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Introduction

TMD’s

Charmonium Models

Formalism

Models for Sivers function

RESULTS

Summary

Sivers Effect and Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry in e + p ↑ → J /ψ + X
Vaibhav S. Rawoot
Department of Physics, University of Mumbai

In collaboration with Rohini Godbole (IISc Bangalore), Anuradha Misra (Mumbai U.) and Asmita Mukherjee (IIT Bombay) (arXiv:hep-ph/1201.1066)

16 April 2012

Vaibhav S. Rawoot

Introduction

TMD’s

Charmonium Models

Formalism

Models for Sivers function

RESULTS

Summary

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Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary

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Vaibhav S. Rawoot

SSA for inclusive process A↑ + B → C + X defined by AN = d σ↑ − d σ↓ d σ↑ + d σ↓ Vaibhav S. Rawoot .Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Transverse Single Spin asymmetry (SSA) SSA’s arises in the scattering of a transversely polarized proton off an unpolarised hadron or nucleon if the scattering cross section depends on the direction of polarization.

Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry From Low to High Energies √ xF = 2pL / s Slide from Leonard Gamburg talk. TRANSVERSITY 2011. Vaibhav S. Rawoot .

Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Modern Era. Rawoot . PRL 92. 202001 (2005) Vaibhav S. Transverse SSA at √ s = 200 GeV at RHIC STAR. 171801 (2004) PHENIX. PRL 95.

k⊥ ) Transversity Distribution: Transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon ⊥ h1 (x ) Collins function: Fragmentation of transversely polarized quarks into an unpolarised hadron.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Transverse Momentum Dependent Distributions (TMD’s) Sivers function:Unpolarised partons in a transversely polarized nucleon. ∆N fa/p↑ (x . ∆N Da/h↑ Helicity distribution: Quark densities for quark spin parallel and antiparallel with the longitudinal nucleon spin Vaibhav S. Rawoot g1L (x ) .

k⊥ ) + 2 Vaibhav S. Number density of partons inside proton with transverse polarization S.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Sivers Effect Azimuthally asymmetric distribution of unpolarised partons inside the transversely polarized nucleon. Rawoot . k⊥ ) S · (ˆ a/p (x . 1 N ˆ ˆ ˆ⊥ ). fa/p↑ (x . is expressed in terms of Sivers function. k⊥ ) = f p×k ∆ fa/p↑ (x . three momentum p and intrinsic transverse momentum k⊥ of partons.

Rawoot . there is contribution only from a single partonic subprocess γ g → c c ¯ : can be used as a clean probe of gluon Sivers function. at LO. Vaibhav S. low virtuality electroproduction) of charmonium in scattering of electrons off transversely polarized protons.e.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary J /ψ Production and Transverse SSA Here we propose charmonium production as a probe to investigate the Gluon Sivers function. In the process that we are considering. We estimate SSA in photoproduction (i.

693 (2009). Lansberg. Vaibhav S. NRQCD factorization approach. 0)Pssz (P . B 695. C 61. 149 (2010). Phys.P. J. Eur. Color Evaporation Model (CEM). J. Rawoot . Recent studies shows the NLO and NNLO corrections to CSM improves the fits at TEVATRON and RHIC. Color singlet Q Q 1 A(P ) = √ R0 Tr [O (P . Lett. Color Singlet Model (CSM) Einhorn and Ellis (1975) ¯ pair is formed in the short-distance process in color-singlet state and has the QQ same spin and angular momentum quantum numbers as the quarkonium. ¯ wave function at origin. 0)] 4π R0 is the radial function at the origin.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Models for J /ψ Production Color Singlet Model (CSM). Phys.

NRQCD factorization approach. Phys. 0)Pssz (P .P.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Models for J /ψ Production Color Singlet Model (CSM). Phys. 693 (2009). Color Evaporation Model (CEM). Color singlet Q Q 1 A(P ) = √ R0 Tr [O (P . B 695. Rawoot . 0)] 4π R0 is the radial function at the origin. Lett. C 61. J. Recent studies shows the NLO and NNLO corrections to CSM improves the fits at TEVATRON and RHIC. Eur. J. Lansberg. ¯ wave function at origin. Vaibhav S. Color Singlet Model (CSM) Einhorn and Ellis (1975) ¯ pair is formed in the short-distance process in color-singlet state and has the QQ same spin and angular momentum quantum numbers as the quarkonium. 149 (2010).

where M is the lowest mass meson containing the heavy quark Q. µ)fj (x2 . Rawoot .Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Color Evaporation Model (CEM) H. σCEM [hA hB → H + X ] = FH 2 4mM i . kT smearing in CEM improves the hadroproduction CDF data. Eboli etal. arXiv:hep-ph/0504014 (2005). arXiv: hep-ph/0211161 (2002).j 4m2 dˆ s dx1 dx2 fi (x1 . Vaibhav S. Bodwin etal. µ) ×σ ˆij (ˆ s )δ(ˆ s − x1 x2 s ) Good description of photoproduction data after inclusion of higher order QCD corrections. Fritzsch (1977) The cross-section for a quarkonium state H is some fraction FH of the ¯ pair with invariant mass below the M M ¯ cross-section for producing Q Q threshold.

Phys. The NRQCD factorization approach to heavy-quarkonium production is by far the most sound theoretically and most successful phenomenologically. which is heavy quark velocity within the bound state. σ [H ] = n H σn (Λ) On (Λ) σn are short-distance coefficients. Rev. Butenschon and Kniehl. Bodwin. Lett. H (Λ) are long distance matrix elements that are formulated in terms of the On effective field theory NRQCD. 022003 (2011) Vaibhav S. Rawoot . Braaten and Lepage (1995) It is the effective theory based on a systematic expansion in both αs and v.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary NRQCD Factorization approach. 106.

Vaibhav S. D 78. Feng Yuan. Rev. Our present study suggest another probe to compare the different models for the J /ψ production.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary SSA and Quarkonium Production Mechanism Single transverse spin asymmetry in heavy quarkonium production in lepton-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon collisions is studied by considering initial and final state inteactions. Phys. 014024 (2008) Found that the asymmetry is very sensitive to the production mechanism. Rawoot .

Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Charmonium Production using CEM As a first step in our investigation of SSA’s in charmonium production. Rawoot . we have used Color Evaporation Model for J /ψ production. Cross section for the low virtuality electroproduction with CEM σ ep →e +J /ψ +X 2 4 mD = 2 4 mc 2 dMc c ¯ dy dx fγ/e (y ) fg /p (x ) c dσ ˆ γ g →c ¯ 2 dMc ¯ c Distribution function of the photon in the electron given by William Weizsaker approximation (Kniehl (1991)) α 1 + (1 − y )2 { π y E 1 − m 2 + y ln 2 2 −2 y fγ/e (y . E ) = ln + +1 }. (2 − y )2 ln 2y 2 − 2y 2−y Vaibhav S.

Rawoot .Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Generalization of CEM expression for electroproduction of J /ψ by taking into account the transverse momentum dependence of the WW function and gluon distribution function. σ e +p ↑ →e +J /ψ +X = 2 4mD 2 4mc 2 2 2 dMc c ¯ dxγ dxg [d k⊥γ d k⊥g ] fg /p ↑ (xg . k⊥γ ) Vaibhav S. k⊥g ) ¯ dσ ˆ γ g →c c 2 dMc c ¯ fγ/e (xγ .

two kind of k⊥ dependence have been used Gaussian form as above: fγ/e (xγ . k⊥ ) = f (x ) 2 1 e −k⊥ / 2 π k⊥ 2 k⊥ 2 k⊥ = 0. Rawoot . Phys. J. A 39.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary We assume k⊥ dependence of pdf’s to be factorized in gaussian form (Anselmino etal. Vaibhav S. 89 (2009)) f (x . k⊥γ ) = fγ/e (xγ ) N 1 2 2 2π k⊥ γ + k0 2 1 e − k ⊥γ / 2 π k⊥ γ 2 k⊥ γ . Eur. k⊥γ ) = fγ/e (xγ ) Dipole form: fγ/e (xγ .25GeV 2 For the k⊥ dependent WW function.

Rawoot . k⊥g ) γ g →c c ¯ ×fγ/e (xγ . for evaluating SSA in DY process (Anselmino etal. 074010 (2003)) Expression for the numerator of the asymmetry d 4 σ↑ d 4 σ↓ 1 − = dy d 2 qT dy d 2 qT 2 2 4mD 2 4mc [dM 2 ] [dxγ dxg d 2 k⊥γ d 2 k⊥g ] ∆N fg /p↑ (xg . k⊥γ ) δ4 (pg + pγ − q ) σ ˆ0 (M 2 ).Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Single Spin Asymmetry Formalism that we have used is similar to the one used by Anselmino etal. 2 γ = 4 mc /M 2 Vaibhav S. PRD 67. where q = pc + pc ¯ Partonic cross section ¯ σ ˆ0 γ g →c c (M 2 ) = √ 1 2 4πααs 1 2 1+ 1−γ ec [(1 + γ − γ ) ln − (1 + γ ) √ 2 M2 2 1− 1−γ 1 − γ ].

ˆ⊥ ) gives an azimuthal dependence The mixed product S · (ˆ p×k ˆ⊥ ) = cos φk S · (ˆ p×k ⊥ Vaibhav S. sin φk⊥ . sin φq . 0) k⊥ = k⊥ (cos φk⊥ .Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary The transverse momenta qT and k⊥ have azimuthal angles φq and φk⊥ qT = qT (cos φq . 0) φk⊥ is the angle that transverse momentum of the parton k⊥ makes with x axis. Rawoot .

D 73. Collins et al. 094023 (2006). C. k⊥g )fγ/e (xγ . Phys. k⊥g )fγ/e (xγ . Rawoot . qT − k⊥g )ˆ σ0 ] 2 d φq [ 2 4mD 2 2 [dM ] 4mc where dσ = d 3σ .γ = √ e ±y s Vaibhav S.) AN sin(φq −φS ) = d φq [d σ↑ − d σ↓ ]sin(φq − φS ) d φq [ d σ ↑ + d σ ↓ ] d φq [ AN = 2 4mD 2 2 [dM ] 4mc σ0 ]sin(φq − φS ) [d 2 k⊥g ]∆N fg /p↑ (xg . the asymmetry integrated over the azimuthal angle of J /ψ is (J.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Expression for Asymmetry Taking sin(φq − φS ) as a weight. qT − k⊥g )ˆ [d 2 k⊥g ]fg /P (xg . dy d 2 qT M xg . Rev..

Phys. D 69. Eur. Nf (x ) = Nf x af (1 − x )bf af . J. bf . k⊥ ) = 2 Ng (x ) h(k⊥ ) fg /p (x ) (Anselmino etal. A 39. 094025 (2004)) (a) Ng (x ) = (Nu (x ) + Nd (x )) /2 . Vaibhav S. Rawoot e −k ⊥ / k ⊥ cos φk⊥ 2 π k⊥ 2 2 (af + bf )(af +bf ) af af bf bf . 89 (2009)) Two choices for Ng (x ) (Boer and Vogelsang Phys.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Gluon Sivers function Parameterization for Gluon Sivers Function ∆N fg /p↑ (x . (b) Ng (x ) = Nd (x ) . Nf and M1 are best fit parameters. For u and d quarks. Rev.

Eur. D 70. Rawoot . Phys.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Models for Gluon Sivers function We have used two models proposed by Anselmino etal. Vaibhav S. A 39. J. 074025 (2004)) Parameterization for Gluon Sivers Function ∆N fg /p↑ (x . Phys. Rev. k⊥ ) = 2 Ng (x ) h(k⊥ ) fg /p (x ) Two functional forms for h(k⊥ ) Model I h (k ⊥ ) = Model II h (k ⊥ ) = M0 = 2k⊥ M0 2 k⊥ 2 + M0 √ 2e 2 k⊥ −k⊥ 2 /M1 e M1 e −k ⊥ / k ⊥ cos φk⊥ 2 π k⊥ 2 2 2 k⊥ and M1 are best fit parameters. (Anselmino etal. 89 (2009).

6 . arXiv:hep-ph/1107. Vaibhav S. Nd = −0.97.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary The best fit parameters from the recent HERMES and COMPASS SIDIS data Parameter set Nu = 0.4.44. Rawoot . ad = 0. 2 M1 = 0.19. bu = 2.4446 (2011)) First moment of the Sivers functions extracted from the fitting procedure. (Anselmino etal.35.90 . bd = 0. au = 0.

6 0.25 0.8 qT (GeV) Vaibhav S.2 0.25 0. Rawoot .3 0.1 0.6 0.05 0 -0.1 0 y 0.15 0.1 0.7 0.2 sin(φq .3 0.2 0.2 AN AN 0 y 0. √ s =4.4 0.1 0. 0.4 -0.05 0 0 0.05 0 T (a) (b) 0.8 qT (GeV) AN T AN 0 0.2 -0.2 GeV 0.8 -0.2 T √ s =7.05 0 -0.15 0.2 0.φs) 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.25 0.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary JLab and HERMES for model I with parameterization (a) and (b) Jlab.φs) T (a) (b) 0.φs) HERMES.1 0.1 0.8 0.15 0.15 0.2 sin(φq .7 GeV (a) (b) sin(φq .φs) (a) (b) sin(φq .25 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.6 -0.7 0.1 0.1 0.

15 0.05 0 -1.φs) (a) (b) sin(φq .5 1 1.1 0.6 GeV (a) (b) (a) (b) 0.5 0 y 0.15 0.2 0.33 GeV eRHIC.2 sin(φq .8 qT (GeV) AN T AN 0 0.3 0.05 0 -1.6 0.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary COMPASS and eRHIC for model I with parameterization (a) and (b) COMPASS.15 0.5 AN -1 -0.5 0.φs) √ s =31.25 0.1 0.25 0.5 0.7 0.8 qT (GeV) Vaibhav S.5 AN -1 -0.05 0 0 0.2 0.5 0 y 0.4 0.5 1 1.2 sin(φq .3 0.15 0.25 0.1 0. 0.5 0. 0.05 0 T (a) (b) 0.φs) 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.5 0. Rawoot .25 0.1 0.2 sin(φq .2 0.6 0.φs) T T √ s =17.7 0.

Rawoot .8 qT (GeV) AN T Vaibhav S.14 0.02 0 -1. 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.06 0.1 0.4 0.06 0.5 AN T 0.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary eRHIC for model I with parameterization (a) and (b) eRHIC.04 0.08 0.φs) (a) (b) 0.1 0.5 1 1.φs) √ s =158.2 0.12 sin(φq .5 -1 -0.08 0.1 GeV (a) (b) 0.12 sin(φq .14 0.5 0 y 0.7 0.5 0.

2 0.2 0.04 0.35 0.3 0.4 0.08 0.25 0.5 -1 -0.2 0.06 0.15 0. Rawoot .1 sin(φq .33 GeV COMPASS.φs) AN T I (a) II (a) sin(φq . 0.1 0.5 0.12 0.06 0.08 0.7 0.5 1 1.12 0. 0.33 GeV I (a) II (a) I (b) II (b) 0.05 0 -1.15 0.5 0 y 0.3 0.1 0.5 -1 -0.1 0.05 0 I (b) II (b) 0.3 sin(φq .1 sin(φq .Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary COMPASS for model I and II with parameterization (a) and (b) COMPASS.6 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.02 0 -1.5 T AN 0.7 0.04 0.φs) 0.5 1 1.25 0.φs) √ s =17.5 0 y 0.02 0 0 0.2 0.8 qT (GeV) T AN AN T 0 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.35 0.φs) √ s =17.8 qT (GeV) Vaibhav S.

08 0.8 Vaibhav S. Rawoot .1 sin(φq .12 0.04 0.04 0.4 0.1 0.2 -1 -0.5 0 y 0.12 0.φs) T 0.3 0.5 sin(φq .02 0 0 I (a) -JLab I(a) -HERMES I(a) -COMPASS I(a) -eRHIC-1 I(a) -eRHIC-2 AN AN 0.5 qT (GeV) 0.02 0 -1.5 1 1.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary COMPARE all experiments for model I with parameterization (a) 0.φs) T I (a) -JLab I (a) -HERMES I (a) -COMPASS I (a) -eRHIC-1 I (a) -eRHIC-2 0.06 0.6 0.7 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.5 0.

25 ANsin(φqT.5 1 1.5 Vaibhav S.5 0 y 0.33 GeV Gaussian dependence.05 0 -1. I (a) Gaussian dependence.φs) 0.3 0.5 √ s =17. I (b) Dipole dependence I (b) -1 -0. I (a) Dipole dependence.15 0.2 0.1 0. 0. Rawoot .Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Gaussian and Dipole form of WW function COMPASS.

Found sizable asymmetry in the energies of JLab. Rawoot . HERMES. COMPASS and eRHIC experiments. As a first step of this study. Color Evaporation Model for J /ψ production is used.Introduction TMD’s Charmonium Models Formalism Models for Sivers function RESULTS Summary Summary and Future Projections Transverse SSA in electroprduction of J /ψ using the 2 models for gluon Sivers function is estimated. $ Thank You $ Vaibhav S. Worthwhile to look at SSA’s in charmonium production both from the point of view of comparing different models of charmonium production as well as comparing the different models of gluon Sivers function.