeves& Nass suggest this canimprove waysinwhich knowledge future technological products.

Ritzer1990). thus a uniqueanalytic toorganizational building approach Bodenmapsconversational acrossvaried andfunction. form. Wileyargues conceptions ofdemocratic vitalto thedefense principles. Boden arguesthat "thewaysin whichorganizational actors realizeboththe thispath(Collins1986. Norbert Peircian andMeadianparadigms to form a neoWiley(1995) merges pragmatist viewoftheself-the selfas a three-dimensional dialoguebetween "I. Theworks works chosen here are synthesis." notions ofreflexivity and"me. idenofeach arena. within as they organizations. elements DeidreBoden(1994) innovatively combines themicro-macro divide. Finally. lishedthe linksof whichI speak. arena.Swidler1986). be gainedwhen Some have achieveda productive of identity the synthesis workthrough of theory. This content downloaded from 193. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Sewell 1992.3 linkages theoretical advancesrelevant to identity studiesrest Indeed. by that ofa suigeneris selfmayprove identity politics. atlargemany advocate 3Within sociology of thesocial and thecultural theintersection to issues addressing in particular. reconciliation workon genderidentity.severalrecent on successful macro-micro workon habitus. one finds a field Thissection ripeforsynthesis. withreference (Schudson1989. Judith Lorber (1994) synthesizes constructionist andpostmodern concerns of theday withissuesraisedby sex roletheorists andMarxist feminists of past decades. inpromoting Others attend tomacro-micro thecauseofsynthesis. a number of the worksheretofore discussedhave successfully estabther. In recent forexample. usingthesedata to configure She thenexamines as vehiclesthatconstitute talkstructures organizations. tity. noting exemplify not"idealtypes. Furtheory. suggests potential avenues for that suchefforts. Other eral of themultitiered identity projects represent prime determined to eradicate macro-micro initiatives are underway. In another tions. exchanges of talkin thestructure organizational settings.Huber1991. In considering tablished theold andthenewofidentity.400 CERULO from scholarly attentions theindividual to thecollective.54. analyzing organizations emerge dailyinteraction. For example. Giddens's linkages:Bourdieu's or Habermas's structuration theories of communicative action. Researchon social movements or sevillustrations.These works often prioritize discourse overthesystematic scrutiny ofbehavior." "you. anddrives socialorganizations. Her efforts result in an interesting that frames theory gender as a social institution-a that of expectafree-standing entity establishes patterns orders socialprocesses.91 on Mon." Wileythen works with pragmatist and Durkheimian to create a modelof "a semiotic a solidarity concepts self. Manystudies approach identity as a sourceofmobilization rather than a product ofit.67. theanalysis of virtual identities nowcompetes with research on identities esinthecopresent world." but rather suggestive models-modelsthat illustrate what can is mined from thefuture careful reflection onpastandpresent." sui generis selfresistant In a historical eraspurred to socialdetermination.

scholars micro-level studies in thearea. This content downloaded from 193. thought.54.91 on Mon. the1980s. withsome care.socialpsychologists' addressed During exandtheimpact ofbothon human resulting identities. 32). integral from thesocial psychological realm to themacrolevelcould certain findings for collective studies.She linkages inanalyzing (1997b)pursues macro-micro in the institutionalization of formats this area and docstorytelling explores of violent have on the such formats can audience evaluations uments impact her the under which macro-social In elucidates conditions acts. thesociologist must consider stitute identity. they suggest waysinwhich on individual andcollective identity. 1997). At present. thefield.Muchcommon existsbettraditional ground earlier I noted andnewapproaches tothetopic. Amongsocialpsychologists. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Atthebroadest Within thepasttwodecades. To be sure. study of cognition can direct and micro-patterns norms of communication complex PeggyThoits& LaurenVirshup identification. toolswithwhichidentity enacted. (see via thoughtful attention to livedexperience andthe broader socialinstitutions. andworld treatment ofthesymbols. to identity has dominated or cultural studies approach for a cannot to ignore ofidentity afford these provide works.Stryker of"human collective andmicro-level different elements inquiries pursue sure. socialaction frequently frame inthesole service Further.67.Forexample. In tapping materias a processthatis fully identity culturally from mustdiligently als garnered thecultural studies sociologists approach.Thoits1986).IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 401 to what intheir environments is critical working constraints andopportunities " an 'environment' themicro-processes (p. weentraditional in mulscholars the which are exploring ways identity currently that collective ofhuman affiliations thenature experience. To be perience (see e.) similarly interesting narratives ofviolence. suchworks constituted. project talkand identity. symbolic efforts to of focused translate to each school Knowing this.g. qualitatively change tipleidentity focusing on similar themes.their 1980. holdrich rewards identity inthecareful rests blendanimportant siteofsynthesis level. ForBoden. of the merger thathingeson social theories (1997) proposea macro-micro self-schema might unify theory mind." Yet. essence. richandthorough thisliterature At thesametime. (Snow 1987 offers of talkbecomethemacro-structure on In Cerulo another arena. thecultural studies position appearssomewhat in a singular conclusion that locatestheconstructed nature of culture trapped ofpower. Burke& Franzoi1988.thehumanist ing of intellectual perspectives. multiple roles.knowledge and projected is is constructed. inquiries of collective also might revisit identity In thecause of synthesis.Specifically. actually constitutes a of theorganization. experience. and processes. they sociologists viewsthat conrituals. of thecognitive socialpractices. distinction between thesocial and thecultural maintain thecritical analytic and consideration of actors. Schudson Via careful collectives.

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Frontiers Marshall BL.Press tionalboundary in Franceand the MelucciA.Press ToAdulthood intheUnited States. ThePowerofSymbols Against Bringing Class Back In Contemporary and theSymbols Historical Perspectives. PoliticalProcessAnd The Katznelson I. KubikJ. 1994. Women.Meyrowitz J. No Sense of Place. York:Oxford Univ. 119-41. IL: Univ. CorporateArt. Johnston JR.91 on Mon.Press McNall SG.Press Theory. century Beacon Theory Soc. 1994. London:Zed Books thesituation: Morley MargolisDR.Territorial This content downloaded from 193. Morals. Lane C. Press Chicago. P Albers.Reproducing thegendered Morris inSoAD.ed. 1996.Society. Culture and social moveWestern Europe and the United States. NJ:Princeton Univ. The generalized elsePhiladelphia.eds. 67(1):59-71 Lichterman P. IL: Univ.ChicagoPress cratic Ideal. medium andchanges versus Century Durham. New York:Univ.67. theory Press "us. Re-defining D. Fantasia R.Qualitative differences among American for Community: Activists Reinventing gender-stereotyped toys: implications Commitment. J Boli. Self and life course: instituCulturalStudies. JWMeyer.and Soc. 1995. 23:651-77 gardens. 1985. Vol. 1994. London:Routledge CM. pp. Sociology and MeyerJ.In Current cial Movement NewHaven. 1987. 1991. NJ:Princeton Brunswick. 36-57 Princeton.Press Univ. Readings of Theories. 1994. LamontM. GM Thomas. 11. In and Power New York: The HiddenHalf StudiesofPlains Indian Intimacy. Sex Roles cognitivesocial development. Identities: 78 cieties. Genderand National physical play: theeffects SexRoles 15(7/8):367Women andPolitics inMuslim Sochildren andparents. CA: Sage Cambridge. Revisioning Men's Lives: alternatives for plains Indian women. The SearchforPolitical Miller CL.Shifting worlds in"them" Discourse. view PA: Penn. 1994. Electronic Landscapes. ofPower: TheRise ofSolidarBoulder. Crit.54. 242-60. ments. New Katznelson I. Engl: Cambridge Univ. Berkeley: MacDonald K.Press McAdamD.New York:Routledge LorberJ. 1992. Weir M. Univ. 1993. New Larafia E.PressAm.The political in seventeenth formal French Cultural Boston: nature Analysis ofReproduction. 1988. Gender. New York: tionalization and itseffects. See Larafia et al 1994. ed.Colliding moralities between Univ. E Long. 1989. 1985. 1992.Money. Guilford B Medicine.Spaces ofIdentity: of "woman. Perspectives Theory. GayTheories. FreedomSummer.NomadsofthePresent:Socan Upper MiddleClass. 1985. Cultivating Dif theIndividual. Apprehending the Criminal: 34 The Production ofstrangers: of Deviancein Nineteenth. 1986. Chicago. Nationalidentity and naUniv. Working Class York:Oxford Univ.TheExport DA. 1990. andManners: 80. 1981.pp. 267Lamont M. 1997. 1991. 1987. Mueller in Social CT: Yale subject. women: sex role Kupers TA.Stud. In Institutional Basil Blackwell. cialMovements andIndividual NeedsinConChicagoPress PA:Temple temporary Society.Press Cambridge In black and whiteworkers. ParkeRD. Philadelphia. Press ford Univ.Analrope.StateUniv. CT: JAI Univ. Park. Challenging patterns Codes: CollecUS. 1989.32(4):332-34 Cultural Boundaries. New Mukerji Ambitions C.pp. NJ:Rutgers Univ. French Hist. PA: Meyrowitz J. and theDecline of theDemo1970.Schooling forAll: Development of Black Insurgency. 6(3):323Leps M. Warrior University Park. 1983. Chicago FO Ramirez. 1991. Press 16(9/10):473-88 Liebes T. 1989. New York: Oxbian ed. 1995." negotiations on the meaning Global Media.Press Meyrowitz J. 1994. New York:Basic Books McAdam D. Levine RF. 1982. Stud. Newbury ftrences. and the MartorellaR.Press of sex and age on MoghadamVM. D Fuss. 1997."Soc. InInside/Out: LesqfMeaning:Cross Miller Cultural Dallas.TheRitesofRulers. Race. Greenwich. RobinsK.406 CERULO Views from History.Press Temple where. Gusfield New Social Movements. Paradoxes of Gender New ModellJ. In press Structure: Constituting State. New York: Cambridge Univ. 1997. pp. 1986. NC: DukeUniv. ZolbergA. CO: Westand theFall ofStateSocialism ity inPoland. 1992. Fournier M. ed. 1987.1997. The Culture of theFrenchand theAmeri. 1989. 1930Class.Calif. The Woman in theBody: A Mukerji mobilization of C. Probl.MelucciA. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Press H. IL: Univ. Lamont M. Chicago.Mass Commun.19(2):349-65 tiveAction inthe NewYork: InformationAge.Press Formation: Nineteenth-Century Patterns in McAdamD. 1992. Parent-child Univ.IntoOne's Own: FromYouth Haven: Yale Univ. Martin E. and Lamont M. Inq. Princeton.Press MedicineB.

Beyond Individualism. 1993.Gender inthe Richardson Univ. state Cornell Univ. Taylor H. New Brunswick: Rutgers Inequalities: Women and World DevelopUniv. New Media LikeReal Peopleand sion. 1987.Rev. FailingAt FairMedicalCareofPregnant tory ofthe Women. J. SadkerD. I Tinker. Social Ross H. Boulder. London:Hutchinson ofsymbols. social construction ledge notes on 'Teddy Bear Patriarchy'. 1994. ed.Commun. of the themeaning ofdesire:reflections ontheculCloset. 1989.Press politics. 1982. 1989.New York:Basil Blackwell. ed.pp. J.Minn.Press Sociol.Towards ing Sociologyand Cultural Studies. Soc. Ithaca. 1991.Forbes 1995.entitlements.Minn.TheBodyand Social Theory.SaultN.Becoming BecomRaissiguier Women 64 Formation ina French Schwartz M. ity. Alker H.Press QuadagnoJ. 1989.SchudsonM.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 407 Gardens ofVersailles. Micro-macro linkagein sociMan Nor Woman: NandaS. The Epistemology identity. 1995.AmI That Name? Minneapolis: politicsand theresurgence of identity. and value. Univ. 1990.Schwartz B.IL: Univ.Belmont: Wadsworth tool.Schwartz B.Berkeley: Univ.Atheory ofstructure: dualtion: How People TreatComputers. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ley: Univ. 1992. Watergate In American hood.ed. 1995.54.Press Random House Indian NagelJ. 1992. SahlinsP. 43(2):6-17 MA: Harvard Univ.Do boysprefer daddy Postmodernism: BeyondIdentity Politics.In Feminist Shilling and Society. In Engaga communication diPurcell K. New York: Univ.Press M. C. and SedgwickE.ed.Press tities.and collective identities PioreMJ.Neither The ologicaltheory: applying a metatheoretical Hijaras ofIndia.Press ofgayandlesbian tural construction adoles. 5-9. New nism. Televiandtransformation.Territorial IdenL. agency. Boundaries: The Makingof CO: Westview Franceand Spain in thePyrinnies.Press 20(1):23-33 CE.Sexing theSelf Gendered Po. II: C. How culture bridge. In Persistent Social Relations. 1987. Soc.The welfare andthecultural ofgender: mak. 67(1):101.and 98(1):1-29 Places. in media. Chicago. 1988. Englishlanguage. The Structure ingWorkers: Identity ofPowerin Vocational America: The Corporate School. or his physicalstyleof play? Sex Roles New York:Cambridge Univ. 162-81. NewYork:Holmes& Meier Raymond D. Cambridge.New York:Delacorte Memory:How WeRemember. London:Basil Black New York:Scribner's O'Barr W.Albany:StateUniv. Univ. Homophobia. 1995. Shapiro MJ. 1993. 1990. 1997.91 on Mon. technology hancement of place. E alectic: embedded -and the enIn press Long.SeidmanS. 1994. 1981. ed. Richardson. Forces70(2):343Probl. New York: Basic to Technology.SewellWHJr.Dress Codes: Meanings Nippert-Eng Nego.SchudsonM. Am. Nass C. 1990.Wishful cultural thinking: Oxford Univ. 1989.Synthesis.Rubenstein Boundaries tiating Through Everyday AndMessages InAmerican Culture. 1994. Schudson works: perPlummer K.ChicagoPress CO: Westview OakleyA. 1992.SadkerM.67. See Irving Routledge 1994. Culture and theAd.pp.Homeand Work: RP. Embattled Eros.American ethnic renewal: RileyD. 1993. 18:153-80 Theory Postman N. New York:Routledge York:Columbia Univ. 1996. Technopoly: TheSurrender Reconstruct The Past. 1992.TheDisappearance ofChild. New York: centsexuality.Calif.42(2):171-90 coln assassination. SeidmanS. 1994.1995.ManyMirrors: BodyImageand tions.NY Elite as a Ruling Press Class. TheMakingoftheModern spectives from mediastudies on theefficacy Homosexual. Forget. symbol:Durkheim Soc. 1990. 347-70. New York: Schlesinger P. and Postman N. L Rethinking Sex. Feminism/Postmoder. G Ritzer. The Captured Womb: A His. Life. 1995. NewYork:Cambridge V Taylor. 1990. Am. Boulder. London:Sage This content downloaded from 193. pp.Sociol. 1984.Press fromeach morethanshe can do. Gender. The Media Equa. a inggoodgirls of sacred and theLinCorps. NewYork:Knopf Books ofCulture E. Inq.Press ment. stereotyping Minneapolis: Frontiers. 1996. BerkeH.60(6):947-65 RitzerG. 1994. GeorgeWashington: The 12 NY: Making ofan American Symbol. Cultural Probyn studiesand the London: Routof "social construction": sitionsIn Cultural Studies. Mourning and themaking reproduction andboysinthe Job Soc. 115-50 Reeves B. alloca.In Frontiers ofSocial Theory: TheNew Nicholson LJ. Challenging Engl: Cambridge Press Boundaries:GlobalFlows. ness: How American Schools Cheat Girls.To teachless than Papanek sheneeds. CamEurope. eds. pp.Press NicholsonLJ. C.Calif. 1997.

SourcesoftheSelf: TheMakPress Nevada ingofthe Modern Identity. New York: films tions ofwestern among American IndiRoutledge ans andAnglos. ed. 1985. 1991..408 CERULO Shively J. 1985.Sociol.D Mueller1992.Taylor In TheCategory C. AtDL. Commun. MA: Smith DE.Virshup 1997.Sociol. Am. Children. IL: Univ. Rev.Rev.Girlsandboystogether. 1986.Hogg MA. Engl: Cambridge ginand Evolution ofa World Boulder. Simon& Schuster centering Turner 22(1):33-55 JC. Identity work among the and marital status differences in disgender homeless: the verbal construction and tress.Sociol. pp. Cam. 1.Steven mostly apart: gender arrangements RD. Thousand Oaks. Benford alignment promentary and movement Architecture ed. 3-43.Frame school.ThePerson.In press Theory.pp. Newbury Park. 1992. 1990. 1986.Thenarrative constitution of Forge an a relational andnetwork Hearth:Creating identity: approach.Native. CT: YaleUniv. Health Care Stryker S. inSocialMoveL Jussim. ment Univ. Cambridge.ChicagoPress States AD 990-1990. CO: Westview Press Smith AD. 1980.ed. Symbolic Interactionism: A York:Viking Social Structural Version.Press bridge.New Stryker S. Am. 1987. Signorielli 1988.Whittier NE. 19(1):1-20 Tarrow political S. Limits of Citizenship: in Eu. and Benjamin/Cummings gender roles. CM Mueller. Am. cycles Vol. M Carrithers. 1997. Philosophy.See Morris& strategies Bringing TheState BackIn. AD Morris.NY: Genin sociology. S Lukes. television. EF Borgatta.LifeOn TheScreen. Cambridge. 23:605-49 American Culture. Bringing and collectiveaction frames: constructin current of analysis research.133-55.Turkle S. RD AshSnowDA. 1987. 1993. 1992. On Her Own: Growing Up In 42(4):73-93 TheShadowOf TheAmerican Dream. V.67. Am. SexRoles 13(5/6):263-72 Spillman PostNationalIdentities in the United Trinh TM.pp. Boston.Master frames and Identity: Fundamental Issues. Taylor C.Press lematic: A Feminist MA: Taylor Sociology. Theory Miford Univ. Symb.Identity theory. Adolesc. 1991. in eleSnow DA.Cowboys andIndians:percep. Me's and we's: forms P. 174-202 T Rueschemeyer. 1992a. Thoits L. New York: Oxford more.NewHaven.CA: Signorielli N. coloniality Bloomington: dianaUniv.Soc. 871-76.ed. BurkeW Jr. Pergamon writing: L. DM NewofEveryday Life. Sage Swidler A. J. JA. Am. Sidel R. TichiC. 1995. Engl: Cambridge thePerson:Anthropology. In Selfand R. 1990.51(2):259-72 avowalofpersonal identities.and strategies. pp.Culture inaction:symbols and Silver I. 1992. 1995.54.SteinE. GayAndLesbianIdentity: StaceyJ.51(2):273-86 identity.TheEveryday World As ProbHarvard Univ.Press Univ. J.National Identity.Oxford: Blackwell rope. 1985. Reno: Univ.Troiden RR.Reicher SD.Rev.Sociol. 1992b.Collective identity Northeastern Univ.Multiple identities: examining DA. 93-102. Press Thorne B. grants and Postnational Membership andEuropean Capital.Trepanier SpalloneP. Press ThoitsP. ed.Nation andCommemoration: roleperceptions.51(3):464-81 man.Sociol.Press. Menlo Park. 1986. the stateback in: Skocpol T. New York:Macmillan N.Made To Or.Chicago..Rev.Steuer J. 1991. 1985. ML BorM. 1992.Tilly C.Coercion. Sistersand queers: the de.ThorneB. Mentalities. of Univ. ed. objects. 1994. In Encyclope: 11(1):50-58 dia ofSociology. 256-81.pp. 1988. micromobilization. 1989. Steinberg ML. Probl.Defining virtual reality: dimen34 sionsdetermining telepresence. Morgan CA: Analysis. Univ.57(6):725.Press fem. of lesbianfeminism. Other:Writing Creating InNew York:Cambridge and Feminism. In ing meaning through action. Interact. Snow 1987.Press Soysal YN. View. Romatowski in der: TheMyth tributes and rolesassignedto characters ofReproductive AndGenetic Oxford: children's sex differences and sex Progress. Social. 1996. 104-29 of Boston. pp.Electronic Television NewYork:OxSoc. PB Evans. The ConceptualPractices feminist mobilization.J.Rev. cesses. Role transitions. eralHall 32(4):301-16 New York: Stein A. 1989. 92(6): 1336-71 andfunctions ofsocialidentities. Oakes PJ.Formsof Desire.In Sociology:Exploring the K.1992. but pp. tory. 1994. Somers MR. Benford InFrontiers ofprotest.1992.Race inNorth America:OriS Collins. Rochford E.91 on Mon. cultures. This content downloaded from 193. HisSmedley A. StatesandAustralia. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1992. A Sociological inist revolution Analysis.Press in social movement communities: lesbian SmithDE. See Morris & Mueller Power MA: Northeastern Univ. The missing Dix Hills. 1990. Skocpol. CA Pine participation. Cultivation gatta.

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