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(1) Officers found CCTV footage of criminals Craig Rayner. West Yorks. Steven Franks and Benjamin Turnbull returning from a jewellery raid on a camera at Rayner's home. (9) They all admitted burglary and Franks also admitted possession of cocaine with intent to supply. Ben Cooper. a laptop. 6 Complicating Action 3. (4) Footage from earlier the same morning showed the gang setting off to carry out the raid in North Yorkshire. (8) The court heard that the men. had a long history of offences between them including house burglary. Line Number Burglars caught by the security cameras they installed Four burglars have been jailed after a CCTV system they installed at one of their own homes filmed them carrying loot back from a robbery. (7) It showed the men returning at 11. The four set off for the raid (3). was driving the Peugeot and Rayner.The Police officers find the footage (1). Tally of Stolen goods (4). He was jailed for four years. 22. all of Leeds. I have used Labov’s elements to label. The quartet arrive home after the robbery (2). (11) Judge Geoffrey Marson QC said: "They were no doubt on their way to sell the loot when the police stopped them. and Cooper. Leeds. 26. prosecuting at Leeds Crown Court on Wednesday. I have also created a timeline and storyline for the elements and episodes. as follows: . Turnbull. (5) Olivia Checa-Dover. taking 3. 4. Resolution 9 Evaluation 5. car crime and violence. 26. These are. This is all displayed below.400-pounds worth of jewellery along with a Nintendo Wii.Labov’s Elements – Analysing a newspaper extract Daniel Smith – Go Higher 2011 –200853705 Labov Elements Labov has designed set elements which allow us to classify stories in a set method. layout and break down a newspaper article. said the men targeted a home in Long Marston on September 15 last year. was in the passenger seat. Court Verdict (8). Turnbull and Rayner were jailed for two years and three months. wearing latex gloves. 7 Orientation 2. an iPod. (6) The four men were arrested at midday the same day after police stopped their car and found a large pile of gold jewellery in the foot well. 22. Abstract 1. (10) Cooper received a two-and-a-half year sentence. 11 Coda 10 Timeline: The Police officers find the footage The quartet arrive home after the robbery The four set off for the raid The stolen goods are tallied up The four men are arrested Police Watch footage of the men Court Case Court Verdict Judge’s Evaluation Storyline: The four set off for the raid The quartet arrive home after the robbery The four men are arrested The stolen goods are tallied up Police officers find the footage Police Watch footage of the men Court case Court Verdict Judges Evaluation . binoculars and a camera. wearing black gloves. 8. Court Case (7). Franks.40am. Judge’s Evaluation (9). Officers then viewed the footage from the camera outside Rayner's home. (3) One was also captured putting empty boxes into a wheelie bin outside the property in Armley. (2) The dozy quartet were seen getting out of a car wearing latex gloves and the carrying the jewellery. got out of the vehicle.” Episode: I have broken the article down into 9 episodes. Police watch footage (6). The four men are arrested (5).
exhausted. Dr Bell condemned the role workhouses had played in the death toll. This figure was hugely inadequate. However.28 By 1847 Mortality reached appalling levels. Christine Kinealy. Christine Kinealy argues that By late 1846 famine conditions were spread throughout Ireland. a grossly inadequate amount to feed their starving families. ill and unable to undertake any strenuous labour. Those unable to work were paid six pence per day. adding ‘…something as simple as dry bedding could have saved lives’. This Great Calamity. The workhouses were largely ineffective.At the height of the famine 50 per cent of the population were dependant on poor relief. The Famine in Ulster: the regional impact.18-22 Inside the Workhouses life was far from improved and overcrowding resulted in a sharp increase in sickness and fever which proved fatal. 1994) p24.42-44 . This Great Calamity. He argued ‘…mortality in the workhouse is much greater than under ordinary circumstance…’ insisting that even things such as damp bedding had increased the spread of f ever . which was rife within the workhouses. 1994) pp. The disease was Phytophthora infestans. leaving many out of work and increased their vulnerability to such an unforeseen event. Already suffering from the effects of decline in trade. He insisted they should accommodate 1 per cent of the total Irish population. These deaths were attributed to cholera and typhus.uk) Go Higher Arts 2012 To what effect did the public Workhouses have on the death toll during the Irish Famine. 1999) p. The Irish Famine. The rate of its destruction was harshly unfair. The Failure of the Potato Crop hit Ireland in September 1845. (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.66 Ireland was dealing with a mass shortage of food and employment.Daniel Lee-Williams (psdleewi@liv. at a time when food prices spiralled. A slump in industry coincided with the failure of the potato crop. Peter Gray. The Poor enter the Workhouses often malnourished. With approximately one third of the population dependant on the potato for food. leading to mass destitution. Christine. 1997) P. and did not meet the criterion of being destitute.ac. the impact of this would be catastrophic. (London: Thames & Hudson. Christine Kinealy. A well-kept crop may have been wiped out overnight. (Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation. The Poor Law had failed to make provisions for the large number of small-holders who would require only temporary relief. (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. Kinealy. George Nicholls recommended that the poor should enter public workhouses which would provide food and work. The able bodied were not much better off with the rates of pay kept below ‘normal’. poverty was well planted in Irish society. many people were refused entrance and thus relief. The Skibbereen workhouse – which had been built for 800 – held 1449 people. and had a weekly death rate of around 85.
A time in which cities such as London were vastly overpopulated due to immigration from Ireland and Eastern Europe. Solution It is believed that eugenicists wanted to control the birth rate of the lower classes because they believed that it was the upper class public who possessed preferred inheritable traits and that the lower class where violent mobs who did not possess any preferred traits. • Selective breeding should be enforced so that “unfit” wouldn’t continue to be the downfall of Britain. Eugenics is the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population Reasons for bringing eugenics to Britain • Over population due to higher birth rate amongst the lower classes.co. • Upper class wanted lower class to die out because they saw themselves as superior. Definition The term eugenics was first coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883. • People categorised as unfit were living instead of dying out and allowing only the strongest to survive. Galton referred to his theories of eugenics as “Practical Darwinism” and saw his work as a means for man to take control of his evolution. Problems The main problem that eugenics faced was that the logic behind all the research suggested that the upper class citizens must have all the desired qualities needed to reproduce the most genetically superior children just because they are of a higher class. Inspiration Galton took inspiration from his cousin Charles Darwin’s origin of species. When Galton conducted his research he believed that families with better reputations where more likely to produce more gifted offspring.uk) Go Higher Arts 2012 Introduction The object of this poster is to discuss the theories behind eugenics and the effect this had on 19th century Britain. • Upper class feared lower class as sub species. . This is because they believed that through eugenics and selected breeding only the strongest and greatest specimens of the species would survive. Reasons for these measures • Eugenicists believed natural selection had stopped working due to medical advancements and charity. Galton did not take into account the idea that those families success came from privilege and social circumstances.What was eugenics? Who supported it and why? Craig Fitzsimmons (fitzsimmonsc@hotmail. Support for movement The Eugenics movement was most popular amongst the people from middle class backgrounds. the term comes from the Greek word meaning “good in stock”.
and Mr Ramsey actually on the boat to the lighthouse by devoting whole chapters to each perspective in turn. Home / House OR Pulses of light from the Lighthouse Square Brackets The major events of the novel. together with a shadowy narrator. the effect is one of uncertainty – we never see a complete picture of what is happening. phrases or motifs is continually used to provide a framework to the narrative. T H E W I N D O W TIME PASSES T H E L I G H T H O U S E Chapter & Book Frames Rounded Brackets ( ) Rounded brackets are used in varying ways to break up the flow of consciousness. 6 and 8 are written largely from a mixture of James. only obliquely related to the subject. reminiscent in their shape of telegrams or postcards. which. such as can be seen in the layering of paint on a Van Gogh painting. 165) and “He must have reached it” (p.l.ac. In spite of these frameworks. Thus Chapters 3. a new framing emerges where the perspective of Lily sitting on the shore painting her picture and watching the boat sail to the lighthouse is contrasted with the perspectives of James. such as when Mrs Ramsey. and which is. . a dish of fruit and a flower in the pattern of the tablecloth on which Lily places a salt cellar (a lighthouse?) are all variously used to punctuate and shape what is perhaps not just a stream of consciousness but a sea of consciousness where the thoughts and impressions of the various characters.uk) Go Higher Arts 2012 The Overall Frame of the Novel The Distorted Window – Repeated Words & Direct Speech The device of repeating words. not only is Lily’s picture. 26) but at other times interjecting a completely different strain of thought. surrounded largely by passages about the decay of the house allow us to experience the shock and anger of the sudden. Cam. itself part of a larger train of thought about his wife’s beauty.”) (p. immediately after thinking about the birth of her children. how to open a window . soup. largely unexplained deaths of people whose consciousness we have shared so fully earlier in the novel. though apparently randomly spread throughout the canvas. The relative calm of the novel’s ending could be illusory – we simply do not know what is outside of this frame. This “sea of consciousness” is also framed by short snatches of direct speech at the beginning of paragraphs such as “It is a triumph” (p. provide a structural unity when the picture is viewed as a whole. take place within the confines of square brackets and within the further confines of the short ‘Time Passes’ section of the novel. Rounded bracketed passages also appear within rounded brackets. 84). 5 and 7 of ‘The Lighthouse’ are written from Lily’s perspective and Chapters 4. whilst individual phrases such as “Mr Ramsey had almost done reading” (p. such as when Mr Ramsey notices “(they were carrying bricks up a little plank as he watched them)” (p. such as the marriage and death of Prue and the deaths of Andrew and Mrs Ramsey. Multiple strands of thoughts and observations are woven into the tapestry like different coloured wools. 27) within a larger parenthesis mainly about a conversation with his wife on the telephone in the past. This has the effect of driving the narrative forward in a contraction-like motion of creation. coffee!” (p. 169) recall to the reader that. such as “Scolding and demonstrating (how to make a bed. The direct speeches serve to move the reader from the consciousness of one character to another.Framing in Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse Miriam Ball (m. sometimes simply adding extra information relevant to the thought. . but so is the novel which we are reading. This can be seen in the dinner scene in the Chapter 17 of the first section ’The Window’ (p. This layering of thought upon thought has the effect of creating an almost three dimensional quality to the narrative. only a distorted window into the scene provided by the various viewpoints. 51). ebb and flow across the scene. 68-90) where candles.liverpool. Towards the end of the novel. 82) and “Oh. 129-154). Mr Ramsey’s book and the expedition to the lighthouse nearly complete. interjects “(and the bill for the greenhouse would be fifty pounds)” (p. These brief. Thus the final framing is the end of the novel itself . Cam and Mr Ramsey’s perspective (pp. .ball@student. callously worded bulletins.
However. the professional middle class (namely the foremost advocates of eugenics). The Eugenicists' possessed a social theory. With the British colonies breaking up and major social reform and movement in the United Kingdom and Europe. In his article Social Studies of Science. known as positive and negative eugenics. had been acknowledged since mid century.ac. Represented in two forms. What was Eugenics? Who supported it and why? Leah Katrice Nolan (pslnolan@liv. The Eugenics society Some of British socialism's most celebrated names were among the champions of eugenics – •Sidney and Beatrice Webb (the founders of the Fabian Society).which flourished in Britain around the early part of this century. criminality and vice began to escalate. Oxford dictionaries offer the definition of Eugenics as “. with the aim of making a genetically superior race. •Leonard Darwin (son of Charles Darwin). a threat towards British society and imperialism was felt. posed a problem of control. a term conceived as a way to collectively categorise the ‘lowest’ of the society and used to represent a poor. spanned across many countries and social and political realms. •Sir Alexander bell •Infamously the polymath. •The social changes during the Victorian era where wide ranging and wide spread. alcoholic and criminal class of British society.. after its strongest period during the early 1900’s and a resurgence between the two world wars. Francis Galton. The Eugenics movement What is Eugenics? The term Eugenics was coined by Francis Galton in 1883. Along with other social happenings this inevitably challenged those who deemed themselves as the desirable kind of people for a successful Britain. Eugenics may be understood better as a movement with the belief that selective breeding can improve human society. •The campaign for the abolition of slavery had been successful in 1807 and with this the gradually successful dissemination of colonial plantations and the slave trade.. They believed that such findings supported and justified policies aimed at removing the related genes from the population. leaving their mark not only on British society but also extending to much of the world which was under Britain’s influence in the 19th century. however from the 1870’s onwards concerns about poverty. 6 (1976) Donald Mackenzie proclaims “The Eugenics’ movement . is an important example of the relationship between scientific ideas and the interests and purposes of social groups. They hoped that a eugenic approach could strengthen British society by building up what they considered the strong section and gradually eradicating the weak.The persistence of poverty and the tendency of the working classes not to emulate middle-class. they could demonstrate a genetic pattern of inheritance for the trait.. again a time of great social and political hardship and reform. and a set of policies which claimed scientific foundation. the eugenics movement dispersed Where did the ideas of eugenics come from In order to gain an understanding of Eugenics we must examine the social context in which the nature of eugenics arose. • Winston Churchill (whom went on to become British prime minister). . according to them.uk) Go Higher Arts 2012 A middle class movement? The ‘residdum’ .the science of improving a population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics” Similarly.” Eugenicists believed that by studying human families in which a notably undesirable trait appeared.
it had a great influence on foreign movements that flourished well into the twentieth century. notably those in the United States and the race-based program in Nazi Germany.000 people in the USA and 400. like a new religion” through mass education. However. Evolved as a more radical branch of Galton’s ideas • Peaked in popularity between 1918-1945 According to Galton. it quickly degenerated from a sincere but misguided attempt to encourage the reproduction of those deemed valuable to society.ac.000 people in Germany alone. as well as having a huge influence on the thinking behind the Holocaust. the enforcement of positive eugenics would require vast amounts of data to be collected on the hereditary traits of the entire population. and today it is a taboo subject. These policies would result in the forced sterilisation of 60. The British Eugenics movement was relatively short lived and never gained enough support to directly cause any real damage or suffering.+ POSITIVE EUGENICS is a method of improving the race by identifying individuals with desirable characteristics and encouraging them to breed. and the discovery of the crimes committed in the name of eugenics during the war finally removed the idea from mainstream thought altogether. (Above – Francis Galton) Although the basic idea of negative eugenics had already existed for decades. The establishment of the National Health Service in 1946. to a justification for the sterilisation and even murder of those deemed to be unfit. while having a major influence on the negative eugenics ideas that would follow. These limitations ensured that the aspirations of positive (or Galtonian) eugenics remained mainly academic. a science (and later an ideology) based on re-introducing natural selection to the human race in an artificial. which in turn would be copied by many other countries. crippled by it’s incompatibility with normal 21stcentury values and a strong association with the eccentric right wing. and for eugenics to be “introduced into the national conscience. • • First proposed by Francis Galton in 1869 Peaked in popularity between 1900-1914 Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution. Adam Smith – 200855506 – psasmith@liv. designed form. is possibly one of the most controversial scientific theories throughout history. Conceived in the imagination of Victorian polymath Francis Galton as a method for “improving” the human race. Eugenics. the work of Charles Davenport and Eugen Fischer had the biggest influences on the official state eugenic policies of the USA and Germany. (Above – Charles Davenport) .uk • NEGATIVE EUGENICS is a Method of improving the race by identifying individuals with undesirable characteristics and stopping them from breeding.
uk) Go Higher Arts 2012 INTRODUCTION Class was indeed a main factor of who survived the famine. Most travelled to Liverpool. The famine effected the most vulnerable and poor people of Ireland. Australia. This option was only open to those with the means to pay.ac. The potato famine of 1845 took the lives of approximately 1 million Irish people. in search of relief. 3. 1. Disease and starvation. However other factors also influenced who could or could not survive the famine. To flee to the east coast. Those living in the west of Ireland l. indeed the famine effected the poorest and the most vulnerable people. either to settle in England. Canada or New Zealand. and dock lands. Those that could travel headed for the towns. Class was not the only factor that determined who died and who survived the famine in 1846. Many died of sickness and starvation before reaching any relief. The soup kitchens were ill equipped to deal with the shear numbers of staving and the sick. Attempting to gain passage to America. Those that were already poor and have little or no money or food. Often by force. Lack of relief and resources to deal with this unprecedented famine. However.To what extent was class a factor in who died and who survived the Famine? Suzanne Eggleton (psseggle@liv. • POSSIBLE OPTIONS FOR THE IRISH PEOPLE AND CONCLUSION. and many died on their journey to new lands. highlighting the main problems and challenges faced by the Irish during the potato famine. The very young and elderly were least likely to survive. The harsh winters of 1846 and 1847. but found little or no relief on most occasions. This poster will demonstrate these points. being isolated and furthest from the ports had little chance of survival. To head for the towns. The mass evictions and clearances undertaken by the landowners. 2. other factors were due to the actions and influence of others. 6. – . Those that lived in the south of Ireland were the furthest from the ports. 4. or in the hope of later travelling to other countries. Some reasons why people perished were simply due to nature. 7. sometimes whilst the families were still in their homes. 5. to the docks . The only real option for survival was to flee over sea’s in search of new worlds. and ports. But the workhouses were soon full to capacity. • • The options now available to the people of Ireland were as follows: 1. This option was only open to those with money for the passage and those healthy enough to travel. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In conclusion. The population of Ireland was desolated by this devastating blight. 2. Many other factors and circumstances influenced who were able to survive or escape the famine.
as one composes a speech. Everything will be alright now. his level smile implies. and with her conviction that love that did not find its expression in a letter was not perfect. It was with a touch of sadness that Clarissa sometimes told me that I would have made a wonderful father. and we didn't know how to begin talking about it. girls. There's more than one meaning to it. Give me children. Love Wordplay Salvation Parenthood MJ Gray 200855503 Go Higher Arts 2011/12 . My self is a thing I must now compose. I wait. Common Themes from Enduring Love We were loveless. What he's telling us. or else I die. No mooning and JuneJune-ing around here. I compose myself.Margaret Atwood's Ian McEwan's The Handmaid's Tale Love. There will be peace. said Aunt Lydia with distaste. Somewhere in among your protestations about God is a plea to be rescued from the traps of your own logic. Lately I'd had the idea that Clarissa's interest in these hypothetical letters had something to do with our situation. Love is not the point. I promise. You must trust. Don't let me catch you at it. or we had lost the trick of love. is for our own good.
In Britain. many searched for a “surrogate faith”. phrenology and spiritualism appealed broadly across the social spectrum. would fill the spiritual void created by scientific discovery. Those left spiritually bereft by Darwin’s work needed answers to the question of life after death. Public demonstrations paved the way for the acceptance of participating in occult practices. The Society for Psychical Research ‘We should be able to do without doctors as soon as the healing powers of animal magnetism were properly recognised and diffused’ ‘The séance reversed the usual sexual hierarchy of knowledge and power: it shifted attention away from men and focused it on the female medium. Theosophy In 1875 Helena Blavatsky set up the Theosophic al Society. Victorian medium Katie Cooke Helena Blavatsky The average 19c female had few rights. Spiritualism is the belief that the dead can communicate with the living or make their presence known by physically moving objects or by possessing the ‘medium’ in order to take control of her faculties. The opportunity for women across the social strata to participate in a séance would have held strong appeal. The scientists of the society for psychical research may have been striving for an answer to this question in order to retain the relationship between religion and science. Mesmerism.(1804). A belief system that could answer questions in a scientific manner and at the same time bring spiritual support. Scientific investigation was no longer a preserve of the elite.The Rise of Occult Interests in the 19th Century Sarah Kelly Anton Mesmer Charles Darwin Spiritualism In the early 19C Victorian audiences would be entertained by ‘scientific showmen’ demonstrating the latest marvels of science such as galvanism. All three were domesticated pursuits that could readily be practiced in the home. the center of spiritual knowledge and insight’ . interest in mesmerism grew greatly during the 1830s. After the publication of Darwin’s The Origins of Species. Plate showing Giovanni Aldini's electrical experiments on executed criminals in Bologna. Others may have used spiritualism in an effort to break the constraints society held them in. The belief that contact with the deceased is possible may have offered comfort to some. Giving them the chance to oppose restrictive social norms. with the expectation that a brotherhoo d of man’ spirit.
beaten. unyielding. and in the twinkling of an eye. and he longed to be changed back into a Chuang. and wanted only to become such a rich man himself. SOMETIME LATER. Very envious. The girls screamed and called. surrounded by a great concourse of shouting and yelling retainers.12 @1435hrs]. was held in high respect by everybody in his homeland. AS A DIRECT CONSEQUENCE OF ANOTHER’S ACTIONS. Wherever they went the people bowed and made way for them. "No one could ever dare bully me any more if I were a rock. and started cutting it. "I can hardly find a place to exist in! Let me become a fierce wind. Following the example of the official he had seen. EVERY REPETITION OF ‘THE FAIRY + AN ACTION’ (OR A SLIGHT VARIATION ON THIS). POST-PEAK (FINAL SUSPENSE) THE ENDING KEEPS ON UNRAVELLING AS THE STONEMASON FEARS FOR HIS LIFE AS HE REALISES THE POWERS HE HAS CAN NEVER KEEP HIM SAFE OR SATISIFED. THE FAIRY ACTS WITHOUT BEING ASKED FOR ANYTHING.HE DOES NOT EVEN MAKE A NEW WISH. however. THE STONEMASON MOVES TO AN IN INCREASE INNER DIALOGUE DESIRES. even a gale can do nothing to a rock. axes. like the Chuang people. bearing swords. But as he rushed over the land he was suddenly stopped in his course by a huge rock. The bewildered mason. Down they pounced like tigers on helpless lambs. They looked at the rock and considered it useful material." thought the mason.L. he became very well known. A CHANGE IN THE TIME (I. In the great waves of heat even the birds and wild beasts hid themselves deep in the mountains. I pray!" Again the fairy helped. When he got there he saw that his employer lived in a great mansion." said the fairy. He blew like a terror. the mason gave up working. and as a great mason. and hoes. AS HE EVALUATES THE NEW POWER HE I am a well-known. Ashliman. "Who would have thought that a black cloud is stronger than the sun?" So a black cloud was what he wanted to be now. carried in a sedan-chair by his men. respected and SATISFIED stonemason. the mason now rode roughshod over his district. PEAK (DENOUEMENT) LOOSENS THE STORY. "Well. the mason said. However hard he blew. His path lay by the mason's door. a high-ranking official went out on a tour of inspection. One day a rich man needed some stonecutting done and sent for him. "Well. STONEMASON TRULY NEEDS. "You'd better be your old self.html [Accessed 03. the mason refused to bow himself or kowtow. He was beside himself with joy when the change took place. After some time. PEAK (CLIMAX) KNOTS IT ALL UP. The mason came to the conclusion that the sun must be the ruling power in the universe and started to dream of becoming a sun himself. Then it so happened a thick black cloud came drifting from the west and hid the sun from the earth. and the water buffaloes buried themselves up to the neck in muddy water. "I've got just as many servants as he! Why should I bow to him?" he said. He was famous for his extraordinary skill at his trade. ploughing and sowing from morning to night. Only the glistering green rice shoots stood. turned to the fairy for help." the mason exclaimed in dismay.GO HIGHER ARTS 2012 MATTHEW SMITH (psmsmith@student@liv. A fairy heard his desire and made him a rich man. FOLLOWING ETC).edu/~dash/type0555. high-ranking officials are certainly more powerful than I!" Thereupon he swore he wanted only to be a great official.pitt. To everybody's horror he kept sending forth scorching flames. Puffed up with an upstart's pride. YES A CHANGE IN TIME ‘FROM THEN ON. terrified. Painfully getting up. and made him into a gale. PRE-PEAK (INCITING MOMENT) GETS SOMETHING GOING EACH TIME THE STONEMASON REALISES HE WANTS MORE POWER IT INCITES A NEW PART OF THE STORY. Again the fairy heard his desire and made him a great official. the official had him bound with ropes. He blew like a typhoon. a great crowd of Chuang people rushed up from all sides. Every day he went to the hillside with his people. A Chuang Story1 SETTING LAYS OUT THE STORY Long ago there was a certain Chuang stonemason. was dressed in silk and satin. He was carried everywhere. and fined. WHERE THE PREVIOUS EPISODES HAVE LED TO AS THE FAIRY GRANTS A WISH IT PROVIDES THE READER WITH THE PINNACLE OF ACTION FOR THAT PART OF THE STORY. From then on he worked with a devotion he never knew before. http://www.uk) CAN LONGACRE LEAD US ALONG ‘THE PATH TO SATISFACTION’? LONGACRE ANALYSIS OF THE FOLKTALE EPISODE DESCRIPTION HOW DO LONGACRE’S EPISODES FIT THIS FOLKTALE? WE ARE INTRODUCED TO THE STONEMASON AND HIS SKILLS. What should happen but that a fierce wind arose and blew the cloud to pieces! "I never knew that the wind was so powerful. It was summer.ac." he said ruefully. NO . So he was a mason again. "Officials. the rock was unmoved. uprooting trees and tearing down houses.E. Once again the fairy heard his desire and helped to bring about the change. Outraged by such impertinence. He no longer had any fear of being bullied. One day he and his henchmen came to a hillside where they saw a group of pretty young girls. until his head swam. ONE DAY. The Fisherman and his Wife and other folktales about dissatisfaction and greed. ate all kinds of delicacies from oceans and mountains. and the sun was as hot as a ball of fire. Again the fairy satisfied him by turning him into a cloud freely scudding across the sky. there came a group of masons to the peak where he lay. beating drums and gongs. As time went on. Some time later. are nothing to the Chuang people.’ CLOSURE WRAPS UP THE STORY HE HAS LEARNED HIS LESSON . KNOWING WHAT THE A BREAK FROM THE ESTABLISHED PATTERN AS EVENTS CONTINUE TO TAKE AN ALTERNATE PATH . The fairy heard his desire and made him a sun in the sky.. PRE-PEAK (DEVELOPING MOMENT) KEEPS THE HEAT ON COVETING A NEW POWER DEVELOPS THAT PART OF THE STORY. THE FOLKTALE WHAT MARKERS SIGNIFY A TRANSITION BETWEEN EPISODES? THE OPENING SENTENCE IS TERMINATED ONCE THE CHARACTER HAS BEEN INITALLY INTRODUCED. It was indeed past human bearing. HE STONEMASON’S ACTIONS UPON BEING GRANTED HIS LATEST WISH. "So. and he became ever faster and better at his trade.A MORAL PROVIDED AT THE END OF THIS TALE. and did not let him go without giving him a sound thrashing. however powerful. YES SCHEMA (Longacre leading the Stonemason along the ‘Path of Satisfaction’) Does the wish satisfy me? Does the Fairy grant my wish? Do I now understand that POWER will never SATISFY me? NO YES YES Am I satisfied? YES Do I remain satisfied? Do I covet POWER? NO Do I need and receive help from the Fairy? 1 D." sighed the mason. EVEN IF HE IS CAUSING CHAOS. More and more people wanted to hire his skill. Such rough handling from the people put an end to his evil-doing. The mason was all smiles when it came about." Immediately the fairy turned him into a great rock on top of a high mountain. and made all the people hate him.. It scorched his back while he worked. RELIEVES THE TENSION OF IT THE TENSION IS LOOSENED AS EACH TIME THE STONEMASON TEMPORARILY FINDS HAPPINESS. with a sigh. The mason was deliriously happy. and was waited on my maids and servants.03.
unsanitary and unliveable squalor became their only option. Boston. becoming England’s second city. sick and the dying to Liverpool’s docks. The Discussion Looking at the state of the public health system of Liverpool and the fate of the Irish families who stayed in Liverpool and what it had to offer them. typhus and dysentery were all rife. it hid a backdrop of unsanitary living conditions. under the new Poor Law Removal Act. Glasgow. working class families living in cramped. These places then also became overcrowded. allowing disease to spread rapidly cholera. due to it’s steadily growing commercial success. Adding to the problem It is estimated that in the years 1845 to 1852 over one million Irish migrants either passed through or settled in Liverpool. ticket brokers.’’ lodging house keepers. dirty conditions without any real sewage system sickness and disease were rife. with the influx of this amount of people into an already unsanitary and overpopulated city it is difficult to contrive the exact amount and the consequences of their arrival. Chicago and many of the other grand city’s impressive skylines all covered an underlying degree of distress and anguish. the poor houses and ashpits were already over flowing. Quebec. especially one as contagious as Cholera (entering the body by either contaminated water or food). and ripe for plucking at the hands of an assortment of unscrupulous ‘‘runners. and other crooks. as they do today. Liverpool’s Public Health System Was virtually non-existent with the majority of poor. and soon found that only more distress awaited them. sick and unaware many of the landing Irish left with no where to go.ac. Europe was in the grip of a Cholera outbreak. Conclusion Of course Victorian Liverpool’s great buildings hid a hinterland of distress. and the Liverpool docks were the perfect gateway for any disease to spread. The migrants arrived in Liverpool seasick. The sanitary state of Liverpool in early Victorian times was undoubtedly deplorable. although many settled in Liverpool. Some with the intention of heading further afield. asked in vain for Parliament to do something about the “Irish problem and in June 1847. the dying lay with dead. about 15.000 Irish were deported back to Ireland. turning Liverpool (financially struggling to cope with the demand of relief) to the brink of collapse. and probably worse than most other cities. The Cause The starvation in Ireland. like London. The Solution Liverpool suffering under the weight of it all. New York.Victorian Liverpool’s great buildings hid a hinterland of distress’ John Duffy (psjduffy@liv. disease and despair and with the extent of the Irish immigration it only added to the problem.uk) 200767177 Go Higher Arts 2012 The Question Although Liverpool had an impressive reputation and waterfront. due to the failing of the potato crop caused a mass exodus of poor. as the As the 1832 “Cholera Riots” prove. Scared. . which left only cellars and condemned buildings. exhausted.
according to Hebraic custom. Jesus Christ in Matthew 1: 1-17.Gillian Chantre (id.. (Ruth 1: 7-13) Object of Desire and Desire Arousal: Ruth loved Naomi and wanted to go with her. Result: Mankind can once again enjoy fellowship with God by choosing to put their faith in Him. God of Israel. Boaz marries Ruth. Leaving all three women widows. declaring her desire to be married to Boaz. (Ruth 4:7-12) Goal Achievement Pattern: Situation: Naomi and Ruth have returned to Bethlehem but are destitute (Ruth 1:22) Goals: Find favour with Naomi’s wealthy relative Boaz that they may have food and survive. Problem: There was a kinsman who was a closer relative than Boaz to Ruth who had to be consulted first and offered to perform the kinsman duty. Ruth finds favour with Boaz and he provides her and Naomi with plenty of grain. She uncovered his feet and lay down at his feet. (Ruth 1: 19-22) EPISODE 6 The Gap in Knowledge Filling Pattern Situation: Ruth gives birth to a son called Obed. (Ruth 3: 2-9) Positive Result: Boaz is delighted by Ruth’s desire for him to be her husband and vows to do all in his power to perform the duty of the kinsman. (Ruth 4:13) Gap in the Knowledge: Obed became the grandfather of King David (Ruth 4:14-17) Means of filling the gap: Obed is part of a 600 year genealogy dating back to Perez who was the son of Judah and Tamar. (Ruth 3:13 – 4:6) Result: The redemption of Ruth and her family and property was confirmed by the surrender of his shoe. The close relative declines the proposal by Boaz. the line through which Kind David and ultimately the Messiah would be born. (Matt 1:1-17) EPISODE 3 EPISODE 1: Problem Solution Pattern Situation: The Hebrew family of Elimelech. (Ruth 3: 12) Response: Boaz conducts a meeting with the closer relative at the City Gate. Ruth elicits the blessing of the Bethlehem community. Evaluation: Obed was born to Boaz who became King David’s Grand Father and was included in the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah through whom all nations have been blessed. marry Ruth and secure the family name. Naomi consents. EPISODE 5 Problem-solution Pattern Situation: Boaz wanted to perform the duty of the kinsman and redeem the family property. Response: God provided a redeemer. Result: Obed is included in the genealogy of the Messiah Redeemer. recognises that she is the Moabitess that has treated her Hebrew mother-in-law so well. (Ruth 1:6) Means of fulfilling Desire: Depart from Moab and say goodbye to daughters-in-law. . Problem: Man sinned by choosing to disobey God and became separated from God. (Ruth 3: 1) Means of fulfilling Desire: Ruth washed and put on her best garment and went at night to the threshing floor where Boaz would be guarding the grain. thereby. Result: they lived there for a while but Elimelech died and then his two sons Mahlon and Chilion. Naomi and two sons Mahlon and Chilion were living in Bethlehem. Ruth loved Naomi’s God and wanted to put her faith in Him.) Problem: There was a famine in Bethlehem (Ruth 1:1) Response (Positive): They went to dwell in the country of Moab. (Ruth 2: 1-2) Means: Ruth went to glean heads of grain in Boaz’s field (Ruth 2: 2-3) Result: Boaz. Means: God used Ruth a Moabitess to bring a son to Boaz. Goal: God needed to build the family line of King David and the Messiah. Judah is the tribe from which the Messiah would come. Ruth desired to marry Boaz. (Ruth 1: 1414-17) Means of fulfilling desire: Ruth entreats Naomi not to make her depart from her. in the days of the Judges (Ruth 1:1. THE BOOK OF RUTH: Goal Achievement Pattern: Situation: Boaz was a descendant of Judah. God had covenanted with Abraham and his descendants to bless other nations through the Israelites and draw all nations to Himself. Jesus the Messiah. (Gen 12: 1-3). notices Ruth. ensures the legality by having 10 elders of the city present. (Ruth 2: 4-23) EPISODE 2 Opportunity Taking Pattern: Situation: Naomi is bereaved living in a foreign land (Ruth 1:6 EPISODE 4 Opportunity Taking Pattern Situation: Ruth had found favour with Boaz Object of Desire and Desire Arousal: Boaz was an eligible bachelor and also their kinsman who was able not only to redeem their family property and secure the family name by marriage to Ruth. Their two sons married Moabite Ruth and Orpah. (Ruth 1:18) Positive Result: Naomi and Ruth return to Bethlehem together. 200628494) Go Higher Arts 2012 THE BIBLE: Problem-solution Pattern: Situation: God created man and there was a perfect relationship between God and man. (Ruth 3: 10-11) Object of Desire & Desire Arousal: the famine is over in Bethlehem and Naomi wants to return there.
no rhythm I KNEW I HAD TO FIND A WAY OF COMBINING THE Within me was born their OF INDIAN RHYTHM OF INDIAN MUSIC WITH THE HARMONY OF CLASSICAL MUSIC Musical Child Rhythm Harmony Melody REPETITION • I .) Metamorphosis 1967 – 1977 Ravi Shanker (1920 .Philip Glass Metamorphosis Debbie Walker Go Higher Arts 2012 Philip Glass (1937. Harmony and Melody.1979) Legendary Pedagogue European Classical Art Music My Musical Mother I realised that Indian Music is all about Rhythm and Melody. is all about. no Harmony I KNEW I HAD TO FIND A WAY OF COMBINING THE HARMONY OF CLASSICAL MUSIC WITH THE RHYTHM OF INDIAN MUSIC I realised that Classical Art Music.) Legendary Master of Indian Classical Music My Musical Father Pedagogue of Nadia Boulanger (1887 .