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Introductory Control Concepts 1

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1.1 INTRODUCTION
In recent years, the control systems have greatly influenced the development and advancement of
modern life and technology. They have become an integrated part of our everyday life too. Some of
the widely pervasive examples in day to day life, are automatic washers and dryers, microwave ovens,
pollution controls and economic regulation. The control systems appear in almost everything, right
from simple electronic household products to aeroplanes and spacecrafts. They have significantly
advanced into robotics, space vehicle systems including successful lunar soft landing, intercontinental
missile guidance systems, high speed rail systems and most recently magnetic levitation rail systems.
They have also become essential in industrial operations in the sense of controlling pressure,
temperature, humidity, viscosity and flow in process industries. Thus the control systems have become
interdisciplinary today cutting across all specialized engineering fields.
The current chapter is devoted to the understanding a system, need for control in a system and
mathematical modelling of systems. The system is any interconnection of components to achieve
desired objective. A system is called so provided it produces response of particular interest or
delivers energy in some useful form. It is well known that any system cannot create energy by itself.
The energy must either be inherent in the system itself or be supplied by an external source. The
energy inherent in the system is modelled as initial condition (I.C.) thereof. A typical system with
input, output and initial condition is shown in Fig. 1.1.
Fig. 1.1: A system
A system excited by only initial conditions is said to be autonomous and a system having
external input together with or without initial condition is said to be non autonomous.
Experimental investigation and engineering work often involve forcing a parameter which is
otherwise undetermined or does not have the desired value, to track a reference to a specified degree
of accuracy. Here a common approach is to use a controller to manipulate response of system as
desired. Some physical process takes place in the system of interest. Under ideal conditions, in
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INTRODUCTORY CONTROL CONCEPTS
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Control System Analysis and Design 2
absence of control, response of system would be constant. However, in reality, because of external
disturbances like change in temperature and other environmental parameters, because of noise
intrinsic to the system and because of changes in internal parameters of the system, the response
changes with time. The overall response is sum of pure (steady) response and disturbances. Because
of fluctuating nature of disturbances, the system response becomes free running.
The system together with appropriate control strategy constitutes a control system. Although a
control system can assume different shapes depending on control situation but common to them all is
their function to manage the system’s operation so that the overall response approximates the
commanded behaviour. The controller generates actuating signals to be inputed to the system to
produce desired output as shown in Fig. 1.2. Some of the system inputs are accessible and some are
generally not available. The inaccessible inputs are often disturbances to the system. The double
lines in the figure indicate that several signals of each type are involved. Systems with one input and
one output are called single input single output (SISO) systems and those with more than one input
and one output, are called multi input multi output (MIMO) systems.
Fig. 1.2: Open loop control system
The control systems are broadly classified into the following:
Open loop control systems
The control system wherein the control inputs are not influenced by system outputs is termed as
open loop control system as shown in Fig. 1.2. Such systems have no feedback around them. The
open loop control system are the simplest and economical. Yet they are not generally preferred
because they are usually inaccurate and unreliable. Such systems are unable to adapt to variations
in response that might occur due to variations either in internal behaviour of system or in
environmental conditions i.e. external disturbances. The Control adjustment of open loop control
system is shown in Fig. 1.2. The reference input r(t) or command is given to controller to generate
actuating signal u(t) which in turn controls the system’s operation so as to enable it to produce the
response that is required to follow certain prescribed standards.
The fact that output has no effect upon control action eases out the identification of open loop
control system. Some examples of open loop control system are as follows:
(i) Execution of programme on computer.
(ii) Separately excited d.c. generator.
(iii) Washing machine
(iv) Toaster to produce desired darkness of toasted bread.
(v) Traffic Control System.
Closed loop control system (feedback control system)
A link or feedback path established between input and output provides more satisfactory control.
Note that such a link is absent in open loop control system.
Introductory Control Concepts 3
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Closed loop control systems are class of control systems wherein, for an accurate control, the
actual output y(t) is feed back, compared with reference input r(t) or set point (desired output) and
error signal proportional to difference between these two, is sent to the controller to correct the error
e(t). The functional layout of closed loop control system is shown in Fig. 1.3.
Fig. 1.3: Closed loop control system
Some examples of closed loop control systems are as follows:
(i) Human being (biological system).
(ii) Automobile driving system.
(iii) Constant d.c. voltage generator.
(iv) Automatic editing of text by computer.
The feedback action introduced in control system makes the response of the system relatively
insensitive to external disturbances or internal variations in system parameters. It is therefore possible
to use relatively less accurate and inexpensive components to achieve the desired result. This is
impossible in case of open loop configuration. From the view point of stability (to be discussed in
detail in chapter 4) the open loop systems are easier to build since stability does not pose any big
problem. But stability is always a major problem in closed loop case since such systems sometimes
tend to overcorrect the error that might result in instability.
Open loop systems are advised in cases where input signals are known ahead of time and where
there is no unpredictable variations in system parameters. The closed loop systems become
advantageous in a situation where unpredictable external disturbances are anticipated.
A feedback control system where controlled outputs are mechanical positions are derivatives
thereof is called servo system.
1.2 EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK
A feedback appropriately established in a control system, brings about improvement in system
performance. Some of the significant changes brought about by feedback in performance
characteristics of the system are as follows:
(a) Overall gain
(b) Stability
(c) Sensitivity
(d) Disturbances.
Control System Analysis and Design 4
(a) Overall Gain
Consider a model of feedback control system shown in Fig. 1.4 where R(s) is input, C(s) is
output, E(s) is error variable and β(s) is feedback variable, all are transform variables. (The term
transfer function is dealt in detail in section 1.8 of this chapter and block diagram algebra is
discussed in detail in chapter 2).
Fig. 1.4: Feedback control system
From Fig. 1.4, we have
C(s) = E(s) ⋅ G(s)
where E(s) = R(s) – β(s)
and β(s) = C(s) H(s)
then C(s) = [R(s) – C(s) H(s)] G(s)
and
C( )
R( )
s
s
=
G( )
1 + G( ) H( )
s
s s
= T(s) ...(1.1)
G(s) = C(s)/E(s) is called forward path transfer function, H(s) feedback path transfer function,
G(s)H(s) = β(s)/E(s) open loop transfer function and T(s) = G(s)/[1 + G(s)H(s)] closed loop transfer
function.
The configuration of Fig. 1.4 has negative feedback. It is obvious from (1.1) that generally gain
of closed loop configuration is reduced by a factor of (1+ G(s)H(s)) as compared to open loop
system as shown in Fig. 1.5 where G(s) = C(s)/R(s). However, depending on whether feedback is
negative or positive in nature (1 + G(s)H(s)) may be greater than one or less than one and overall
gain may decrease or increase. Since G(s) and H(s) are frequency dependent, it is also possible that
overall gain may increase in a particular range of frequencies and decrease in some other range of
frequencies.
(b) Stability
In a non rigorous sense, a system is said to be stable if it provides finite response for finite input.
Any system providing infinite response for finite input, is said to be unstable. An unstable system is of
no practical interest. In the expression for overall gain (1.1) if G(s) H(s) = – 1, the overall gain will
turn out to be infinite, meaning infinite response and original stable system might turn out to be
unstable. Stability in detail will be discussed later in chapter 4.
(c) Sensitivity
The prime objective of feedback in control system is to reduce sensitivity of system to parameter
variations or to improve accuracy of system. The term sensitivity is truly the measure of effectiveness
of feedback in reducing the influence of parameter variations on system performance.
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Fig. 1.5: Open loop system
Consider open loop configuration as shown in Fig. 1.5, where
C(s) = R(s) G(s)
Due to parameter variation let G(s) change to G(s) + ∆G(s) where it is assumed that
|∆G(s)| << |G(s)|. Correspondingly let C(s) change to C(s) + ∆C(s), then
C(s) + ∆C(s) = [G(s) + ∆G(s)] R(s) = G(s).R(s) + ∆G(s) R(s)
and ∆C(s) = ∆G(s) ⋅ R(s) ...(1.2)
Now consider closed loop configuration of Fig.1.4 let G(s) change to G(s) + ∆G(s) again due to
parameter variation and correspondingly C(s) to C(s) + ∆C(s). Assuming |G(s)| >> |∆G(s)| and
ignoring change ∆G(s) in denominator, equation (1.1) takes the form as follows:
C(s) + ∆C(s) =
G( ) R( ) G( ) R( )
+
1 + G( ) H( ) 1 + G( ) H( )
∆ ⋅ s s s s
s s s s
and ∆C(s) =
G( ) R( )
1 + G( ) H( )
∆ s s
s s
...(1.3)
Comparing (1.2) and (1.3) it is obvious that change in response ∆C(s) for the same change in G(s) in
closed loop system is reduced by a factor of (1 + G(s) H(s)) as compared to change in response in
open loop system. Note that the factor 1 + G(s) H(s) is much greater than unity in most practical
systems.
Recalling equation (1.1) as
T =
C
R
=
G
1 + GH
; (the variable s is omitted for ease)
the sensitivity of T to variation in G is designated as
T
G
S and defined as:
T
G
S

% change in T
% change in G
=
T/T
G/G


=
T G
×
G T


where
T
G


=
2
(1 + GH) – GH
(1 + GH)
=
2
1
(1 + GH)
So,
T
G
S =
2
1 G (1 + GH)
×
G (1 + GH)
or
T
G
S =
1
1 + GH
...(1.4)
Similarly, the sensitivity of open loop system where T = G, is
T
G
S =
T G
×
G T


= 1 ...(1.5)
Note (1.4) and (1.5) to conclude that sensitivity is reduced by factor of (1 + GH) in closed loop
compared to open loop. But this improvement in sensitivity is achieved at the cost of loss in system
gain by the same factor.
Control System Analysis and Design 6
Similarly, sensitivity of T to variation in H is designated as
T
H
S and defined as;
T
H
S

% change in T
% change in H
=
T/T
H/H


=
T H
×
H T


where
T
H


=
–1
[G (1 + GH) ]
H


= – G (1 + GH)
–2
G = –
2
2
G
(1 + GH)
So,
T
H
S =
2
2
– G H
× × (1 + GH)
G (1 + GH)
T
H
S =
– GH
1 + GH
...(1.6)
Note (1.4) and (1.6) to conceive the following significant points
(i) For large values of GH,
T
H
S approaches unity whereas large GH is desirable so as to keep
T
G
S
small.
(ii) Since
T
H
GH >> 1
S → 1, variation in H directly affects the response of the system and in general
more than that due to variation in G, there stands a need to choose accurate feedback
components that do not vary with environmental changes. In closed loop systems, H(s) is usually
a sensor and constituted of elements operating at low power. G(s) is constituted of high power
operating elements. Therefore, selection of accurate H(s) at low power is far less costly than
selection of G(s) at high power to meet prescribed system specifications.
In order to have still more insight into what has been explained just above, consider the feedback
system representing an amplifier over certain range of frequencies as shown in Fig. 1.6.
Fig. 1.6: Finding
T
G
S and
T
H
S of feedback system
Use (1.1), (1.4) and (1.6) to get the following
T =
GH
1 + GH
=
20
1
1 + 20 ×
2
=
20
11
T
G
S =
1
1 + GH
=
1
11
T
H
S =
– GH
1 + GH
=
– 10
11
Introductory Control Concepts 7
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This is to say that, with feedback, the closed loop transfer function T changes only 1/11 as much
with small changes in G as it would without feedback.
Also changes in T with changes in H is much more than that with changes in G. The minus sign
in
T
H
S indicates that T increases with decrease in H and vice versa.
The sensitivity of T to variations in any other system parameter can also be computed using
exactly similar computational routine for example, consider the configuration shown in Fig. 1.7.
Fig. 1.7: Finding sensitivity of feedback system to changes in system parameters
Let us evaluate,
1
T
K
S ,
2
T
K
S and
3
T
K
S i.e., sensitivities of T = C/R to small changes in K
1
, K
2
and K
3
about their nominal values K
1
= 1, K
2
= 2 and K
3
= 3.
Use (1.1) to compute
T(s) =
C( )
R( )
s
s
=
G
1 + GH
=
1
2 1 3
K
+ K + K K s
1
T
K
S =
1
1
K T
×
K T


=
2
2 1 3
+ K
+ K + K K
s
s
2
T
K
S =
2
2 1 3
– K
+ K + K K s
and
3
T
K
S =
3
2 1 3
– K
+ K + K K s
Substituting nominal values of K
1
, K
2
and K
3
, we have
1
T
K
S =
+ 2
+ 5
s
s
2
T
K
S =
– 2
+ 5 s
3
T
K
S =
– 3
+ 5 s
Note that sensitivities are, in general, functions of complex variable s. So, there stands a need to
compute sensitivities over entire frequency range in which the input has significant frequency components.
For example,
2
T
K
S =
2
2
25 + ω
monotonically decreases from 0.4 at ω = 0 to 0 at ω = ∞.
Control System Analysis and Design 8
(d) Disturbances
The control systems are often subjected to unwanted inaccessible disturbance signals. For
example, sudden gusts of wind tending to change dynamics of radar antenna, noise generated in
electronic amplifiers, etc. Let us investigate how feedback assists in mitigating the effect of these
disturbances on system response. Consider the system of Fig. 1.8.
Fig. 1.8: Effect of disturbance on feedback system
Using the procedure as explained to derive equation (1.1), the transfer function relating Y(s) to
D(s) assuming R(s) = 0, is as follows:
T
D
(s) =
Y( )
D( )
s
s
=
1
( + 1)
K
1 +
+ 1
s
s
=
1
+ 1 + K s
...(1.7)
The response Y(s) is related to D(s) as
Y(s) =
D( )
+ 1 + K
s
s
It is easy to see that system response due to disturbance can be made arbitrarily small by choosing
K sufficiently large.
Consider the following illustrative examples for exposure to computational routine of sensitivity.
Example 1: A negative feedback control system has forward path transfer function
G(s) =
K
( + 1) s s
and feedback path transfer function H(s) = 5. Determine sensitivity of closed loop
transfer function with respect to G and H at ω = 1 rad./sec. Assume K = 10 (nominal value).
Solution:
T
G
S =
1
1 + GH
=
1
K
1 + + 0 5
( + 1)

s s
=
2
( + 1)
+ + 5K
s s
s s
T
G
S (jω) =
2
2
– +
– + + 5K
ω ω
ω ω
j
j
T
G
K = 10
S ( ) ω j
=
2 4
2 2 2
+
(50 – ) +
ω ω
ω ω
Introductory Control Concepts 9
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T
G
= 1
S ( )
ω
ω j
= 0.02885
T
H
S (s) =
– GH
1 + GH
=
5K

( + 1)
5K
1 +
( + 1)
s s
s s
=
2
– 5K
+ 5K + s s
T
H
S (jω) =
2
– 5K
(5K – ) ω + ω j
T
H = 1
K = 10
S ( )
ω
ω j
=
2
50
(50 – 1) + 1
= 1.020196.
Example 2: A closed loop configuration is given in Fig. 1.9 where β
1
= 4 and β
2
= 9. Calculate
T
S
α
; T =
Y( )
X( )
s
s
. Find α such that
T
S
α
equals 0.2 in steady state.
Fig. 1.9: Closed loop configuration
Solution: T(s) =
2
2
1 2
2
2
1 2
( + + )
0.2
1 +
( + + )
αβ
β β
αβ
β β
s s
s s
=
2
2
1 2 2
+ + + 0.2
αβ
β β αβ s s
Substituting given values of β
1
and β
2
;
T(s) =
2
9
+ 4 + 9 + 1.8
α
α s s
T
S
α
=
T
×
T
∂ α
∂α
=
2 2
2 2
9 ( + 4 + 9 + 1.8 ) – 9 × 1.8 ( + 4 + 9 + 1.8)
×
9 ( + 4 + 9 + 1.8 )
α α α
α α
s s s s
s s
=
2
2
( + 4 + 9)
( + 4 + 9 + 1.8 ) α
s s
s s
Under steady state conditions (s = 0)
Control System Analysis and Design 10
T
= 0
S
α
s
=
9
9 + 1.8α
= 0.2 (given)
So, α = 20.
1.3 SYSTEMS MODELLING
The first step involved in design and analysis of a continuous dynamical system is to develop
differential equation model for the system. The Laplace transform of differential equation (explained
little later) will yield transfer function model of system, of course all initial conditions are assumed to
be zero therein. The components of which the control system is constituted, are usually electrical,
electronic, mechanical or electromechanical in nature.
Electrical systems
It is deemed that the reader is well conversant with Kirchoff’s two laws: KCL and KVL by which
models of electrical networks are governed. So, electrical networks are not dealt in detail here.
However for the sake of review, consider the electrical network shown in Fig 1.10 where loop
currents i
1
(t), i
2
(t) and voltage v(t) across inductor have been defined.
Fig. 1.10: Electrical network
The simultaneous loop equations obtained using KVL are as follows:
7 v(t) – 3i
1
(t) –
1 1 2 1 2
0
1
( ) – 5[ ( ) – ( )] – 6 [ ( ) – ( )]
2

t
d
i t dt i t i t i t i t
dt
= 0; (i
1
loop)
6
d
dt
[i
1
(t) – i
2
(t)] – 5 [i
2
(t) – i
1
(t)] – 4i
2
(t) – sin t = 0 (i
2
loop)
6
d
dt
[i
1
(t) – i
2
(t)] = V(t)
The Laplace transform of above equations while initial conditions assumed to be zero, are as
follows:
7V(s) –
1
6 + 8 +
2
, ]
, ]
¸ ]
s
s
I
1
(s) + 6(s + 5) I
2
(s) = 0
6 (s + 5) I
1
(s) – 6 (s + 9) I
2
(s) –
2
1
+ 1 s
= 0
6sI
1
(s) – 6sI
2
(s) – V(s) = 0
The electrical system models are, in general constituted of resistors, inductors capacitors, current
sources and voltage sources. These elements together with voltage current relations therein are listed
in Table 1.1.
Introductory Control Concepts 11
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Mechanical system
The dynamics of a mechanical system may be translational or rotational or both. The variables
that describe translational dynamics are displacement (x), velocity (
i
x ) and acceleration (
i i
x ). Mass,
spring and damper are three mechanical elements whose symbols and force position relationships are
as given in Table 1.2.
TABLE 1.1: Electrical elements and voltage current relations
Electrical elements
Independent voltage source
Independent current source
Dependent voltage source
Dependent current source
Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor
Symbol Voltage-current relation
v(t) is expressed as a function of time
i(t) is expressed as a function of time
v(t) is expressed as a function of other
voltage or current in the network
i(t) is expressed as a function of other
voltage or current in the network
v = iR
L
1
L
di
v
dt
i v dt


1
C
v i dt
dv
i
dt


Control System Analysis and Design 12
Similarly rotational dynamics is characterised by three variables θ (angular displacement),

θ
(angular velocity) and

θ (angular acceleration). The torque-angular position relationship and
symbols of these three elements are given in Table 1.3.
TABLE 1.2: Mechanical elements and force-position relationship
Mechanical elements
Mass
Damper/Dashpot
Spring
Symbol Force-position relationship
Inertial force F
m
= M
i i
x
M = mass
Damping force F
B
= B
i
x
B = Damping coefficient
Spring force F
k
= kx
k = Spring constant
TABLE 1.3: Mechanical elements and torque-position relationship
Mechanical elements
Moment of Inertia
Damper/Dashpot
Spring
Symbol Torque-angular position relation
Inertial torque τ
J
= J θ
i i
J = moment of inertial
(MI)
Damping torque τ
B
= Bθ
i
B = Damping coefficient
Spring torque τ
k
= kθ
k = Spring constant
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1.4 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF TRANSLATIONAL/ROTATIONAL
MECHANICAL SYSTEM
A differential equation or a set of differential equation(s) characterising the translational/rotational
dynamics of systems is/are called Mathematical model. The steps involved in modelling mechanical
system are outlined below.
1. Identify various displacements (linear/angular) from equilibrium position in mechanical
system. Each displacement corresponds to a node in mechanical network. All points on a
rigid mass are considered as same node and one terminal of mass is always connected to
the ground, reason being the velocity (or displacement) of a mass is always referred to
earth.
2. Draw mechanical network by connecting together terminals of elements which change the
same displacement.
3. Write force/torque balance equations for each node by applying D′
Alembert’s principle of
mechanics. The D′
Alembert’s principle of mechanics equates the algebraic sum of forces
at a node to zero in mechanical network and is analogous to KCL that equates algebraic
sum of currents at a node to zero in electrical network.
4. The corresponding algebraic equations as a function of complex variable s are obtained by
taking Laplace transform of differential equations obtained using steps 1 to 3. By little
manipulation of algebraic equations so obtained, one can easily develop transfer function
model of system relating output variable to input variable.
The following examples will illustrate the procedure.
Example 3: Write simultaneous differential equations for the translational mechanical system of
Fig. 1.11 and Laplace transform the equations assuming all initial conditions to be zero.
Fig. 1.11: Mechanical system of example 3
Solution: Use the procedure outlined in section 1.4 to draw mechanical network as shown in
Fig. 1.12 by first choosing three nodes x
1
, x
2
, x
3
and connecting the masses between ground and the
corresponding node. Fit the mechanical elements interconnecting two nodes in the network for
example damper (B = 7) between x
1
and x
2
and spring (K = 5) between x
2
and x
3
. Then fit the
remaining elements between ground and corresponding node.
Control System Analysis and Design 14
Fig. 1.12: Mechanical network of system of Fig. 1.11
While equating the algebraic sum of internal forces to that of externally applied forces, write
differential equations describing the system dynamics as follows.
3
1
ii
x + 6x
1
+ (7
1
i
x –
2
i
x ) = 0; (node x
1
)
or 3
1
i i
x + 7
1
i
x + 6x
1
– 7
2
i
x = 0 ...(1.8)
2
2
ii
x + 7 (
2
i
x –
1
i
x ) + 5 (x
2
– x
3
) = 10; (node x
2
)
or 2
2
ii
x + 7
2
i
x + 5x
2
– 7
1
i
x – 5x
3
= 10 ...(1.9)
and 4
3
i i
x + 5(x
3
– x
2
) = 0; (node x
3
)
or 4
3
i i
x + 5x
3
– 5x
2
= 0 ...(1.10)
Laplace transform of (1.9), (1.10) and (1.11) yields respectively
(3s
2
+ 7s + 6) X
1
(s) – 7s X
2
(s) = 0 ...(1.11)
(2s
2
+ 7s + 5) X
2
(s) – 7s X
1
(s) – 5X
3
(s) =
10
s
...(1.12)
(4s
2
+ 5) X
3
(s) – 5X
2
(s) = 0 ...(1.13)
Example 4: Develop differential equation model for mechanical system shown in Fig. 1.13.
Fig. 1.13: Mechanical system of example 4
Solution: Choose two nodes x
1
and x
2
as depicted in Fig. 1.13 to draw the mechanical network as
shown in Fig.1.14. The mass (m
1
= 4) is connected between node x
1
and ground. Similarly, the mass
(m
2
= 5) is connected between node x
2
and ground. The elements B = 6 and K
2
= 2 are connected
between nodes x
1
and x
2
. The remaining elements K
3
= 3, K
1
= 7 and f = sin t are connected between
ground and corresponding nodes.
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Fig. 1.14: Mechanical netowork of system of Fig. 1.13
While equating the algebraic sum of internal forces to that of externally applied forces the
differential equations for nodes x
1
and x
2
are written as follows:
m
1 1
ii
x + B(
1
i
x –
2
i
x ) + K
2
(x
1
– x
2
) + K
1
x
1
= 0 (node x
1
)
and m
2 2
ii
x + B(
2
i
x –
1
i
x ) + K
2
(x
2
– x
1
) + K
3
x
2
= sin t (node x
2
)
Substitute given values to get
4
1
ii
x + 6
1
i
x + 9x
1
– 6
2
i
x + 2x
2
= 0
and 5
2
ii
x + 6
2
i
x + 5x
2
– 2x
1
– 6
1
i
x = sin t
Example 5: The human body is often modelled by springs, masses and dampers. For the model
of seated body with applied force f, Fig. 1.15, find the system equations.
Fig. 1.15: Model of seated human body
Solution: Having identified four displacements of head, upper torso, arms and lower body in
mechanical system of Fig. 1.15, four nodes x
1
, x
2
, x
3
and x
4
are correspondingly chosen and the
mechanical network as explained in example 4 is drawn in Fig. 1.16. The system equations can be
now written as follows:
m
1 1
ii
x + B
1
(
1
i
x –
2
i
x ) + K
1
(x
1
– x
2
) = 0 (node x
1
) ...(1.14)
Control System Analysis and Design 16
m
2 2
i i
x + B
2
(
2
i
x –
3
i
x ) + K
2
(x
2
– x
3
) + B
3
(
2
i
x –
4
i
x ) + K
3
(x
2
– x
4
) + B
1
(
2
i
x –
1
i
x ) + K
1
(x
2
– x
1
) = 0
(node x
2
) ...(1.15)
m
3 3
ii
x + B
2
(
3
i
x –
2
i
x ) + K
2
(x
3
– x
2
) = 0; (node x
3
) ...(1.16)
m
4 4
ii
x + B
3
(
4
i
x –
2
i
x ) + K
3
(x
4
– x
2
) = f ; (node x
4
) ...(1.17)
Fig. 1.16: Mechanical network of system of Fig. 1.15
Fitting element values and rearranging (1.14), (1.15), (1.16) and (1.17), the following equations
result respectively.
1.2
1
ii
x + 0.8
1
i
x + 0.3 x
1
– 0.8
2
i
x + 0.3x
2
= 0 ...(1.18)
– 0.8
1
i
x – 0.3x
1
+ 14
2
ii
x + 22.8
2
i
x – 11.3x
3
– 10
3
i
x – 8x
3
– 12
4
i
x – 3x
4
= 0 ...(1.19)
– 10
2
i
x – 8x
2
+ 3.2
3
ii
x + 10
3
i
x + 8x
3
= 0 ...(1.20)
– 12
2
i
x – 3x
2
+ 24
4
ii
x + 12
4
i
x + 3x
4
= 5t
2
...(1.21)
Example 6: Find the system equations characterising the mechanical system shown in
Fig. 1.17.
Fig. 1.17: Mechanical system of example 6
Solution: For the system shown in Fig. 1.17, the corresponding mechanical network is drawn in
Fig. 1.18. φ
1
, φ
2
and φ
3
identified as three nodes in mechanical network are three angular
displacements from equilibrium. J
1
, J
2
are connected between ground and corresponding nodes φ
2
and
φ
3
respectively. The remaining self explanatory connections are also shown in Fig. 1.18.
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Fig. 1.18: Mechanical network for system of Fig. 1.17
Use mechanical network to write system equations as follows:
K
1

1
– φ
2
) = τ; (node φ
1
) ...(1.22)
J
1 2
φ
ii
+ B
1 2
φ
i
+ B
3
(
2
φ
i

3
φ
i
) + K
1

2
– φ
1
) = 0; (node φ
2
) ...(1.23)
J
2 3
φ
ii
+ B
2 3
φ
i
+ K
2
φ
3
+ B
3
(
3
φ
i

2
φ
i
) = 0; (node φ
3
) ...(1.24)
Fit the values of elements and rearrange to get the following equations describing the dynamics of
given system.

1
– 8φ
2
= 10 e
–t/2
...(1.25)
– 8φ
1
+ 4
2
φ
ii
+ 3
2
φ
i
+ 2
2
φ
i
+ 8φ
2
– 2
3
φ
i
= 0 ...(1.26)
– 2
2
φ
i
+ 6
3
φ
ii
+ 5
3
φ
i
+ 2φ
3
+ 2
3
φ
i
= 0 ...(1.27)
Example 7: Write simultaneous equations in s domain for rotational system shown in Fig. 1.19.
Assume all initial conditions to be zero.
Fig. 1.19: Mechanical system of example 7
Solution: Using the procedure as explained in previous examples, three angular displacements φ
1
,
φ
2
and φ
3
have been identified as depicted in Fig. 1.19 and the corresponding network is drawn in Fig.
1.20.
Control System Analysis and Design 18
Fig. 1.20: Mechanical network for system of Fig. 1.19
The differential equations are as follows
8
1
φ
i i
+ 7
1
φ
i
+ 4 (φ
1
– φ
2
) = 0 ...(1.28)
9
2
φ
ii
+ 4 (φ
2
– φ
1
) + 6 (φ
2
– φ
3
) = 0 ...(1.29)
5
3
φ
ii
+ 6 (
3
φ
i

2
φ
i
) = 7e
–t
...(1.30)
The Laplace transform (with zero initial conditions) of (1.28), (1.29) and (1.30) gives system
equations in s domain as follows.
(8s
2
+ 7s + 4) φ
1
(s) – 4 φ
2
(s) = 0 ...(1.31)
– 4φ
1
(s) + (9s
2
+ 6s + 4) φ
2
(s) – 6s φ
3
(s) = 0 ...(1.32)
– 6s φ
2
(s) + (5s
2
+ 6s) φ
3
(s) =
7
( + 1) s
...(1.33)
1.5 ANALOGOUS SYSTEMS
Numerous electromechanical devices are often encountered in engineering applications. Some of the
examples are solenoids, actuators, motors, generators, gyroscopes, accelerometers and loud speakers.
In analysis of linear systems, the mathematical routine to obtain solution to given set of equations,
does not depend upon what physical systems, the equations represent. The two different physical
systems (for example one mechanical and other electrical in nature) which can be described by same
set of differential equations are called analogous systems and will produce same response to a given
excitation.
While dealing with the systems other than electrical we have following distinct advantages if we
transform the system under consideration into an analogous electrical network.
1. Electrical network theory such as impedance concept and various network theorems can be
applied to study and predict the system behaviour such as resonance, pass band, damping
coefficient, time constant, etc.
2. This technique becomes still more vulnerable when we deal with electromechanical
systems wherein phenomena are interrelated.
3. In general, electrical systems are easier to deal with experimentally.
Force-voltage (f-v) analogy
Consider a mechanical system and an electrical system shown in Figs. 1.21(a) and 1.21(b)
respectively. The corresponding mechanical network for mechanical system of Fig. 1.21(a) is drawn
in Fig. 1.21(c) where node x represents displacement of mass.
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Fig. 1.21: (a) Mechanical system, (b) Analogous electrical system, (c) Mechanical network
The differential equation describing the dynamics of mechanical system can be written as
m
i i
x + b
i
x + kx = f ...(1.34)
where x is displacement
and that for electrical system as
1
L +

di
i dt
di c
+ Ri = v ...(1.35)
where i = current. The charge q and current i bear the relationship
i =
i
q
using which (1.35) takes the following form.
L
i i
q
+ R
i
q
+
1
c
q = v ...(1.36)
Compare (1.34) and (1.36) to note that they are of identical form. Therefore the mechanical and
electrical systems as shown in Fig. 1.21 (a) and 1.21 (b) respectively are analogous to each other. The
quantities in corresponding position of equations (1.34) and (1.36), termed as analogous quantities are
given in Table 1.4.
TABLE 1.4: Analogous quantities in force voltage analogy
Translational mechanical
system
Force (f)
Mass (m)
Damping coefficient (B)
Spring constant (k)
Linear displacement (x)
Linear velocity (
i
x )
Rotational mechanical
system
Torque (τ)
Moment of inertial (J)
Damping coefficient (B)
Spring constant (k)
Angular displacement (
θ
i
)
Angular Velocity (
θ
i
)
Electrical system
Votlages (v)
Inductance (L)
Resistance (R)
Reciprocal of Capacitance (1/C)
Charge (q)
Current (i)
Control System Analysis and Design 20
Procedure to construct analogous electrical system using f-v analogy
The construction of analogous electrical system is explained in following steps with the help of a
mechanical system shown in Fig. 1.22 for which the corresponding mechanical network is drawn in
Fig. 1.23.

Fig. 1.22: Mechanical system Fig. 1.23: Mechanical network of system of Fig. 1.22
1. Each node in mechanical network of Fig. 1.23 corresponds to a loop in electrical system.
The nodes x
1
and x
2
correspond to loop 1 and loop 2 respectively as demonstrated in
Fig. 1.24.
2. Identify the mechanical elements connected to each node. The corresponding loop will
contain their electrical analogs, for example loop 1 will contain three electrical analogs R
1
,
L
2
and C for their mechanical counter elements B
1
, m
2
and 1/k respectively. Similarly, loop
2 will contain R
1
, R
2
, L
1
and voltage source v for B
1
, B
2
, m
1
and force f respectively.
3. Identify those mechanical elements interconnecting two nodes. The respective electrical
analogous will be connected in series while being common to the two loops corresponding
to these two nodes for example R
1
analogous to B
1
will be common to loop 1 and loop 2.
4. Identify those mechanical elements connected distinctly to each node. The respective
electrical analogous will be connected in series and will constitute a distinct segment of
corresponding loop for example C and L
2
are in series and are part of only loop 1.
Similarly L
1
, R
2
and v are in series and appear in only loop 2.
The complete analogous electrical system is shown in Fig. 1.24.
Fig. 1.24: Electrical (f – v) analog
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Force-current (f-i) analogy: Consider the electrical system shown in Fig. 1.25.
Fig. 1.25
KCL yields
i = i
1
+ i
2
+ i
3
...(1.37)
which in terms of node voltage v takes the following form.
1
+ +
R L

i v
v dt cv
= i ...(1.38)
It is known that voltage v and magnetic flux φ are related as:
v = φ
i
...(1.39)
use equation (1.39) to arrange equation (1.38) as follows:
c φ
i i
+
1
R
φ
i
+
1
L
φ = i ...(1.40)
Compare (1.34) and (1.40) to note that both have identical form and therefore mechanical system
of Fig. 1.21 (a) and electrical system of Fig. 1.25 are analogous. The analogous quantities therein are
listed in Table 1.5.
Procedure to construct analogous electrical system using f-i analogy
Consider mechanical system as shown in Fig. 1.22. The current interest is to construct analogous
electrical system. Each node in mechanical network as shown in Fig. 1.23 drawn for mechanical
system of Fig. 1.22, corresponds to a junction/node in electrical analog as well. Mere replacement of
excitation sources and passive elements in mechanical network by their analogous electrical
TABLE 1.5: Analogous quantities in force current analogy
Translational mechanical
system
Force (f)
Mass (m)
Damping coefficient (B)
Spring constant (k)
Linear displacement (x)
Linear velocity (
i
x )
Rotational mechanical
system
Torque (τ)
Moment of inertial (J)
Damping coefficient (B)
Spring constant (k)
Angular displacement (ν)
Angular velocity (
θ
i
)
Electrical system
Current (i)
Capacitance (c)
Conductance (G)
Reciprocal of inductance (1/L)
Magnetic flux (φ)
Voltages (v)
Control System Analysis and Design 22
counterparts, will yield analogous electrical system. For example Analogous electrical system for
mechanical system of Fig. 1.22 is drawn in Fig. 1.26.
Fig. 1.26: Electrical system using f-i analogy
1.6 GEAR TRAIN AND ITS ELECTRICAL ANALOG
Gear Trains: The gear train plays similar role of exchanging energy from one part to another in
mechanical system as a transformer does in electrical system. A situation is usually experienced in
mechanical systems where a servo motor operating at high speed but low torque is to drive a load with
high torque and low speed. Then the requirement of torque magnification and speed regulation is met
by gear train. The two gears labelled primary and secondary coupled together are shown in
Fig. 1.27.
Fig. 1.27: Coupled gears
The free body diagram for the mechanical system of coupled gears shown in Fig 1.27, is drawn in
Fig. 1.28.
In order to establish relationships between torque τ
1
and τ
2
, angular displacements θ
1
and θ
2
,
number of teeth N
1
and N
2
, angular velocities θ
1
and θ
2
and radii r
1
and r
2
of primary and secondary
gears respectively, the following assumptions are made.
1. The number of teeth on the surface of gears is proportional to radii so that
r
1
N
2
= r
2
N
1
...(1.41)
2. The distance travelled along the surface of each gear is same so that
θ
1
r
1
= θ
2
r
2
...(1.42)
3. Assume no loss so that work done by each gear is same and
τ
1
θ
1
= τ
2
θ
2
...(1.43)
The equations (1.41), (1.42) and (1.43) yield the following relationship
1
2
τ
τ
=
2
1
θ
θ
=
1
2
N
N
=
2
1
ω
ω
=
1
2
r
r
...(1.44)
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Fig. 1.28: Free body diagram
The rotational dynamics of mechanical network of Fig. 1.28 is described by following equations:
J
1 1
θ
i i
+ B
1 1
θ
i
+ τ
1
= τ ...(1.45)
J
2 2 θ
i i
+ B
2 2
θ
i
+ τ
2
= 0 ...(1.46)
use (1.44) to have gear relations as
τ
2
=
2
1
1
N
N
τ
and θ
2
= –
1
1
2
N
N
θ
...(1.47)
Substitute these values in equation (1.45) to get
τ
1
=
2
1
2
N
N
j \
, (
( ,
(J
2 1
θ
i i
+ B
2 1
θ
i
)
Substitute this value of τ
1
in (1.46) to get
J
1 1
θ
i i
+ B
1 1
θ
i
+
2
1
2
N
N
j \
, (
( ,
[J
2 1 θ
i i
+ B
2 1 θ
i
] = τ ...(1.48)
or τ = J
e 1
θ
i i
+ B
e
1
θ
i
...(1.49)
where J
e
= J
1
+
2
1
2
N
N
j \
, (
( ,
J
2
and B
e
= B
1
+
2
1
2
N
N
j \
, (
( ,
B
2
J
e
and B
e
may be regarded as equivalent inertia and friction referred to primary gear. An
equivalent mechanical network satisfying (1.48) is shown in Fig. 1.29.
Control System Analysis and Design 24
Fig. 1.29: Equivalent mechanical network
Electrical Analog of gear train
The electrical network of an ideal transformer is shown in Fig. 1.30.
Fig. 1.30: Electrical network of an ideal transformer
The loop equations can be written as
L
1
1
di
dt
+ R
1
i
1
+ v
1
= v
L
2
2
di
dt
+ R
2
i
2
+ v
2
= 0
But v
2
=
2
1
N
N
v
1
and i
2
= –
1
2
N
N
i
1
Substituting v
2
, i
2
and eliminating v
1
we get
2 2
1 1 1
1 2 1 2 2
2 2
N N
L + L + R + R
N N
, ] , ]
j \ j \
, ] , ]
, ( , (
, ] , ]
( , ( ,
¸ ] ¸ ]
di
i
dt
= v ...(1.50)
The equations (1.49) and (1.50) are analogous with following equivalent quantities:
i
1
←÷→
1
θ
i
i
2
←÷→
2
θ
i
v ←÷→ τ
L
1
←÷→ J
1
R
1
←÷→ B
1
L
2
←÷→ J
2
R
2
←÷→ B
2
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The equivalent network with secondary load reflected to primary satisfying (1.50) is shown in
Fig. 1.31. A careful observation of Fig. 1.29 and Fig. 1.31, reveals that the transformer is an electrical
analog of coupled gears.
Fig. 1.31: Equivalent network with secondary load reflected to primary
Example 8: Write differential equations for rotational mechanical system shown in Fig. 1.32 (a)
and then Laplace transform them assuming zero initial conditions.
Fig. 1.32: (a) Rotational system
Solution: The equivalent rotational system with components K
1
= 3 and J
1
= 4 referred to side of
applied torque τ, is shown in Fig. 1.32 (b).
Fig. 1.32: (b) Equivalent rotational system
Using d’Alembert’s Law, the differential equation describing the system dynamics is written as
follows:
2
2
1
j \
, (
( ,
n
n
K
1
θ
2
+ J
2 2 θ
i i
+
2
2
1
j \
, (
( ,
n
n
J
1 2 θ
i i
= τ
Control System Analysis and Design 26
Substitute the component values to get
2 2 θ
i i
+
25
9
× 4 2 θ
i i
+
25
9
× 3θ
2
= 8 sin 5t
The Laplace transform of the equation just above with zero initial conditions, yields
100
2 +
9
j \
, (
( ,
s
2
θ
2
(s) +
75
9
θ
2
(s) =
2
40
+ 25 s
or (118s
2
+ 75) θ
2
(s) =
2
360
+ 25 s
where θ
2
(s) = –
3
5
θ
1
(s)
1.7 TRANSFER FUNCTION
In preceding sections, it has been learnt that the continuous dynamical systems are characterized by
differential equations. The response of the system to an input may be determined by solving the
differential equation. One way to work out differential equation is through classical technique by
obtaining complimentary function and particular integral and then summing them. But it involves
some what tedious mathematical routine. The Laplace transform is an easier tool to solve differential
equation while involving simpler algebraic manipulations.
The transfer function model which is obtained by Laplace transforming the differential equations,
becomes one of the most powerful tool of control system analysis and design.
For a system with single input r(t) and single output c(t), the transfer function is defined as
G(s) =
all initial conditions = 0
C( )
R( )
s
s
...(1.51)
where C(s) = L [c(t)] and R(s) = L [r(t)] ; symbol L stands for Laplace transform
For unit impulse input i.e. r(t) = δ(t) and R(s) = 1.
C(s) = G(s) and c(t) = g(t)
Thus, the system transfer function G(s) may also be regarded as the Laplace transform of impulse
response of system with zero initial conditions. The impulse response g(t) is also called as weighing
function in the sense that response of the system to any arbitrary input x(t) may be obtained by taking
convolution of g(t) with the input x(t). Thus,
c(t) = g(t)
*
x(t) =
0
( – ) ( )

τ τ τ

g t x d
; * stands for convolution ...(1.52)
Note the following important points regarding transfer function of a system:
1. The concept of transfer function applies to only linear time invariant systems. In general it
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is not applicable to non linear systems, although it can be extended to certain class of non
linear control systems with certain assumptions made.
2. The transfer function is expressed in terms of system parameters and is property of system
itself. It is independent of the input or driving function.
3. All initial conditions of system are set to zero i.e. the system is assumed to be in possession
of no energy inherent in itself.
4. The dynamics of continuous time system is described by algebraic equation in complex
variable s. The highest power of s in denominator of G(s) is equal to the order of highest
derivative term of output. If this highest power equals n, the system is said to be an
n
th
order system. It is also worth noting that the discrete time systems are modelled by
difference equation(s). The transfer function of a discrete time system is function of z when
z transform is used.
5. In systems described by linear, constant coefficient integro differential equations, every
Laplace transformed signal is related to every other such signal by a transfer function. To
avoid confusion the term transfer function is reserved to describe input-output relation
and transmittance is used to denote the similar relation between a pair of signals other
than input and output.
6. The denominator polynomial of transfer function is called characteristic polynomial and
roots of characteristic polynomial i.e. solution of characteristic equation which is actually
characteristic polynomial equated to zero, are called system’s characteristic roots. Later
we shall see that these roots play an important role in determining the stability of system.
Transfer function model of system
In order to develop transfer function model of a given system, with input r(t) and output c(t), the
following steps are used.
1. Write differential equation of given system.
2. Laplace transform the system equations with zero initial conditions.
3. Obtain the ratio of output C(s) to input R(s) to get transfer function model.
For example, consider the system described by differential equation
i i
c (t) + 5
i
c (t) + 6c(t) =
i
r (t) + 7r(t) ...(1.53)
The Laplace transform of (1.53) with zero initial conditions yields.
s
2
C(s) + 5s C(s) + 6 C(s) = s R(s) + 7 R(s)
and G(s) =
C( )
R( )
s
s
=
2
+ 7
+ 5 + 6
s
s s
...(1.54)
The correspondence of time functions with individual partial fraction terms of Transfer
function
The nature of time function (exponential/sinusoidal) corresponding to each partial fraction
expansion term of G(s) depends upon location of characteristic root in s plane and upon whether or
not the characteristic root is repeated. These time functions may also be regarded as impulse
responses which are inverse Laplace transform of G(s) = C(s) for R(s) = 1. Table 1.6 shows typical
impulse responses associated with various root locations.
Control System Analysis and Design 28
TABLE 1.6: Impulse responses corresponding to various characteristic root locations
Roots locations(s) on
the complex plane
Impulse response Nature of response
Constant K
Sinusoid with radian frequency β,
A cos(βt + θ)
Decaying exponential Ke
–αt
Growing exponential Ke
αt
Exponentially decaying sinusoid
Ae
–αt
cos (βt + θ)
Exponential constant is α and
sinusoidal radian frequency is β
Exponentially growing sinusoid
Ae
αt
cos (βt + θ)
(Contd.)
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Zero state response
The zero state response is defined as the system output when all the initial conditions are zero for
example, consider system described by equation (1.54) where
r(t) = 6 u(t) e
–4t

and R s
s
b g
+
6
4
then
Zero state
C( ) s = 2
6 ( + 7)
( + 5 + 6) ( + 4)
s
s s s
=
3 1 2
+ +
( + 2) ( + 3) ( + 4)
α α α
s s s
where α
1
=
= – 2
6 ( + 7)
( + 4) ( + 3)
s
s
s s
= 15
α
2
=
= – 3
6 ( + 7)
( + 2) ( + 4)
s
s
s s
= – 24
α
3
=
= – 4
6 ( + 7)
( + 2) ( + 3)
s
s
s s
= 9
Roots locations(s) on
the complex plane
Impulse response Nature of response
Constant plus a constant times t,
K
1
+ K
2
t
Sinusoidal with radian frequency
β plus t times sinusoidal
A
1
cos (βt + θ
1
) + A
2
t cos
(βt + θ
2
).
Decaying exponential plus t
times a decaying exponential,
K
1
e
–αt
+ K
2
te
–αt
Growing exponential plus t
times, growing exponential,
K
1
e
αt
+ K
2
te
αt
Control System Analysis and Design 30
and
zero state
( ) c t = 15e
–2t
– 24e
–3t
+ 9e
–4t
...(1.55)
Zero input response
If the system is in possession of non zero initial conditions, an additional response component
called as zero input response will appear in overall response. For example, Laplace transform of
equation (1.53) with initial conditions included yields.
[s
2
C(s) – s C(0) – C′ (0)] + 5[s C(s) – C(0)] + 6C(s) = sR(s) + 7R(s)
C(s) =
Zero state component
( + 7)
R( )
( + 2) ( + 3)

s
s
s s
+
( ( )
(
s
s s
+ 5) C C (0)
+ 2) ( 3)
zero input component
0 + ′
+

...(1.56)
Assuming c´(0) = 0 and c(0) = 1, (1.56) becomes.
C(s) =
s
s s
s
s
s s
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
7
2 3
5
2 3
b g
b gb g
b g
b g
b gb g
R
Now if r(t) = 6 u(t) e
– 4t
, then
C(s) =
6 7
2 3 4
5
2 3
s
s s s
s
s s
+
+ + +
+
+
+ +
b g
b gb gb g b gb g
c(t) =
15 24 9 3 2
2 3 4 2 3
e e e e e
t t t t t − − − − −
− + −
Zero state component Zero input component
+

...(1.57)
=
9 18 26
4 2 3
e e e
t t t − − −

forced component natural component
+

In overall response c(t) of equation (1.57), the response component containing input is called
forced response and remainder of response is called natural response. It is obvious from equation
(1.57) that both the zero input and zero state response components generally contribute to natural
response of system.
It is important to note that the control engineer seldom explicitly computes natural response of
system due to their dependence on the specific initial conditions, which are often unknown or of little
concern. It is usually sufficient to know the nature of natural response and to know that the system is
stable as stability will guarantee the decay of these terms to zero with time. Also an unstable system
can never be made stable by any choice of initial conditions. However if desired, the initial conditions
may be considered to be system inputs and transfer functions can be found that relate the outputs to
initial condition inputs as illustrated just before.
Transfer function of a system with Multi inputs and Multi outputs
If a system has multiple inputs r
1
(t), r
2
(t) …. and multiple outputs c
1
(t), c
2
(t), ...., there is a transfer
function which relates each one of outputs to each one of inputs, while all other inputs are zero;
G
i j
(s) =
C
R all initial conditions are zero and
all inputs except R are zero
i
j
j
s
s
b g
b g
Introductory Control Concepts 31
C
H
A
P
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1
where i = output number
j = input number.
In general for a system with p inputs and q outputs, the outputs are given by
C
1
(s) = G R G R ......... G R
11 1 12 2 1
s b g b g b g b g b g b g s s s s s + + +
p p
C
2
(s) = G R G R ......... G R
21 1 22 2 2
s s s s s s b g b g b g b g b g b g + + +
p p
C
q
(s) = G R + G R +.........+G R
1 2 q q qp p
s s s s s s
1 2
b g b g b g b g b g b g
or
C
C
C
1
2
s
s
s
q
b g
b g
b g
:
:
L
N
M
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
P
=
G G G
G G G
G G G
R
R
R
11 12 1
21 22 2
1 2
1
2
s s p s
s s p s
s s s
s
s
s
q q qp p
b g b g b g
b g b g b g
b g b g b g
b g
b g
b g
............
............
:
:
............
:
:
L
N
M
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
P
L
N
M
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
P
...(1.58)
To illustrate, let a system with two inputs and two outputs be described by following differential
equations.
d y
dt
d y
dt
dy
dt
y
3
1
3
2
1
2
1
1
7 6 + + +
=
d r
dt
r r
2
1
2
1 2
3 + +
d y
dt
d y
dt
dy
dt
y
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
7 6 + + +
=
4
2
dr
dt
The Laplace transform of equations (1.59) with zero initial conditions gives
s s s s s s s
3
1
2
1
7 6 Y Y Y Y
1 1
b g b g b g b g + + + = s s s s
2
3 R R R
1 1 2
b g b g b g + +
and s s s s s s s
3 2
7 6 Y Y Y Y
2 2 2 2
b g b g b g b g + + + = 4s (s)
To get
Y
R
1
1
s
s
b g
b g
and
Y
R
2
1
s
s
b g
b g
set R
2
(s) = 0
then
Y
R
1
1
s
s
b g
b g
=
s
s s s
2
3 2
3
7 6 1
+
+ + +
and
Y
R
2
1
s
s
b g
b g
= 0
To get
Y
R
2
2
s
s
b g
b g
and
Y
R
1
2
s
s
b g
b g
set R
1
(s) = 0
then
Y
R
1
2
s
s
b g
b g
=
1
7 6 1
3 2
s s s + + +
and
Y
R
2
2
s
s
b g
b g
=
4
7 6 1
3 2
s
s s s + + +
.
U
V
|
|
W
|
|
...(1.59)
U
V
|
W
|
...(1.60)
Control System Analysis and Design 32
1.8 CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS
The systems are classified as follows:
1. Linear and non-linear systems
The mathematical model of a system is said to be linear if it obeys the laws of superposition
(additivity) and homogeneity (scalar multiplicativity). These laws imply that if system model has zero
state responses y
1
(t) and y
2
(t) for any two inputs x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) respectively, then the system response
to linear combination of these inputs α
1
x
1
(t) + α
2
x
2
(t) is given by linear combination of individual
responses α
1
y
1
(t) + α
2
y
2
(t) where α
1
and α
2
are constants. The systems which do not obey any or
both the laws are classified as non linear systems.
For example system of Fig. 1.33 described by mathematical model,
y = αx
is linear and system of Fig. 1.34 whose input-output relationship is given by
y = α
1
x + α
2
is non-linear as one can verify that it does not obey the laws of superposition and homogeneity.

Fig. 1.33: Linear system

Fig. 1.34: Non-linear system
2. Time varying and time invariant systems
This classification is based on whether parameters of a system remain functions of time or
independent of time variable during operation. It is known that continuous dynamical systems are
characterised by differential equation (s). A dynamical system is classified as time invariant if
coefficients of differential equation (s) characterising the system, are constants and time varying if any
one or more than one or all coefficients are functions of time. For, example
α α α
1 2 3
y t y t y b g b g + + = x(t) is time invariant.
whereas,
a t y t b t y t c t y t b g b g b g b g b g b g + + = x(t) is time varying.
Introductory Control Concepts 33
C
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1
3. Continuous and discrete systems
If the signals at input terminal, output terminal and at all other points within the system are
functions of continuous time variable t, then system is said to be continuous and if these signals are
either a pulse train or a digital code, the system is referred to as discrete system. The discrete systems
are sub classified as sampled data systems and digital systems. Signals are in the form of pulses in
sampled data system and these are digitally coded (e.g.; binary code) in digital systems.
The continuous systems are characterised by differential equations and discrete systems are
characterised by difference equations. For example
y y y + + α β = x is continuous sytem
but y (k + 2) + α y (k + 1) + β y (k) = x(k) is discrete system.
4. Deterministic and stochastic systems
If the coefficients of differential/difference equations are deterministic in nature, the system is
said to be deterministic and if they are probabilistic in nature (random variable), it is said to stochastic
system.
5. System with memory and without memory
A system is said to be memoryless if its current response depends on only current excitation. If its
current response depends not only on current excitation to it but also on past history, then it is said to
be system with memory. For example ;
y (t) = r (t) + α
1
r
2
(t) is memoryless system.
A resistor is another example of memoryless system ; with x(t) and y(t) respectively considered as
input current and output voltage, the input output relationship is given by
y(t) = R x(t) where R = resistance
A memoryless system whose input and output are identical is called identity system. The input-
output relationship for a continuous identity system is y(t) = x(t)
y(t) = r(t) + α
1
r
2
(t – 2) is an example of system with memory. A capacitor C is another example
of this class as the voltage v
c
(t) in terms of current i(t) is given by
v
c
(t) =
1
C
i dc
t
τ b g
–∞
z
A system with memory, physically signifies that the system has capability of storing the energy.
6. Causal system
A system is said to be causal if its output at any time depends only on inputs at present time and
in the past. Causal systems are also called as non-anticipative systems in the sense that system output
does not anticipate future values of input. For example, RC circuit is causal as voltage across
capacitor depends on present and past values of source voltage whereas system described by equation
y(t) = x(t) + x(t + 1)
is not causal. While investigating the condition of causality, one is required to be bit careful in
checking the input-output relationship for all times. For example, consider a system
y(t) = x(t) cos(t + 1)
Control System Analysis and Design 34
P1.1: Fig. P1.1 shows the block diagram of a control
system. The system in block A has an impulse response
h
A
(t) = e
–t
u(t). The system in block B has an impulse
response h
B
(t) = e
–2t
u(t). The block ‘k’ amplifies its
input by a factor k. For the overall system with input x(t)
and output y(t), find
(a) the transfer function
Y
X
s
s
b g
b g
when k = 1
(b) the impulse response when k = 0.
Solution:
(a) H
A
(s) =
1
1 s +
, H
B
(s) =
1
2 s +
Y
X
= 1
s
s
k
b g
b g
=
H H
H H
A B
A B
= 1
s s
k s s
k
b g b g
b g b g

+ 1
=
1
3 3
2
s s + +
(b)
Y
X
= 0
s
s
k
b g
b g
=
H H
H H
A B
A B
= 0
s s
k s s
k
b g b g
b g b g

+ 1
= H
A
(s)H
B
(s) =
1
1 2 ( ) ( ) s s + +
Impulse response = L
–1
Y( )
X( ) = 1
s
s
L
N
M
O
Q
P
= e
–t
– e
–2t
P1.2: A speed control system of an engine is shown in Fig. P1.2. Determine:
(a) Sensitivity of closed loop system to changes in engine gain k
1
and tachometer feedback
gain k
2
.
(b) Steady state speed for reference speed = 50 km/hr, k
1
= 100, k
2
= 1 and d(t) = 0
(c) Steady state speed when there is 5 % change in k
1
and other values as in part (b).
(d) Steady state speed when there is 5 % change in k
2
and other values as in part (b).
Fig. P 1.2
Fig. P 1.1
PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
One may be temped to conclude that it is not causal. But it is causal system as cos(t + 1) is only
a time varying function and if expressed as g(t) = cos(t + 1) then y(t) = g(t) x(t). Now it is obvious that
current output is influenced by only current input.
Introductory Control Concepts 35
C
H
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R

1
Solution:
(a)
T( )
D( ) = 0
s
s
=
C
R
s
s
b g
b g
=
12
1 3 1 20 12
1
1 2
k
s s k k + + + b gb g
=
12
60 23 12 1
1
2
1 2
k
s s k k + + +
s
k
1
T
=


T
T k
k
1
1
×
=
60 23 1
60 23 1 12
2
2
1 2
s s
s s k k
+ +
+ + +
s
k
2
T
=


T
T k
k
2
2
× =

+ + +
12
60 23 1 12
1 2
2
1 2
k k
s s k k
(b)
T( )
= 0
s
s
=
12
1 12
1
1 2
k
k k +
=
1200
1201
Steady state speed = c( ∞) = T(s) × R( )
= 0
s
s
=
1200
1201
× 50 = 49.958 km/hr
(c)
∆T
T
s
s
b g
b g
=
S
T
k
s
k
k
1
1
1
b g
×

∆T( )
= 0
s
s
= T(0) ⋅ S
T
k
k
k
1
0
1
1
b g


=
1200
1201
1
1201
0 05 × × .
and ∆C( )
= 0
s
s
=
1200 0 05
1201 1201
50
×
×
×
.
= 2.079 × 10
–3
≅ 0.002
c(∞) = 50 + 0.002 = 50.002 km/hr
(d)
∆T
T
s
s
b g
b g
=
S
T
k
s
k
k
2
2
2
b g
×

∆T( )
= 0
s
s
= T(0) ⋅ S
T
k
k
k
2
0
2
2
b g


=
1200
1201
1200
1201
0 05 ×

× .
= – 0.0499
∆C( )
= 0
s
s
= – 0.0499 × 50 = – 2.495
Steady state speed = C( )
= 0
s
s
= 50 – 2.495 = 47.50 km/hr
P1.3: The forward path transfer function of a position control system with velocity feedback is
given by
G(s) =
K
s s p + b g
Determine the sensitivity of the transfer function of the closed loop system to changes in K, p and
α for transfer function of the feedback path H(s) = (1 + αs). The nominal values of the parameters are
K = 12, p = 3 and α = 0.14.
Solution: T(s) =
K
K K s p s
2
+ + + α b g
Control System Analysis and Design 36
S
K
T
=


T
K
K
T
×
=
s s p
s p s
+
+ + +
b g
b g
2
α K K
S
P
T
=


T
T p
p
×
=

+ + +
s p
s p s
2
αK K b g
S
T
α
=

∂α
α T
T
×
=

+ + +
K
K K
α
α
s
s p s
2
b g
Substitute nominal values of parameters K = 12, p = 3 and α = 0.14 to get
S
K
T
=
s s
s s
+
+ +
3
4 68 12
2
b g
.
S
P
T
=

+ +
3
4 68 12
2
s
s s .
S
T
α
=

+ +
1 68
4 68 12
2
.
.
s
s s
P1.4: Write differential equations governing the behaviour of mechanical system shown in Fig.
P1.4 and obtain analogous electrical networks based on;
(a) f-v analogy
(b) f-i analogy.
Fig. P 1.4
Solution: The mechanical network for system of Fig P1.4 is shown in Fig. P 1.4 (a).
Fig. P 1.4 (a): Equivalent mechanical network
The system equations are as follows.
m x x x x x
1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2
+ + + − B K K b g = f (t)
m x x x x x x x
2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 4 2 3
+ + + − + − B K K K b g b g = 0
Introductory Control Concepts 37
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1
and m x x x x
3 3 3 3 4 3 2
+ + − B K b g = 0
(a) f-v analogous electrical network will consist of 3 loops as described below. The elements
marked (*) are common elements between two loops. Loop 1 corresponding to node x
1
contains
v (t) for f (t)
C
1
for 1/ K
1
R
l
for B
1
L
1
for m
1
and C
3
for 1/K
3
*
Loop 2 corresponding to node x
2
contains
C
3
for 1/K
3
*
C
2
for 1/K
2
R
2
for B
2
L
2
for m
2
and C
4
for 1/K
4
*
Loop 3 corresponding to node x
3
contains
L
3
for m
3
R
3
for B
3
and C
4
for 1/K
4
*
C
3
is common in loops 1 and 2. C
4
is common in loops 2 and 3. f–v analogous network is drawn
in Fig. P 1.4 (b)
Fig. P 1.4 (b): f–v analog
(a) The force-current analogous network is drawn in Fig. P1.4(c)
Fig. P 1.4 (c): f–i analog
Control System Analysis and Design 38
P1.5: Find transmittance
X
F
s
s
b g
b g
for the system shown in Fig. P1.5
Fig. P 1.5
Solution: Assuming f *(t) is force on mass M in the direction of displacement x(t), the system
equations can be written as
f (t) × l
1
= – f *(t) l
2
f *(t) = (– l
1
/l
2
) . f(t)
and M B K x t x t x t b g b g b g + + = f *(t)
Laplace transforming with zero initial conditions yields
Ms
2
X(s) + Bs X(s) + K X(s) = F *(s)
or
X
F
s
s
b g
b g
=

+ +
l l
s s
1 2
2
M B K
P1.6: Fig. P1.6 shows an accelerometer. It is so designed that the position x
2
of mass with respect
to the case is approximately proportional to the case acceleration
d x
dt
2
1
2
. Find the transmittance that
relates x
2
to the case acceleration, r(t) =
d x
dt
2
1
2
in terms of K, M and B. If M = 0.2, select K and B so
that the characteristic polynomial has both roots at – 80.
Fig. P 1.6
Solution:
Assume x
0
= displacement of mass M relative to inertial space
Introductory Control Concepts 39
C
H
A
P
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R

1
Given x
1
= displacement of case relative to inertial space
and x
2
= displacement of mass M relative to case
so, x
2
= x
0
– x
1
System equation can be written as
M B K x x x x x
0 0 1 0 1
+ − + − b g b g = 0
M B K x x x x
2 1 2 2
+ + + b g = 0
M B K x x x
2 2 2
+ + = – M x
1
= – Mr(t)
Laplace transforming
Ms
2
X
2
(s) + Bs X
2
(s) + KX
2
(s) = – MR(s)
and
X
R
2
s
s
b g
b g
=

+ +
M
M B K s s
2
= –
1
2
s s + +
B
M
K
M
The characteristic polynomial is
P(s) =
s s
2
0 2 0 2
+ +
B K
. .
= s
2
+ 5Bs + 5K
whose roots s
1
, s
2
=
− ± − 5 5 20
2
2
B B K b g
= − ± − 2 5
25
4
5
2
. B
B
K
are required to lie at – 80
So, 2.5B = 80 gives B = 32
and
25
4
2
B
= 5 K gives K = 1280
P1.7: Obtain transfer function of each of two mechanical systems given in Fig. P1.7, where x
i
represents input displacement and x
0
represents output displacement.
Fig. P 1.7
Control System Analysis and Design 40
Solution:
(a) System equation corresponding to node x
0
is
K K B
2 0 1 0 0
x x x x x
i i
+ − + − b g b g = 0
whose Laplace transform is
K
2
X
0
(s) + K
1
X
0
(s) – K
1
X
i
(s) + Bs [X
0
(s) – X
i
(s)] = 0
X
X
0
s
s
i
b g
b g
=
B K
B K K
s
s
+
+ +
1
1 2
(b) The system equation corresponding to node x
0
is
mx x x x
i

0 2 0 1 0
+ + − B B b g = 0
whose Laplace transform is
ms s s s s s s
i
2
0 2 0 1 0
X B X B X X b g b g b g b g + + − = 0
X
X
0
s
s
i
b g
b g
=
B
B B
1
2
1 2
s
ms s + + b g
=
B
B B
1
1 2
ms + + b g
P1.8: Find equivalent inertia referred to shaft shown in Fig. P1.8
Given
N
N
3
4
=
5
4
Fig. P 1.8
Solution: Equivalent inertia =
J
N
N
J
N
N
N
N
N
N
1 3
4 2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
×
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
J
20
40
J
5
4
40
10
20
40
1
2
2
2 2 2
×
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
= 0.25 J
1
+ 6.25 J
2
.
DRILL PROBLEMS
D1.1: Write simultaneous Laplace transformed differential equations for mechanical system
shown in Fig. D1.1. Assume zero initial conditions.