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BBM Semester V

Case Analysis and Methodology

Module 1 – Introduction to Case Analysis & Methodology

Content of the module Introduction, Case - meaning, Caselet, Case based learning methodology, Functional areas of case study, Educational applications of case study method, Usefulness of the case study method in management education, Inventory of skills developed by the case method, Types of cases, Dimensions of a case. Introduction Case studies have been increasingly used in education. Case Study plays a vital role in imparting managerial skills in the students. Case studies have been used in graduate and undergraduate business education for nearly one hundred years. By engaging students in business conflicts developed from real events, cases immerse students in the challenges they are expected to face. Cases are challenges that require thoughtful analyses with limited or even insufficient information. That requires effective responses within ambiguous circumstances or complex economic and political contexts. That, most of all, demands decisive action that must be articulated – and even defended – among other talented, ambitious individuals. Case: Meaning Cases are verbal representations of reality that put the reader in the role of participant in the situation. A business case imitates or simulates a real situation. The unit of analysis in cases varies enormously, from a single individual or organization to the entire nation or the world. Cases can range from one page to thirty pages or more. But they all have a common purpose: to represent reality, to convey a situation with all its cross currents and rough edges- including irrelevancies, sideshows, misconceptions, and little information or an overwhelming amount of it. One can therefore assume that every case deals with something important (e.g. a pricing dilemma, debtequity trade -offs a major problem in a plant). Definition 1: A business case has been defined as “a carefully written description of an actual situation in business which provokes in the reader the need to decide what can and should be done”. There is a useful place for - long and short, complicated and simple cases. - K.R Andrews (1951)


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BBM Semester V

Case Analysis and Methodology

Definition 2: Professor Charles Gragg's classic statement defines the intended role of case studies as “A case typically is a record of a business issue, which actually has been faced by business executives, together with surrounding facts, opinions, and prejudices upon which executive decisions have to depend. These real and particularized cases are presented to students for considered analyses, open discussion, and final discussion as to the type of action, which should be taken.” Definition 3: A case is usually a "description of an actual situation, commonly involving a decision, a challenge, an opportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a person or persons in an organization." In learning with case studies, the student must deal with the situation described in the case, in the role of the manager or decision maker facing the situation. Definition 4: In the 1950s, Professor Paul Lawrence viewed a case history in a more operational mode: A good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of reality is brought into the classroom to be worked over by the class and the instructor. A good case keeps the class discussion grounded upon some of the stubborn facts that must be faced in real life situations. It is the anchor on academic flights of speculation. It is the record of complex situations that must be literally pulled apart and put together again, for the expression of attitudes or ways of thinking brought into the classroom. Another definition is “a case has a narrative, a story, a set of events that unfolds over time in a particular place”. – J. Shulman (1992) A Case is a description of an organization at a certain period of time, containing its history, its external environments and internal operations. It exposes issues, problems and aspirations at a particular juncture. It could be in any functional area of management. The Cases written are always real. They are built around a theme and expanded to make them interesting. However, from a legal point of view, most of the times, the names of the organizations as well as the persons are changed. They provide quantitative as well as qualitative data. “Cases are often actual descriptions of problem situations in the field in which the case is being used; sometimes, they are syntheses constructed to represent a particular principle or type of problem” (McKeachie, 1999)


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BBM Semester V

Case Analysis and Methodology

Carl Christensen defined case as "... a partial, historical, clinical study of a situation which has confronted a practicing administrator or managerial group. Presented in a narrative form to encourage student involvement, it provides data - substantive and process - essential to an analysis of a specific situation, for the framing of alternative action programmes and for their implementation, recognizing the complexity and the ambiguity of the practical world." Thus, broadly speaking, a case is a description of a situation faced by an individual or organization. Case study: Meaning Case study is defined as collection of facts, opinion & judgment relating to actual places of business where there are problems that require solutions or result. In the other words case study refers to the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including the accounts of subjects themselves. A form of qualitative descriptive research, the case study looks intensely at an individual or small participant pool, drawing conclusions only about that participant or group and only in that specific context. A case study is a written record of the events that occurred at a particular company or within a particular industry over a number of years. The details included in a case study may include, but are not limited to:    Information about a company, industry, or project Objectives, strategies, and challenges established and encountered Responses, results, and recommendations

A case study is a description of an actual administrative situation involving a decision to be made or a problem to be solved. It is a real situation that actually happened just as described, or portions have been disguised for reasons of privacy. Most case studies are written in such a way that the reader takes the place of the manager whose responsibility is to make decisions to help solve the problem. In almost all case studies, a decision must be made, although that decision might be to leave the situation as it is and do nothing. Case studies are popular today in studying all aspect of management such as law, medical, engineering, psychology etc. Case studies involve logical thinking, critical analysis of management problems/decision. Case present business problems where facts, opinions, principles and judgment


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BBM Semester V

Case Analysis and Methodology

are in conflict. Therefore, responsible executive must take immediate action in a business environment to save the business from collapse by effectively resolving the conflict. Caselet: Meaning A caselet is a shorter version of a case study, generally two pages in length. Caselets are similar to case studies in that they may either describe a sequence of events or put forth an issue or problem that requires decision making. The use of caselets is gaining popularity as a pedagogical tool in management teaching and executive education. Short cases are especially intended for undergraduate students The basic objective of a caselet or short cases is to allow the learner to apply ideas and insights from theory to the real-life issues and problems contained in the caselet. This helps the learner obtain a deeper understanding of all the relevant factors in a particular problem situation as well as gain insights into the finer nuances of a topic in a particular field of management. A comprehensive case study encourages the learner to sift through the information provided and identify the relevant facts, and then use logic and opinion to arrive at a set of decisions. A caselet, being brief and focused on the core issue, usually provides only the relevant facts. Case Based learning Methodology The case method is a teaching approach that consists in presenting the students with a case, putting them in the role of a decision maker facing a problem. The case method is a teaching method that is largely used in business schools. The case method has been used for decades in many top business schools as a way for students to apply analytical and decision making skills in a situation that simulates a realistic situation. If used in a group setting it also gives students to develop teamwork and interpersonal skills in a learning environment. Students should place themselves in the role of the decision maker. The case method of learning was first introduced in 1871 by Christopher Langdell in the Harvard Law School. The case method of instruction in business began in 1908 at the Harvard Business School (HBS). In India, the Indian Institute of management, Ahmadabad adopted the case study method in the early 1960s in collaboration with Harvard Business School (HBS) At HBS of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts, teaching is almost exclusively (95%) done through case teaching (also referred to as the Socratic Method), where the students prepare teaching


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Students develop a general managerial point of view--where responsibility is sensitive to action in a diverse environmental context. Traditionally. Naziya and Ms. also known as the case method. Experience shows that simple fictional accounts of situations and collections of actual organizational data and articles from public sources are not as effective for learning as are fully developed cases. and conflicts among competing objectives. an imbalance between needs and available resources. Sonia Singh. The Socratic method (or Socratic Debate). This module is compiled by Ms. named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates. 4. making decisions. Case analysis requires students to practice important managerial skills--diagnosing. commonly held truths that shape opinion. 3. The casebook method. in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. 2.Ratchana . The case method brings reality into the classroom. 1. case analysis provides extraordinary power for your involvement with a personal learning experience. By framing alternative strategic actions and by confronting the complexity and ambiguity of the practical world. The Socratic Method searches for general.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology cases and discuss them in class. Cases require students to relate analysis and action. When developed and presented effectively. and persuading--while preparing for a case discussion. is the primary method of teaching. the casebook method is coupled with the Socratic Method in American law schools. A comprehensive case presents you with a partial clinical study of a real-life situation that faced practicing managers. is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas. 5 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. R. observing. listening. to develop realistic and concrete actions despite the complexity and partial knowledge characterizing the situation being studied. and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs. Students must confront the intractability of reality--complete with absence of needed information. The Socratic Method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination. with rich and interesting detail. Ms. cases keep conceptual discussions grounded in reality. A case presented in narrative form provides motivation for involvement with and analysis of a specific situation. with a professor as moderator and facilitator.

and short biographies. Their first solution to this problem was to interview leading practitioners of business and to write detailed accounts of what these managers were doing. Additional relevant documentation (such as financial statements. Managerial economics . markets. The case study/ discussion method of teaching has been employed for many years and with considerable success in the humanities.Analytics/ quantitative methods. supply chain management Information Technology / Management information systems etc. employees and other factors affecting the firm's success. 6 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. financial structure. Ms. management. Cases are generally written by business school faculty with particular learning objectives in mind and are refined in the classroom before publication. or more. often referred to in the case as "exhibits"). education. regulation. The problem-based learning (PBL) movement is such an example. A business case study can deal with any of the following functional area:        Marketing .Leadership & Organisational culture . strategy. corporate finance etc. sales volumes. general management etc. the faculty quickly realized that there were no textbooks suitable to a graduate program in business. managerial accounting. When used in (non-business) education and professional development.Entrepreneurship/ new business ventures.BBM Semester V Functional areas of case study Case Analysis and Methodology Business cases are historical descriptions of actual business situations. Typically. especially in business and legal education. The length of a business case study may range from two or three pages to 30 pages. Naziya and Ms. This module is compiled by Ms. R. case studies are often referred to as critical incidents. multimedia supplements (such as video-recordings of interviews). legal. Business and government . and a carefully crafted teaching note often accompany cases.Interpersonal/ intercultural skills. Educational Applications of case study method Case studies have also been used as a teaching method and as part of professional development. competition. and medical fields. negotiation etc. consumer behaviour etc.Ratchana . Finance . When the Harvard Business School was started.Law. Operations Management – Production management. business. macroeconomics etc. time-lines. information is presented about a business firm's products. Human resources. Sonia Singh.brand management.

Thus. and instructor coordinates and gives direction to the discussion and analysis. The case method is effective. Along the way.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Unlike traditional lecture-based teaching where student participation in the classroom is minimal. and to throw them into fresh combinations. or hospital). students also develop the power to analyze and to master a tangled circumstance by identifying and delineating important factors. whose role. the foundation of the case method. Naziya and Ms. Sonia Singh. students are given the opportunity to work out their own 7 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.e. through the examination of specific cases. This module is compiled by Ms. since participant plays important role in driving the case discussion and analysis. but it continues as a means of reaching a large group at one time with a condensed.Ratchana . situations and crises by providing an approximation of various professional environments (i. to recognize key players and their agendas. R. is an important part of the educational process at many leading business schools. The learning effectiveness of the lecture method has been questioned because of the lack of interaction. the case method is an active learning method. board room. In addition to the practical application and testing of scholarly knowledge. to test them against facts. students learn to identify actual problems. classroom. as a result. Participant-centered learning. shifts away from passive absorption toward active construction. The basic purpose of instituting the case method as a teaching strategy was to transfer much of the responsibility for learning from the teacher on to the student. and to practically apply their own knowledge of theory to these problems. organized body of information. case discussions can also help students prepare for real-world problems. In addition. courtroom. Figure 1: Instructor versus participant centered learning The above diagram offers a spectrum of instructor versus participant centered learning. Through careful examination and discussion of various cases. to develop their own solutions. and to become aware of those aspects of the situation that contribute to the problem. the ability to utilize ideas. students are encouraged to generate their own analysis of the problems under consideration. Ms. which requires participation and involvement from the student in the classroom.

BBM Semester V

Case Analysis and Methodology

professional issues through the trials, tribulations, experiences, and research findings of others. An obvious advantage to this mode of instruction is that it allows students the exposure to settings and contexts that they might not otherwise experience. The case study method also incorporates the idea that students can learn from one another by engaging with each other and with each other's ideas, by asserting something and then having it questioned, challenged and thrown back at them so that they can reflect on what they hear, and then refine what they say. In summary, students can direct their own learning by formulating questions and taking responsibility for the study. Usefulness of the case study method of teaching in business/ management education Case Study method of teaching is helpful in management education primarily for the reason of giving managerial skills like analysis of business problem and synthesizing the action plan. This also helps in developing mature judgment and useful attitudes among the learners. The method also is used to apply the management techniques learnt and emphasizes both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The case method has been found to be extremely useful in acquiring knowledge,

developing skills, forming attitudes and influencing behaviour. 1. Acquiring knowledge In the managerial context, knowledge is, firstly, situation-specific concerning policies of those - both external and internal - who influence managers' actions, and, secondly, concepts, approaches and techniques expounded in the literature or by colleagues, or from other sources. A manager needs to acquire such knowledge, not merely as words but so as to be able to appropriately interpret it for improved decision making. In the case method, knowledge is acquired while grappling with a reallife situation and not in isolation of its context. 2. Developing skills Development of skills involves an element of actually doing. The case method helps, through discussion of real-life situations, to discriminate properly between the situations where particular skills could or could not be applied. The practice part could be accomplished by doing the exercise repeatedly or using different cases over a period of time. The case method builds the capacity for critical thinking. Discussions exercise skills of debate and challenge. Direct debate over practical problems stimulates student effort.


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BBM Semester V
3. Forming attitudes and values

Case Analysis and Methodology

Formation of attitudes and values for adults is a time consuming process, as attitudes and values are fixed early in life. It seems that the discussion mode of the case method, particularly with colearners, helps a great deal in re-examining the attitudes and values of managers. Such discussions in small groups should be characterized by a relaxed, tension free, non-evaluative atmosphere in which participants may discuss their own experiences. Exposure to different ways of looking at the same situation might provoke the process of re-examining one's own attitudes and values. Needless to say, the longer the duration of the programme, the higher the likelihood of more participants starting such personal re-examination and attaining a greater degree of change in attitudes and values. 4. Behavioral learning Behavioural learning is done mostly through on-the-job training and experience. However, the learning of attitudes and behaviour could be enhanced by supplementing the case method with the syndicate method and field project work. The syndicate method (discussions in small groups) is an integral part of the case method. Field projects are widely used in degree-type programmes to provide real life behavioural exposure. The case method models the process of inductive learning-from-experience that managers will employ during their careers. Thus, the method prepares the student for life-long learning, and for being a useful participant in a learning organization. A case permits me to demonstrate that the problem actually exists in the world; my style is to move, layer by layer, from the specific to the general, ending up with the principle or theory of interest. For me this is more valuable than constantly asserting that various theories are useful in practice in order to hold student attention. To summarize, we can say following are the objectives of the Case Method.    Apply managerial concepts & theories into practice. Shifts away from passive absorption toward active construction. Gain exposure to a variety of organizational & managerial situations. Acquire particle knowledge to solve problems. Developing decision making skills.  To get into the habit of diagnosing the problem, analysis & evaluation of alternatives & formulation of an action plan.


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BBM Semester V

Case Analysis and Methodology

Inventory of Skills Developed by the Case Method Michiel Leeenders, Louise Mauffette-Launders and James Erskine in 1999 point out a rich inventory of skills that can be developed by the case method. The following points lists out the transferable skills and competencies that can be developed by case study method in the students.  Analytical skills. The case method enables you to develop qualitative and quantitative frameworks to analyze business situations, including problem identification skills; data handling skills; and critical thinking skills. You are forced to reason clearly and logically in sifting carefully through the data available.  Decision making skills. The case method pushes you, on the basis of your analytical work, to assess what can be done and to make decisions. You will learn to generate different alternatives, to select decision criteria, to evaluate alternatives, to choose the best one, to formulate congruent action and implementation plans.   Application skills. Cases provide an opportunity for you to practice using the tools, techniques, and theories you have learned. Oral communication skills. The case method provides ample opportunity not only to listen to your colleagues but also to express yourself, construct arguments and convince them of your views. Thus, a whole set of speaking; listening and debating skills are developed. In this exchange of ideas and arguments, you learn to think on your feet, consider others’ viewpoints as well as to take and defend your positions.  Time management skills. Under the heavy pressure of case preparation and the juggling of your various other responsibilities, you are forced to schedule educational activities carefully and manage time effectively.  Interpersonal or social skills. The case method, through small group and large group discussion, promotes learning how to deal with your peers. This learning includes conflict resolution skills and practicing the art of compromise. Because so much of your future work life will involve committees, task forces, boards or project teams, learning to work effectively in a group will differentiate you.  Creative skills. Because no two business solutions are quite the same, the case method encourages looking for and finding solutions geared to the unique circumstances of each case. This method invites you also to use your imagination in problem solving, as there are normally multiple solutions to each case.


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BBM Semester V

Case Analysis and Methodology

Written communication skills. Through regular and effective note-taking, case reports and case exams, you learn the skills associated with effective writing. Emphasis on writing skills varies depending on the program you are enrolled in but often takes on a high priority in business programs, as it is a key factor of success in management.

Types of cases 1. Caselet: A case could be a one-page, or even smaller, description with very little quantitative or qualitative information, of a situation faced by a manager concerning just one of the aspects of management involving just another individual. This is usually termed a 'caselet' or mini case or short problem situations may be fabricated from a composite of situations provided care is used in writing so as not to have inconsistencies. 2. Comprehensive case: It could also be extensive and detailed, forming what is called a 'comprehensive case.' There is room for wide variation of cases. Cases need not be based only on real life situations nor be comprehensive. Consequently, all case studies are not structured similarly, and variations abound in terms of style, structure and approach. Case material ranges from small caselets (a few paragraphs to one-two pages) to short cases (four to six pages) and from 10 to 18 page case studies to the longer versions (25 pages and above). 3. True cases: That which relate to actual situations or events experienced by real persons or organizations. 4. Disguised cases: Those which are based on real events, but with names of organizations and individuals changed to protect proprietary interests, prevent legal problems, or avoid embarrassment. 5. Fictitious cases: Those which are created by the case author in order to present a specific situation for analysis for students. 6. Multi-media cases: These are in the form of audio-video clipping, rather than written document. 7. Informational type case studies: These, include a variety of items like working environment, inter-organizational context, coordination, activities, problem areas, history of events, inhibiting factors on, decision making, etc. This type increases ‘awareness’ about the environment and helps in the decision making process. This also helps in the evaluation of consequences of a decision. 8. Appraisal cases: These involve problem solving and decision making process. 9. Historical cases: These involve research and educational interests.


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This module is compiled by Ms. Live and experimental cases: Social welfare rehabilitation or introduction of ideas and analytical concepts form the basis for these cases: These types of cases help-to analyzing psycho/ social problems like drug addiction. The nature of presentation could be written. A case is a partial.Ratchana . the events and organizational circumstances surrounding a particular managerial situation.  Mode of description. If the purpose is learning.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology 10. Presented in narrative form to encourage student involvement. audiovisual or oral. Ms. Dimensions of a case Three possible dimensions encompass a large part of the case:  What is described. 12 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. etc. The essence of the student’s role in case analysis is to diagnose and size up the situation described in the case and then to recommend appropriate action steps. A case on management can concern a whole industry. A case could merely describe an individual. Conclusion A case sets forth. It puts readers at the scene of the action and familiarizes them with all the relevant circumstances. Sonia Singh. Naziya and Ms. The purpose of a case may be either research or learning. historical. and developing attitudes and values. or a system. R. for the framing of alternative action programs.  Purpose. gaining skills. the organization involved can be either profit seeking or not-for-profit. a single organization. which has confronted a practicing administrator or managerial group. the emphasis could be on one or more of the forms of learning. it provides data-substantive and process-essential to an analysis of a specific situation. it could describe a decision making situation faced by a manager. an organization. alcoholism amongst workers. an incident. and for their implementation recognizing the complexity and ambiguity of the practical world. namely acquiring knowledge. with a focus on one or more of the elements of the problem solving approach. involving part or whole of the organization. clinical study of a situation. in a factual manner. On the other hand. or some part of an organization.

Naziya and Ms. What is case? 2. What is caselet? 4. R. What is case study method? What is the usefulness of the case study method of teaching in business/ management education? 3. Write two use of case study method of learning? 5. What are the inventories of skills developed. SECTION C (15 MARKS) 1. What is case study? Write your comment on the statement ‘the case method as a learning tool’. Write an elaborate note on educational applications of case study method. What are the two types of case study? SECTION B (5 MARKS) 1. 2.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Question Bank for Module 1 SECTION A (2 MARKS) 1. Sonia Singh. Ms.Ratchana . This module is compiled by Ms. Write a note on case based learning methodology. 2. Define case study 3. in a student by the case method? 3. Explain the case study method of learning? What are the types of case study? SECTION D (30 MARKS): Case study and article 13 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.

This module is compiled by Ms. Sonia Singh. Each business disciple has its own theories. framework. or decision facing the organization. Naziya and Ms.Ratchana . Case Analysis Case Analysis refers to carefully sift through the information provided in the case study. objectives of case analysis. “dissolving.PACER model. and to study the relationships of the parts to the whole. role of participants and resource person / instructor in case method. The information included must be rich enough to make the situation credible. steps involved in case analysis. All of them are adapted to help understand specific types of situations. a case must be realistic and believable. Ms.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Module-2 Case Analysis Technique Content of module Case analysis. to carefully identify and evaluate alternative courses of action. As a teaching/learning tool. Analysis is derived from a Greek word meaning. R. Cases are narratives that contain information and invite analysis. or long and elaborate for semester-long projects. then helping students weigh the practical implications of their analyses is important. Above all. To analyze a case. Introduction If the goal of business education is to enhance the effectiveness of practicing managers. but not so complete as to close off discussion or exploration. processes and practices. cases challenge participants to analyze critique. but how a man may be trained to act. and to propose a solution or decision based on analysis. Participants are put in the position of making decisions or evaluations based on the information available. The best way to do this is to demand that recommendations always accompany analyses. although information can be real or invented. speculate and express reasoned opinions. make judgments.” In English. Cases can be short for brief classroom discussions. analysis has two closely related definitions: to break something up into its constituent parts. one therefore need ways of identifying and understanding important aspects of situation and what they mean in relation to the overall situation.meaning. deals not with how a man may be trained to know. 14 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. in order to identify the opportunity. preparing an effective case analysis. and quantitative tools. The case teaching. problem.

Cases are narratives that contain information and invite analysis. as opposed to the lecture method. students teach themselves. thereby acquiring something close to actual business experience. 15 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Get valuable practice in identifying problems and issues that need to be addressed in business. There is no one best way to analyze a case. and participation in discussions. Emphasize the importance of "the four Ps:" preparation of each case before class. co-operative effort. This involves the following steps:  study of a case by an individual learner. The focus is on students learning through their joint. Gaining in-depth exposure to different industries and companies. rather than just a talking head delivering content. 2.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology The case method of analysis is a learning tool in which students and Instructors participate in direct discussion of case studies. Increase your understanding of what managers should and should not do in guiding a business to success. 4. Participants are put in the position of making decisions or evaluations based on the information available. promptness in arriving. 3. 5. Build your skills in sizing up company resource strengths and weaknesses and in conducting business analysis in a variety of industries and competitive situations. Enhance your sense of business judgment. In the case method. Most people develop their own method after gaining some experience. R. Objectives of case analysis 1. Many students favour the case method because there are no "right" or "wrong" answers to the cases.Ratchana . and formulating workable plans of action. and development of a strategy and action plan from the point of view of the decision-maker in the case. evaluating alternatives. This module is compiled by Ms. presence at every class. as opposed to uncritically accepting the authoritative crutch of the instructor / professor or “back-of-the-book” answers. Sonia Singh. analysis of the case. Case discussion The case method should more appropriately be called the 'case discussion method' as discussion in a group of co-learners is an integral part of the method. where the Instructor speaks and students listen and take notes. Naziya and Ms. with the Instructor being an active guide. Ms.

raise questions. and learn the art of listening to others. convincing others and social interaction in a group setting. Make notes in the margin or elsewhere to summarise ideas. the issues are analysed and final assessments made.BBM Semester V    Case Analysis and Methodology discussion in a small group (6-10 individuals) of the individual learner's analysis and proposals. skills and attitudes or values. Individual preparation: Individual preparation is very important for effective case analysis. students analyze the information in the case and use it to solve the problem set up by the case. an individual would:    acquire new knowledge. more open-ended questions and 16 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Thus. Recognise that cases contain both facts and opinions. including closely directed questioning by faculty to help students draw out the information from the case and identify the central decisions or evaluations that need to be made. Discussion is supposed to take place in a democratic spirit. experiences and attitudes in resolving the problems faced by the manager in the case situation. you can certainly question or challenge opinion. Sonia Singh. has the potential to enlarge the perspective of each individual. knowledge. if needed. While you have to take facts at face value. This module is compiled by Ms. through discussion in small groups and class. Naziya and Ms. and consequent revisions. skill. The discussion can take many forms. It is the basis for all subsequent work and hence the foundation on which the quality and quantity of case learning depend. skills and attitudes and values. Ms. On the basis of strong logic. discussion in a plenary session / class discussion (up to 80 to 100 individuals) with the help of a discussion leader (resource person/faculty member). where each participant is free to present their analysis and the rest of the class or group tries to assimilate and understand it. Read the case carefully and thoughtfully. the easier the following stages become. note particular concepts and record observations as they come to your mind. and learn about skills and attitudes possessed by others. and not brute force of lung power. if necessary. with their respective backgrounds. Discussion in small groups: Study and analysis of a case by an individual student would bring to bear only that individual's knowledge. R. Classroom discussion: In classroom discussion. the better the individual preparation. Discussion in small groups or a class by several students. Co-learners try to see the similarities and differences in such presentations. and post-plenary session / class discussion with co-learners and discussion leader to consolidate the learning. Obviously. reflect on the applicability of their own knowledge.Ratchana .

3. The procedure for case analysis or case analysis process or technique. case method discussions involve mostly conversation between and among students. human resources. Specific (functional) area of interest: marketing. 5. Many faculty members use role-play as a technique to put students completely in the case environment. the task consists of two parts: Step A: A detailed reading of the case. R. Background information: industry. What follows is intended to be a rather general approach for case discussion and analysis. and then Step B: Analyzing the case and finding solution. there are common steps that most approaches recommend be followed in tackling a case study. 17 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. a process and so on. The specific problem or decision(s) to be made.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology discussions as students evaluate options and weigh the evidence. Opening paragraph: introduces the situation. 4. competition. operations. or framework for case analysis all are same. It helps to have a system when sitting down to prepare a case study as the amount of information and issues to be resolved can initially seem quite overwhelming. Sonia Singh. and small group work by students focused on specific analytical tasks. While there is no one definitive "Case Method" or approach. a method. organization. Steps in involved in case analysis: Case Analysis Technique The case approach has been described variously as a technique. history. This module is compiled by Ms. finance. any constraints or limitations. Naziya and Ms. The following is a good way to start. financial information. Alternatives open to the decision maker. products. Ideally. or integrated. rather than discussion centered on direct participation by the faculty member. 2. At this point. which may or may not be stated in the case. Ms. Step A: Detailed reading of the case When doing the detailed reading of the case study. Conclusion: sets up the task. 6. and the urgency of the situation. look for the following sections: 1.Ratchana . and anything else of significance.

Another important thing is that with case studies. Take your time. state the decision to be made. Example: while declining 18 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. If it is decision oriented case. and keep focused on your objectives. Different students may come up with different answers. all equally correct. Asking you the following questions may help: 1.Problem / Issue Statement The problem statement should be a clear.Evaluation of alternatives R-Recommendation P.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Most. there is no "right" answer. make notes. you will be helping to differentiate the symptoms of the problem from the problem itself. R. but not all case studies will follow this format.Criteria for evaluation E. The purpose here is to thoroughly understand the situation and the decisions that will need to be made. Each instructor has his or her own ideas on the number of the steps involved. The faculty is interested in how the student approaches and comes up with solutions to problems. Sonia Singh. what decisions must you tackles? Which decisions must be made first? Now it is time to decide what the main issues to be addressed are going to be in much more detail. The following step in the form of PACER model is a logical and practical way to begin.Ratchana . This module is compiled by Ms. Step B: Analysis and Solution Case analysis should take the following steps: You can approach the analysis of business cases in many different ways.Alternative generation C . What appears to be the problem(s) here? 2.Problem statement A. How do I know that this is a problem? Note that by asking this question. Naziya and Ms. Briefly state the answer of the following questions. P. Ms. concise statement of exactly what needs to be addressed.

Smith improve market share? Usually the problem statement has to be re-written several times during the analysis of a case. particularly from the point of view of the decisionmaker in the situation (i.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology sales or unhappy employees are a problem to most companies. This module is compiled by Ms. Customer satisfaction. symptoms of underlying problems which need to be addressed. Naziya and Ms. R.Ratchana . eg: What should Joe do? or How can Mr. Strategic direction of the company. 4. What are the immediate issues that need to be addressed? This helps to differentiate between issues that can be resolved within the context of the case. Profitability. Differentiate between importance and urgency for the issues identified. The problem statement may be framed as a question. and/or 5. Evaluate . 19 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. the answer to 'Who?' and 'What?' of the situational analysis). 3. Morale of the company's employees. Step 2 Diagnose (from the answers to 'How?' and 'Why?') the concerns in order to establish real causes. and those that are bigger issues that needed to addressed at a another time (preferably by someone else!).if appropriate decisions are taken in these areas . Sonia Singh. 3. and prioritize them in order of importance.whether the overall situation would improve particularly from the decision-maker's point of view. You want to deal with important issues in order of urgency to keep focused on your objective. The following steps have been found to be useful in defining problems: Step 1 List all concerns (symptoms). they are in fact. but upon closer examination are relatively unimportant. as you peel back the layers of symptoms or causation.e. while others may be far more important (relative to solving our problem) than urgent. Some issues may appear to be urgent. 2.. Important issues are those that have a significant effect on: 1. 4. Step 3 Step 4 Establish decision (problem) areas. Ms. Source of competitive advantage.

1. you should first try to answer the following questions: 1. and what you intend to do with the result. Be realistic! While you might be able to find a dozen alternatives. When deciding to analyze numbers. people who transform these resources using 3. but you need to be careful not to overlook anything. Sonia Singh.BBM Semester V A .Alternatives generation Case Analysis and Methodology Alternative are different ways in which the problem can be resolved. What do the numbers tell you? You need to take a look at the numbers given in the case study and make a judgment as to their relevance to the problem identified. A manager can always delay making a decision to gather more 20 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. What are the constraints and opportunities implicit to this situation? It is very rare that resources are not a constraint. 2. 4. which creates something of greater value. they cannot happen at the same time. This module is compiled by Ms. Who is affected most by this issues? You are trying to identify who are the relevant stakeholders to the situation. or supplies. keep in mind that they should be realistic and fit within the constraints of the situation. Why or how did these issues arise? You are trying to determine cause and effect for the problems identified. Naziya and Ms. The following points to be kept in mind while generating alternative solution of the identified problem. 3. Think creatively about ways to remove the cause(s) of the problem(s) identified in the case.Ratchana . Ms. where are the problems being caused within this framework. equipment. and allocations must be made on the assumption that not enough will be available to please everyone. You cannot solve a problem that you cannot determine the cause of! It may be helpful to think of the organization in question as consisting of the following components: 1. and why? 2. Not all numbers will be immediately useful or relevant. 3. such as materials. In order to find out the alternative solutions for the given problem. Not making a decision pending further investigation is not an acceptable decision for any case study that you will analyze. and who will be affected by the decisions to be made. that is. R. keep in mind why you are doing it. and 2. resources. The alternatives should be mutually exclusive. Processes. Use common sense and comparisons to industry standards when making judgements as to the meaning of your answers to avoid jumping to conclusions. Now.

corporate image. not the exception.Criteria for evaluation of alternatives A very important concept to understand. Increase sales. they answer the question of how you are going to decide which alternative is the best one to choose. For a business situation. preferably in point form. Employee morale. Other than choosing randomly. This module is compiled by Ms. 4. provided it is being recommended for the correct reasons.Ratchana . 5. 2. Ease or speed of implementation. and they will be used to evaluate the suitability of each alternative recommended. or return on investment. Some of the examples of ‘Criteria for evaluation’ of alternatives are as follow: Brief. Doing nothing as in not changing your strategy can be a viable alternative. Once the alternatives have been identified. R. 4. Measurable. 8. then you are the one who will look bad for suggesting it. Within acceptable risk parameters. Keep in mind that any alternative chosen will need to be implemented at some point. 5. Ms. or turnover. 6. 9. and if serious obstacles exist to successfully doing this. Minimize environmental impact. a method of evaluating them and selecting the most appropriate one needs to be used to arrive at a decision. market share.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology information. Be consistent with the corporate mission or strategy. and/or 10. safety. at least to the point of comparison. such as 1. and having imperfect information is normal for most business decisions. which is not managing at all! The whole point to this exercise is to learn how to make good decisions. If you find that you are 21 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. as will be discussed below. and alternatives. Retain flexibility. Improve (or at least maintain) profitability. Sonia Singh. Within our present (or future) resources and capabilities. such as alternative A will improve profitability more that alternative B. Naziya and Ms. Be related to your problem statement. 3. C. the these criteria’s are those things that are important to the organization making the decision. Maintain customer satisfaction. 7. we will always employ some criteria in making any decision.

productivity. Examples of Quantitative Criteria: Profit.Ratchana . or in relation to the other alternatives. Sonia Singh. this should be straightforward.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology talking about something else. fit 2. Examples of Qualitative Criteria: Competitive advantage. or highest. obsolescence. the brand/style that I choose to purchase must. R. Think about the last time that you make a purchase decision for an article of clothing. In the 22 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. approval of friend/family 6. fashion 4. capacity. Often you can set up a simple table with criteria for evaluation as columns and alternatives as rows. colour 5.Evaluation of Alternatives Compare & contrast the alternatives using the decision criteria you have developed. These criteria are also how you will define or determine that a successful purchase decision has been made. goodwill. cultural sensitivity. ethics. such as better than. inventory turn. visual appeal. or a poorly formed problem statement. price 3. E . that is a sign of a missing alternative or key decision criteria. Ms. customer satisfaction. safety. Naziya and Ms. quantity. ease of implementation. Why did you choose the article that you did? The criteria that you may have used could have been: 1. cost. delivery time. risk. Criteria for evaluation Alternatives A Alternatives B Alternatives C Criteria 1 Criteria 2 Criteria 3 Each alternative must be compared to criteria for evaluation and its suitability ranked in some way. availability Note that any one of these criteria could appropriately finish the sentence. staff turnover. such as met/not met. corporate image. cash flow.. If you have done the above properly. growth rate. employee morale. motivation. quality.. flexibility. You measure the alternatives against each criterion. and write this section based on the table. market share. ROI (return on investment).. This module is compiled by Ms.

High employee turnover is so expensive that it would override the cost savings. For example.this is the equivalent of 'showing your workings' in the answer to a mathematical problem. This will be important to selecting an alternative. this is your opportunity to practice making decisions.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology other words to analyze and evaluate alternatives write score against each dimension (criteria) for every alternative. For details refer to module-3. Suggest additional pros/cons if appropriate. Tools for case analysis.. Develop an implementation plan / action plan by specify the actions necessary to produce the advantages you have identified and avoid (or minimize) the disadvantages or costs. Make sure you explain and justify the reasoning behind your recommendations . The outcome of this alternative would be to lower morale drastically and create high turnover. both you and your team will learn from this exposure of your reasoning. Give a justification for your decision (use the criteria for evaluation). You will gain credit for this and. Business people are decision-makers. R. Role of participants and resource person / instructor in case method 23 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Your action plan must be specific and answer six basic questions: Who? What? When? Where? How? Why? Provide a schedule and milestones. Ms. Specify the actions necessary to produce the advantages you have identified and avoid (or minimize) the disadvantages or costs. of course. Naziya and Ms. Give a justification for choosing particular alternative (s). but implementing them would be impossible or counterproductive. and then discussing the short and long term implications of choosing each. if a firm is faced with low profits. wherever possible. so a firm should not implement that alternative.Ratchana . Some alternative may appear attractive. Another method that can be used is to list the advantages and disadvantages (pros/ cons) of each alternative against the criteria listed. you are in a position to make recommendations. PEST analysis etc. one alternative would be to cut pay by 20%. R-Recommendation Select the preferred alternative. Sonia Singh. for case analysis. After you have carefully analyzed the data and the alternatives. Use tools like SWOT analysis. This module is compiled by Ms.

 Interaction among students plays an important role in the case method of instruction. as shown in below table. Case analysis is an applied skill. The case method is based on a philosophy of learning by doing as opposed to learning by listening and absorbing information. Please see How to Prepare Cases for specific details. the following responsibilities are key to participant’s success:  Active Participation: The case method requires a great deal of individual participation in class discussion. Effective learning results from individual preparation and thinking. The more you practice. Naziya and Ms.Ratchana . Ms. Whether 24 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. they more proficient you will become. As such. keep in mind that there is a difference between contributing to a class discussion and just talking. Also. While both the instructor and the student start with the same information. Sonia Singh. R. Student/ participant responsibilities As a case analyst.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology The case method is participative. The benefit you receive from case analysis is directly proportional to the effort you put into it. their roles are clearly different in each of these stages. it is something you learn through application. as opposed to something someone teaches you. which entails more than casually reading each case before class. Effective participation requires thorough preparation. This module is compiled by Ms. combined with group discussion.

and develop solutions and action plans. Sonia Singh.  Effective Communication: Each of the three responsibilities above requires effective communication. Good cases do not have one clear-cut. of course. It is important that you organize your thoughts before speaking out. Typically. Your analytical skills will improve as you organize information. most instructors encourage students to discuss cases with other students.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology you are assigned to work independently or in groups/teams. you will probably hear that these students are extremely well trained in concepts and quantitative skills.  Critical Evaluation: One of the most difficult student responsibilities is learning to critique their peers and to accept criticism from them. However. are beneficial because they provide immediate feedback regarding individual perspectives and possible solutions. the case method is most effective when all parties engage in an open exchange of ideas. R. participating in case discussions and writing case analyses.Ratchana . Case analysis plays an important role in your overall education. Moreover. Other important benefits of case discussions are the synergism and new insights produced by group conversations and brainstorming. Furthermore. Case discussions. Naziya and Ms. This module is compiled by Ms. is common practice among managers facing important business decisions. the focus of the case method is the development and sharpening of quantitative and qualitative analytical skills. Role of the resource person 25 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. students are reluctant to question or challenge their classmates or to suggest alternatives to the perspectives proposed by others in the class. identify and evaluate alternatives. Don't be shy about expressing and defending your views. in and out of class. What you learn in a course that utilizes the case method may be your best preparation for securing your first job or gaining that sought-after promotion up the career ladder. This. but that they lack verbal and written communication and decision-making skills. The case method offers students an excellent opportunity to enhance and refine those skills. superior solution. diagnose problems. If you ask a sample of recruiters to assess the students who are completing undergraduate and graduate programs in business administration today. Ms. Students find this difficult because they are generally inexperienced at performing these functions and are also unaccustomed to being challenged by their peers in the classroom. You will develop and refine your communication skills by making class presentations. the reasoning process you use and the questions you raise are often more important than the specific solution that you recommend.

student will be unable to contribute meaningfully to in-class discussion. the resource person must make clear to the participants that the case method is designed to develop their analytical and judgmental skills. Without it. The case method relies heavily on the leadership skills of the resource person. but ask as few as possible to support the open nature of the decision without leading into unproductive channels. that there is a need for more analysis. The objective of the case method is to nurture this thought process. The objective is to keep the discussion moving towards useful goals. To be effective. Ms. A poor case. This module is compiled by Ms. To resolve this dilemma. Preparing an Effective Case Analysis An assigned case requires significant and conscientious preparation before class. are essential. they should never advocate or oppose a particular idea. Accept the fact that this is necessary in using case materials. should never become emotionally involved in the case discussion. the resource person:     Should be prepared and flexible. The role of the resource person in a case discussion is basically to guide and direct.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology One of the critical components in the effective use of the case method is the degree of preparedness of the resource person. Recommended alternatives should flow logically from core problems identified through study of the case. It is the process by which they reach their decision that is important. more often than not. Sonia Singh. Naziya and Ms. There are likely to be no irrefutable principles of management highlighted by the case which can be remembered for use in future situations. identify problems. Therefore. Participants in the case method approach often feel uncomfortable because. R. The table below shows a set of steps that can help you develop familiarity with a case. and Should summarize at the end and leave time to pull together the key points of the case. as well as reasoned analyses and the development of alternative solutions to case problems.Ratchana . The resource persons should keep themselves in the background until they feel that direction has been lost. or that the key points are not receiving proper emphasis. An Effective Case Analysis Process 26 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. poorly prepared by the participants. with a minimum of intervention. and propose strategic actions that increase the probability that a firm will achieve strategic competitiveness and earn above-average returns. can still be a valuable learning experience if the resource person is fully prepared. Many participants will need assistance in drawing out concepts from the ongoing discussion. there is no single solution to the situation described in the case. There is no hard and fast answer. should ask questions when necessary. not to communicate facts to be memorized. careful reading and thinking about case facts.

etc. where and when (the critical facts in a case). cycle back to sub-steps a and b. Prioritize predicaments/problems regarding timing. In general--determine who. Identify predicaments (goal inconsistencies). the work unit.. importance. people. Apply these conceptual tools to the situation. what. Recognizing Symptoms Step 3 a.g.BBM Semester V Step 1: Case Analysis and Methodology a. c. As new information is revealed. R. b. Specify and prioritize the criteria used to choose action alternatives. List all indicators (including stated "problems") that something is not as expected or as desired b. Ensure that symptoms are not assumed to be the problem (symptoms should lead to identification of the problem). In detail--identify the places. Identify problems (discrepancies between goals and performance). Step 6 a. Identifying goals Step 4 Conducting the Analysis a. Sonia Singh. groups. b. Identify critical statements by major parties (e. models. etc. Naziya and Ms. and theories seem useful. This module is compiled by Ms. b. Step 5 Making the Diagnosis a. b. Gaining Familiarity Step 2: a. and contexts of the situation.). Decide which ideas. persons. Ms. how. activities. Recognize the degree of certainty/uncertainty of acquired information.Ratchana . List all goals of the major parties that exist or can be reasonably inferred. c. c. 27 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.

including interactions between and among individuals within groups. Create a plan for assessing the action to be implemented. e. d. Gaining familiarity with a situation requires you to study several situational levels. Design an implementation plan/schedule. Examine the probable consequences of action alternatives. Discover or invent feasible action alternatives c. Information that is verifiable by several sources and judged along similar dimensions can be classified as a fact. Initially. business units. Obviously. how. Thorough familiarization demands appreciation of the nuances as well as the major issues in the case. what. and when). judgments. Recognizing relationships within and among levels facilitates a more thorough understanding of the specific case situation. where. you should become familiar with the focal firm's general situation (e.BBM Semester V Doing the Action Planning Case Analysis and Methodology b.g. Information representing someone's perceptual judgment of a particular situation is referred to as an inference. speculations. R. It is important to be aware of your own feelings about the case and to evaluate the accuracy of perceived "facts" to ensure that the objectivity of your work is maximized. the corporate office. Recognizing Symptoms 28 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Finally. Ms. Personal feelings. This module is compiled by Ms. An Effective Case Analysis Process 1. f. and the society at large. and opinions evolve when you are analyzing a case. Select a course of action. the local community. who. It is also important that you evaluate information on a continuum of certainty.. Information gleaned from a situation that is not verifiable is classified as speculation. case analysts and organizational decision makers prefer having access to facts over inferences. 2.Ratchana . Naziya and Ms. and assumptions. Sonia Singh. Gaining Familiarity The first step of an effective case analysis process calls for you to become familiar with the facts featured in the case and the focal firm's situation. information that is independent of verifiable sources and arises through individual or group discussion is an assumption.

As appropriate. units. an annual report). Sonia Singh. unit's. step to the development of effective solutions-solutions that can enhance a firm's strategic competitiveness. However. intent. you must infer goals from other available factual data and information. or top management team described in the case and/or from public documents (e. Occasionally cases are analyzed in a less-than-thorough manner. Completing this step successfully sometimes can be difficult. It is important therefore to remember that symptoms are indicators of problems. the outcomes you attain from this step are essential to an effective case analysis because identifying goals. Sometimes you will face pressures on your limited amounts of time and may believe that you can understand the situation described in a case with-out systematic analysis of all the facts. Such analyses may be a product of a busy schedule or the difficulty and complexity of the issues described in a particular case. rather than on its symptoms. The focus of your analysis should be on the actual causes of a problem. but insufficient.Ratchana . When this occurs. Identifying Goals The third step of effective case analysis calls for you to identify the goals of the major organizations. and mission helps you to clarify the major problems featured in a case and to evaluate alternative solutions to those problems. In fact.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Recognition of symptoms is the second step of an effective case analysis process. you should also identify each firm's strategic intent and strategic mission. business unit. experience shows that familiarity with a case's facts is a necessary. 3. and strategic missions) are derived from comments of the central characters in the organization. Ms. or individual's performance can improve. You may be tempted to correct the symptoms instead of searching for true problems. and/or individuals in a case. R.g. strategic intents. a less-than-thorough analysis typically results in an emphasis on symptoms. 4. rather than 29 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. This module is compiled by Ms. Naziya and Ms. subsequent work facilitates discovery of critical causes of problems that your case recommendations must address. these direction-setting statements (goals. Identifying and listing symptoms early in the case analysis process tends to reduce the temptation to label symptoms as problems. A symptom is an indication that something is not as you or someone else thinks it should be. Direction-setting statements are not always stated publicly or prepared in written format. Nonetheless. Conducting the Analysis The fourth step of effective case analysis is concerned with acquiring a systematic understanding of a situation. Typically.. True problems are the conditions or situations requiring solution before an organization's.

Furthermore. models. Naziya and Ms. Of course. 5. Understanding these issues will aid your efforts to prioritize problems and predicaments. Key linkages and underlying causal networks based on the history of the firm become apparent. Important in the action planning step is selection of the criteria you will use to evaluate the identified alternatives. you should recognize that the case situations you study probably will be complex in nature. R. 6. single-problem situations are rare. A systematic analysis helps you understand a situation and determine what can work and probably what will not work. Doing the Action Planning The final step of an effective case analysis process is called action planning. You may derive these criteria from the analyses. having familiarity with conceptual models may be important in the effective analysis of a situation. Also. typically. you may identify over. This module is compiled by Ms. In this way. you can separate causal networks from symptoms. Effective diagnosis requires you to determine the problems affecting longer-term performance and those requiring immediate handling. because the quality of a case analysis depends on applying appropriate tools. Predicaments are situations in which goals do not fit with known facts. Action planning is the process of identifying appropriate alternative actions. Sonia Singh. 30 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. it is important that you prioritize these criteria to ensure a rational and effective evaluation of alternative courses of action. Successful students and successful organizational strategists add to their intellectual tool kits on a continual basis. you should be sceptical of quick or easy approaches and answers. given available resources and existing constraints. Of course. Accordingly. it is important that you use the ideas.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology problems and their causes.Ratchana . In this step. Making the Diagnosis The fifth step of effective case analysis-diagnosis-is the process of identifying and clarifying the roots of the problems by comparing goals to facts. As you consider facts and symptoms.or under achievement (relative to established goals). When you evaluate the actual performance of an organization. they are related to key strategic situations facing the focal organization. Ms. or individual. To analyze a case effectively. a useful theory may become apparent. it is useful to search for predicaments. business unit. and theories that seem to be useful for evaluating and solving individual and unique situations.

On second and subsequent readings. Conclusion To prepare a case analysis. it is important that you give thoughtful consideration to all issues associated with the implementation of the selected alternatives. They first read for a general idea about the problem. R. Thus. and the type of company or industry presented. managers “satisfy" when selecting courses of actions. that is. Naziya and Ms. students typically read the case several times before a classroom discussion. students look for deeper problems and issues and try to differentiate symptoms from real case problems. 31 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. A rule of thumb that has proved valuable to strategic decision makers is to select an alternative that leaves other plausible alternatives available if the one selected fails. Once you have selected the best alternative. you must specify an implementation plan. Ms. Developing an implementation plan serves as a reality check on the feasibility of your alternatives. Sonia Singh. the level of the decision.Ratchana . they find acceptable courses of action that meet most of the chosen evaluation criteria. the players in the case.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Typically. This module is compiled by Ms.

Ms. What is the role of Student/ participant responsibilities in case method of learning? SECTION C (15 MARKS) 1. R. Write two objective of case analysis? 8. What do you mean by case analysis? Explain in detail the case analysis technique. Write an elaborative note on 'case discussion’? 5. What do you mean by criteria for evaluation? 9. 9. Write a note on case analysis? SECTION B (5 MARKS) 4. Naziya and Ms. What is case analysis? 7. This module is compiled by Ms. What is good participation in a case discussion and how can it be evaluated or measured? 8.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Question Bank for Module 2 SECTION A (2 MARKS) 6. 2. Explain the various objectives of case analysis? What the steps involved in an effective case analysis process? SECTION D (30 MARKS): Case study and article 32 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Explain the effective case analysis process.Ratchana . How are the roles of student and instructor different in a case study method compared to a lecture? 6. What are the steps involved in case analysis? 7. Sonia Singh.

tariffs. Exchange rates affect the costs of exporting goods and the supply and price of imported goods in an economy. This module is compiled by Ms. changes in tastes and buying patterns 33 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Module 3: Tools for Case Analysis Content of module Tools used in case analysis . BCG Matrix. environmental law etc. business cycle. These factors have major impacts on how businesses operate and make decisions. Ms. The content of PEST analysis are as follows:  Political factors are how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. social. education. Naziya and Ms. government policies relating to the industry. Ansoff Matrix. Porter’s 5 force analysis. income distribution. Tools for case analysis 1. PEST (political. For example. disposable money etc.  Socio-cultural factors include population demographics. and Technological analysis" and describes a framework used to explore the macro-environmental influences that might affect an organisation. format of the written case analysis report. age distribution. political stability. legislations and laws.  Economic factors include economic growth. exchange rates. preparing an oral case presentation. Sonia Singh. trade restrictions. economic. governments have great influence on the health. labor law. Economic. tax policies. SWOT analysis. population growth rate lifestyle changes. interest rates affect a firm's cost of capital and therefore to what extent a business grows and expands. inflation rate. and infrastructure of a nation. The PEST Analysis is a perfect tool for managers and policy makers. regulatory framework. cultural aspects. financial ratio analysis and brainstorming. Social. R.Ratchana . helping them in analyzing the forces that are driving their companies or the entire industry and how these factors will influence their businesses and the whole industry in general. employment rate. and technological) analysis PEST is an acronym for "Political. case analysis report. Furthermore.PEST analysis. money supply. interest rates.

Naziya and Ms. the rate of technological change. The internal factors may be viewed as strengths or weaknesses depending upon their impact on the organization's objectives. The external factors may include macroeconomic matters. and Threats prevailing in the internal and external environment. automation. legislation. Ms. SWOT (strengths. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories:  Internal analysis – The strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization. And threats are external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business. Sonia Singh.  Technological factors include technological aspects such as R&D activity. The opportunities and threats are attributes of the environment and external in origin. Opportunities. manufacturing capabilities and so on. R. opportunities and threats) analysis SWOT analysis is a used to evaluate the Strengths. For example. 2. companies may change various management strategies to adapt to these social trends (such as recruiting older workers). as well as personnel. technological change. This module is compiled by Ms. finance. Furthermore. technological shifts can affect costs.Ratchana . The weaknesses are characteristics that place the firm at a disadvantage relative to others. The factors may include all of the 4Ps (product. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses for another objective. place & promotion). Weaknesses. The opportunities are external chances to make greater sales or profits in the environment. technology incentives. The strengths are characteristics of the business or team that give it an advantage over others in the industry.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology etc. new product development. an aging population may imply a smaller and less-willing workforce (thus increasing the cost of labor). Trends in social factors affect the demand for a company's products and how that company operates. weaknesses. Furthermore. as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position. the speed of technology transfer. impact of emerging technology etc. price. and socio-cultural changes. and lead to innovation. quality.  External analysis – The opportunities and threats presented by the external environment to the organization. The strengths and weaknesses are attributes of the organization and internal in origin. 34 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.

Naziya and Ms. Examples of such strengths include: • • • • • • Patents Strong brand names Good reputation among customers Cost advantages from proprietary know-how Exclusive access to high grade natural resources Favourable access to distribution networks  Weaknesses . each of the following may be considered weaknesses: • • • • • • Lack of patent protection A weak brand name Poor reputation among customers High cost structure Lack of access to the best natural resources Lack of access to key distribution channels  Opportunities .The absence of certain strengths may be viewed as a weakness. R. This module is compiled by Ms. Ms.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology The detail description of component of SWOT analysis is as follow:  Strengths .Changes in the external environmental also may present threats to the firm. Some examples of such opportunities include: • • • • An unfulfilled customer need Arrival of new technologies Loosening of regulations Removal of international trade barriers  Threats . Some examples of such threats include: • • • • Shifts in consumer tastes away from the firm’s products Emergence of substitute products New regulations Increased trade barriers 35 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.The external environmental analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and growth.A firm’s strengths are its resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for developing a competitive advantage.Ratchana . For example. Sonia Singh.

Market growth is used as a measure of a market's attractiveness. divest the Dogs and take a call on the Question Marks (hold/divest). high market share). The ideal strategy is to hold on to the Stars and the Cash Cows.Stars are SBUs/product lines that have a large market share in a fast growing market. high market share). which should provide the opportunity for businesses to make more money.Ratchana . Markets experiencing high growth are ones where the total market is expanding. SBU) into four categories based on combinations of market growth and market share relative to the largest competitor. low market share) and Dogs (low market growth. The BCG Growth Share matrix uses the dimensions of relative market share and the market growth rate to establish a 2*2 matrix containing 4 main quadrants Stars (high market growth. measured either in revenue terms or unit volume terms.BBM Semester V 3. Naziya and Ms. Cash Cows (low market growth. stars frequently 36 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. high market share) . Question marks (high market growth. BCG Matrix Case Analysis and Methodology BCG growth-share matrix is a portfolio planning model developed by Bruce Henderson of Boston Consulting Group (BCG) in 1968. Sonia Singh. Because the market is growing rapidly. This module is compiled by Ms. low market share). The details BCG matrix is as follow: BCG STARS (high growth. Ms. even if their market share remains stable. R. The BCG model is based on classification of products (and implicitly company strategic business units. Market share is the percentage of the total market that is being serviced by a company. Market growth serves as a proxy for industry attractiveness. and relative market share serves as proxy for competitive advantage.

      These products are in growing markets but have low market share.Question Marks operate in high growth markets.  Dogs are in low growth markets and have low market share. successful stars become cash cows and generate significant cash. This module is compiled by Ms. Stars are the leaders in the business but still need a lot of support for promotion a placement. The best way to handle Question marks is to either invest heavily in them to gain market share or to sell them.A dog suffers from having low market share in a market that is mature and slow growing. BCG CASH COWS (low growth. BCG QUESTION MARKS (high growth. Cash cows require little investment and generate cash that can be used to invest in other SBUs/product lines. low market share) . Naziya and Ms. If competitive advantage has been achieved.    Stars are defined by having high market share in a growing market. These products need to increase their market share quickly or they become dogs. The strategic options involve investing resources to grow market share or withdrawing. If market share is kept. slow growing markets. liquidation and withdrawal is usually the best strategy for those SBUs/product lines classified as Dogs. Sonia Singh. 37 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.Ratchana . promotion and placement investments are low. but suffer from low market share. Cash cows are the products that businesses strive for. high market share) . As marginal competitors withdraw and the market matures and slows down.Cash Cows typically have large market shares in mature. Investing to grow market does not guarantee these SBUs or product lines will become stars and hence the term Question Mark. Stars are likely to grow into cash cows.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology require ongoing investment to maintain their market leadership. BCG DOGS (low growth. Investments into supporting infrastructure can improve efficiency and increase cash flow more. low market share) . The marketing strategy is to get markets to adopt these products. Question marks are essentially new products where buyers have yet to discover them.      Cash cows are in a position of high market share in a mature market. Question marks have high demands and low returns due to low market share. Because of the low growth. Ms. Investment will usually have little benefit and therefore. R. cash cows have high profit margins and generate a lot of cash flow.

to contrast it with the more general term macro environment. A change in any of the forces normally. threat of established rivals. Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979. Porter's five forces shapes the industry competition. threat of new entrants. bargaining power of suppliers and the bargaining power of customers. business model or network to achieve a profit above the industry average. requires a business unit to reassess the marketplace given the overall change in industry information. Expensive turn-around plans usually do not help.BBM Semester V   Dogs should be avoided and minimized. Sonia Singh. As an industry. Porter referred to these forces as the micro environment. Firms are able to apply their core competencies.Ratchana . A clear example of this is the airline industry. by applying unique business models. 38 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Naziya and Ms. it includes threat of substitute products. Porter’s Five Force Analysis Porter's five forces is a framework for the industry analysis and business strategy development formed by Michael E. The overall industry attractiveness does not imply that every firm in the industry will return the same profitability. profitability is low and yet individual companies. They consist of those forces close to a company that affect its ability to serve its customers and make a profit. This module is compiled by Ms. R. Case Analysis and Methodology 4. have been able to make a return in excess of the industry average. Ms.

The cost of switching between suppliers is low e. We could always do without e. the large grocery chains. Where there is substitution of need e. Pizza Hut. from one fleet supplier of trucks to another. If there are a large number of undifferentiated. the threat of substitutes. how much will it cost for the latest technology? Ease of access to distribution channels e. Sonia Singh. the benefits associated with bulk purchasing. This module is compiled by Ms.g. and competitive rivalry. There is a possibility of the supplier integrating forward e. small farming businesses supplying the large grocery chains. large players in a market e. will new laws be introduced that will weaken our competitive position? How important is differentiation? E. The threat of entry        Economies of scale e. Do our competitors have the distribution channels sewn up? Cost advantages not related to the size of the company e. The power of suppliers      The power of suppliers tends to be a reversal of the power of buyers. Where the switching costs are high e.g.g. Customers are fragmented (not in clusters) so that they have little bargaining power e.g.g. Cadillac. better toothpaste reduces the need for dentists.g. Video suppliers compete with travel companies.Ratchana . the power of suppliers. Brewers buying bars.g. The high or low costs of entry e. explained below. The Champagne brand cannot be copied.g. Gas/Petrol stations in remote places.g. Ms. Naziya and Ms. small suppliers e.g.g.g. Where there is generic substitution (competing for the currency in your pocket) e.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology The five forces analysis looks at five key areas namely the threat of entry. personal contacts or knowledge that larger companies do not own or learning curve effects. R. 39 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Microsoft.g.g. The power of buyers    This is high where there a few. switching from one software supplier to another. The threat of substitutes    Where there is product-for-product substitution e. Will competitors retaliate? Government action e. This desensitizes the influence of the environment. email for fax. the power of buyers. cigarettes.g. Power is high where the brand is powerful e.g.g.

there is the threat of substitute products.BBM Semester V Competitive Rivalry  Case Analysis and Methodology This is most likely to be high where entry is likely. However. Sonia Singh.Ratchana . Ansoff matrix presents the four main product and market choices available to an organization. This means there will be increase in revenue. Ansoff Matrix The product-market matrix proposed by Igor Ansoff offers four growth strategies based on existing and new markets and products in 1957. for example. Ansoff’s product/market growth matrix suggests that a business’ attempts to grow depend on whether it markets new or existing products in new or existing markets. The Ansoff Growth matrix is a tool that helps businesses decides their product and market growth strategy. 5. Market penetration seeks to achieve four main objectives: 40 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Ms. and so on. the product is not altered and companies do not seek any new customers. which are as follow: Market Penetration (existing markets. This module is compiled by Ms. repositioning the brand. existing products): Here companies market the existing products to existing customers. R. and suppliers and buyers in the market attempt to control. This is why it is always seen in the center of the diagram. Naziya and Ms. promoting the product.

It is unlikely. Related diversification means that we 41 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology Maintain or increase the market share of current products . This often happens with the auto markets where existing models are updated or replaced and then marketed to existing customers. There are many possible ways of approaching this strategy. Ms. Exporting the product. namely related and unrelated diversification. therefore. This module is compiled by Ms. A market penetration marketing strategy is very much about "business as usual". Such products are then marketed to existing customers. new products): This is a new product to be marketed to existing customers. that this strategy will require much investment in new market research. for example exporting the product to a new country New product dimensions or packaging: for example o o New distribution channels Different pricing policies to attract different customers or create new market segments Product Development (existing markets. Here companies develop and innovate new product offerings to replace existing ones.this can be achieved by a combination of competitive pricing strategies. The business is focusing on markets and products it knows well. or marketing it in a new region. Naziya and Ms. is examples of market development. existing products): Companies market existing product range in a new market. sales promotion and perhaps more resources dedicated to personal selling   Secure dominance of growth markets Restructure a mature market by driving out competitors. Sonia Singh. including:   New geographical markets.Ratchana . Business Diversification (new markets. There are two types of diversification. This means that the product remains the same. advertising. but it is marketed to a new audience. new products): This is where companies market completely new products to new customers. R. Market development is the name given to a growth strategy where the business seeks to sell its existing products into new markets. It is likely to have good information on competitors and on customer needs. For example by introducing loyalty schemes. Market Development (new markets. supported by a pricing strategy designed to make the market unattractive for competitors  Increase usage by existing customers. this would require a much more aggressive promotional campaign.

investors. questionable or poor. Ms. The level and historical trends of these ratios can be used to make inferences about a company’s financial condition. Different parties like the creditors. suppliers. The conclusions can also be drawn as to whether the performance of the firm is improving or deteriorating. 6. With the use of ratio analysis one can measure the financial condition is strong. Diversification is an inherently higher risk strategy because the business is moving into markets in which it has little or no experience. Financial Ratio Analysis A ratio is a simple arithmetical expression of the relationship of one number to another. The summary of various financial ratios and how they are calculated are as follow: Key financial ratios: How to calculate them and what they mean 42 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. R. Sonia Singh.Ratchana . This module is compiled by Ms.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology remain in a market or industry with which we are familiar. Ratios are assists students in financial diagnosis of a case study. its operations and attractiveness as an investment. Financial ratio analysis is the calculation and comparison of ratios which are derived from the information in a company’s financial statements. Naziya and Ms. financial institutions. shareholders and the management are interested in the ratio analysis for knowing the financial position of a firm for different purposes. good. The ratio analysis is one of the most powerful tools of financial health of the company.

Sonia Singh. R. Brainstorming works by focusing on a problem. Naziya and Ms. Basic rules in brainstorming There are four basic rules in brainstorming intended to reduce social inhibitions among team members. stimulate idea generation. This module is compiled by Ms. One of the reasons it is so effective is that the participants not only come up with new ideas in a session. aiming to facilitate problem solving through the maxim quantity breeds quality. and then deliberately coming up with as many solutions as possible and by pushing the ideas as far as possible.Ratchana . In 1953 the method was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book called Applied Imagination. but also spark off from associations with other people's ideas by developing and refining them. The assumption is that the greater 43 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Ms. Focus on quantity: This rule is a means of enhancing divergent production. and increase overall creativity: 1. Brainstorming Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. Osborn proposed that groups could double their creative output with brainstorming.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology 7.

By suspending judgment. One need to prepare a space for the session as well as invite the participants.Ratchana . When booking the space and informing the participants. Withhold criticism: In brainstorming. R. It may be the solution to a problem. for example: “we need to cut operational costs by 10% to avoid bankruptcy.”  The team. Moderator introduces the issue. bear in mind that entire session should take about 15 minutes of introduction. Ms. The participants generate ideas and participate in the evaluation of their ideas after the brainstorming session. notes down ideas. 30 minutes for evaluation and discussion and 15 minutes for conclusions. 4. answers questions and manages the evaluation. the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution. 3. The issue will normally be in the form of a goal. It is believed to stimulate the building of ideas by a process of association. This module is compiled by Ms. Naziya and Ms. 2. reserving criticism for a later 'critical stage' of the process. a goal or a problem.  Preparations for session. participants will feel free to generate unusual ideas. They can be generated by looking from new perspectives and suspending assumptions. Welcome unusual ideas: To get a good and long list of ideas. plan for a minimum of 90 minutes.” or it may be a general goal such as: “ways to make the dining facilities more appealing to our hotel guests. Any brainstorming session starts with the issue for which you will seek ideas. Sonia Singh. criticism of ideas generated should be put 'on hold'. Idea generation. two hours would be safer. So. The issue is what you will brainstorm about. These new ways of thinking may provide better solutions.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology the number of ideas generated. Instead. An ideal brainstorming team should comprise one moderator and eight to twelve participants. 44 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Combine and improve ideas: Good ideas may be combined to form a single better good idea. participants should focus on extending or adding to ideas. 30-40 minutes for ideation. It should describe a need. Effective Brainstorming  Define the goal or problem or issue to be solved. The moderator manages the session. The brainstorming session comprises:   Introduction to the issue and session. unusual ideas are welcomed.

Maslow’s needs hierarchy of motivation. Structure.  Strategic Management – SWOT analysis.Sales analysis with respect to products. territories and end users. Inter-firm comparison. Ansoff model on generic growth strategies. break even analysis.Financial ratio analysis. Situational leadership etc. Skills. funds flow statement analysis. Ms. The bad ideas are allowed to flow with the good ones during a brainstorming session. Systems. risk analysis. financial statement analysis. A partial list of the main ones is given below under the headings of respective functional areas. targeting and positioning strategies). cash flow statement analysis. cost volume profit analysis. Sonia Singh. discussion. McGregor’s theory X & Y. BCG(Boston consulting group) Product Portfolio Matrix. consumer behaviour theories. R. Other tools used in case analysis There are large numbers of tools & techniques which are put to use while doing case analysis. Naziya and Ms. no matter seemingly how outlandish or bizarre. These are Management Innovations which have been developed by management thinkers over last 160 years or so. Shared Values. McKinsey 7-S framework (Strategy.Ratchana . Theory Z. GE market attractiveness model etc. 45 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.  Human resource/ organizational behavioral analysis . Strategic marketing (segmentation. Market share analysis. Porter’s model on five forces. Porter’s generic strategies. Analysis.  Marketing . investment appraisal techniques etc.BBM Semester V Post brainstorming session:   Evaluation of the ideas. The emphasis is on quantity over quality. Root cause analysis. marketing audit etc. Style & Staff). Managerial grid. or criticism of the aired ideas is allowed only when the brainstorming session is over and evaluation session begins. Evaluating the ideas during the brainstorming session reduces creativity and limits both the quantity and quality of the ideas.  Finance . marketing expense analysis. Brainstorming is a process for generating creative ideas and solutions through intensive and freewheeling group discussion. Wrap up Case Analysis and Methodology First one needs to understand the purpose of a brainstorming session. This module is compiled by Ms. Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation. attitudinal tracking. product life cycle (PLC). Every participant is encouraged to think aloud and suggest as many ideas as possible.

except that your analysis must be more complete and put in report form. Sonia Singh. Naziya and Ms. and the significant problems and issues that confront management. Ms. Preparing a Written Case Analysis There is no standard procedure for doing a written case analysis. 2.Ratchana . 1.BBM Semester V Case Analysis Report Case Analysis and Methodology A case analysis report presents an analysis of the problems and issues facing a particular company. you may be asked to do a comprehensive written case analysis. Decide whether the firm has 46 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. 2) Perform whatever analysis and evaluation is appropriate. This module is compiled by Ms. production. its strategy. managerial competence. Identification It is essential to identify all the pertinent issues that management needs to address to provide sharply focused diagnosis of the issues and key problems. Preparing a written case analysis is much like preparing a case for class discussion. and recommend. State problems/issues as clearly and precisely as you can. and 3) Propose an action plan and set of recommendations addressing the issues you have identified. Analyse the company's situation. keep the following pointers in mind. evaluate. and other factors underlying the organization's successes and failures. with recommendations of a plan of action and justification of that plan. Or. All we can offer are some general guidelines and words of wisdom this is because company situations and management problems are so diverse that no one mechanical way to approach a written case assignment always works. R. In going through the exercise of identify. Check out the firm's financial ratios. Analysis and Evaluation Look at marketing. its profit margins and its capital structure. The instructor may assign you a specific topic around which to prepare your written report. alternatively. and decide how strong the firm is financially. There is no optimal length for a written case analysis report. where the expectation is that you will 1) Identify all the pertinent issues that management needs to address.

State how your recommendations will solve the problems you identified. highlight the conclusions to be drawn from the exhibits. Sonia Singh. Decide whether and why the firm's competitive position is getting stronger or weaker. also check to see if your recommendations are workable in terms of acceptance by the persons involved." "I feel. 3. Your set of recommendations should address all of the problems/issues you identified and analyzed. and prevailing market and environmental constraints." instead. Don't just tack the exhibits on at the end of your report and let the reader figure out what they mean and why they were included. bear in mind four things: i. over-generalizations. in the body of your report cite some of the key numbers." and "I believe" when you edit your first draft and write in "My analysis shows. Your interpretation of the evidence should be reasonable and objective. Likewise. Recommendations The final section of the written case analysis should consist of a set of definite recommendations and a plan of action. Probe the nature and strength of the competitive forces confronting the company. Ms.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology valuable resource strengths and competencies and. iii. ii. if so. whether it is capitalizing on them. Naziya and Ms. Do not rely on unsupported opinions. Demonstrate that you have command of the strategic concepts and analytical tools to which you have been exposed. Check to see if the firm's strategy is producing satisfactory results and determine the reasons why or why not. iv. the organization's competence to implement them. Instead. If your analysis involves some important quantitative calculations. Strike phrases such as "I think. By all means state your recommendations in sufficient detail to be meaningful get down to some definite nitty-gritty specifics.Ratchana . use tables and charts to present the calculations clearly and efficiently. Look into evidence to back up your conclusions. R. Be wary of preparing a one-sided argument that omits all aspects not favourable to your conclusions. Use the tools and concepts you have learned to perform case analysis. Avoid such unhelpful statements as "the organization should do 47 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. This module is compiled by Ms. try not to exaggerate or overdramatize. Endeavour to inject balance into your analysis and to avoid emotional rhetoric. and refer the reader to your charts and exhibits for more details. Use them in your report. Be sure the company is financially able to carry out what you recommend. Give logical argument backed up with facts and figures. In writing your analysis and evaluation.

Alternatives analysis & evaluation . Executive summary – Executive summary is a short document that summarizes a longer report. This module is compiled by Ms. 48 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.A problem statement is a concise description of the issues that need to be addressed by the case analyst. The importance of learning to develop good judgment in a managerial situation is indicated by the fact that. Problem (or Issue) statement . 3. 4.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology more planning" or "the company should be more aggressive in marketing its product. Ms. indicating priorities. even though the same information and operating data may be available to every manager or executive in an organization. 6. Format / Structure of the Written Case Analysis Report Different Instructors will require different formats for case reports. 5. Offer a definite agenda for action. evaluating them by comparing and contrasting the alternatives using the decision criteria. Generation of alternatives – Describe the various alternative solution for the given business problem. Criteria (s) for evaluation – these are decision criteria which helps in identifying the parameters for screening the alternatives solution for the given business problem. Sonia Singh. background information. For this course. concise analysis and main conclusions. but they should all have roughly the same general content. Avoid recommending anything you would not yourself be willing to do if you were in management's shoes. It will usually contain a brief statement of the problem or proposal covered in the major document(s).Ratchana . the report should have the following sections in this order: 1.Once the alternatives have been identified." For instance. The executive summary should highlight the major points relating to the case study and no more than one A4 page in length. proposal or group of related reports in such a way that readers can rapidly become acquainted with a large body of material without having to read it all. the quality of the judgments about what the information means and which actions need to be taken does vary from person to person. and suggesting who should be responsible for doing what. stipulating a timetable and sequence for initiating actions. do not simply say "the firm should improve its market position" but state exactly how you think this should be done. Title page – Should describe the title of the case and case analyst’s names. course and date. R. In the others words the different ways in which the problem can be solved. 2. Naziya and Ms.

Sonia Singh. analysis. This module is compiled by Ms. Exhibits / Appendices . Recommendations – Selecting the most appropriate alternative (s). Action / Implementation Plan . font size and style. 49 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. A series of slides covering case analysis. Both require identification of the business issues and problems confronting the company. Take some care to choose a nice slide design. Naziya and Ms. including slides covering each of the following areas     An opening slide covering the “title” of the presentation and names of the presenters. financials. As with a written assignment. The main difference between an oral presentation and a written case is in the delivery format. A slide showing an outline of the presentation One or more slides showing the key problems and issues that management needs to address. Ms. Recommendations should be consistent with situation.Ratchana . The substance of your analysis and quality of your recommendations in an oral presentation should be no different than in a written report. should be well supported and practicable. visuals. well. and recommendations and visually enhancing and supporting your oral discussion with slides (usually created on Microsoft’s PowerPoint presentation or OHP slides). All charts.Specify the series of actions necessary to execute the recommended alternative for the given problem. and colour scheme.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology 7. Suggestions for effective presentations. 9. analysis of industry conditions and the company’s situation.thought out action plan. R. A good set of slides with good content and good visual appeal is essential to a first-rate presentation. Explain the necessary steps required to be taken by the decision maker to produce the advantages you have identified and avoid (or minimize) the disadvantages or costs. and other related items can be placed in appendices and referenced in the report.Include additional material relevant to the case and referred to in the report. 8. Oral presentations rely principally on verbalizing your diagnosis. you’ll need to demonstrate command of the relevant management concepts and tools of analysis and your recommendations should contain sufficient detail to provide clear direction for management. Preparing an Oral Case Presentation The preparation of an oral case presentation has much in common with that of a written case analysis. Justify the reasoning behind your recommendations. and the development of a thorough.

50 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology A series of slides containing recommendations and the supporting arguments and reasoning for each recommendation—one slide for each recommendation and the associated reasoning has a lot of merit. Naziya and Ms. structure of the presentation. the logic of the argument. effective use of visual aids. ability to 'connect' with the audience etc) observations. Sonia Singh. soundness of assumptions etc) and process (e. Ms. This module is compiled by Ms. Distinguish between content (e.g. pertinence of the recommendations. R.Ratchana .g.

5. Write two tools used in case analysis? 13. Explain the SWOT and PEST analysis. SECTION C (15 MARKS) 1. Explain Ansoff matrix. What the various tools used in case analysis in different functional areas of management? 3. Briefly explain Porter’s 5 force analysis. What is case analysis report? Give detail account of preparation of a written case analysis? SECTION D (30 MARKS): Case study and articles 51 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Explain any two tools for case analysis. Naziya and Ms. SECTION B (5 MARKS) 1. Sonia Singh. Ms. What is case analysis report? 11. Write a note on preparing an oral case presentation. Expand PEST and SWOT analysis. Write note on oral case presentation. Briefly explain BCG matrix. 2. What is brainstorming? 14.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Question Bank for Module 3 SECTION A (2 MARKS) 10. R. This module is compiled by Ms. Write down the format / structure of the written case analysis report? 7. 12. 3.Ratchana . 6. 4. Explain elaborately the various tools used in case analysis? 2.

that is. Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. Ethics: Meaning Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality . etc. Moral principles places value on equitable. Applied ethics is a field of ethics that deals with ethical questions in many fields such as medical. right and wrong. In case analysis participants/ students are involved in decision making by identifying the problem.traditional versus feature story format. It is also important that the solutions are logical and realistic: They should be consistent with the problems identified. individual ethical decision-making styles. ethical concerns.Ratchana . Ms. The decision-making involves an action or series of actions chosen from a number of possible alternatives. Applied ethics is a discipline of philosophy that attempts to apply ethical theory to real-life situations. Introduction The main objective of case analysis is problem identification and analysis. legal and business ethics. selecting a particular alternative solution and recommending it as best solution represents The ethics have some important role to play in such decision making.meaning. Naziya and Ms. In the case analysis. one should apply relevant theoretical reasoning and the ethical reasoning. These theories offered an overarching moral principle one could appeal to in resolving difficult moral decisions. This means to be able to extract and treat relevant information. fair. Sonia Singh. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and business organizations as a whole. technical. R. case study writing.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Module 4: Case Ethics Content of the module: The case method and relativistic thinking. generation of alternative solution. The business ethics concerns questions 52 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. and just concern of others involved. normative ethics (also known as moral theory) was the study of what makes actions right and wrong. Traditionally. case study writing. This module is compiled by Ms. virtue and vice. justice. concepts such as good and evil.

Ms. which has been demonstrated to enhance learners' application. The case method is an active instructional strategy. As a teaching/learning tool. business by virtue of its existence is bound to be ethical. Case studies give lot of scope for application of knowledge and mind which is the crux of wisdom. clarify beliefs.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology such as the limits on managers in the pursuit of profit. Discussion on ethics in business is necessary because business can become unethical. This module is compiled by Ms. Naziya and Ms. make informed decisions. Therefore the management students are better trained on live organizational situations with the help of case studies. Cases are narratives. By virtue of existing in such environments. wherein the existence of the business is justified by ethical alternatives it responsibly chooses. select data samplings. and think critically and reflectively. Today’s organizations want the fresh management students to be “job ready” from day one of their appointment. The case method represents a viable instructional approach for helping students learn how to analyze complex situations. Case studies fix the minds of the students in a specific situation and facilitate them to develop the art of making smart decisions by practicing. situations. and decision-making skills The case method also is believed to foster reflective thinking and is used to help learners appreciate multiple perspectives. problem-solving. The Case Method and Relativistic Thinking Management studies are a science to be learnt as well as an art to be practiced. business is duty bound to be accountable to the natural and social environment in which it survives. because whatever the business does affects its stakeholders and two. because every juncture of action has trajectories of ethical as well as unethical paths. predict outcomes. R. for at least two reasons: one. case studies help in developing wisdom. situations. and there are plenty of evidences today on unethical corporate practices. or statements that present unresolved and provocative issues. Sonia Singh. In management studies. Firms and corporations operate in the social and natural environment. while text books help acquiring more knowledge. and analyze how beliefs influence decisions. Case study method is more relevant to management studies in the context of functioning as a platform for visualizing different situations and learning by practicing solving various problems.Ratchana . Irrespective of the demands and pressures upon it. This underlines the relevance of case studies in management education even today. or the duty of 'whistleblowers' to the public as opposed to their employers. or questions. cases challenge participants 53 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.

make judgments. The purpose of a particular case is usually either to determine the problem that is presented. Like debaters that use rhetoric to win any side of an argument. rather than ethical decision-making. and other selected evidence. what the solution might be. financial statements.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology to analyze. although information can be real or invented. Without basic concepts of right or wrong to guide decision-making. If students lack ethics in high school and college. while spicing their arguments with buzzwords that induce others to support their objectives. The Case Method is a tool to teach persuasion. and related to some area of business management under study. Cases are important for bringing real world problems into a classroom or a workshop—they ensure active participation and may lead to innovative solutions to problems. the case method is an exercise in relativistic thinking. However. The relativistic thinking involves the ability to realize that there are many sides to any issue. backed by a persuasive analysis and the appearance of received wisdom is the key to success. Sonia Singh. critique. then there should be little surprise that they lack ethics in their careers. speculate and express reasoned opinions. Greed and over-reaching ambition often end in disastrous personal consequences. which may or may not be relevant. such as marketing.Ratchana . 'Be prepared to support any and all opinions and recommendations with well-reasoned arguments and numerical evidence. Naziya and Ms. Relativism is sometimes (though not always) interpreted as saying that all points of view are equally valid. or corporate governance. having only relative. As one teacher put it. or long and elaborate for semester-long projects. subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. R. in contrast to an absolutism which argues there is but one true and correct view. Ms. This module is compiled by Ms. accompanied by some tables. Above all. production management. The information included must be rich enough to make the situation credible. graphs. but not so complete as to close off discussion or exploration. and that the right answer depends upon the circumstances. Purge 'I think' and 'I feel' 54 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. if the problem is already stated. opinion and judgment related to a 'real world' business situation. BBM and MBAs are taught to be skilled in presenting 'facts' and 'crunching numbers'.Relativism is the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity. the Case Method creates amoral leaders. Relativistic thinking . or. since students are told beforehand that there is no 'right answer'. Case are collection of facts. Cases can be short for brief classroom discussions. a case must be realistic and believable. finance. BBMs and MBAs are indoctrinated with the idea that a determined attitude.

BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology from your assessment. This module is compiled by Ms. Altruists will disregard their own personal security for the benefit of others.. which depict real-life dilemmas faced by the companies. When communicating with an Altruist one should emphasize the benefits to all stakeholders involved. and preservation. Instead. A simple but powerful question can be used throughout your decision-making process in solving ethical dilemmas. Business Ethics means conducting all aspects of business and dealing with all stakeholders in an ethical manner. There can be no room for an ethical argument about 'the right thing to do'.. The self is the only criteria involved in decisions for this style while ignoring other stakeholders. When communicating with an Individualist one should emphasize the benefits to the other person’s self-interest. Thus a case analyst should apply bbusiness ethics which is a form of applied ethics for decision making. What is my motivation for choosing a course of action? Individual Ethical Decision-Making Styles and How to Effectively Communicate With Each Ethical Decision-Making Style Stanley Krolick developed a survey that interprets individual ethical decision-making styles. He identifies four individual ethical decision-making styles that include:  Individualist .Individualist and this decision maker is driven by natural reason. 55 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. because there is no right and wrong. The primary mission of Altruists is to generate the greatest amount of good for the largest number of people.. which involves generation of possible alternatives solutions for the case problem..Pragmatists who are concerned with current situations and not with the self or others. Ms.. required to be within the legal and regulatory framework as well as ethical boundaries of business? The case method promotes decision-making and self-reflection through use of case stories.’. personal survival. Naziya and Ms.  Altruists . This approach is almost opposite to that of the Individualist.. When communicating with a Pragmatist one should highlight the facts and possible effects of actions. R. rely on statements such as 'the analysis shows . It is facts and the current situation that guide this decision maker’s decision.Altruists who are primarily concerned for others. In spite of all this case analysis.Ratchana .  Pragmatists . Sonia Singh. This is counsel for a rhetorician rather than for a principled business leader.

The case writer should collect information from both primary and secondary sources. human resource (HR). internal memos. Identify the case site (an organization) and the case subject (a topic or theme).BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology Idealist . It’s the case writer's objective to produce an original presentation of the facts. both the length and form are largely dictated by the problem in hand. The students as well as faculty who are desirous of writing cases in any functional area will have to cultivate the abilities of writing precise and interesting prose. And while secondary sources -. R. finance. Revising and rewriting done with great the rough draft of the case written should be care before writing the final draft. It is akin to story writing. It could be in marketing. Cases vary greatly in length and type. Usually this description follows the opening paragraphs on the major issues in the case. IT Systems and others.In the early phase of the case writing project the primary objective of the investigator is to “get acquainted” with the subject. Case study writing: meaning Case study writing refers to writing narration of certain real events presented so as to provide the reader with data sufficient to help evaluate alternative courses of action. A background of the organization. Idealists display high moral standards and tend to be rigid in their approach to ethical situations. Sonia Singh. survey summaries etc. interviews etc. productions and operations management. Over-reliance on 56 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.Ratchana . Naziya and Ms. books. For this purpose the care writer should put to himself question like Are the sentences written in the case clear? Are they grammatically correct? Do they say what is meant? Do the various points incorporated in the case fit together logically? Given below are few guidelines in case study writing    Decide the functional area in which you want to write a case. Ms.  Collecting the data . The major issues in the situation and those which need to be highlighted in the case. When communicating with an Idealist one should focus on the duties and principles involved. There is a wide range of primary data sources – annual reports. In each individual case. – can be very useful in helping frame the issues. It is values and rules of conduct that determine the behaviours exhibited by Idealists.Idealist who is driven by principles and rules. The case writing demands planning. its situation should be included in the case as it is relevant and useful in providing a perspective for the case analyst. The best cases are those that have been created using detailed research designs accompanied by meticulous fieldwork. This module is compiled by Ms. discipline and hard work.newspaper and magazine articles.

Well-conceived discussion questions. purposely. handling a difficult customer. As many journalists say. overcoming problems of rejection & quality control and many others.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology secondary sources of information dramatically increases the probability of error by presenting as true. a case could be of anywhere up to 30 to 50 pages. interact with managers and CEO’s of different companies. Either the 57 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. many of these assignments can be converted in case studies. The content of teaching notes are described in the last section of the module. It will also depend on the quality and level of students. Teaching notes helps in checking the adequacy of the case for the purposes it was written. Ms. It could be about launch of a new product/ service. As they are assisting different types of businesses in solving their problems. and in outlining strategy of its use. unless the purpose of the case suggests otherwise. That typically is the length of a case given at HBS (Harvard Business School).  Discussion questions should be included along with the written case. can act as a kind of riverboat pilot guiding and directing the writing and editing process as it moves through unknown waters. This will help in cultivating the habit of reading. a good rule of thumb is.  Compile data both on external as well as internal environments. a Case Method is to bring home the importance of data collection. versus explanatory and supportive information to be put in exhibits or appendixes. 1-2 pages of a case on a theme will be more appropriate.  It is not necessary to give all the data in the case. As seen earlier. in describing its use. handling issues like attrition of personnel. developed early in the project. in ensuring that proper analysis can be done. information which has been biased by the interpretation of unknown others. Tips in case study writing  There is no hard and fast rule on the length of a case. A sequencing of items to provide for easy reading and comprehension. Sonia Singh.  Teaching notes should be included along the case. "If you can't stand behind it. ask them about any peculiar situation they are facing. how they won an order against tough competition."  When you visit an organization. being precise in problem identification. don't write it. some data can be kept missing. Essential aspects to be included in the text.Ratchana . This module is compiled by Ms. matters of intellectual property rights (IPR). R. For them. looking ahead in the future. For full time students in better known B-Schools.  Management Consultants are also good sources of data for case writing. Those who are working executives and are pursuing part time courses may not find time to read a lengthy case. Naziya and Ms.

choose one that seems appropriate. Ms.Ratchana . and short biographies. time-lines. Teaching cases competitions are organized (in particular by European Case Clearing House) to determine the best teaching cases. INSEAD. that’s why our focus is more on short case writing. Please remember that Case Method is not arithmetic where there will always be only one answer. and a carefully crafted teaching note often accompany cases. multimedia supplements (such as video-recordings of interviews). R. The case writer may either describe a sequence of events or put forth an issue or problem that requires decision making.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology students will have to do secondary research to collect the missing data or will have to make certain assumptions. Short cases are especially intended for undergraduate students. Naziya and Ms. A caselet is a shorter version of a case study. Some of the institutions that are the most active at writing teaching cases (as determined by the quantity and quality validated by awards) are: Harvard Business School. The students’ should be encouraged to think differently and come out with unusual alternatives. generally two pages in length. The quantitative data should be relevant and such where the various tool & techniques taught to them in the classroom and discussed earlier can be put to use. Case Study Writing Format A case study writer can either use a traditional or a feature story format. Put the data in an interesting manner. For both the types of case study writing format the additional relevant documentation (such as financial statements. Sonia Singh. Both the below mentioned case study writing format works more appropriately with short case studies. A case analysis can give rise to different alternatives and all of them could be correct. (For more information refer to module 5)    A dramatized presentation will make a case more attractive and will catch the attention of the students. This is the general practice in case analysis. which will arouse the curiosity of students. This module is compiled by Ms. often referred to in the case as "exhibits"). the Darden School at the University of Virginia. The writing of teaching cases is an activity that is conducted by a number of business school faculty in parallel to the writing of academic papers. 58 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Richard Ivey School of Business and Asian Case Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong.

The main advantage of this format is that the reader knows exactly what to expect and where to find specific information. This module is compiled by Ms. The reader can also glean much of the story by skimming through the subheads since they are part of the narrative. R. etc are described one after other. The lead (first sentence and paragraph) takes you right into the story.BBM Semester V  Traditional format Case Analysis and Methodology The traditional case study format follows a basic progression and generally uses a set pattern of subheads: 1. the case study reads more like an article in a business magazine. Teaching notes Writing a teaching note is an extremely important activity in the case writing process. The disadvantage of the feature story format is that it takes more skill to write. Ms. Solution (initiatives by taken by company to deal with problems) 5. It is meant to capture your attention from the beginning and get you engaged as a feature story might do. Naziya and Ms. Background information. both qualitative and quantitative. A teaching note should cover:     Training or educational programs in which the case could be used. relevant facts (Internal and external environmental data) 3. Sonia Singh. They develop the narrative and pull the reader through. challenges and issues 4.Ratchana . but it is essentially a set formula. The company information.  Feature story format In the feature story format the same elements appear in generally the same order. The subheads are more descriptive and story oriented. The story format is usually more engaging and more interesting to read. problems and challenge. 59 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Company information 2. Problems. Position of the case in the program and module for which it is intended. However. major or minor. Learning objectives. Major issues and their analysis. Results There can be variations on the exact wording of the subheads and sometimes "challenge" comes first. which could be achieved by using the case.

These concerns apply to two primary audiences: the subject of the case and its potential readers. protecting respondent’s right to privacy and confidentiality informing them clearly of the benefits and risks involved. Possible assignments for facilitating preparation and learning. Of these. circumstances and intangible qualities of the original event. and ensuring that they are given opportunity to decide whether or not to participate that is ‘informed consent’. the most important to the case writer is honesty. the whole matter is a bit of a slippery slope. especially for case study writing generally centre around three issues: integrity (truth). Naziya and Ms. Preparation required by the resource person and the participants. Past experience in using the case. This module is compiled by Ms. ethical concerns are relatively straightforward. Ms. Sonia Singh. privacy and informed consent. Important ethical principles generally included in ethics guidelines include doing no harm. character. Strategies to be used by the resource persons to get the best out of the case. Truth is not only subjective in some cases. there are no hard and fast rules for deciding truth. Ethical concerns in case method. truth means fidelity to the actual events being described. The writer's first obligation is to tell the truth. Truth is determined in large part by the degree to which a case accurately reproduces the facts.and preferably doing good-.Ratchana . In case writing. Nonetheless. Case writers have an ethical responsibility to their case subjects to report what actually occurred. In most student written cases. 60 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.  Integrity addresses issues of honesty. This is because much of the information used in the case will be drawn from public documents and the topics addressed in the case will be generic enough to preclude sources of potential conflict.BBM Semester V       Case Analysis and Methodology Background information and reading which would facilitate learning from and use of the case. R. Except for certain religious tenets one chooses to hold as absolute. principle and morality. there are certain ethical guidelines applicable to all case writing. and What happened in real life (if the organization featured in the study allows the information to be shared)? Ethical concerns Ethical questions are perhaps not central issues most of the times but very important.

2. Most students will draw the greater portion of their information from published sources so what they report in the case will have already been part of the public domain. Naziya and Ms. Simply put. the vast majority of student cases will not touch on topics requiring strict adherence to the formal release requirements for three reasons: 1. and to answer any questions the respondent may have regarding how the collected information will be used. to explain why certain questions are being asked. It is unlikely that a student project will be published. you may find he'll be more forthcoming (truth) in criticizing his workplace if he's not exposed to repercussions from his bosses.BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology With respect to privacy. Good sense requires that both student case writers and subject companies be aware of these precautions. This module is compiled by Ms. 2.  "Informed consent" means that the case writer and the subject(s) of the study have reached an understanding regarding the purpose and use of the project and the risks involved. the case writer is responsible for the protection of sensitive information. In summary. a manager may talk with you about a situation in his company only if you promise to give him anonymity. alcohol and drug problems. It implies that potential participants have been given sufficient information about what they are actually being asked to contribute and the uses to which it will be put.. it is the case writer's ethical responsibility to fully inform participants about the purpose of the study. R. a company release will protect the writer and sponsoring institution by providing written verification that permission has been granted to use the material in question. so they can judge whether unpleasant consequences might follow as a result of disclosure. Sonia Singh. Releases Organizations that write cases for commercial purposes routinely receive a formal release from the participating organization. The fact is. 61 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.Ratchana . e. Most only have two readers: the person(s) who prepared the case and the instructor. There are two reasons for this policy: 1. It protects the subject company from publication of information that may at the worst be incorrect or at a minimum misleading.g. But while they're important. If and when the case is commercially published. simply obtaining a release can put a chilling effect on potential research. The topics of particular sensitivity include company competitive information and individual personal information. Ms.

topics unlikely to serve as the basis for a potential dispute. student writers and their instructors must be aware of these issues and evaluate each project with reference to these guidelines. Student cases tend to focus on the "management fundamentals". Naziya and Ms. Sonia Singh.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology 3. i.Ratchana .. Ms. The subjects addressed in student reports typically do not address issues critical to competitive advantage or personal privacy. This module is compiled by Ms. Nonetheless.e. 62 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. R.

SECTION B (5 MARKS) 1. Write a note on pragmatists. 2. Write note on case study writing. Write a note on case method and relativistic thinking. Explain the feature story format of case study writing. 5. Sonia Singh. Write a note on case method. What are the two case study writing formats? 8. What is case study writing? State few guidelines and tips to be taken care while case study writing. 6. SECTION C (15 MARKS) 1. 2. Naziya and Ms. SECTION D (30 MARKS): Case study and articles 63 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. 3. 9. Write a note on ethical concerns in case method. Write a note on altruists. Explain the traditional format of case study writing.Ratchana . R. Ms. 7. What is relativistic thinking? 3. 4. Discuss the role of ethics in case analysis. This module is compiled by Ms. Explain elaborately the two types of case study writing formats. Explain elaborately the two types of case study writing formats.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Question Bank for Module 4 SECTION A (2 MARKS) 1. What are the individual ethical decision-making styles? 4. 5. Differentiate between traditional format and feature story format of case study writing.

Sonia Singh. The references to various theories and their inferences e. which is mostly disguised. regulations. The solution should be in the interests of the organization. The related provisions of various labour legislations should also be given correctly.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Module 5: Problems with case analysis Content of the module Analysis of problems in management case studies. will certainly improve the quality of the analysis and the suggested solution. he will be able to analyze the case in its proper perspective and suggest a practicable solution. investors. the background of poverty of workers.. the middle management departmental heads. the problem in the organization is created due to such outside factors. economic and political environment should also be taken into consideration.g.Ratchana . viz. rules and regulations to restore the normal positron. illiteracy in the country. Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchy of needs etc. Usually there are four parties involved in the case. Ms. lack of job opportunities in the country for labour mobility. This module is compiled by Ms. impact of democratic principles on workers etc. code of conduct. outside political interference in trade union activities. Analysis of Problems in Management Case Studies The case can be analyzed from different points of view. While analyzing the case.g. how to deal with missing information from the cases study. the social. While analyzing and suggesting solutions. 64 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. liberalization of the economy. The solution to be suggested must be in the larger interests of safeguarding the provisions of laws. code of conduct or precedents in vogue. Naziya and Ms. the employees or workers and finally the society in general (it includes consumers. the proprietor or top management. the student should try to look at the case from these different points of view and try to pin point violation of rules. e. The student should quote or give definitions of the authorities in Management Science or Economists in support of the suggested solution. potential employees and those who are directly or indirectly affected by the organization). Many times. If the student is aware of these factors/situations. advantages of case study method. R. distributors. problems / limitations of case study method. the weaker sections of the organization and society in general.

the circumstances also change. as well as when and how to rectify the situation. symptoms cannot be easily separated from causes. which will be of vital importance to him as an executive. Naziya and Ms. distress or unconcerned altitudes and what can be done. It gives confidence to the student. The case contains too much information. very often do not know what they want. Where human beings are concerned.  Personnel problems cannot be solved in a clear-cut manner. Situations involving people can rarely be seen in black-and-white terms. which seems to be the best alternative available. This module is compiled by Ms. how there may be deep causes underlying the apparent expressions of happiness. While solving personnel problems adopt an analytical approach to decision making but. not simply by reference to what has gone before. R. the students or trainee executives have to face similar cases in future life as executives. The case study serves two purposes: Firstly. Their needs are obscure and need to be defined. There is every possibility that the analysis may be useless. Ms. People within the organization. the case study provides lest material where the student can apply the principles he has studied so far.  It is always difficult to ignore the precedents but at the same time the wrong decisions in the past need not be continued. Precedents are important when dealing with personnel and industrial relations problems and care should be taken not to create a bad precedent for the future. in the end. Sonia Singh.  Skill is required to inquire into what has happened or what people really want. With the change of time. The case will tell them how incidents lake place. you will have to rely upon your judgment in deciding on a course of action. Decision should be made in the light of an objective analysis of the facts. because there may be precedents.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Case study method for personnel problems presents some typical difficulties.  It is always necessary to take into consideration the past decisions. But there is much danger in being too concerned about past decisions. Judgment is necessary to study the evidence and to decide relevant points. Secondly. 65 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. It may also be difficult to establish objectives. It is always difficult to get the facts – people in the same situation interpret and present them in different ways depending on their attitude and background.Ratchana . which is to be analyzed. including the top management. The issue is frequently not clear for want of defined policies or procedures. and test their validity.

you have to decide:      what information you need. The timely availability information are the basic input to any decision making process in a business. you can make assumptions based on something read in the text. 66 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Case studies reflect the reality of managerial decision-making in the real world. why you need it. Naziya and Ms. and unclear problems in a case study. ambiguity. industry related questions. Just as in business. In cases. when it is impossible or impractical to gather all of the helpful information (usually).BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology How to deal with missing information from the cases study Case study method deals with ambiguity. The secondary data refers to the data which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. Another option to deal with missing information from the cases study is collecting the insufficient and missing information from the primary and secondary sources. The instructor should constantly encourage students to drive toward specific actions in spite of incomplete information. The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time. channel relationships. or trends that you see in exhibits. students have to make appropriate assumptions relating to missing and insufficient information.Ratchana . However. It takes complex situations and weights up conflict. upon which to rely when making decision. In business. uncertain circumstances. Secondary data is the information which already exists. which contained relevant queries on missing information in a case study as well as pertinent. This module is compiled by Ms. R. Secondary data is collected from newspaper. Cases reflect the ambiguity and complexity that accompany most management issues. etc. you have to make all sorts of assumptions about the environment. Sonia Singh. how much time and money it will take to acquire or produce it. It is collected through an interviewing. sometimes information is missing from the cases. Ms. personnel turnover. in that students must make decisions based on insufficient information. and if it will make a significant enough difference to affect your decision. where it can be found. If you believe you do not have all of the information. and thus happen to be original in character. administrating the questionnaire. You should assume that everything is pretty normal/ typical in the organization unless specifically stated otherwise in the case.

Sometimes the information is readily available from a government source such as the Department of Commerce. and deal with the issues managers face. and critical thinking skills cab be developed through case method. Naziya and Ms. brochures etc. books. By providing rich. Sonia Singh. This module is compiled by Ms. The advantages of case study method of learning are as follow:  Develops analytic and problem solving skills in students. It also helps students to make more informed decisions about their career choices. they encourage students to build on each other’s comments. internet. by providing real-life examples of the underlying theoretical concepts. Thus case method allows student to apply his knowledge and skills such as decision making. journals. with no risk to themselves or the organization involved. organizations. Advantages of case study method The great advantage of the case method is that it brings real life into the classroom in concentrated form (a sort of virtual apprenticeship) and gives students the opportunity to participate actively in their own learning. or even from your competitors via promotional material.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology magazines. in a given problem situation.  Case studies expose students to a wide range of industries. communicate with one another.  Cases allow students to learn by doing.  Cases improve the students ability to ask the right questions. functions and responsibility levels. data handling skills. probe each other’s assumptions and hypotheses. Their ability to identify and understand the underlying problems rather than the symptoms of the problems is also enhanced.  Cases studies strengthen the student's grasp of management theory. This provides students the flexibility and confidence to deal with a variety of tasks and responsibilities in their careers. They allow students to step into the shoes of decisionmakers in real organizations. they breathe life into conceptual discussions. and reach consensus on recommendations for action.Ratchana 67 . interesting information about real business situations. The teacher’s questions not only generate dialogue. Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. R. Ms. Analytical skills such as problem identification skills.

 Case studies require the students to position themselves amidst the given situation and demand their wisdom to come out. This serves to improve their oral and written communication skill and interpersonal skills. The managerial decision-making involves integration of theories and concepts learnt in different functional areas such as marketing and finance. Case studies simulate organizational situations. Ms. students must also be able to understand and deal with the different viewpoints and perspectives of the other members in their team. This module is compiled by Ms.  Case studies provide an integrated view of management. 68 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. R. Knowledge is awareness on various aspects of a particular object while wisdom is all about application of that knowledge. while text books help acquiring more knowledge. Case studies fix the minds of the students in a specific situation and facilitate them to develop the art of making smart decisions by practicing. requiring strategic as well as tactical decisions. Knowledge can be acquired by extensive learning while extensive practicing can develop wisdom. Naziya and Ms.  Case studies improve creativity and innovations in decision making. Case studies enable the students to visualize real life situations in the organization and facilitate the students in making trial and error attempts to sole the issues. Case method allows the students to explore of solutions for complex issues.  It provides students with authentic situations in which to explore and apply a range of behaviors and information that can strengthen the transfer of learning. Sonia Singh.BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology Cases provide students with an exposure to the actual working of business and other organizations in the real world.  When students participate in analysis and discussion of alternative solutions they better understand difficult or complicated issues and analyze them more effectively. case studies help in developing wisdom. The case studies enable the management students to evaluate comparatively various options and decide upon how the resources can be deployed effectively to solve the immediate problem. The case studies give lot of scope for application of knowledge and mind which the crux of wisdom is. In management studies. The case method exposes students to this reality of management.Ratchana .  When working on a case study in a group.

Case Research Journal 13 (summer): 134. R. the questions that focus on the core strategic issues included within a case.) The case method can help you develop your analytical and judgment skills. 4. Finally. Students must confront the intractability of reality--complete with absence of needed information. tasks. experience in analyzing cases definitely enhances your problem-solving skills. This approach vicariously broadens your experience base and provides insights into many types of managerial situations. Arts subjects require models as the basis for students to practice. Case analysis also helps you learn how to ask the right questions-that is. A framework for student case preparation. 3. Enz. 69 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. to develop realistic and concrete actions despite the complexity and partial knowledge characterizing the situation being studied. Students aspiring to be managers can improve their ability to identify underlying problems. and persuading--while preparing for a case discussion. Naziya and Ms. can be learnt better by analyzing different situations and understanding why and how important decisions were taken. yet appropriate. 1993. and conflicts among competing objectives. through development of the skills required to ask probing. Cases require students to relate analysis and action. observing. This module is compiled by Ms. Consequences of Student Involvement with the Case Method 1. 2. The particular set of cases your instructor chooses to assign the class can expose you to a wide variety of organizations and managerial situations. Case analysis requires students to practice important managerial skills--diagnosing. Such indirect experience can help you make a more informed career decision about the industry and managerial situation you believe will prove to be challenging and satisfying.C. rather than focusing on superficial symptoms. an imbalance between needs and available resources. questions. Ms. The management studies being both science and arts. Case study method is more relevant to management studies in the context of functioning as a platform for visualizing different situations and learning by practicing solving various problems. making decisions. and responsibilities. Lundberg and C.Ratchana . Students develop a general managerial point of view--where responsibility is sensitive to action in a diverse environmental context. listening. (Source: C. Sonia Singh.BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology Case study as a lab experiment – Science subjects require laboratories for the students to experiment and learn.

Ratchana . Ms. it may turn counter-productive.  Case study method requires serious involvement both from the teacher as well as the students. theories and methods in different functional areas of management. This module is compiled by Ms. and ignore actual "real world" experience. a case written in early 70’s on Typewriters will have no relevance today as the product has become obsolete with the advent of computers. case analysis will not so effective. the Balance Sheet given say for the year ended 2008 may not be of much use because two more years of Balance Sheets will now be available. So students are required to be equipped with some general knowledge about the industry.  Case analysis requires some domain knowledge of the industry it covers. not the real thing. theories and methods. the Case method is a good tool in learning. unless everyone takes it seriously. R. 70 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.BBM Semester V Problems / Limitations of Case study Method Case Analysis and Methodology Undoubtedly. Without the basic knowledge of management concepts. However. At times. students require to have certain amount of knowledge of management concepts. Cases are not "real" . Naziya and Ms. Also. 2) A shortage of time in which to make those decisions 3) Students may not see relevance to own situation 4) Insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results 5) Not appropriate for elementary level  To conduct the case analysis. the outcome cannot be productive.  A number of frustrations commonly faced by decision maker or case analyst or student. Sonia Singh. while analyzing the case study are 1) A shortage of information on which to base decisions. For example. can grow dated. It may not be possible to keep on updating the cases regularly. it suffers from the following Problems / limitations:  The cases can become outdated.they are accounts.

Sonia Singh.Ratchana . the situations do not present themselves in neat clean shapes.  Serious problems in real life situations need serious attention and enormous thinking. 71 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Naziya and Ms. This module is compiled by Ms. solutions may not be that much simple. students involved in case analysis and take decision and design implementation plan under hypothetical situations. But under case study approach.BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology Optimal solutions are always dependant on resources available at that point of time. the students tend to base their arguments only on the data given in the case. business houses faces because of the ever changing environment and people around them. Moreover. This could be inadequate. It is very easy to stand off and suggest on matters which do not affect us immediately. Decisions may need to be modified at a later date because there is bound to be some change in the resources which are dynamic. Evaluating Student Performance in a case-driven course The evaluation of a student's performance in a case-driven course can be based on some or all of the following factors:  Participation in classroom case discussions (quality and extent of participation).  The secondary data on the industry covered may not be available easily. therefore. pressuring our minds which may not work at times of real crisis. but unfold slowly. the Case Method is one of the best ways of learning in B-Schools. Ms. It is dangerous to generalize and apply them universally. needs to improve their knowledge and skills in understanding new and complex situations. In spite of these limitations. which can be arrived at by theoretical analysis. In that case. but it is very difficult to make even simple decisions when we are under tense situations. Participant or student may not be aware of real new and complex situations. even though information may be inadequate and future outcome uncertain.  Every case is unique and more so the solutions.  It is always easier said than done. R. Decision-makers. Managers make decisions in real and not hypothetical situations.

BBM Semester V     Case Analysis and Methodology Written case analyses (logical flow and structuring of the content. etc. logical flow and structuring of the content. language and presentation. Case presentations (communication skills. Naziya and Ms. quality of analysis and recommendations. 72 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. etc. R. quality of analysis and recommendations. This module is compiled by Ms. Ms. Case study writing assignments or similar projects.). Case-based examinations. Sonia Singh.).Ratchana .

2. This module is compiled by Ms. State two advantages of case study method. Ms. Naziya and Ms. What are the parameters to evaluate student performance in a case-driven course? SECTION C (15 MARKS) 1. 2.Ratchana .BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Question Bank for Module 5 SECTION A (2 MARKS) 1. What is case study method? What are the advantages and problems/ limitations of case study method? SECTION D (30 MARKS): Case study and article 73 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. 3. SECTION B (5 MARKS) 1. 4. Explain how missing information from the case study are dealt with. What are the advantages of case study method? Explain the various problems with case analysis. Write five pit falls in usage of case studies? 2. Sonia Singh. Write brief note on analysis of problems in management case studies. State two disadvantages of case study method. R.

The key issues related to decision-makers preferences regarding alternatives. It presents the decision-analysis process for decision-making. The Latin root of the word decision means. some cognitive process cuts off as preferred. Ms. in other words. In this sense.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Module 6: Decision-making Content of the module Concept of decision-making. a particular course of action from among a set of possible alternatives. Decision-making is a process of first diverging to explore the possibilities and then converging on a solution(s). together with the risk assessment tools are presented. In the other words. criteria for choice. Sonia Singh." — Chinese Proverb Concept of decision making The simplest way to view decision-making is to see a decision as an act of choice by which an individual or organization selects one position or action from the several alternatives. This module is compiled by Ms. decision making in case analysis. and information of varying quality. and choice modes. "A wise man makes his own decisions. R. The case method of instruction has been a trademark of graduate professional education at Harvard University since it first developed at the Harvard Law School in the 19th century. Naziya and Ms. "to cut off from all alternatives". It is predicated on the belief that discussion focused on real-world situations and guided by skilled instructors will better prepare students for professional life than would lecture and theory alone. different types of information. Decision-making is a conscious and human process. or selects. The verb ‘decide’ is derived from the Latin prefix ‘de’ meaning ‘off’ and the word ‘caedo’ meaning ‘cut’. as well as the goals and objectives that guide decisionmaking. It describes the elements in the analysis of decision alternatives and choices. a decision-making represents an action or series of actions chosen from a number of possible alternatives. using different decision criteria. Decision-making is the cognitive 74 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. decision-making process. Thus. problem analysis versus decisionmaking. Introduction Making decisions is certainly the most important task of a manager and it is often a very difficult one. Cases. This is what you should do when you decide. an ignorant man follows public opinion.Ratchana . put students in the shoes of real-life decision-makers in order to prepare for them for their own lives of decision-making.

R. which is distinct from the one to one correspondence between theory and application that they see in their textbooks or hear in lectures. Case studies allow a different kind of learning. Decision-making can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. A major part of decision-making involves the analysis of a finite set of alternatives described in terms of some evaluative criteria. It is close to the ‘learn by doing’ approach. competitors' activities. Typically. Decision making in case analysis A case presents a situation involving a managerial problem or issue that requires a decision. Then the problem might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision maker(s) when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. its financial condition. Through a case study. This description often includes information regarding the organization's goals and objectives. market conditions. Cases are intended to 75 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Cases require students to make choices about what theory or concepts to apply in conducting the analysis. Ms. This module is compiled by Ms. Another goal might be to just find the best alternative or to determine the relative total priority of each alternative (for instance. cases describe a variety of conditions and circumstances facing an organization at a particular time. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. Case studies encourage the practice and attainment of analytical and communicative skills. one learns a broad range of skills and has many alternatives.Ratchana . Solving such problems is the focus of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) also known as multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). or they can involve evaluation or reconsideration of existing policies. the attitudes and beliefs of managers and employees. These criteria may be benefit or cost in nature.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. Naziya and Ms. if alternatives represent projects competing for funds) when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. practices or proposals. and various environmental forces that may affect the organization's present or proposed marketing strategy. but can be drawn from both the present and the past. Cases can involve situations in which decisions must be made or problems solved. Every decision-making process produces a final choice. even the distant past. Sonia Singh. Effective cases are usually based on real events.

R. Problem Analysis        Analyze performance. The concepts are completely separate from one another. the student will have to persuade superiors that his analysis and solutions are the best and hence the communication and interpersonal skills are vital to success in management. Sonia Singh. The material in the case provides data for analysis and decision-making. What are the crucial unknown aspects of the scene? 4. In what ways can logic and reasoning be used to determine crucial inferences. In what manner can contradictory facts and arguments be weighed in making decisions? 7. What are the major critical questions related to each specific event? 5. connections and relationships? 6. what should the results be against what they actually are Problems are merely deviations from performance standards Problem must be precisely identified and described Problems are caused by some change from a distinctive feature Something can always be used to distinguish between what has and hasn't been effected by a cause Causes to problems can be deducted from relevant changes found in analyzing the problem Most likely cause to a problem is the one that exactly explains all the facts 76 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology stimulate the reality of the manager’s job.Ratchana . Cases require the student to make decisions about the situations presented and to defend those decisions. In what ways can those decisions be best executed? Problem Analysis versus Decision Making It is important to differentiate between problem analysis and decision-making. Naziya and Ms. What are the relevant facts? 3. Case analyst should try to seek answers to following questions to arrive at effective decision: 1. This module is compiled by Ms. What should be the proper timing of decisions? 8. Ms. Problem analysis must be done first. In real decision-making. and then the information gathered in that process may be used towards decision making. What is actual problem involved in the case? 2. Cases provide the opportunity to improve these skills.

which signal the presence of a performance deficiency or opportunity. R. Implementing the Solution 6. Naziya and Ms. Decisions must reflect a firm’s aims and relate to objectives. Identifying and defining the problem 2. This module is compiled by Ms. Identify and Defining the Problem This is a stage of information gathering. Three common mistakes may occur at this step. 77 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. The typical process to decision-making and problem solving involves the following steps. information processing.BBM Semester V Decision Making        Objectives must first be established Case Analysis and Methodology Objectives must be classified and placed in order of importance Alternative actions must be developed The alternative must be evaluated against all the objectives The alternative that is able to achieve all the objectives is the tentative decision The tentative decision is evaluated for more possible consequences The decisive actions are taken. 1. Generating alternatives solutions 3. Choice of alternative solution 5. Mistake Number 2 is Focusing on symptoms instead of causes. and additional actions are taken to prevent any adverse consequences from becoming problems and starting both systems (problem analysis and decision making) all over again The Decision-Making Process Effective strategic business decisions bring together the right resources for the right markets at the right time. Evaluation of alternatives 4. A good decision can help a business gain a competitive edge. Evaluating the results 1. Sonia Singh. It often begins with the appearance of problem symptoms. Mistake Number 1 is defining the problem too broadly or too narrowly.Ratchana . The way a problem is originally defined can have a major impact on how it is eventually resolved. Ms. and deliberation.

any one alternative would 78 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Sonia Singh. Alternatives need to be evaluated against the specified criteria in order to resolve the problem. social or personal. At this stage more information is gathered. Managers should set priorities and deal with the most important ones first. the decision-maker needs to generate appropriate alternatives solutions for resolving the problem. Generating alternatives solutions Having identified the problem. data are analysed. The skills.) would also help in arriving at better alternatives. Naziya and Ms. An understanding of organizational and external constraints as well as organizational resources helps in identifying the range of feasible action alternatives open to the decision-maker. The involvement of other persons is important in order to maximize information and build commitment. as well as creative skills in generating the options. the outcome of choosing any alternative is not known with certainty. Common errors in this stage include selecting a particular solution too quickly. which could help in discovering alternatives solutions would be holistic and logical thinking to comprehend the situation.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Mistake Number 3 is choosing the wrong problem to deal with. and choosing an alternative solution that has damaging side effects. and the pros and cons of possible alternatives solutions are identified. 3. 2. Knowledge of both the internal and external environments of the organization and the subject matter pertinent to the problem (human relations. which fit the situation. Ms. In addition. Typical criteria for evaluating alternatives include: o Benefits o Costs o Timeliness o Acceptability o Ethical soundness The ultimate purpose of developing and specifying criteria is to evaluate alternatives and select the best one for resolving the problem. Usually. etc. Data are the basic input to any decision making process in a business. R. how scientists can be motivated.Ratchana . Criteria could be economic. the next step is to evaluate them and select the one that will meet the choice criteria. This module is compiled by Ms. Evaluation of alternatives After the various alternatives are identified.

where. Ms. prioritization of criteria could help in identifying the best alternative. how. Nothing new can or will happen according to plan unless action is taken. Sonia Singh. the best alternative may be selected using a cost-benefit criterion. Just how this is done and by whom must be resolved in each problem situation. Problem solving becomes a dynamic and ongoing activity within the management process. The additional skills required in this step would be those of devising control and feedback mechanisms. In any evaluation. a "decision" is made to select a particular course of action.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology not be uniformly superior by all criteria. This evaluation is a form of managerial control. or the failure to involve those whose support is necessary. given partial and limited information about the possible outcomes of the alternatives. 5. 4. material and fiscal) and develop a time-phased programme for implementation. when. At this point. the decision-maker needs to decide who would do what. In some situations. except that the chosen alternative becomes an input to this step. additional criteria may come into play. 79 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Difficulties at this stage often can trace to the lack-ofparticipation error. both the positive and negative consequences of the chosen course of action should be examined. This is essentially the implementation phase. an action plan has to be developed. Managers need the ability and willingness to implement the decision. Naziya and Ms. in others. R. Assessments of alternatives among the criteria need to be made. The process of arriving at these decisions is just like the steps involved in the problem solving approach. This phase would require coordination skills to properly organize a variety of resources (human. If the desired results are not achieved. In this phase. the process must be renewed to allow for corrective action. The decision-maker might explicitly consider trade-offs between alternatives in order to select the best.Ratchana . As such. This module is compiled by Ms. etc. 6. Once the alternatives are developed. appropriate action plans must be established and implemented. Evaluate Results The decision making process is not complete until results are evaluated. Choice of alternative solution This involves choosing the most appropriate option. Implement the Solution After selecting the preferred solution.

It also implies anticipating the most likely points of failure and devising appropriate contingency plans to handle the possible failures.Problem rationalization The clear rationalization that the problem was generic and could only is solved through a decision that establishes a rule or a principle. Sonia Singh. Financial accountants use recorded data to prepare the accounting statements for a business. A business creates a trail of data. records on sales. Ms. Management accountants use internal data (such as a balance sheet) and external data (such as market information) to identify trends. This includes for example. This module is compiled by Ms. This data is used to assess effects on the business and its strategies in order to make better choices. 80 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Decisions can be:    Strategic – these are long-term and higher risk in their impact. the original decision (chosen alternative) may not work well and the decision-maker may have to be ready with a contingency plan. They are often made by middle managers Operational – these relate to the day-to-day running of the business. They are mainly routine and can be taken by anyone. familiarity with the situation given in case study. staff costs or payment. Naziya and Ms. They shape the direction of the whole business and are usually made by senior managers Tactical – these help to implement the strategy. For this gain.Ratchana . Decisions at all levels need information. R. Levels of decision-making Decisions are made at different levels in a business’ hierarchy. Know the problem you are solving. Elements of an Effective Decision Making Process According to Peter Drucker these are the 5 elements of an effective decision making process. including results of the action plan. Here’s a quick explanation of the five elements of effective decision-making:  Element 1 .BBM Semester V Feedback and contingency planning Case Analysis and Methodology For a variety of reasons. This implies devising feedback mechanisms allowing monitoring of the status of the situation.

Ratchana . Sonia Singh. Naziya and Ms. Complexity in the modern world.  Element 3 . Clearly. make it necessary to provide a rational decision making framework. and risk.  Element 5 . Conclusion Decision-making is purposeful selection from among a set of alternatives in light of a given objective. When this decision has been made.BBM Semester V  Case Analysis and Methodology Element 2 . uncertainty.” Know your range of options that will still count as success. 81 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. first figure out what the right thing to do is.Feedback Get feedback on what is working and what is not. Managers make decisions in complex situations. that is.  Element 4 . R. Turn decisions into action. events that the decision-maker has no control over may have occurred.Action. Decision-making is not a separate function of management. This module is compiled by Ms. Each combination of alternatives. This decision maker has a number of alternatives and must choose one of them. The objective of the decision-maker is to choose the best alternative. leads to an outcome with some measurable value. along with information quantity. the better the decision will be. A decision needs a decision maker who is responsible for making decisions. Ms. the more information the decision maker has.The Right Thing to Do Before you decide what is feasible. of the “boundary conditions.Boundary conditions The definition of the specifications that the answer to the problem has to satisfy. followed by an event happening. Business decision making is almost always accompanied by conditions of uncertainty.

Note: Modules are the guidelines for learning the syllabus. For further detail reference. Explain the concept of decision-making. 82 Note: This module is strictly for Private circulation of JU-CMS. Sonia Singh. refer the recommended reference books. This module is compiled by Ms. Write short note on problem analysis versus decision-making. 2. Case Method: Cases in Management. 2008. Explain the concept of decision-making. What are the three levels of decision-making? SECTION B (5 MARKS) 1. What are the steps involved in decision-making process? 2. R. 2nd edition. Himalaya Publishing House. 4. Delhi. Naziya and Ms. 3. What is decision-making? 2. What are the elements of an effective decision making process? SECTION C (15 MARKS) 1.BBM Semester V Case Analysis and Methodology Question Bank for Module 6 SECTION A (2 MARKS) 1. What is decision-making? Elaborately explain decision making in context to case analysis and steps involved in decision-making process. Explain decision making in context to case analysis.Ratchana . SECTION D (30 MARKS): Case study and articles Reference Book: Neeta Baporikar. Ms.