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Employee involvement and participation

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What are the strategic principles to adopt for the employee involvement and participation? One of the most common methods used to create QWL is employee involvement. 1. Employee involvement (EI) consists of a variety of systematic methods that enable employee to participate in the decisions that affect them and their relationship with the organization. 2. Through EI, employees feel a sense of responsibility, even “ownership” of decisions in which they participated. 3. To be successful however, EI must be more than just some systematic approach. 4. It must become part of the organization’s culture by being part of management’s philosophy of management. 5. Although people seek slightly different outcomes from their affiliation with an organization. 6. First significant long term goals improvements in productivity must be accompanied by improvements in QWL. 7. In short run, autocratic managers can seldom sustain significant productivity gains in the long run because declining QWL usually leads as increase in absenteeism and turnover. 8. Or if employees have poor mobility and elect not to leave physically, they may withdraw psychologically. 9. The second observation is that most people report high QWL when they feel they are contributing to the success of the enterprise in some meaningful way. 10. Merely doing their job is often insufficient if their work does not allow them to influence the decision that affects them. People want to know to know that they make a difference. The implication for managers and personnel specialists is to create an organizational climate that truly treats people as though they are experts at their jobs. When management does this, a Pygmalion effect may result, which occurs when people want to contribute and seek ways to tap that contribution, better decisions, improved productivity, and a higher QWL are likely. Some of the most commonly used approaches to attain QWL through EI are discussed below. 1. Quality circles: Quality circles are small groups of employees who meet regularly with their common leader to identify and solve work-related problems. When quality circle started in Japan, they were called “quality control circles” because their primary focus was to improve the poor quality of products manufactured in Japan.

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managerial. To increase the morale and versatility of the management group Keeping executives updated with the changes and development in their fields. 3. position and responsibility. The key feature of autonomous workgroups is a high degree of self-determination by employees in the management of day –to –day work. Q2 A2 What are the development dimensions of Personnel function? The development dimensions of Personnel function are: 1. Development of personnel increases the skills through training necessary for proper job performance. distribution of tasks. who decide among themselves most decisions traditionally handled by supervisors. h) To understand the conceptual issues relating to economic. 2 . Autonomous work groups are teams of workers. these approaches may result in more radical changes in the work environment. Typically this includes collective control over the pace of work. the wok groups. Often direct supervision is unnecessary. Creating management succession which can take over in case of contingencies Improving thought process and analytical ability and broadening the outlook of the executives regarding his role. social and technical areas and stimulate critical thinking. b. albeit still rare. More than enlarging or enriching a job. Autonomous work groups: A common. 2. Socio-Tech system-Another approach to QWL efforts is the use of socio-technical systems. It is an important activity and will continue to grow because of changes in technology. Management of development It is a systematic process of growth and development helping managers develop their abilities to manage. the realignment of jobs and the increasing complexity of managerial tasks. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) To overhaul the management machinery and improve the performance of managers. without a formal company-appointed leader. They are interventions into the work situation that restructure the work. and the relationship between workers and the technologies used to do their jobs. organization of breaks. To give the specialists an overall view of the functions of the organization To identify a persons potential and prepare them for higher positions.2. approach to employee involvement is the use of autonomous work groups. and collective participation in the recruitment and training of new members. organization development is to be followed by performance appraisals and career development. Discussion of operative. Development a. c.

b. Effectiveness of training and development. It motivates the trainees to learn since it isn’t located in the artificial situation of a classroom. It usually trains the same type of job as on the job training. The programme objectives should always form the basis in the selection of techniques. Development of operatives The development of operatives needs specific skills and knowledge to perform a particular job. appraisal of manpower. grid training. c. simulation.Analysis of development needs. and lectures. evaluation of the programme are the essential steps of a management development programmes. job rotation. sensitivity training. role playing. 4. business game. 5. On-the-job-training-This method is widely used since most jobs in industry can be learned rather quickly. a. Some control points are productivity. in basket method. inventory of manpower. an evaluation of the programme by the trainee is the prime source of information. skills and attitudes to make themselves competent managers through formal training or on the job/off the job training. adequacy of talent reservoir and unit efficiency 6. understudy. planning of individual development programme. 3 . Vestibule schools-A vestibule school is operated as s specialized endeavor by the personnel department. “On the job techniques” includes coaching. work on a semi-skilled machine. b. The success of any management development programmed largely depends on the selection of the techniques. incident method. establishment of development programme. Selection of technique: a. b. quality losses. multiple management and “offthe-job-techniques includes case study. Techniques of management development Managers can acquire knowledge. Measuring the effectiveness of training and development is one of the managers tasks. 3. In order to make a management programme effective selecting a combination of techniques instead of a single technique will make any management programme effective. The four methods in use are: a. that is. conferences.

Apprenticeship programme-This third system of training. Special schools. 7. it is more likely to control actual behaviour. survey feedback and intergroup sessions 8. d. When personnel are subjected to individually oriented training and development programmes. training. The trainee must reenter the culture of the ongoing organization.g. is designed for higher level of skill and is more educational than on the job training. Various career development actions prove useful if an employee is committed to career development e. in many instances the impact upon organizational functioning was nil. As a consequence. resignations. apprenticeship programmes. d. c. c. It is essential to implement career plans and consists of personal improvements undertaken by the individual employee.The last system of operative training may be classified by some as education rather than training.c. Career developmenta. job performance. Organization development: a. b. exposure. It includes team development. development and educational programmes provided by the organization and various institutes. External and internal mobility are two types of employee mobility in career development 4 . and if it has been unchanged during training. The most important aspect of career development is that every employee must accept his responsibility for development. change of job and career guidance. d. there sprang up a considerable interest in altering the organizational development programme. b.