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Nutrition and

Energy for Life
Major Dietary Energy Sources
Minerals and Cellular Function
Vitamins
Metabolism and Energy Production
ATP
Important Coenzymes
Food pyramid.
FRUITS VEGETABLES MILK MEAT & BEANS GRAINS
MyPyramid.gov
Food pyramid.
Focus on fruits Vary your veggies Cet your calciumrich foods Co lean with protein Make half your grains whole
FRU|TS VECETABLES M|LK MEAT & BEANS CRA|NS
Eat 6 oz. every day Eat 2
1
/2 cups every day Eat 2 cups every day
Cet 3 cups every day,
for kids aged 2 to 8, it's 2
Eat 5
1
/2 oz. every day
Eat at least 5 oz. of whole-
grain cereals, breads,
crackers, rice, or pasta
every day
1 oz. is about 1 slice of
bread, about 1 cup of
breakfast cereal, or
1
/2 cup
of cooked rice, cereal,
or pasta
Eat more dark-green veggies
like broccoli, spinach, and other
dark leafy greens
Eat more orange vegetables
like carrots and sweetpotatoes
Eat more dry beans and peas
like pinto beans, kidney beans,
and lentils
Eat a variety of fruit
Choose fresh, frozen,
canned, or dried fruit
Co easy on fruit juices
Co low-fat or fat-free when
you choose milk, yogurt,
and other milk products
If you don't or can't
consume milk, choose
lactose-free products or
other calcium sources
such as fortified foods
and beverages
Choose low-fat or lean
meats and poultry
ßake it, broil it, or grill it
vary your protein routine -
choose more fish, beans,
peas, nuts, and seeds
Know the ||m|ts on fats, sugars, and sa|t ísod|uml
Make most of your fat sources from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.
Limit solid fats like butter, stick margarine, shortening, and lard, as well as foods
that contain these.
Check the Nutrition Facts label to keep saturated fats, fats, and sodium low.
Choose food and beverages low in added sugars. Added sugars contribute
calories with few, if any, nutrients.
For a 2,000-ca|or|e d|et, you need the amounts be|ow from each food group. To f|nd the amounts that are r|ght for you, go to MyFyram|d.gov.
F|nd your ba|ance between food and phys|ca| act|v|ty
ße sure to stay within your daily calorie needs.
ße physically active for at least 50 minutes most days of the week.
About 60 minutes a day of physical activity may be needed to prevent weight gain.
For sustaining weight loss, at least 60 to 90 minutes a day of physical activity may be required.
Children and teenagers should be physically active for 60 minutes every day, or most days.
U.S. Department ol /gricu|ture
Center lor Nutrition Fo|icy and Fromotion
/pri| 2005
CNFF-15
USD/ is an equa| opportunity provider and emp|oyer.
Major dietary energy sources
Carbohydrates
Primary energy source for brain and nervous system.
Used by other tissues. No essential carbohydrates.
Fats
While most can be synthesized, there are two that
are essential - linoleic and linolenic acids.
Proteins
Converted to amino acids. Can be used for energy
but primary use is building new proteins. About half
of the amino acids are essential.
Carbohydrates

Releases 4 kilocalories for every
gram.

Primary energy source for the
brain and nervous tissue.

Can be used to synthesize amino
acids, fats and nucleic acids.

Diet should contain both
complex carbohydrates (starches
and cellulose) and simple sugars
(sucrose and fructose).

We store 3 g of water for each
gram of glycogen.
CH
2
OH
O
CH
2
OH
H
OH
H
H OH
H
O
OH
H
H
OH H
OH
CH
2
OH
H
O
Fats

Nine kilocalories/gram are
released.

Used to produce acetyl CoA.

Precursors to many hormones.

Essential Fatty Acids
linolenic acid and linoleic acid.
These are not produced by
the body and must be
obtained from other sources.
CO
O
CO
O
CO
O
H
2
C
H
C
H
2
C
Composition of some fats and oils
Beef Fat
Lard
Chicken Fat
Corn Oil
Sunflower Oil
Canola Oil
0 20 40 60 80 100
Saturated Fat Other fat
Linolenic acid Monounsaturated Fat
Proteins

Can be used as an energy source.

Source of amino acids. Used to make other
proteins, hormones, hemoglobin, myoglobin ...

Two types of amino acids.
! Essential - can’t be produced by the body.
! Nonessential - can be produced by the body.
Protein
Two types of protein
!Complete
Provide essential and nonessential amino
acids. Typically obtained from animal sources.
!Incomplete
!Insufficient in one or more amino acids.
Generally comes from plants.
Essential amino acids
Essential Essential
isoleucine
leucine
lysine
methionine
phenylalanine
threonine
tryptopan
valine
Semiessential Semiessential
cysteine
a
histidine
b
tyrosine
a
a
required by premature
infants and ill adults
b
essential for infants
Minerals and cellular function
Major Minerals Major Minerals
• • Calcium Calcium
bones, clotting, muscle function
• • Phosphorus Phosphorus
bones, energy, genetic material
• • Sodium, potassium, and chloride Sodium, potassium, and chloride
fluid level maintenance
• • Magnesium Magnesium
cellular metabolism
Minerals and cellular function
Trace Minerals (<100 mg/day)
• Iron Oxygen transport, metabolism
• Copper Enzymes
• Iodine Proper thyroid function
• Fluoride Tooth decay prevention.
Not required by the body.
Trace Minerals (<100 mg/day) Trace Minerals (<100 mg/day)
• Iron Oxygen transport, metabolism
• Copper Enzymes
• Iodine Proper thyroid function
• Fluoride Tooth decay prevention.
Not required by the body.
Vitamins
Thirteen well-identified vitamins. Thirteen well-identified vitamins.
Classified by their water solubility.
Water Soluble Water Soluble
Eight B vitamins and vitamin C.
Fat Soluble Fat Soluble
A, D, E and K.
Vitamins
Water Soluble Water Soluble vitamins can not be stored by the
body. They must be consumed frequently.
Fat Soluble Fat Soluble vitamins are retained in the body’s fat
so can be stored to some extent.
Vitamin supplements. Vitamin supplements.
Large doses of water soluble vitamins are
eliminated from the body.
Large doses of fat soluble vitamins can be
toxic. They may even block the effect of other
vitamins.
Water-soluble vitamins
Pantothenic acid
One of the B vitamins. Abundant in many foods. It is also
manufactured by intestinal bacteria.
Uses
Undefined role in metabolism of proteins fats and
carbohydrates. Believed to be converted to coenzyme A.
Pantothenic Pantothenic acid acid
One of the B vitamins. Abundant in many foods. It is also
manufactured by intestinal bacteria.
Uses Uses
Undefined role in metabolism of proteins fats and
carbohydrates. Believed to be converted to coenzyme A.
B5
C
C
H
2
H
2
C
N
H
C
H
C
C
C
H
2
HO
H
3
C CH
3
OH
O O
OH
Water-soluble vitamins
Niacin Niacin - Vitamin B
3
Refers to both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Found in
fish, meat, milk, cereals.
Uses Uses
Works as a coenzyme in the release of energy from
nutrients. Precursor to NAD
+
and NADP
+
.
N
O
OH
nicotinic acid
N
O
NH
2
nicotinamide
Water-soluble vitamins
Uses
Component of the coenzyme FAD. Plays a role
in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and
respiratory proteins.
Riboflavin - Vitamin B
2
Found in milk, eggs,
leafy green vegetables.
H
3
C
N
NH
O
N
OH
OH
OH
HO
N O
H
3
C
Water-soluble vitamins
Thiamine - Vitamin B
1
Found in meat, cereals, leafy green veggies.
Uses
Required for many decarboxylation reactions. Catalyst in
carbohydrate metabolism. Enables pyruvic acid to be absorbed
and carbohydrates to be released. Also plays a role in the
synthesis of nerve-regulating substances.
Thiamine Thiamine - Vitamin B
1
Found in meat, cereals, leafy green veggies.
Uses Uses
Required for many decarboxylation reactions. Catalyst in
carbohydrate metabolism. Enables pyruvic acid to be absorbed
and carbohydrates to be released. Also plays a role in the
synthesis of nerve-regulating substances.
OH
NH
2
H
2
C
N
+
S
CH
2
H
2
C
CH
3
N
H
3
C N
Cl
-
Water-soluble vitamins
Pyridoxine - Vitamin B
6
Found in fish, meat, poultry, green leafy vegetables.
Uses.
Plays role in the synthesis of red blood cells and the use of fats.
Required in synthesis and breakdown of amino acids.
Pyridoxine - Pyridoxine - Vitamin B
6
Found in fish, meat, poultry, green leafy vegetables.
Uses. Uses.
Plays role in the synthesis of red blood cells and the use of fats.
Required in synthesis and breakdown of amino acids.
If R = -CH
2
OH, Pyridoxine
If R = -CHO, Pyridoxal
If R = -CH
2
NH
2
, Pyridoxamine
H
3
C N
H
2
C
OH
R
HO
Water-soluble vitamins
Folic acid - A B vitamin.
Found in meat, cereals, leafy green vegetables, intestinal
bacteria. Stored in liver.
Uses
Synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Coenzyme needed for
forming body protein and hemoglobin.
Folic acid Folic acid - A B vitamin.
Found in meat, cereals, leafy green vegetables, intestinal
bacteria. Stored in liver.
Uses Uses
Synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Coenzyme needed for
forming body protein and hemoglobin.
Vitamin B9 is also
called Vitamin M
C
H
2
C
C
H
2
CH
C
O OH
N
H
C
O
N
H
H
2
C N
O
HN
H
2
N N N
O
OH
Water-soluble vitamins
Biotin - A B vitamin.
Found in liver, egg yolks, cheese, peanuts. Synthesized
by intestinal bacteria.
Uses
Involved in carboxylation and decarboxylation in
metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
Biotin Biotin - A B vitamin.
Found in liver, egg yolks, cheese, peanuts. Synthesized
by intestinal bacteria.
Uses Uses
Involved in carboxylation and decarboxylation in
metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
Vitamin B5 is also called Vitamin H
OH
C
C
H
2
H
2
C
C
H
2
H
2
C
NH
O
H
HN
H
S
O
O O
H
3
C H
3
C
H
2
NC=O H
2
NC=O
N N N N
NNNN
Co
+
Co
+
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CN CN
CH
2
CH
2
O
||
H
2
NCH
2
C
O
||
H
2
NCH
2
C
H
3
C H
3
C
O
||
H
2
NCCH
2
O
||
H
2
NCCH
2
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
O
||
CH
2
CNH
2
O
||
CH
2
CNH
2
CH
2
CH
2
O O C C
NH
2
NH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
O O C C
NH
2
NH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
O=C-CH
2
CH
2
O=C-CH
2
CH
2
NH NH
CH-CH
3
CH-CH
3
O
-
O
-
O O
O O
P P
HO-CH
2
HO-CH
2
O O
OH OH
C
H
C
H
HC HC
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
N N
N N
Vitamin B
12
-
Cobalamin
Found in meat,
eggs, dairy
products. Most
recently discovered
vitamin.
Vitamin B Vitamin B
12 12
-
Cobalamin
Found in meat,
eggs, dairy
products. Most
recently discovered
vitamin.
Uses
Production of red &
white blood cells.
Growth &
maintenance of
nerve tissue.
Uses Uses
Production of red &
white blood cells.
Growth &
maintenance of
nerve tissue.
Water-soluble vitamins
Vitamin C - ascorbic acid
Found in fresh fruit and vegetables.
Uses
Formation and maintenance of collagen.
Enhances absorption of iron from foods.
Serves as an antioxidant.
Vitamin C Vitamin C - ascorbic acid
Found in fresh fruit and vegetables.
Uses Uses
Formation and maintenance of collagen.
Enhances absorption of iron from foods.
Serves as an antioxidant.
OH
OH
OH
O
O
HO
Vitamin A - trans-retinol
Found in liver, egg yolks, green and
yellow leafy vegetables, fruit.
Uses
Maintains skin and mucous
membranes of oral cavity, and
digestive, respiratory, reproductive,
and urinary tract. Critical for vision.
Lipid-soluble vitamins
C
H
2
H
C
C
CH
3
H
C
C
H
H
C
C
CH
3
H
C
C
H
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
OH
Vitamin K
1
- phylloquinone
Found in leafy vegetables and intestinal
bacteria.
Uses
Essential in blood clotting. Aids in the
formation of prothrombin - the enzyme need
to produce fibrin.
Lipid-soluble vitamins
O
O
C
H
2
H
C
C
H
2
C
C
H
2
H
2
C H
C
H
2
C
C
H
2
H
2
C H
C
H
2
C
C
H
2
H
2
C H
C
CH
3
H
3
C
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
H
3
C
Vitamin D - cholecalciferol
!Found in liver and fish oils. Produced in body
when exposed to light.
Uses
!Necessary for normal bone formation and for
retention of calcium and phosphorus.
Lipid-soluble vitamins
OH
H
2
C
C
H
H
C
CH
3
H
C
H
2
C
C
H
2
H
2
C
H
C
CH
3
H
3
C
H
3
C
H
Lipid-soluble vitamins
Vitamin E - tocopherol
Found in vegetable oils, wheat germ, liver
and green leafy vegetables.
Uses
Role of this vitamin is not clearly
established.
O
OH
H
3
C
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
Deficiency conditions
Water soluble vitamins Water soluble vitamins
B
1
Beriberi, nausea, sever exhaustion,
paralysis.
B
2
Dermatitis.
Niacin Pelegra, weak muscles, no appetite,
diarrhea, dermatitis
Folic acid Anemia
Pantothenic acid Anemia
Biotin Dermatitis, muscle weakness
C Scurvy, tender tissues, weak,
bleeding gums, swollen joints
Deficiency conditions
Fat soluble vitamins Fat soluble vitamins
A Inflamed eye membranes, night
blindness, scaliness of skin
D Rickets
E Breakage of red blood cells
K Blood clotting disorders
Metabolism
Metabolism The summation of all
chemical reactions in an
organism.
Overall, metabolism is very complex.
We try to deal with related types of metabolism
based on function to make things easier.
Let’s start with a simple overview of the
process.
Metabolism Metabolism The summation of all
chemical reactions in an
organism.
Overall, metabolism is very complex.
We try to deal with related types of metabolism
based on function to make things easier.
Let’s start with a simple overview of the
process.
Metabolic energy yield Metabolic energy yield
32 ATP / glucose 32 ATP / glucose
Mitochondria Mitochondria
6 NADH+
2 FADH
2

6 NADH+
2 FADH
2

2 NADH
2 NADH
2 NADH
2 NADH
Oxidative
phosphorylation
Oxidative
phosphorylation
2 ATP
2 ATP
2 ATP
2 ATP
26-28 ATP
26-28 ATP
Glycolysis Glycolysis
Glucose Pyruvate
Glucose Pyruvate
Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA
Energy metabolism
Each large macromolecule is broken down into
something smaller.
Carbohydrates Simple sugars
Fats Fatty acids and glycerol
Proteins Amino acids
Each step in their breakdown must be a
carefully controlled process.
ATP is used as the basic energy transfer unit.
Each large macromolecule is broken down into
something smaller.
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Simple sugars
Fats Fats Fatty acids and glycerol
Proteins Proteins Amino acids
Each step in their breakdown must be a
carefully controlled process.
ATP ATP is used as the basic energy transfer unit.
ATP
ATP adenosine triphosphate
a nucleotide composed of three basic units.
ATP adenosine triphosphate
a nucleotide composed of three basic units.
OH
HO
O
N
N
H
2
N
N
N
P
O
O
OH OH
O
P
O
OH
O
P
O
OH
adenine
ribose
phosphate chain
ATP and ADP
It takes energy to
put on the third
phosphate.
Energy is released
when it is
removed.
ADP - ATP
conversions act as
a major method
of transferring
energy.
It takes energy to
put on the third
phosphate.
Energy is released
when it is
removed.
ADP - ATP
conversions act as
a major method
of transferring
energy.
CH CH
2 2
O O
OH OH OH OH
N N
N N N N
N N
NH NH
2 2
O O P P O O P P O
-
O
-
O O
O O
- -
O O
O O
- -
ADP ADP
CH CH
2 2
O O
OH OH OH OH
N N
N N N N
N N
NH NH
2 2
O O P P O O P P O O P P
O O
- -
O O
O O
- -
O O
O O
- -
O O
O O
- -
ATP ATP
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell.
Inner!
membrane!
Cristae!
0.5 - 1 µm!
Outer!
membrane!
Matrix!
Intermembrane!
space!
Mitochondria
Outer membrane
! Mostly phospholipids and cholesterol.
! Contains transport proteins that form pores.
! Very permeable.
Inner membrane
! Highly folded structures known as cristae.
! Inner space is called the matrix.
! Different structure compared to outer
!membrane - not permeable.
! Contains three types of proteins.
Inner membrane proteins
Transport
Used to move materials across inner membrane.
Respiratory chain
Complexes that are responsible for production of
ATP from energy sources.
ATP synthase
Used for the production of ATP. Requires oxygen.
All work together to produce energy in cell.
Mitochondria
The number mitochondria in a cell varies widely.
!algae ! ! - one per cell
!liver! ! - 1000 - 2000
!frog eggs ! - 100,000
Based on energy requirements of a cell.
Mitochondria origins
Mitochondria resemble bacteria.
• Same size.
• Have their own genetic material.
• Make their own protein.
• Are self-replicating.
It is felt that they were once bacteria
that were captured by other cells.
Lead to a symbiotic relationship.
Mitochondria resemble bacteria.
• Same size.
• Have their own genetic material.
• Make their own protein.
• Are self-replicating.
It is felt that they were once bacteria
that were captured by other cells.
Lead to a symbiotic relationship.
Acetyl - Coenzyme A
This molecule serves as the carrier
for the small molecules from digestion.
This molecule serves as the carrier
for the small molecules from digestion.
phosphorylated
ADP
phosphorylated
ADP
pantothenate
unit
pantothenate
unit
acetate acetate
CH CH
22
OO
OO
OH OH
NN
NN
NN
NN
NH NH
22
OO PP OO PP OO
OO
--
OO
OO
--
PP OO
--
OO
OO
--
C-CH
2
-CH
2
-N-C-C-C-CH
2
C-CH
2
-CH
2
-N-C-C-C-CH
2
OO
O O
HH
CH
3
CH
3
HO HO
CH
3
CH
3
HH
H-N H-N
CH
2
-CH
2
CH
2
-CH
2
SS
CH
3
C CH
3
C
OO
Sulfhydyl
group
Sulfhydyl
group
OO
B5
Role of acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA
polysaccharides polysaccharides
monosaccharides monosaccharides
citric acid cycle
CO
2
+ H
2
O + ATP
citric acid cycle
CO
2
+ H
2
O + ATP
lipids lipids
fatty acids fatty acids
fatty acids fatty acids
triglcerides and
phospholipids
triglcerides and
phospholipids
proteins proteins
amino acids amino acids
ketone bodies ketone bodies
cholesterol
bile salts steroids
cholesterol
bile salts steroids
Coenzymes used in metabolism
NAD NAD
+ +
NADH NADH
Oxidized form Reduced form
of nicotidamide adenine dinucleotide.
Used in REDOX reactions.
It is a derivative of ADP and the vitamin
nicotinamide.
The reactive site is located on the nicotinamide
portion of NAD
+
.
Coenzymes used
in metabolism
O
CH
2
OH OH
O P O
O
-
O
O
CH
2
OH OH
O P O
O
-
N
N
N
N
NH
2
N
+
C
O
NH
2
O
CH
2
OH OH
O P O
O
-
O
O
CH
2
OH OH
O P O
O
-
N
N
N
N
NH
2
N
+
C
O
NH
2
reactive
site
reactive
site
nicotinamide nicotinamide
adenine adenine
ribose ribose
Coenzymes used in metabolism
Example reactions of NAD
+
General reaction
Specific example - ethanol
CH
3
CH
2
OH + NAD
+
H
CH
3
C=O + NADH + H
+
Example reactions of NAD
+
General reaction General reaction
Specific example - ethanol Specific example - ethanol
CH
3
CH
2
OH + NAD
+
H
CH
3
C=O + NADH + H
+
R C
OH H
H H
H + NAD
+
R C
O
H + NADH H + H H
+ +
alcohol
dehydrogenase
Coenzymes used in metabolism
FAD - flavin adenine dinucleotide.
Another major electron carrier used in
metabolism.
It involves a two electron transfer so
it picks up two hydrogen.
FAD FADH
2
FAD FAD - flavin adenine dinucleotide.
Another major electron carrier used in
metabolism.
It involves a two electron transfer so
it picks up two hydrogen.
FAD FADH
2
Coenzymes used in metabolism
FAD FAD
O
CH2
OH OH
O P O
O
-
N
N
N
N
NH2
O
C H H
C H OH
C H OH
C H OH
C H H
N
N
H3C
H3C N
NH
O
O
ribose ribose
adenine adenine
riboflavin riboflavin
active site
is highlighted
active site
is highlighted
Coenzymes used in metabolism
FAD typically reacts with different substrates
than NAD
+
.
FAD is often involved in oxidation reactions in
which a -CH
2
- CH
2
- portion is oxidized to a
double bond.
O O
|| ||
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
-C-S-CoA CH
3
CH=CHC-S-CoA
FAD typically reacts with different substrates
than NAD
+
.
FAD is often involved in oxidation reactions in
which a -CH
2
- CH
2
- portion is oxidized to a
double bond.
O O
|| ||
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
-C-S-CoA CH
3
CH=CHC-S-CoA
FAD FADH
2
FAD FADH
2