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41st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit 10 - 13 July 2005, Tucson, Arizona

AIAA 2005-3744

*V.Gnanagandhi, G.K.Kuruvilla, ‡ A.K.Ray, §S.Venkateswaran, ¶ P.Arunkumar, #M.N.Prakash, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Valiamala, Trivandrum, India-695 547. email: Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre has developed 22N and 10N bi-propellant thrusters employing hypergolic propellant combination of NTO as oxidizer and MMH as fuel. Coaxial swirl injector is used in these thrusters with oxidizer flowing through the inner swirl passage and fuel through the outer swirl passage. In order to enhance the thruster performance and to make it less sensitive to fabrication deviations, different configurations of injector were studied. In the first phase of investigation, fuel was allowed to flow through the outer swirl passage and oxidizer through the inner swirl passage. The difference between the inner and outer flow cone angles was varied by altering the surface finish of critical inner flow passage only. The performance was compiled by conducting cold flow studies and hot firing tests. In the second phase, injector dimensions were modified for flow path reversal to allow oxidizer flow through the outer passage and fuel flow through the inner passage. In this case also a similar experiments were carried out. Deposition of carbonaceous particles which was observed on the injector face while oxidizer flowed through the inner swirl passage disappeared when oxidizer was admitted through the outer passage.The specific impulse also improved by as much as 10secs and was found to be insensitive to minor variations in the inner flow cone angles. The results are discussed in this report.

As -Swirl Number. Cd-Coefficient of discharge. C*-C-Star (Combustion efficiency index.) Fu-Fuel HAT- High altitude test. Isp-Specific Impulse MIBMinimum Impulse bit

MMH-Monomethyl hydrazine. NTO-Nitrogen tetroxide. Ox-Oxidiser. SMD-Sauter mean diameter. UDMH-Unsymmetrical Dimethyl hydrazine. a-Half spray angle. Ø-Coefficient of useful cross section. ?P-Pressure drop.

* Associate Director, † Deputy Director, ‡Group Director, § Division Head, ¶ Project Manager (Engines), # Engineer, 1

Copyright © 2005 by Indian Space Research Organisation. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.

A coaxial swirl injector delivers a spray pattern consisting of two concentric cones and both cones diverge towards the chamber wall. Two types of injectors were realized. Swirl number-As and Coefficient of discharge-Cd are derived from it. In Type-2. 2 .I. the configuration is reversed. II injector description The main design parameters for a co-axial swirl injector are : outer and inner flow outlet diameters. This concept provides a good film cooling capability. of useful cross section –ø is determined from the geometry of swirler. Introduction Coaxial swirl injectors are used in small earth storable bi-propellant thrusters as well as in high thrust cryogenic engines. INNER . which have a good amount of hydrocarbons resulting in carbonaceous particle formations. Theoretical flow cone angles are given in Table-1 for Types 1&2. injector design is critical to obtaining the dual goals of long life and high energy release efficiency. This is more relevant in the case of earth storable propellant fuels such as MMH and UDMH. Spray scattering angle is determined using the equation 5 Tan? = 2Cd As [1 ? (1 ? ? )]2 ? 4Cd Ad 2 2 Where Cd= 1 { As 2 and (1 ? ? ) ? 1 2 } ? As = (1 ? ? ) 2 ? 3 Coeff. Published literatures on spray characteristic studies 1-4 of coaxial swirl injectors have not reported the performance sensitivity of a thruster to propellant flow path reversal. In developing an advanced liquid rocket engine. In Type-1 fuel flows through the outer swirl passage and oxidizer through the inner swirl passage. pressure drops of flow and spray cone angles. In the present study a 22N thruster which uses NTO as oxidizer and MMH as fuel is investigated for flow path reversal and performance sensitivity by doing hot HAT firings. OUTER . Fig-1 shows the spray cone concept.

Spray angle is measured4 using digital camera and the values are given in Table-2. 3 .(2? ) Type Inner Outer 1 71(Ox) 101(Fu) 2 85(Fu) 101(Ox) Table-1 Theoretical prediction of Cone angles. In each type of injector. difference of about 10% in the spray angles computed and measured for Types-1A and 2A. 1B 63 (Ox) 110 (Fu) No reaming of inner flow path. In both types. 2A 77 (Fu) 70 (Fu) 112 (Ox) 2B 112 (Ox) No ream finish. one (A) with flow passage having a good surface finish using reaming process and another (B) without reaming so that inner cone angle could be different. two hardware each were realized (A&B). Ream finish as done in 1A.. Injector Type Spray Cone Angles (2? ) Inner Outer Remarks 1A 68 (Ox) 110 (Fu) Ream finish of inner flow path. Table 2 Measured Spray Cone Angles As seen from Tables 1 & 2 there is a max. Thrust chamber is silicide coated and is electron beam welded with the injector6.Spray cone Angles. the inner flow spray angle is varied by controlling the surface finish of the inner flow path as explained in Table2. III Cold flow tests Pressure drop evaluation is carried out by using de-mineralized water at rated flow rate.

c. flange.Continuous 1a 100 sec reference 400 sec+ 400 sec (hot restart of inj.5 bar(a) and 11. propellant flow rates. V.Pulse 2a 2b 2c 2d 1 10ms on/120sec off 16ms on/120sec off 32ms on/120sec off 64ms on/120sec off Table 3 Hot Test Sequence 10 10 10 10 Nominal continuous firing MR was kept at 1.) 1000 sec 1 1b 1 1c 2. Type ISP sec Injector Temp (Deg. Results and discussion In continuous mode operation. Isp realized and thruster temperatures are compared and given in Table-4. All the above mentioned tests were carried out at the beginning of life and end of life injection pressures of 16. Throat temperature measurement was carried out using optical pyrometer.05.5 bar ) 4 . Test Run No. vacuum level and thruster injector-chamber interface temperature . No.IV Hot test HAT firing was carried out as per the sequence given in Table-3.65±0.and injector flange temperature. of Firing/ Pulses Detail 1. Also the injector inner face was inspected for any particle deposition using endoscope at the end of continuous sequence and pulse mode firings.c) 1A 280 140 800 2A 293 100 950 Table 4 Continuous mode performance comparison (at 16.5 bar(a) respectively with measurement of thrust. (Deg.) Throat Temp. chamber pressure.

C) Throat Temp.5 bar as given in Table-5 and Fig.5 bar) Type Isp (sec) Injector Temp.-3. 22N THRUSTER COMPARISON BETWEEN TYPE-1 & TYPE-2 1000 SECS . Because of this. A plot of injector flange temperature for 1000 sec is given in Fig-2. Higher ? P and wider spray angle results in smaller SMD7 and this effect combined with less difference in spray cone angles result in intense mixing of oxidizer and fuel and better combustion efficiency.Isp for Type 2 injector is more by over 10 sec compared with Type-1. Outer flow pattern for Type-1 is having a waviness in conical spray indicating transition phase from tulip to fully developed regime where as for type 2 injector. It can also be inferred from the throat temperature rise that C* efficiency is more for Type-2. The measured throat temp for Type-2 is only 950°c which is much below the permissible operating temperature of 1260°c for silicide coated columbium nozzle. film cooling at chamber injector interface is better for Type 2 resulting in lower injector flange temperature.5 bar). Similar trends are seen when the tests were carried out at 11. ( o. This is due to wider inner spray and less difference in spray cone angles between inner and outer flow for Type 2 as given in Tables 1& 2 and also higher ? P for this Type is more by 20% compared with Type-1. The inner flow pattern is a fully developed conical spray for Type 1and Type-2.TEMPERATURE PLOT (at 16. a fully developed conical pattern is achieved by higher ? P. TYPE-1 TYPE-2 Figure-2 Injector flange temperature for 1000 sec (at 16. (o .5 bar) 5 .C) 1A 277 135 770 2A 289 80 900 Table-5 Continuous mode performance comparison (at 11. Injector flange temperature for Type-2 is less than Type-1 by 40°c.

22N THRUSTER COMPARISON BETWEEN TYPE-1 & TYPE-2 1000 SECS .5 bar) For evaluating the spray angle sensitivity on Isp.5 bar). This is due to less disparity between inner and outer spray angle for Type-2 which makes it less sensitive to minor variations in spray cone angles caused by deviations in fabrication process. Type Measured spray angle (2? ) Inner Isp Sec 1A 1B 2A 2B 68(Ox) 63(Ox) 77(Fu) 70(Fu) 280 274 293 292 Table 6 Isp sensitivity on spray cone angle It can be seen that Isp sensitivity for Type-2 is much less compared with that of Type-1. MIB comparison is given in Table-7. each type of thruster was tested for different inner spray cone angles and the results are given in Table-6. 6 . TYPE-1 TYPE-2 Figure-3 Injector flange temperature for 1000 sec (at 11. In pulse mode firing.TEMPERATURE PLOT (at 11.

5 bar) Type-2 Type-1 Figure 5 Pulse shape plot for 10ms 7 . TYPE-1 TYPE-2 Figure 4 Pulse shape plot for 64ms 22N THRUSTER COM PARISON BETWEEN TYPE-1 & TYPE-2 10ms PULSE SHAPE.Pulse width (ms) 10 16 32 64 MIB in mNsec Type-1 83 165 520 1200 Type-2 141 221 637 1332 Table 7 Pulse mode Performance Comparison Pulse mode MIB for Type 2 is substantially better than Type-1 indicating improved combustion efficiency in pulse mode also.4&5.5 bar). 22N THRUSTER COMPARISON BETWEEN TYPE-1 & TYPE-2 64ms PULSE SHAPE ( at 16. A comparison of pulse shapes at 64ms and 16ms pulse widths are given in Fig.( at 16.

Vol-19. for the encouragement given during the study. et al . Less sensitivity to fabrication tolerances Lower injector temperature.Balan et.Vedachalam.Umar. 2. NASA-FTD-MI24-25368.PP132-142.. 3. ESA SP-465.Observations on injector face Carbonaceous particles were seen deposited on the injector bottom face at the end of continuous sequence of tests for Type-1 whereas no such particles were observed for Type-2 injector when viewed through endoscope. to the spacecraft propulsion area. Even minor variations in the fuel outer flow angle could trigger this. December 2000.Ghorbanjan.AIAA paper 20034751.1997. Vol. Hemisphere Publishing.1983. AIAA paper 2003-4758. “Propulsion Combustion: Fuels to Emissions”.Ramamoorthy and T.Madhavan Nair .H. G. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the unceasing support given by Mr. “Gas turbine combustion“. Proc. et al . “Earth storable bi-propellant thrusters for geostationary space craft”. In Type-2 injector where oxidizer envelops fuel. Kundryatsev. K. “Fundamentals of theory and calculation of liquid rocket engines”. Journal of propulsion and power . July 2003. K.Lefebvre. Even if carbonaceous particles are formed in the fuel vapour due to various reasons.G. N. Also thanks to Messrs. Journal of aerospace society of India. Washington. 7. there are chances of non-oxidized carbonaceous particles getting formed and settled down on the injector face. Better performance in continuous mode as well as in pulse mode firings. upon crossing the flame. Gabrial Roy. Director.July 2003. On the other hand. N. et al. Washington.” Experimental flow visualization of single swirl pattern at various pressure drops”. LPSC. “Charecterestics of liquid film and spray Injector from Coaxial swirl Injector.PP 632-639. References 1.Devaraj. ?? ?? ?? ?? Non-formation of carbonaceous particles on injector face . 5. which can affect the performance over a period of time as it can migrate into the flow passages after a number of restarts.P. these particles get oxidized leaving no chances for particle formation and settling on the injector face.Vasilyal and V.3rd International Conference on Spacecraft Propulsion. if fuel is enveloping oxidizer like in Type-1.1967. M.46. as it moves outwardly towards the oxidizer vapour region.K. A. VI Conclusion A study of coaxial swirl injector configuration where-in oxidizer flows through the outer swirl passage and fuel flows through the inner swirl passage was seen to have the following advantages.G. Gany C.John Tharakan and David Dasan for their support during the realization and experiments.”. A.Unni. This phenomenon is not very significant in pulse mode where outer flow diverging conical pattern is not fully developed. K. Vinodha kumar. Authors wish to thank Mr. TakaoInamura.Cheny. V. C. Cannes. At the end of pulse mode of firings no particles were observed for both Types. diffusion flame is established8 at the oxidizer fuel vapour interface. “Numerical cold flow and combustion Characteristics of swirl coaxial injector”. 8 .John Tharakan. 4.1994. 8. hence re-circulation and settling of un-burnt particles do not take place. T. Taylor & Francis Publishers. 6. “Experimental investigation of divergent annular liquid sheets “.M.