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Culture and Cognition Author(s): Paul DiMaggio Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 23 (1997), pp.

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Annu.Rev.Sociol. 1997.23:263-87 ? 1997 byAnnualReviews reserved Inc. All rights Copyright

CULTURE AND COGNITION
Paul DiMaggio
University, Princeton, 2-N-2Green Hall,Princeton Department ofSociology, New Jersey 08544; e-mail:dimaggio@phoenix.princeton.edu
KEY WORDS: schemata socialclassification, socialcognition, sociology ofculture,

ABSTRACT on conbearsheavily in cognitive andsocialcognition psychology Recent work confirms viewsofculture as cerns ofsociologists ofculture. Cognitive research supraandilluminates andagency; clarifies therolesofinstitutions fragmented; bitsof culture as disparate Individuals experience individual aspectsof culture. Culture that information. that organize and as schematic structures information and diffuses, activates, and social movements networks, carried by institutions, study ofidentity, collective Implications for the available schemata. selects among aredeveloped. andlogicsofaction memory, socialclassification,

INTRODUCTION
affair.Interpretive The study in everyday liferemains a virtuoso of culture has Cultural theory offer butfailto buildon one another. great insight studies Theseriches the butnotfully ready becomehighly operational. sophisticated in Sorokin's likethestudy day (1957 field fortakeoff, of social stratification enteroflivedculture can becomea cumulative thestudy [1927]). Butbefore their theories behind thecognitive presuppositions scholars must clarify prise, does andwhat concepts ofwhat culture it,andthefundamental peopledo with & Swidler andunits ofanalysis 1987). 1994,Wuthnow (Jepperson resources incognitive work andsocialcognition provides Recent psychology sociolbetween cultural recent forbothtasks. After describing convergence recent work on of considers lessons cognition this chapter ogyandpsychology, ofthese ofculture; for develops implications aboutthenature presuppositions classifisocial collective work on memory, lessonsforsociological identity, that and to andframing; points keyproblems remain cation, logicsof action, unsolved. 263 0360-0572/97/0815-0263$08.00

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The viewof culture (Martin This content downloaded from 193. [1967]. or culture. media cultural phenomena (material andsupra-individual to varying for that activate thosestructures degrees. ground years. coherent internally as media incommon suchmanifestations as a latent variable influencing trayed in evembodied and the values to attitude questionnaires.Schwartz sociological haveanticipated impor1981. of culture. For themostpart. anykind latent variable. themodalintellectual interpretively styles oriented as wellas the andexperimentally psychologists.Cicourel1973. embedded ideology. andattitudes.inthepopular little reason there was this that It followed from perspective unproblematically.67. SOCIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY: POINTS OF CONVERGENCE of cognitive science thepotential A handful of sociologists haveappreciated work on culture to inform (Carley1989. I emphasize into the theformer ofculture with theaimofbringing andwork inthesociology I focus production rather than the service ofthe onhowpeopleuseculture. most understanding and culture as a "seamless web" viewed unitary (Swidler 1997). or culture in thephysical The environment. positivistic ciologists which psycholofParsons'efforts atdisciplinary fusion. The majordevelopment within sociologyhas been psychology a shift to a morecomplex of culture. sociologists 1991). disappointing legacy itto shared values. norms.Thirty yearsago. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Garfinkel 1987 tantresults of cognitive research (Berger of culture however. fora butto lay a foundation thestudy ofculture. stuff" of"cultural for usedtostudy to worry aboutconstructs culture. as acrossitsmanifestations inconsistent 1992).264 DiMAGGIO per se (see an exhaustive of cognitive sociology review Rather thanoffer relevant to culture (see D'Andrade Zerubavel1997) or workin psychology research between recent cognitive tensions and affinities 1995).54.91 on Mon.Zerubavel workby cognitive social psychologists. oftheunderlying couldserveas an indicator and as fragmented acrossgroups workdepicts culture recent By contrast. Views ofCulture Sociology:MoreComplex and of culture In recent common between sociology however. haveignored relevant psychologists. sociologists was porIn effect. responses course of the to culture in were Individuals presumed acquire eryday practices. socialization (Wrong and.White1992). to enact it view oversocialized 1961). pointis notto psychologize structures ofshared cognitive viewofculture as working through the interaction messages. culture acrossgroups and situations.and somesocial constructionists & Luckman1967. latter. This omission a mismatch between reflects researchers. has grown. example) conversation. and public-opinion cultural oriented soofhumanistic. reducing ogizedculture. images.

as whatthemediarepresent to identify becomescrucial maydiffer-it accounts of a phenomenon cursive them. to culture becomesanalogous their relationship analytically phenomena. peoplearesocializedleave intowhich itfollows thecultures that strategically. guarantees essenmadepsychology can helpus. casting ago. behaviorism agendas. than didtheculture-as-latent-variable presuppositions MoreComplex ofCognition Views Psychology: toturn topsychology for ofculture makeitsensible sociologists Suchquestions intocogwhich shared culture enters intothemechanisms through forinsight ownresearch whohavetheir nition.54.Swidler use (Bourdieu that canbe puttostrategic resources 1986). among ofcultural andtofocus attention upontherelations analysis units and (culture). that today traditions of culture? to sociologists useful to makepsychology Whathas happened the anddemonstrated haverejected accepted behaviorism.psychologists irrelevant tothestudy ofculture. trends similar (D'Andrade1995notes investigation empirical use culture once we acknowledge that peoplebehaveas if they Similarly. Yetnothing that psychologists. psychologists First. of thepartitioning glimpses provided mental models.67.91 on Mon.and found andfragmentahasdemonstrated culture's research complexity as sociological and ofmemory thecomplexity has demonstrated research tion. cued. informaandretrieve process. other aspectsof belief. to that of education. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ofmental structures usedtoperceive. variable ofa latent stopbeingindicators In effect. Twenty years tially ofskillsand on theacquisition focused primarily off theyokeofbehaviorism Even a dozenyears ofculture.Sewell1992. existence aboutsuchstructures.CULTURE AND COGNITION 265 lifehas and collective intention.just waysto makeinferences tion. separate tosocialstratification: andplaceofresidence for them a matter among the relations construct. Second. recent foci of psychological (schemata. values thatsuffuse constitute structures that as complexrule-like to one of culture succumbed 1990. interest to mostsociologists oflittle capacities oftheideas andresearch sociology ofmany for cultural ago. maybe situationally or understandings cultural frames whichdiffering psychological and contestable more elaborate such issues requires Addressing view. towaysin turns Thusourattention muchopportunity for choiceandvariation. theimplications aremost useful werestillunclear. ourmeasures income.Third. theoretical related toa common inanthropology).Once we acculture This shift makesstudying from maydeviate people'snorms is inconsistent-that that culture knowledge and disimages preconscious or that our normal. research categories. psychological structures ofmental bydomain. Thirty yearsago. muchmorecomplicated. orinincultural than theformal operations richer content andso on) aremuch and developmentalists that oncepreoccupied tellectual cognitivists capacities This content downloaded from 193.

Whereas mostsociologists of culture have been steadfastly anefforts toportray culture as theaggregate tireductionist. (or adjudicate among them) leveland by microtranslating presuppositions (Collins1981) to thecognitive research on cognition. Fourth.we arethen making powerful cogto sociologists.67. culture andevenaddresses supra-individual ofcogaspects nition directly [as in work on pluralistic ignorance (Miller& Prentice 1994)]. nitive Such assumptions. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ourassumptions differences toevaluate cial. and much oftheculture is supra-individual.which complements rather than substitutes.Salomon1993).266 DiMAGGIO & Chavajay1995).then. ofculture Second. It is cruare keenly from thestandpoint of cognitive empirical psychology.somesociologists rejected thesubjectivist focusofpsyfor on external research chological research.If we assumethat a certain a senseofcommon shared evokes symbol identity (Warner 1959).54. results their with ofempirical assessing consistency This content downloaded from 193. COGNITIVE PRESUPPOSITIONS OF CULTURAL SOCIOLOGY who write enters life aboutthewaysthat culture intoeveryday Sociologists a makeassumptions aboutcognitive necessarily processes. Most of whatpsychologists do is irrelevant to sociologists of culture. whilemetatheoretical assumptions. In addition toexpanding thegrounds ofshared interest between thetwodissuchdevelopments havealso softened ciplines.elite/popular interaction in cultural change(Moscovici1984). psychology hasfocused upontheindividual.that can measure class to theworkplace generalized (Willis1977).91 on Mon. resisting ofindividual subjectivities.e. sociologists' study Common ground has inbut willremain creased limited different matters ofthe bythe subject disciplines willremain (Zerubavel 1997). (Rogoff somepsychologists havetaken noticeof suchsociological as cross-cultural topics differences in cognition & (Shweder Bourne1991.thefitbetween thedisciplines mustnotbe exaggerated.Markus & Kitayama 1991). psychological research bolsters andclarifies theviewof as supra-individual. goingfar toward closing theobservability gap between external andsubjective aspects ofculture.and"distributed cognition" (i. callinginstead aspectsofculture todirect amenable measurement (Wuthnow 1987). twoimportant epistemological differences.that frame provokes peopleto think abouta social issue in a new way (Gamson in schoolare lessonsaboutthestructure ofspace andtime learned 1992). cognitivists havedeveloped inD'Andrade1995) ingenious empirical techniques (reviewed that inferences permit strong aboutmental structures. thesocialdivision ofcognitive labor)(Resnick etal 1991. Increasingly. Of course. howas I shallargue. Inrecent years.orthat surveys consciousness (see Fantasia's critique 1995). ever.

Bourdieu 1984). accuracy information onmemory tellsa similar that Research (includstory. important implications it(andno other) that a culture itrefutes thenotion peopleacquire byimbibing ofstability and thesearch forsources socialization.67.Consistent attribute accuracy that than with Swidler's "all peopleknowmore culture they (1986) contention "The acceptance oftheautomatic that ofan idea is a part use. andinformation. then sentations. Yetmuch empirical is organized stillpresumes that or cohesive culture around national societies insimilar ways subnational groupings. misattributions (Johnson ofculture. revealing as tosource without ingfalseinformation) passesinto memory being"tagged" is required to identify thesourceofthe andthat active inference orcredibility. andis manifested acrossmany domains (Hofstede 1980.54. central themes Is culture a latent variable-a tight network ofa fewabstract and their all instantiated to various degreesin a moreconcrete entailments. strategies-and ofinconsistent thecollective culture theexclusion elements. than makessomeideas or imagesmoreaccessible which others. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .second. inclined to attribute andplausibility. a repertoire we might less clustering ofcultural elements within socialgroups. inthephysical andsocialenvironment. information whenit is recalled. as totruth towhich we are images. ofsourceandcredibility et al 1991). has several forstudents This work First. to cues embedded This content downloaded from 193. itdirects through Instead." In other ourheadsarefullof andmore than effortfully words. is highly thematized. untagged value. we wouldexpectto find andpractices? If so. andrepresentations."Gilbert reports oftheidea occurs to ofthat subsequent comprehension idea. typifications.andtherejection itsacceptance. less expect theexclusion theelements. then rangeof symbols. ofstuff that "toolkit" (Swidler1986) or"repertoire" (Tilly1992): a collection work on culture is heterogeneous in content andfunction. Such inferences yielding maybe incorrect.Partichereis research relevant 1991) on howpeople ularly (summarized by Gilbert orplausibility to statements offact andopinion. consistency first. andweaker for of strong linkages among pressures inconsistent elements. incognitive the Research toolkit over the latentpsychology strongly supports is very viewandsuggests that thetypical toolkit variable largeindeed. integrated. rituals. or a toolkit of strategies? If so.91 on Mon. opinions. that theinclusion ofanyoneelement in attitudes.CULTURE AND COGNITION 267 Coherence vsFragmentation have come to rejectthelatent-variable as Manysociologists viewof culture andambiguous in favor ofrepresentations ofculture as a coherent. sharea limited of consistent thatgroupmembers number elements-beliefs. to schematic in ourbeliefs organization. and. implies Or is culture a grab-bag of odds and ends: a pastiche of mediated repreof techniques.

91 on Mon. the research the ofindividuals Third. Manysociologists conditions under which believe. rangements. Cognitive elements to pursue strategically ofwhen culture does answer theessentially search cannot sociological question tothesearch.67. Fifth. Bourdieu's habitus [1990]construct) imply.54. we knowlittle aboutthe catechismic virtually amongsociologists oneortheother is thecase. andthat matized.andmoredependent uponmediaimagesandhearsay. explains capacity toparticipate inmultievenwhen plecultural traditions. go beyond studies. that culture cultural information acquired through is more than that other means. in and Gramsci that embedded following (1990).learning that peopleretain (and store with a default valueof "correct")almostevery imageor idea withwhichtheyhave come intocontact. renders intelligible otherwise anomalous research findings aboutinconsistency in expressions of attitudes acrosstime. and muchrideson theprecise waysin which schematic organization imposes and memory. thefalloftheSovietsystem). those traditions contain inconsistent elements. toparticular contextual raisesthepossibility cues. language everyday to existing arto imagine alternatives constrains practices. direction each.butitcan provide is stored inmemory as anindiscriminately assembled Thefinding that culture a farstronger andrelatively collection of oddsandendsimposes unorganized view. peopleactas ifthey revaluedends(Bourdieu1990). culture.places theburden pictculture as strongly constraining behavior orwhowouldargue that people as highly that arestrongly culture cultural theexperience integrated. cultural volatility in periods of rapid change(e. organizes or modesof mechanisms research to twoquitedifferent Psychological points cognition.at thevery least. cognitive the"toolkit" as opposed search strongly reinforces tothe"latent-variable" view of culture ofproof on thosewhodeand. thiswork that socialization maybe less exthan perientially based.Thequeson actors than didtheearlier oversocialized burden organizing that she orhe possesses. order recent reuponstored knowledge Nonetheless. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as these Suchinferences thescopeofcognitive tobe sure. meanings is binding. Although position of culture. andthesusceptibility ofattitudes to framing effects (Sniderman & Piazza 1993).g. experience powerful acquired through andAgency Institution oftheviewthat culture research can also enhance ourappreciation Cognitive this has become constrains and enables both (Sewell 1992). is howtheactor theinformation tion. then.268 DiMAGGIO Second. itestablishes thecapacity distinctive andinconaction which canbe invoked inresponse sistent frames. people's capacity use cultural we knowthat Atthesametime. This content downloaded from 193. ofourtheories many (for example. ofpeopleto maintain Fourth.

91 on Mon. everyday availableschemata-knowledge that represent objectsor structures culturally characteristics. is "implicit.54. highly broadly (Fiske& Linville1980)].Garfinkel roles). Psychologists abstract conto simple. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .CULTURE AND COGNITION 269 which I refer to as auandmost important. it maybe useful to treat theschemaas a basic unitof analysis for purposes.Special attention etal 1997). and to focuson social patterns andmodification argument). Suchlaboratory This content downloaded from 193. areboth ofknowledge andinformation-processing Schemata representations As representations. recall.toconcrete cepts[for example. Highly simplify is the realm ofinstitutionalized oftypification.forsome forwhatit tellsus abouthowculture substantively.Markus both toindividual oftheselfthat stability provide allyvariable representations andto socialinteractions within thegroup. AUTOMATICCOGNITION The first.Bourdieu1990. Schemataalso facilitate to disconfirmation. relationdefault assumptions abouttheir eventsand provide information. tomatic cognition and uncritically upon cognition reliesheavily 1995). or social social phenomena (groupstereotypes chewing gum). use theterm broadly [some wouldsuggest too amongthem. andautomatic" (D'Andrade unverbalized. In schematic shapesandbiasesthought.. andentailments ofsociologists research on schemata is central totheinterests Psychological that revealtaken-forbothmethodologically (due to advancesin techniques access) and subjects maynothaveeasy verbal granted assumptions to which works. cognition at theexpenseof synoptic of thecognitive that promote efficiency shortcuts et al 1982). (Carley1991makesa related diffusion.67. Information embedded more tobe noticed than information schema-dissonant areboth orthogolikely resonate nal to existing structures findings (Schneider 1991).Indeed. Eventschemata has also beengivento self an important class of schemata.Kahneman accuracy (Berger material dominates other demonstrates that "schematic Muchcognitive research inrecall inrecognition inaccurate inintruded confidence.or to complex 1987) constitute or scripts (Abelson1981.cultur& Kitayama Markus 1994.. Thisroutine. ofthehabitus. culture. and in resistance clustering consistent" is schema (Fiske& Linville inaccurate recallwhen theinformation culture themechanisms we find bywhich cognition 1980: 545). & Luckman1967. to existing to perceiveinformation thatis germane People are morelikely aremore that schemata VonHippeletal (1993) report subjects experimental than those that that areschematically relevant toperceive correctly terms likely is that in existing schemata and information are not. rapid. schemata (Milburn 1987. material recall. It can refer activities (buying container (D'Andrade1995)]. behavior acrosstime are also mechanisms schematic Schemata that cognition. ofobjects andthe relations they entail images mechanisms. of schemaacquisition.. thestudy of culture. under conditions ofincomplete ships.

54. (analysis schema-consistent Dean remembered (1981) reported thatNixon aide John events moreaccurately that than events wereschema-inconsistent. & Luckman action 1967.Usinga very different method ofWatergate transcripts).270 DiMAGGIO thegradinhistorical studies: for example. apes andelephant seals (Haraway whenthey watch morequickly Mostpsyembedded information People recallschematically is on that subexperiments. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .g. Similar codings (Shweder hostility) in at forrealevents of schematic confusion maybe observed representations leastsomereports childabuse(Hacking 1995)andinsomeofformer ofsatanic President Reagan'sspeeches. themeeting about charandthen toldtocode small-group interactions given questionnaires thepost-hoc evaluations acteristics ofgroup members yield thereafter. and thepenchant 1991).television program ofthecontent reflect & Katz 1990). planning. sociology andcultural with results and of modern the New World by early ual acceptance information about halting models conarchaic physical 1992).91 on Mon. they found previous attenrecalledparticipants who regularly butforgot theinfrequent attended.DiMaggio& Powell1991). of institutions The parallelwithsociologicalaccounts Typifiand influence cations(mental interpretation. reproduced shared) an & Rowan1977). Institutionalized (Berger andwidely schematic areboth andbehaviors structures highly (i. activated structures" ("chronically moreaccurately When embedded information People recall schematically peoplewho Freeman ofa faculty workshop tolist the members etal (1987) asked the correctly hadattended that long-term attenders meeting. shortly of schematically related behaviors muchhigher correlations (e.or movie(Shively1992) that collective preoccupations mental inpsychological parlance).e.67. interthat render theinformation topreexisting mental structures ifitis relevant sociothere areintriguing & Skowronski 1991). which reveal evidence based laboratory chological more accuambiguous stimuli remember longer lists of words. pretable (Sedikides in studies that differences indescriptions cross-cultural report logicalparallels ofthesamenovel(Griswold (Liebes 1987). Neisser ders. as legitimate turation" (Meyer (1984)] andtreated This content downloaded from 193. Butagain. or interpret jects they haveheard moreeffectively andretrieve information abouta story rately.thewaysinwhich mapmakers (Zerubavel scientists' (Fleck new evidence about syphilis strained medical interpretation of hierarchies forseeingdominance of malebiologists 1979). criticizing than do thereal-time orexpressing 1982). thosethat ineveryday action for aretaken [Giddens'"strucgranted. embedded events thatdid notoccur People may falselyrecallschematically as present at attenders Freeman et al's (1987) informants regular remembered are Whensubjects inquestion evenwhenthey hadn't beenthere. structures) perception. is striking. Indeed.

Such results paralleltheinsights who have studied movements. and deliberate" (D'Andrade1995). the is why keyquestion peopleareever deliberative. Whensufficiently motivated. Instead. sociology DELIBERATIVE COGNITION AttentionPsychological research suggests that peopleshift intodeliberative modesofthought relatively their attention is attracted easilywhen toa problem. work inpsychology provides microfoundational evidence for theefficacy ofagency.CULTURE AND COGNITION 271 eminent psychologist (Bruner 1990:58)has written explicitly ofthe"schematizing power ofinstitutions. theexperimental effect is diminished or eliminated et al 1993). slow. experimenters cancreate false recollections ofa videotape orstory "witnesses" or asking amonglaboratory inaccurate information bypresenting leadingquestions (Loftuset al 1989). psychologists notea quitedifferent form of cognition. haveidentified Psychologists three in studies conditions thatintriguingly facilitating parallelworkin the ofculture.67. whichis "explicit." Thusthe psychology ofmental structures provides a microfoundation tothesociology ofinstitutions. Motivation People mayalso shift from automatic to deliberative cognition whentheyare strongly motivated to do so by dissatisfaction withthestatus issue. For example. In (Johnson ofattitude-behavior studies experimental selfconsistency. Such overrides are necessarily rarebecausedeliberation is so inefficient in itsrejection oftheshortcuts that automatic cognition offers. of class consciousness-which Marx's theory contends that physically proximateworkers immiseration will overcome falsebeliefs interfacing through actionandreflection-is a classicsociological counterpart (and see Bourdieu 1974). This content downloaded from 193. Consequently. suchschemata tosomeextent awareness andreflexivity through (Devine1989). peoplecan override programmed modesofthought tothink critically andreflexively. verbalized. merely increasing awareness inthe a mirror faceofthesubject byplacing as heorshecompletes an attitude increases theattitude-behavior correlation questionnaire significantly of students of social (Abelson 1981:722). In contrast to automatic thought. and who have also notedthe agenda-building as an organizing effectiveness deviceof refraining issues in ways thatcall attention toproblems salient tomovement participants (Snow& Benford 1992). Research onsocialcognition enhances ourunderstanding ofhowculture constrains butdoesnotsupport theories that depict culture as overwhelmingly constraining.although quo or by themoralsalienceof a particular racistschemata are accessibleto mostwhite whites can override Americans. consistent with contemporary sociological theorizing. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But whenthetaskis changed to ask to think aboutthesourceof particular subjects carefully bitsof information.54. Forexample.91 on Mon.

Moscovici.) sociolocharacter that several supra-individual appreciate aspectsofculture's sometimes gistsofculture neglect. suigeneris. on andresearch especially institutions.Substantial substantially This content downloaded from 193. sociological understandings vs deliberative determine whatto mayhelpsociologists automatic processing that do with thewidely believed buttheoretically inert notion bothinstitution and agency arecentral to sociallife. as Supra-Individual Culture level. culture exists. research relief. experiments. ations very strong difsocial psychology Bergeret al 1980). peopleshift adequately fornewstimuli. strategic culture). areparalleled inGarfinkel's (1967) breaching pret Sucharguments and which overrode automatic processing.whoseDurkheimian from ofmental other accounts structures fersin many psychological respects & Innes1990). individuals' representations deviates that thelatter evidence indicates als' beliefs. between from research on cognition has resolved. processing. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . by experimental ofculture. forcibly andpainfully are in Swidler's ideologies andother consistent cultural forms contention that moreinfluential times(1986. Research whenexisting schemata failto account of intergroup relations suggests that peoplein taskgroups on thepsychology evalucodeothers onthe but shift tomore deliberate initially basisofstereotypes when facedwith inconsistent evidence (Schneider 1991:536. approximation if notsharp on schemata advances methods.argues that collectivities (Farr & Moscovici1984. Jepperson & Swidler1994 on during unsettled constitutive vs. The notion can already benefit what in fuzzy ofphenomena of schemais a fair identifiable outline. research of social-psychological PLURALISTIC IGNORANCE A livelybranch of"pluralistic K.272 DiMAGGIO tomore deliberative modes ofprocessing Schema failure Finally. automatic anddeliberative Research however. and often constructed (often inthesocialsciences tointerandmassmedia)inorder deliberatively byexperts newstimuli. to activedebates Psychologists may notethatI have paid scantattention aboutthe nature of mentalstructures and have drawntoo sharpa contrast on culture. Merton's derives from Robert notion ignorance" (1957): the ofcollective reference to shared idea that opinrepresentations peopleactwith directs us to distinguish inaccurate.54.Such research ion thatare empirically of as an aggregate is supra-individual: twosensesin whichculture between of individuor as shared or beliefs representations.Augoustinos confronted socialchange construct newsocialrepresentations with disjunctive anchored in analogiesto pre-existing schemata.91 on Mon.67. atthe collective Itis nonewstosociologists that is also manifest in people'sheads-is taken here-thatculture (The position research canhelpus more Nonetheless. psychological probably controversial.

teraction ofthree First. (Carley1991). basicobject (for reflect universal cognitive processes Some schemata Manyschemata. i. representations cus on subjective inthebroader environforms existindependently ofpersons coherent cultural is societies of modern characteristics ment.67. COHERENT CULTURES AS EXTERNAL TO PERSONS exists coherence Some would arguethatwhatever is coherence availablesources.e. 1982) to (Shweder thefact. especially thanthepreferences is notpolarization perse.however. images.CULTURE AND COGNITION 273 process andthat this consequences significant behavioral with from theformer Prentice (Miller & social norms autonomy of therelative a basisfor represents 1993).Indeed. Second. tentionally coherent representarelatively Farr& Moscovici1984.54. 1996. As we have seen. external entirely one steptoofar. is patterned. butnothighly differentiating. forms. espestored 1991). aboutcultural SCHEMATA AS CULTURE foDespitethischapter's relatively that we must notforget ofculture. to sociologists of greatest interest and theschemata however. For heldscripts that of individual experience. enof culture. myths.one of themorenotable indivision oflaborin which intellectual producers ofa cultural theexistence andidea systems create anddiffuse (Douglas 1986.Noelle-Neumann of group-level The existence is also beliefs) ofindividual independent partly (shared understanding cultures moreextreme to adoptpublicpositions of groups by thetendency suggested reference whenacting with oftheir members. Other in public invoked or stories as narratives repeatedly tionsexistless formally discourse (Dobbin1994.that theresearch. can converge which members ofeachgroup INTERGROUP CONTRAST AND POLARIZATION to the same degree. thatcultural suchexternally flowsfrom such a position to theperson. Not all schemata are cultural example.91 on Mon.Swidler1997).Whatis striking on stances opinion) ofcollective ofpolarized (representations tural availability (Tajfel1981). example. distributed acrosspersons we haveinformation. representations ciallyschematic AN INITIAL SYNTHESIS This content downloaded from 193. buttheculto a contrasting group.White1992). thelatent-variable to thetoolkit shift from pushesthehealthy theinworks heresuggests that culture theresearch reviewed through Instead. appearindependent act widely in ratings of small found coherence citedabove. others categorization).we havemental (Gilbert whichshape of complexsocial phenomena. whereas maybe quiteidiosyncratic. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Such distribution and areaccumulated in which bitsofculture manner due to theindiscriminant in memory structures. led theauthor emerging onlyafter behavior group is really on personality research that muchofwhat passesas clinical speculate ofpersonhood constructions (andsee Meyer1986).

tity representation as highly constructed collective identities explicit (Anderson 1983).schemata bolicuniverse. socialclassification. upon)these exerting pressures forsociologists ofculture.Suchschemata systems Finally. But schemata 1993:102-104)-are familiar mediause.g.54. logicsofaction. and in implicatheir bothin content lives. Identity in thesociology of fields research has becomeone ofthemostactive Identity kinds ofcollective different todistinguish between twoquite culture. people's cultural selection as frames to evoke(and. oftheconstructed thecontent oftalk. Gamson1992:6-8. including activity andmeanings embedded in observable environment. Culture among them.274 DiMAGGIO to theinremember. ofthephysical through conversation. Although maybe chronically areprimed oractivated orframe stimulus byan external able. Barsalou 1992. Itis useful of ontheonehand.moreoften they 1991. theidentities aspects identity: ofindividuals on theother. memory.interpret. theidentities idenIDENTITIES OF COLLECTIVES At the supra-individual level. through This content downloaded from 193.91 on Mon. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in evoking. we haveculture as symbol patterned than arememory traces. Schud(Sedikides& Skowronski in socialsurveys-e. andcollective ofcollectives. The topicsare identity. theschemata that theinteraction between twodistributions-of Understanding cultural thatact constitute and of external primers toolkits. norin thesyminheres notin theinformation. As we haveseen. norin theschemata.and someoftheseareinconsistent schemata tions for behavior. patterns. How is itthat peopleinvoke oneamong themany in a given availabletothem situation? To simplify in order to focusupontheaspectof theprocessmost greatly cues availofculture. we encounter clearly socially aremore formation andpossess.collective at thislevelportrays Research is a shared of a collectivity. butintheinteractions throughout Butpeopleacquire many schemata structure ouruseofinformation. mediamessages. elements external tothe person. Framing effects ifthequestion toaccept ofAfrican-Americans more stereotypes likely negative reference action(Sniderman & Piazza to affirmative is preceded by a neutral can also be activated examples. developed andframing. schemata-is a central challenge APPLICATIONS This sectionreviews workon cognitive aspectsof thesociologyof culture collective in light of theperspective here.67. andrespond emotionally thewaywe attend to.or observation environment. selection is guidedbycultural relevant to thesociology a fewschemata available in theenvironment.thefinding that whites are son 1989).

67. et al (1996) review inEastAsianandWestern societies. Self-categorization ticularistic group (Stryker identities as invoked that make also portray collective by conditions theories identities salient(Tajfel& Turner 1986).Zerubavel and sociology.either widely is understood overtime(Schudson1992. Lang& Lang 1988). Muchresearch.91 on Mon. views activein bothpsychology Another line of research. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . suchas factors andpopularity ofparticular or artworks 1986. that vary cross-culturally and representations identities andselvesas collective on differences inthecultural Markus research historically. respectively.theschemata information to whichindividuals by which people these thepast. upon however. in whicha personor publicfigure visionsof a collective conflict overalternative Schwartz 1991) or analyzing 1994). endowed with agency inrelation constructed identity on collecCOLLECTIVE ELEMENTS IN INDIVIDUAL IDENTITIES Muchresearch the inwhich is actually about more issueofthe social ways tive complex identity selves.54. in both andindividual terms. haveaccess. elements suchas anthems messagesandmoresubtle identities vie to produce social contested. Viewing strength which with with identities observations ofthevolatility thiswayis consistent ofintergroup conflict.Like collective identities. thewaysin which members ofa society to define interpret studying struggles in theways shared information abouttheir tracking change past. (Fine 1996.and theexternal or messagesthatprime understand symbols research on collective memory portrays schemata. who An exception is thework ofSchuman memories.Zerubavel and colbetween individual has focused on theinteraction Littleresearch & Scott(1989). especially particular inproportion to reflect elaborated schemata individual identities group-identity in as context-dependent identities andrecency ofactivation.Social identity theory identities enter into theconstitution ofindividual viewsindividual identities as comprising identity-sets basedonparprioritized androle-based affiliations 1986). past(Maier1988. lective events that to explorethepossibility thatthehistorical methods use survey This content downloaded from 193. periods maygainandlose salienceduring Collective Memory is the outcome the Collectivememory of processesaffecting. thephenomenon supra-individual that maintain orsuppress scholars havestudied institutional Several processes ofpublic thereputation determining information as part culture. as groups Collective arechronically totheir idealormaterial schemata favorable representations capableofevoking & Hecht1996). In thisview. 1994.ANDCOGNITION CULTURE 275 andflags (Cerulo1994).Friedland interests (Moscovici1984.Griswold persons the schematic focuses level. Meyer & Jepperson construction ofidentity indifferent polities) is a self(anditsvariations (1996) contend that themodern to thecollectivity.

Selfon theprototype model(Hogg& McGarty draws 1990).67." and for"bird"butnot for"chair"butnot"furniture" prototypes form thelevelatwhich "animal"or"sparrow. may constructed ofthecategories universal. appears in a given location andavailability (D'Andrade1995). theory categorization in such arerepresented social constructs to be seen ifcomplex butitremains in light If so. unambiguous as a of a prototype between Rosch'scharacterization of an intriguing parallel This content downloaded from 193. mixoftypicality to relatively Roschappliedhermodelofprototypes simpleconcepts. Ofparticuofsocialpolicies(Starr intheformation andimplementation usesstructural roles. science/nonscience classification from a cognitive one of fewsociologists to study Zerubavel. is threatened. Rosch among groups (Zerubavel vary significantly proon thetopic.276 DiMAGGIO their structure most vividly remember generations ofdifferent menandwomen ofcontemporary socialissues. ate evenmoney. maybe useful." objectprototypes for Although a ofa prototype reflects thespecific content to be relatively universal.ortheuse ofsocialcategorization artistic high culture sified 1992). Gieryn (1997) describes when classification thestrong respond examining howscientists communities. where efficient atthemost emerge increase in information." which of"discourse is Mohr's(1994) analysis larinterest of social problems classification theimplicit analysis to identify equivalence andpovertyofsocial-service in self-descriptions groups embedded andclient New York City.Prototypical with a prototype (complete inspecianincrease levelofabstraction: i.Douglas1966).54. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Somework schemes-hasburgeoned clasofa strongly describing theemergence inhistorical time. has focused Other research uponsocialdifferentiation waysto differentiwomen find bywhich theprocess Zelizer(1989) describes in order to imbueit with medium of exchange. ofclassification (DiMaggio 1982). application to roleanalysis terms.e. reinforce their makesocial distinctions that origins and national entregional within scientific boundary work senseofsocialhonor. understanding Social Classification anduse ofcategory socialconstruction ofsocialclassification-the The study processes hasanalyzed inthe lastdecade. though thenature to be a human 1991.1997. whosework when is mostefficient that muchexperimental cognition support) poses (with by thinking together we chunkmanyseparate features (bitsof information) constructs mental image)ofan object. theuniversal menofdifferthebasesuponwhich Lamont (1992) analyzes social meaning. Thus we have thegreatest marginal ficity provides or "divan. relief in early twentieth-century organizations inshorter time spans. worldappears thedrive a continuous to partition points outthat perspective. has dominated thinking psychological (1978).91 on Mon.

as whena wifeviewsherhousehold a family herhusband whereas imposes exchange." According to Friedland and individuals and defined structured. andmaterially constrained. logicofselfless that external itproposes The notion oflogicsis immensely First. Second. politically are"symbolically organizationally grounded.)Conflict routines ial principle and linked a laborthrough of institutional logics.it is consistent of thenotion without inconsistent surrendering elements.in rational-actor given parsimilar resources players with behaviors among that induce parallel rulesofthegame(Block 1990. inconsistent between as confrontation conflict cultural logicsofaction. (For Friedland has itsownaxeach ofwhich andscience. Friedland & Alford tionalrequirements logics" "institutional describing exposition and definition. mental structures between embeds them intheinteraction a viewthat economy. democracy. from theclash erupts and rituals. (Orru1991) or. reason(Bourdieu instantiated (1991:248-49) provide on theother. cultural. constraints to situational torefer approaches. Third. ofoptional anda penumbra ofa coreofentailments consisting LogicsofAction to an interto refer "logicsofaction" haveusedtheexpression Manyauthors action in a given influence that setofrepresentations orconstraints dependent theterm is usedas a synonym for"idealtype" ofcourse. logicofexplicit marketplace service uponthesituation. themostthorough an thatconstitute and symbolic constructions" as sets "of material practices toorganizations andare"available principles" order's "organizing institutional & Alford.54.67. theinstitutions are capitalism. institutionally of similar toward actionand evaluation.Sometimes. theselogics to elaborate. andinstituin practical 1990).91 on Mon. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . each ofwhich Such work requires the & Alford. domain. ticular inrecent work inpolitical more senseoflogicshasemerged A richer.Offe1985). religion.CULTURE AND COGNITION 277 ofsocialroleas andNadel's (1957) classicdefinition features coreofessential features. development Empirical orientations in of control" in Fligstein's (1990) workon "conceptions ideas can be found in a politics ofshopfloor (1990) analysis andin Stark's governance. Hungarian a disentails a taxonomy ofinstitutions. fordiscussing a vocabulary it provides institutions around provides. amongpotentially and schemata of rituals of clusters whichthematization limited coherence." technically is apparent in Boltanski notionof modes & Thevenot's Similarimagery embodying specific linkeddiscourses of justification (1991). appealing. corporate socialist factory. This content downloaded from 193. routine to generate with internal mental structures interact and stimuli rituals is fragmented withtheview thatculture behavior. family.on theone hand. state. tinctive logic.

cultural is theview of cross-cultural extreme At theopposite a hierarchy of nested arrayed schemata. psychology KEY PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF CULTURE AND COGNITION as an effort to thematize logicscan be reinterpreted The notion ofinstitutional this In order toexploit theinsights to socialstructure. or"logics". that culture comprises psychologists For examentailed withthelatter by theformer.67. of culture understanding to gaps in ourcurrent section. logics. nowbe disconfirmed itcannot change. routines. to concrete. andlinkthem schemata an that we nowlack:things needthree students ofculture offers. Markus& Kitayama in differences fundamental as flowing from andAmericans between Japanese inof significant evidence compelling provide self-schemata. whichneither and cognition.paradigms.and actors switch among ofthewayinwhich understanding of if we are to understand processes whichis necessary a theory of analogy. Although they as they do. This content downloaded from 193. stories. coherence one neednotassumeas much differences. Although intheenvironment andineveryday orembedded specialists andwould inthesociology ofculture. both andswitching thematization that schematic generalization Aggregation ModelsofSchematic is to develop ofculture andcognition forstudents thehighest priority Perhaps diverse schemata I meanthewaysinwhich bywhich modelsofthematization. from abstract differences (1994) viewa widerangeof cognitive ple. require. a clear requires ofcultural which. tergroup NESTED HIERARCHY ispopisthat thought everyday Thenull hypothesis and information that evidence is considerable DOMAIN-SPECIFICITYThere indistinct areasofmemlifedomains is stored todifferent schemata pertaining domains within (Hirschfeld with schematic specific occurring integration ory.91 on Mon. work with most thisviewis inconsistent ormacroresearch onschemata either toexplain experimental seemill-equipped absolutely. DECOUPLING ATOMISTIC ornohigherwith little schemata coupled loosely ulated invoked. styles.54. likethought constructs andsociologically interesting tomore general aggregate candidates Thereareseveral andideologies. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .anunderstanding institutional logics. complex cultural tomore ofhowschemata aggregate understanding inturn. byrandomly posthoc bycultural is simply imposed If so. forsuchmodels. change.278 DiMAGGIO andcalls attention exploratory frankly remains thework At thesametime. perspective structures. thematization levelarchitecture. ofthenext Thesearethetopics norsociology canaddress.

91 on Mon. emotionally identities activated. thisview rolerelations. though there is little consensusas to thesize or character of thedomains. Schemata that areembedded aremore articthen. Whichof thesemodelsof schematic thematization bestdescribes theprocessesbywhich schemata is atpresent peopleintegrate anybody's guess. thedomains are "morelikethecollected denizens ofa tidepool than a single octopus" (D'Andrade1995:249).67. butthere is atpresent ifanyempirical little warrant for doingso.e. one can viewrolesas situationally evoked. bycombining logic-of-action THEORYOF ENVIRONMENTAL thatculture TRIGGERING I have argued enters Cultural Change This content downloaded from 193.CULTURE AND COGNITION 279 & Gelman1994). aremoresalient andhavemore extensive entailments than do emotionally neutralstructures. and to positthat culturally specific "logics ofaction" arethus in schematic embedded organization. clusters ofschemata arecoherent onlywithin limited boundaries. and thestability of cognition styles acrosscontext-ride on itsresolution. This perspective is appealing becauseit identifies a mechanism (i. Work on identity & Alexander (Wiley 1987. It is tempting to equate "domain" with theinstitutional realms identified byFriedland & Alford (1991) or Boltanski & Thevenot (1990). tending consistency intheself-schemata. thepatterning of cultural or orientations.54. taken together. ROLE CENTRALITY By analogy. Thisviewhas considerable experimental support. IDENTITY CENTRALITY Someevidence suggests that affectively hotschemata A secondpriority forsociologists of culture is to createtheories of cultural that change ideasfrom research onculture andcognition with integrate macrosoAt leastfour different arecrucial to ciologicalperspectives. andbecause itis consistent with evidence for ofschematic domain-specificity organization. becauserolesareembedded in distinctive Moreover. lifethrough intoeveryday theinteraction of environmental cues and mental I havefurther structures. Significant matters-the extent towhich enters into ideology conscious experience.Hogg & McGarty thepossibility 1990) suggests that "theself"maybe an emotionally supersaturated cluster ofschemata toward andstability overtime. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . an integration points toward of cultural and network within a single analysis framework (McCall 1987). closely ulatedwith other schemata than those that arenotincorporated intotheself. partial that provide chunks ofschemintegrated aticorganization andpermit ofdifferent compartmentalization cultural contents. in theories suggested. In thisview. roleacschematic tivation) connecting to contextual triggering variation. change processes understand.

or domains(White1995. on this work & Frey1993). attitudes. Buchmann thesecondhalfof thetwentieth of selvesduring in thepublicpresentation century. one domain from may changes cultural large-scale Itfollows that radically. a short time ofthem alientothe majority culturally haveappeared falloftheSoviet after the Union. from ple switchamongframes. maybe fragmented standings anddispreferences. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . DIFFUSION.91 on Mon. of environmental in thedistribution schemata at varying rates. their perspectives.Tilly tomore (1992) hasdeveloped transposed movement time incontentious over repertostudying change valuable approach evidenceof accelerating change & Eisner(1996) present toires. Sociolo1981. the has documented research on code-switching where comesfrom language. ofmajorcollective is tounderstand aspects cognitive A particular challenge that ofpersons might adoptorientations in which rapidly events largenumbers Some before. or topic) partner. toanother. maychange positions bymany frame switches more-or-less simultaneous be causedby large-scale. religious cases ofthiskind. which totheimofideological points change. theories and domain-specificity sociology switch orgroups when persons so that bydomain.we need a better a rational logics.or if changes that of particular schemata activation or deactivation cues lead to enhanced beenacquired. Atthemacro inlanguage ordialect (Gumperz that change trigger of linkenvironmental change topatterns is to create models that thechallenge switching (White1995). havealready theeffects of modelsof thesortthathave been used to study Diffusion maybe useful. orbeliefs ofnewtechnologies on theadoption mediaexposure existsbetween thenew where resonance shouldbe mosteffective Diffusion schematic 1985).Hirschfeld (Nelson& Gruendel development during to changein the leading to factors their attention shouldturn gistsof culture in or schemata of cultural representations and levelof activation distribution particular acquire cohorts Suchchange mayoccurifdifferent thepopulation. 1982). The paradigmatic Lindenberg choiceperspective. interdependent of how and whypeounderstanding At themicrolevel. byindividuals on theacquisition of schemata light gistshavecastsubstantial 1994).67. conversation changesin context. may of ecological portance a andimplemented micro levels. actors. AND EXTINCTION PsycholoTHEORYOF SCHEMAACQUISITION. aredemanding ofethnic andsomespirals antagonism This content downloaded from 193.54. circumstances (ordinarily level. (Sperber and organization existing cultural element Work in the historical sociologyof cultureprovidessome guidance. Wuthnow's macro-theory (1989) be life new chances of usefully effects on the beliefs.280 DiMAGGIO undercultural that in psychology. ofcapitalism the emergence revivals.

CULTURE AND COGNITION THEORY OF DELIBERATIVE OVERRIDING 281 It is important tounderstand notonly howculture constrains.generalizability STRUCTURE-MAPPING This content downloaded from 193. butso important that itwarrants a section ofits the ofanalogy andgeneralization. oractions. which Bourdieu (1990) refers to as a "system of durable transposable dispositions. Analogies their but wholedomains & Sternberg plyschemata (Tourganeau 1982). Work on thisproblem bypsychologists (noted earlier) mustbe supplemented by research on thetypesof social interaction thatlead largenumbers of peopleto question and." and spatial and between of thecorrespondence between the temporal pursuit on haresandofspring Twoproblems destructive ofhounds on winter. effects with than this viewarethat the itself is constructed rather correspondence innate. provides In themost twoschemstraightforward models. ata orrelated structures lendthemselves toanalogy togeneralization (andthus acrossdomains)insofar as they shareparticular features & Johnson (Lakoff between 1980) thatcreatea correspondence them. own. to characterize the of a or culture a Indeed.67. tounderstand them in similar andthereby ways.54. of overlap and that theextent analogical powerwouldnotseemto varywith tenor andvehicle.ultimately.91 on Mon. events. Think ofculture as a network ofinterrelated with schemata. analogies as the "ties"that create andinnovation occur. to revisetheir schematic ofsocialphenomena. to which acrossdomains is a function notof theextent way. Thus Swinburne's line. actors.How paths alongwhich generalization arenew"ties"created? The literature at leastthree alternatives." The keyquestion for is: Underwhatconditions all of thesetheories are dispositions or schemata from abstracted andtransposed one domain to another? Almostall cultural changeentailsthetransfer of some bodyof ideas or one content imagesfrom areato another on thebasisof similarity judgments. between FEATURE CORRESPONDENCE of This viewtakesas its starting pointtheexistence notsimsomeform ofcontent-related connect domain-specificity. anyattempt group peopleinabstract effort forgranted that at thematization-takes actors terms-i.e. Putanother connect domains that arestructurally erful analogies homologous.is problem Sociologicaltheories that as actively portray persons incorporating culture intocognitive organization invariably relyon somenotion likethehabitus..anyanalytic to drawanalogies havethecapacity between classesofobjects.deriving thenetwork ofentailed The mostpowpowerfrom comparisons they trigger. "whenthehoundsof spring are on winter's is meaningful because traces. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . buthowpersons andgroups can transcend thebiasing effects of culture on thought. representations and Generalization Analogy tothestudy Related ofchange.

Ross (1992) portrays meaning as emerging from therelations in speechand to activities of wordsto one another in real time.[Fiske& Linville(1980) claimthat theory This content downloaded from 193. (1992) work on stories and rhetorics. onculture dethechallenge is tointegrate themicro Ultimately. analogiesare likely to be drawn between situations that elicitstrong emotional ofa similar reactions kind(Abelson1981:725). Without theunquestionable denying importance with cultural research on howmediaandactivity structures interact subjective I shallconclude brief onthe attention tonewresearch representations. ofsocialstrucon cognitive havefocused Some researchers representations relevant is especially schema ture.andcultural differentially oftheenvironment thequestion ofwhich Thisargument has begged aspects of aremostworthy ofstudy. environments activate ical. that explicit in through in cognitive thanifwe smuggle them thebackdoorandthat work and social cognition. EMOTIONAL RESONANCE POLYSEMY AND SEMANTIC CONTAGION A final possibility is that polysemous expressions-those with distinct meanings that resonate with multiple schemata or domains-facilitate transfer.54.foranyexplanation on practice in culture's rests on assumptions impact abouttheroleof culture I haveargued we arebetter off ifwe makesuchmodels cognition.This perspective inlanguage and attractive becauseitacknowledges endemic particularly change insocialinteraction. we sociologists can use topursue offers toolsthat ourownagendas.67. NETWORKS. perspectives ofcultural inlarger overlonger scribed here with collectivities analyses change schemata andrefor a perspective that stretches oftime.Butitis a part we cannot that avoidifwe in howculture are interested enters of intopeople'slives.AND COGNITION ofculture areonly one-and notnecessarily the Cognitive aspects largest-part ofthesociology ofculture's domain. analogical Bakhtin's work(1986) on textual inthis is suggestive as is White's multivocality regard. and spreadacrossdomains is through semantic contagion.282 DiMAGGIO they shareparticular features in common. Someresearch suggests that affectively hot schemata aremorelikely tobe generalized acrossdomains than affectively neutral schemata. bycalling ofcognitive tosocialstructures andsymbolic relationship phenomena portrayed as socialnetworks. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . butinstead adapt. animated psychology although by different questions. meanings fixed. Because theseconstantly arerarely change. butoftheextent to which relations amongfeatures arestructurally similar (Gentner 1983).I haveargued privileges tomechanisms as units ofanalysis.91 on Mon. For example.social. other andbecauseitembeds symbol systems generalization SYMBOLS. andattends latedconstructs bywhich physthese schemata. diverge.

Lon. andDeborah colleagues in myefforts valuableguidance to come to speedyterms tice. PrenDale Miller. script concept. AbigailSmith.Frames. Speechgenres. these atmeetings opportunities thoughts andtheASA meetings.Psychol. andconTheOrigin and SpreadofNationalism. and of cognitive and material.Both theorists & Goodwin1994. with culture-relevant literature andto Bob Dale Miller. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1981. In a study of theParisCommune. 61-102. 1986.pp. Gould(1995) argues that political protest networks did notcreatenewcollective identities. Forvaluable ofearRutgers.ed. Erickson (1996). VisittheAnnualReviews homepage at http://www.org. Roger Friedland.54. tomypsychology MarciaJohnson.who provided incognitive andsocialpsychology. & Kittay See Lehrer ceptual fields.annurev. uponcareful integration perspectives. to RogerFriedland. Psychological status of the Genres pp.91 on Mon. studying finds a correlation besecurity guards. butrather activated that identities communards already possessed. MicheleLamont. andsee Howard (1994). ImaginedCommunities: TexasPress concepts. Such studies pointto a new. SantaBarbara. andEviatar Zerubavel. Zerubavel. AndersonB. logics.Orr1995.Barsalou LW. independent tities as prologue to separation. Vaughan(1986) describes how people questioning marriage alter ofsocialrelations inorder tocreate customary patterns idennew.] The idea that social structures existsimultaneously through mental representations and in concrete social relations was central to Nadel's (1957) role theory.morecomplex of therelationship between and social structure culture built understanding of microand macro.67.White1992)andresearchers (Emirbayer theimplications (Krackhardt 1987) areexploring ofthisview. AnnSwidler. topresent andworkshops atPrinceton.M Holquist. This content downloaded from 193. 21-74 In Speech Bakhtin MM. don: Verso 1992. 36:715-29 son. and frames. Am. Networks arecrucial environments for theactivation ofschemata. 1983. tweenthecomplexity of social networks and thediversity of conversational interests. C EmerAbelsonRP. CalvinMorrill. Literature Cited and Other Late Essays. 1992. Eviatar andJohn Mohrfor Wuthnow.Bernstein (1975) demonstrates theimpact ofnetwork on individuals' structures tendency toemploy cognitive abstraction.CULTURE AND COGNITION 283 to therepresentation of socialphenomena. readings I am indebted lierdrafts. Diane Mackie. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanksare due to thestudents in myPrinceton graduate seminar on culture of muchof theworkreviewed and cognition forinsightful discussions here. Austin:Univ.

TheSocial Concuse. Luckman T. tique of theJudgement of Taste. culture.HowInstitutions SyraThink.Introduction. a theD. 1980. Devine PG. macrosociology.FineGA.293-310. Identity ChicagoPress Designs: TheSights andSoundsofa Nation.In Class.Sociol. structure and informant Cognitive accuracy. Chicago ed. 1995. 1995. trol: Theoretical StudiesTowards a SociolJ. Stereotypes and prejudice: their and controlled automatic components.New York Am.56:331-54 ell.67. of groupstability. 303-21 Gieryn Cartography ofSciIn WW. In TheLogic ofPractice.Press Cambridge Boltanski L. Insurgent Identities: Class. languageand Emirbayer Bernstein M. 1984.pp. 14:171-208 In TheNew Institutionalism contradictions. The Constitution J.ToRuleJerusalem.2nded.Cogn. tions. Cambridge: Univ. Berger PL. Stanford: Stanford Univ.J. 1990.R Bull. nineteenth-century Cult. pp. 1989. 1982. 1984.Chicago practices. NY: Dou. 1995. 1973.284 DiMAGGIO BergerJ. J. tusorganizing processes. pp. Codes and Conandtheproblem ysis. Whatdoes the BourdieuP.StaTheoretical ture:Emerging ed. How mental 1-38. 1980. oretical framework foranalogy. 1990 [1980]. Annu. 1987. in Organizational ed. Goodwin J. Perspectives. CeruloK.Chicago:Univ. 1975. 1986.Sociol.Sociol. partisan warriors. 1996.Cultural 4:33-50. Press Gilbert 1991. Studiesof therouAm. 1991. Distinction: A Social Crischema concept buyus? Pers. 1990.1992. 1974. New York:Cambridge Univ. 1989.Bringing CarleyKM.Avenier de classeetcausalit6 President Harding. Chicago:Univ. L. Freeman self.91 on Mon. City. Zukin.New Farr RM. Annu. R. TheTransformation ofCorBruner J. Am.Social RepresenYork:Cambridge Univ.Press Buchmann M.Press Rutgers WA.54.Press FleckL. 1900-1992. A theory Analysis.ActsofMeaning. Meet.GenesisandDevelopment BourdieuP. D'AndradeR.P DiMaggio.and social organization. Cognitive New Gamson NewYork: Sociology. Political choiceand themulti. entrepreneurship Press Boston.Friedland R. Structure-mapping: Univ. 1966. Sci. Chicago: Chicago systems DobbinF. TheDevelopment ies inEthnomethodology.FantasiaR. Bourdieu P. Commmunity ofCul- This content downloaded from 193. 26 Aug 2013 10:17:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . WW PowCarleyKM.Sociol.1994.Purity andDanger London: bledayAnchor Routledge & KeganPaul B.pp.Gould R. 1996.pp. Press. 52Press 65. Psychol. Soc.Am..J. de sociologie 93 FranCaise 15:3-42 Fiske ST. DT. action. 102:217-51 Block F.6:543-57 Harvard Nice.1991. 170-189. presented at Ann. 1994.DouglasM.Press tations.Anthropol. 1995. 1981. LinvillePW.Press Fligstein N. 1987 [1967]. York:FreePress Press Univ. 46:107-19 of rational tion: the social construction or.Sociol. Math. Am.21:269-87 tal: TheSocial Organization ofthe Economy.Rev. Sociol. WW Powell.Press Gentner. ofa Scientific Fact. 1991. class and connecSchocken Books. pp. In TheSociology inParisfrom 1848 andProtest ganizing principles.Cambridge: porate Control. Univ. Cambridge Collins R. andinstitutional social theory. Chicago. TheNew Institutionalism in Organizational ically Rendered.99:1411-54 ogyof Language. 101:1159Revue du probable. 89:310-25 foun.Network analsocialization.Cambridge: Blackwell 6:479-508 DouglasM.Soc. believe. Romney AK. Th6venot L. 86:984-1014 tinegrounds ofeveryday In Studactivities. 1996. Media Soc.Cultural ofa Theory ofStructuration.In press Analysis. backin: symbols.Press struction Garden ofReality. ence: EpisodesofBoundary DiMaggioP.De la Justifica. EisenerM. Alford society dations fordynamic J. Cultural modelsof organizaAm.Soc. 1991.Sociol.Press Univ. P Am. SociologIL: Univ. NJ: Friedland R. Cambridge. 1967. 1983. 1990. Oxford: ofCognitive New York:Cambridge Polity Anthropology. 1979[1935]. On the microfoundations of Garfinkel H.Talking Politics.Psychol. practices. 117-42. New York: Erickson B.Sociol. In Structures ofCapiture.Hecht Press Univ.Imagesofthe Freeman SC. Pap. CicourelAV.NY: Syracuse Univ.223-62. 1996.Zelditch M. D Crane.Reputational entrepreneurs and tion: Les Economies de la grandeur Paris: thememory of incompetence: melting supGallimard and images of porters. MoscoviciS.Thevalueofcognitive R. Rev.Pers. Social class. Psychol. MA: Harvard Harvard Univ. ley: TF 1998. Univ. habitus.35-75.Transl. Structures. DiMaggio. Am. 56:5-18 ofSociety: in BerkeOutline DiMaggioP. pp. Cambridge: Univ. NewBrunswick. Class consciousness in culple 'logics' ofcapital. Calif. DiMaggio. ofagency. 1984. Culture. S P ed. Rev. 7:155-70 Giddens A. Rosenholtz SJ. Assoc.Powell Work.

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