Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Week Two: Animal Communication and Language
We discussed last week the initial 13 points of design that Hockett devised. He later added two more. Throughout this handout, my points are added in square brackets. From Charles Hockett (1966), "The Problem of Universals in Language" The Search for Universals Through Comparison with Animal Systems "The design-features listed below are found in every language on which we have reliable information, and each seems to be lacking in at least one known animal communicative system. They are not all logically independent, and do not necessarily all belong to our defining list for language--a point to be taken up separately..." 1. Mode of communication-vocal-auditory, tacticle-visual, or chemicalolfactory [dual systems; sender and receiver]. 2. Rapid Fading: Message does not linger in time or space after production. 3. Interchangeability: individuals who use a language can both send and receive any permissible message within that communication system. 4. Feedback: users of a language can perceive what they are transmitting and can make corrections if they make errors. 5. Specialization: the direct-energetic consequences of linguistic signals are usually biologically trivial; only the triggering effects are important. 6. Semanticity: there are associative ties between signal elements and features in the world; in short, some linguistic forms have denotations. 7. Arbitrariness: there is no logical connection between the form of the signal and its meaning.
Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
8. Discreteness: messages in the system are made up of smaller, repeatable parts; the sounds of language (or cheremes of a sign) are perceived categorically, not continuously. 9. Displacement: linguistic messages may refer to things remote in time and space, or both, from the site of the communication. 10. Productivity: users can create and understand completely novel messages. 10.1. In a language, new messages are freely coined by blending, analogizing from, or transforming old ones. This says that every language has grammatical patterning. 10.2. In a language, either new or old elements are freely assigned new semantic loads by circumstances and context. This says that in every language new idioms constantly come into existence. 11. Cultural transmission: the conventions of a language are learned by interacting with more experienced users. [ We learn language from contact with competent language users, this explains why infants do not intrinsically know all languages]. 12. Duality (of Patterning): a large number of meaningful elements are made up of a conveniently small number of meaningless but message-differentiating elements. 13. Prevarication: linguistic messages can be false, deceptive, or meaningless.
Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
14. Reflexiveness: In a language, one can communicate about communication. [We do this every week in GH Language]. 15. Learnability: A speaker of a language can learn another language. [Question: is this the same way infants learn language?] "There is...a sense in which [productivity], displacement, and duality [of patterning]...can be regarded as the crucial, or nuclear, or central properties of human language." [Question: So what exactly is it about us that makes us UNIQUE?]
Hockett's Design Features and their implications for human language
1. Hockett suggests that the importance of a vocal-auditory channel lies in the fact that the animal can communicate while also performing other tasks, such as eating, or using tools. 2. Broadcast Transmission and Directional Reception: An auditory|audible human language signal is sent out in all directions, but is perceived in a limited direction. For example, humans are more proficient in determining the location of a sound source when the sound is projecting directly in front of them as opposed to a sound source projected directly behind them. 3. Rapid Fading of a signal in human communication differs from such things as animal tracks and written language because an utterance does not continue to exist after it has been broadcast. With this in mind, it is important to note that Hockett viewed spoken language as the primary concern for investigation. Written language was seen as being secondary due to its recent evolution in culture. 4. Interchangeability Interchangeability Interchangeability can refer to:*Interchangeability : A condition in which exist two or more items with characteristics making them equivalent in performance and durability, making them fully exchangeable.... represents a human's ability to act out or reproduce any linguistic message that they are able to comprehend. This differs from many animal communication systems, particularly in regards to mating. For example, humans have the ability to say and do anything that they feel may benefit them in attracting a mate. Stickleback
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Stickleback The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks. FishBase currently recognises sixteen species in the family, grouped in five genera.... s on the other hand have different male and female courtship motions; a male cannot replicate a female's motions and vice versa. 5. Total Feedback is important in differentiating a human's ability to internalize their own productions of speech and behavior. This design-feature incorporates the idea that humans have insight into their actions. 6. Specialization Specialization Specialisation, also spelt specialization, is an important way to generate propositional knowledge, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity, to specific instances, such as "when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor".... is apparent in the anatomy of human speech organs and our ability to exhibit some control over these organs. For example, a key assumption in the evolution of language is that the descent of the larynx Larynx The larynx , colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the vertebrate trachea and sound production.... has allowed humans to produce speech sounds. Additionally, in terms of control, humans are generally able to control the movements of their tongue and mouth. Dogs however, do not have control over these organs. When dogs pant they are communicating a signal, but the panting is an uncontrollable response reflex of being hot (*). 7. Semanticity: A specific signal can be matched with a specific meaning within a particular language system. For example, all people that understand English English language English is a West Germanic language that originated in Anglo-Saxon England and has lingua franca status in many parts of the world as a result of the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence of the British Empire in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries and that of the United States from the mid 20th century onwa... have the ability to make a connection between a specific word and what that word represents or refers to. (Hockett notes that gibbon
Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae. The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates , Hoolock , Nomascus , and Symphalangus .... s also show semanticity in their signals, however their calls are far more broad than human language.) 8. Arbitrariness within human language suggests that there is no direct connection between the type of signal (word) and what is being referenced. For example, an animal as large as a cow can be referred to by a very short word (*). 9. Discreteness: Each basic unit of speech can be categorized and is distinct from other categories. In human language there are only a small set of sound ranges that are used and the differences between these bits of sound are absolute. In contrast, the waggle dance Waggle dance Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee. By performing this dance, successful foragers can share with their Beehive mates information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen, to water sources, or to new housing locations.... of honeybees is continuous. 10. Displacement Displacement Displacement may refer to:... refers to the human language system's ability to communicate about things that are not present spatially, temporally, or realistically. For example, humans have the ability to communicate about unicorns and outer space. 11. Productivity Productivity (linguistics) In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation. Since use to produce novel structures is the clearest proof of usage of a grammatical process, the evidence most often appealed to as establishing productivity is the appearance of novel forms of the type th... : human language is open and productive in the sense that humans have the ability to say things that have never before been spoken or heard. In contrast,
human Human A human being. the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject..... s acquire words and their native language from other speakers. sociobiology. This is different from many animal communication Animal communication Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. suggests that while certain aspects of language Language A language is a form of symbol communication in which elements are combined to represents something other than themselves.. is a member of a species of bipedalism primates in the family Hominidae .000 years ago.. systems because most animals are born with the innate knowledge Knowledge Knowledge is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as expertise. facts and information or awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. 12.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
apes such as the gibbon have a closed communication system because all of their vocal sounds are part of a finite repertoire of familiar calls.. Traditional Transmission Traditional Transmission Traditional transmission is a design feature of language that the anthropology Charles F... and the study of animal cognition... may be innate. what is known in a particular field or in total.. and skills acquired by a person through experience or education.. and skills
. Language can also refer to the use of such systems as a general phenomenon.. Hockett developed to distinguish the features of human language from those of animal communication. sometimes called zoosemiotics has played an important part in the development of ethology.. The study of animal communication. Mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in east Africa about 200. also human or man.
(Example: Honeybees have an inborn ability to perform and understand the waggle dance Waggle dance Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee..
Design Feature Representation in other Communication Systems
Honeybees Foraging honeybees communicate with other members of their hive Hive
. s to create an infinite number of words and sounds..Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Skills Skills is a San Francisco-based event promoter that promotes parties and concerts in San Francisco and the SF Bay Area. to water sources.... It is known for being one of the most popular and largest electronic music promoters in California and the United States.. In theoretical terms. necessary for survival Survival Survival may refer to:* Survival analysis* Survival of the fittest* Survival kit* Survival rate* Survival skills* Survivalism. ).... successful foragers can share with their Beehive mates information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen. but cognitive abstractions or categorizations of them. a phoneme is the smallest posited linguistically distinctive unit of sound. phonemes are not the physical segment s themselves. or to new housing locations.. By performing this dance.. 13. Phonemes carry no semantic content themselves. . Duality of Patterning: Humans have the ability to recombine a finite set of phoneme Phoneme In human language. a survival belief based around preparation for survival after social upheaval.
nectar. holds the following design features Design Features of Language The Design Features of Language was a phrase coined in the 1960's by the American linguist Charles Hockett. In Charles Hockett's "The Origin of Speech. or signs. ice... By performing this dance.." Hockett determined that the honeybee communication Communication Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts. system of the waggle dance Waggle dance Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee.. In an effort relate information in regards to the location and distance of the resources. when they have discovered a relevant source of pollen Pollen Pollen is a fine to coarse powder consisting of Gametophyte . honeybees participate in a particular figure-eight dance known as the waggle dance Waggle dance Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee. By performing this dance. .... signs. A hard coat covering the pollen grain protects the sperm cells during the process of their movement between the stamens of the flower to the pistil of the next flower.. or beha..... water vapor or steam. . successful foragers can share with their Beehive mates information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen.. In typical usage. which produce the male gametes of spermatophyta. or to new housing locations.. successful foragers can share with their Beehive mates information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen. 1: an act or instance of transmitting and 3 a: "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols... or information by speech. opinions. :
. to water sources. or water Water Water is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. Hockett believed that there existed 16 features of human language that distinguished human communication from that of animals.. to water sources.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Hive may refer to:...". or to new housing locations.. water refers only to its liquid form or States of matter. and a gaseous state.. but the substance also has a solid state.. writing. .
.. opinions. 1: an act or instance of transmitting and 3 a: "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols.. writing.... as to what direction the source of food Food Food is any substance. that can be Eating or Drinking by an animal or human for nutrition or pleasure. and a gaseous state.. or signs. In typical usage. fats. or information by speech. 2. but the substance also has a solid state. or water Water Water is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. signs..Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
1. can be located. .. ice.Through the use of this dance. system can be matched with specific meanings is apparent because other members of the hive Hive Hive may refer to:. Semanticity . are able to locate the food source after a performance of the waggle dance Waggle dance Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular
. water vapor or steam.". water refers only to its liquid form or States of matter. or beha. honeybees are able to send out a signal that informs other members of the hive Hive Hive may refer to:. proteins and water....... usually composed of carbohydrates.Evidence that the specific signals of a communication Communication Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts. Broadcast Transmission and Directional Reception .
Gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae. Productivity Productivity (linguistics) In linguistics. amount. 4.. Since use to produce novel structures is the clearest proof of usage of a grammatical process. s change based on the direction. or to new housing locations. By performing this dance. The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates ..Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
figure-eight dance of the honey bee. 3. or to new housing locations. successful foragers can share with their Beehive mates information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen... Displacement Displacement Displacement may refer to:.. . especially in word formation. productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process... Hoolock .
.waggle dance Waggle dance Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee. to water sources. . and type of resource. By performing this dance. the evidence most often appealed to as establishing productivity is the appearance of novel forms of the type th. to water sources.... ..Demonstrated in the foraging honeybees ability to communicate about a resource that is not currently present within the hive Hive Hive may refer to:. .. successful foragers can share with their Beehive mates information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen.
the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states.. the order is a taxonomic rank between class and family . class Class (biology) A class is the taxonomic rank in the biological classification of organisms in biology below phylum and above Order . The superorder is a rank between class and order. Domain . . Hockett distinguishes between the Gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae. Each kingdom is divided into smaller groups called Phylum . kingdom . phylum.. kingdom or regnum is a taxonomic rank in either the highest rank..The orders of taxonomy are life. and species. The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates .. and Symphalangus .. s are small apes in the family Hylobatidae. and Symphalangus .... s and are relatively close to man.000 years ago.. Mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in east Africa about 200.. Hoolock . class . is a member of a species of bipedalism primates in the family Hominidae . phylum Phylum A phylum "Phylum" is adopted from the Greek phylai. is a taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class . Hoolock .. and order Order (biology) In Biological classification used in biology.. The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates . . Nomascus ... Nomascus .. or the Rank below domain . s share the same kingdom Kingdom (biology) In Biology taxonomy. and Symphalangus .. also human or man.. and Symphalangus . The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates .. ...Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Nomascus .. family . genus. While gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae.. order .. Nomascus . Hoolock . s Gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae. communication
.... of human Human A human being..
The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates ... or information by speech. 1: an act or instance of transmitting and 3 a: "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols.. Hockett believed that there existed 16 features of human language that distinguished human communication from that of animals. system and human language Human language A human language is a language primarily intended for communication among humans. by noting that Gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae. Hockett developed to distinguish the features of human language from those of animal communication. s are devoid of the last four design features. Nomascus ... is typically measured as a ratio of output per labor-hour. The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates . and duality of patterning). . Gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae. but do not possess the last four (displacement Displacement Displacement may refer to:.. The two major categories of human languages are natural languages and constructed languages.. opinions.. Hoolock . s possess the first nine design features Design Features of Language The Design Features of Language was a phrase coined in the 1960's by the American linguist Charles Hockett. ... traditional transmission Traditional Transmission Traditional transmission is a design feature of language that the anthropology Charles F..Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Communication Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts. for example.. Nomascus ..
. signs.".. or signs.. an input.. per unit of input..... . . Labor productivity. writing.... productivity Productivity Productivity in economics refers to metrics and measures of output from production processes. and Symphalangus .. and Symphalangus . Hoolock .. or beha.
Nomascus . Mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in east Africa about 200. signaling... or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations. s because if any vocal sound Sound Sound is vibration transmitted through a solid. Labor productivity... is typically measured as a ratio of output per labor-hour.000 years ago... per unit of input. does not exist among Gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
1.. s learn language
. ing of apes. composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a threshold of hearing to be heard..... appears to be lacking in the vocal signal Signal Signal. .. an input. or signalling may refer to:.. according to Hockett. The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates . Hockett supports the idea that human Human A human being.. 2. Productivity Productivity Productivity in economics refers to metrics and measures of output from production processes. or gas. for example.. also human or man. it is one of a finite set of repetitive and familiar calls. is produced. Displacement Displacement Displacement may refer to:.. and Symphalangus . is a member of a species of bipedalism primates in the family Hominidae . Hoolock . 3. signals. liquid.
. writing.. Hoolock . opinions. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.. or information by speech. or signs. (traditional transmission
. . Hockett developed to distinguish the features of human language from those of animal communication. and Symphalangus .. behaviors.... Value s.. Nomascus .. preferences or understanding... of apes. extragenetically through the process of traditional transmission Traditional Transmission Traditional transmission is a design feature of language that the anthropology Charles F. and may involve synthesizing different types of information.. The family is divided into four genus based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates .. or beha..". s from humans by stating that despite any similarities in communication Communication Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts. signs. skills.. 1: an act or instance of transmitting and 3 a: "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols.. Hockett distinguishes Gibbon Gibbon Gibbons are the small apes in the family Hylobatidae.. Language can also refer to the use of such systems as a general phenomenon...Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Language A language is a form of symbol communication in which elements are combined to represents something other than themselves. a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. we cannot attribute these similarities to acquisition through the teaching and learning Learning Learning is acquiring new knowledge.. among a species Species In biology.
The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. snakes. 4. Hockett developed to distinguish the features of human language from those of animal communication. a discipline of biology.. the sounds /t/. A word consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together..Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Traditional Transmission Traditional transmission is a design feature of language that the anthropology Charles F.. scorpions. also known as the Domestication cat or house cat to distinguish it from other Felinae and Felidae. ) of signals. s cat Cat The cat . duality of patterning explains a human Human A human being. /c/ can be used to create the word Word A word is a unit of language that represents a concept which can be expressively communication with Meaning .. For example. basis. /a/. the only explanation must be a genetic Genetics Genetics . also human or man. is the science of heredity and Genetic variation in living organisms..000 years ago.. tack Tack
.... .. is a small predationy carnivore species of crepuscular mammal that is valued by humans for its companionship and its ability to hunt vermin. Finally. Mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in east Africa about 200. is a member of a species of bipedalism primates in the family Hominidae . and has a phonetic value. 's ability to create multiple meanings from somewhat meaningless sounds...... and other unwanted household pests.
. used in upholstery. a college entrance exam in the United States. The two major categories of human languages are natural languages and constructed languages.".. . the capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia* ACT . opinions.. shoe making and saddle manufacture* Horse tack... writing.. . or signs.. system besides human language Human language A human language is a language primarily intended for communication among humans.. 1: an act or instance of transmitting and 3 a: "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols..
. maintains this ability... and act ACT ACT may refer to:Most commonly:* Australian Capital Territory..Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Tack may refer to:* Tack. or beha. Hockett states that no other Hominoid communication Communication Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts. or information by speech. a type of cut Nail . harness and equipment to allow horseback riding. signs.
If the quality of the food is sufficiently high.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Taken from the Department of Entomology: NY State University: http://www.edu/entomology/apiculture/Dance_language. commonly known as the honey bee dance language. It is usually used when an experienced forager returns to her colony with a load of food. 1/10/07 There can be no argument that the most famous aspect of honey bee biology is their method of recruitment.ncsu.cals. either nectar or pollen. The dance language is also used to recruit scout bees to a new nest site during the process of reproductive fission. Recruits follow the dancing bee to obtain the information it contains. and is one of the most fascinating behaviors that can be observed in nature. or swarming. The distance and direction information contained in the dance are representations of the source's location and thus is the only known abstract "language" in nature other than human language. and then exit the hive to the location of interest. The dance language is used by one individual to communicate two items of information to one ore more receivers: the distance and direction to a location (typically a food source. It has served as a model example of animal communication in biology courses at all levels.html. such as a patch of flowers).
. she will often perform a "dance" on the surface of the wax comb to recruit new foragers to the resource.
Many experiments have directly tested this alternative hypothesis and demonstrated the importance of floral odours in food location. Those critics have argued that floral odours on a forager's body are the major cues that recruits use to locate novel food sources.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
The dance language is inextricably associated with Dr. Karl von Frisch. it is clear that honey bees use the distance and direction information communicated by the dance language. He and his students carefully described the different components of the language through decades of research. Nevertheless. training marked foragers to artificial feeders placed at known distances from a colony. Indeed.
. The robot. His work eventually earned him the Nobel Prize (in Medicine) in 1973. however. Their experiments typically used glass-walled observation hives. The current conventional wisdom holds that recruits go to the area depicted in the dance. The biological reality. researchers have built a robotic honey bee that is able to perform the dance language and recruit novice foragers to specific locations. The concept of a honey bee language. and carefully measuring the angle and duration of the dances when the foragers returned. however. who is widely accredited with discovering its meaning. which represents one of the most intriguing examples of animal communication. Several scientists have argued that simply because the dance exists does necessarily mean that it communicates information about the location of a food source. is unable to properly recruit foragers to a food source unless there is some odour cue on its surface. has not been free of scepticism. however. but then "home in" to the flower patch using odour cues. is somewhere in between these two extremes.
are recruited to with the sickle dance. 70. she often distributes food to the bees following her. This dance.
Dance diagrams: from von Frisch. Food sources that are at intermediate distances. A waggle dance. runs again through the straight course. a forager performs a round dance (see Figure). but no direction. therefore. 1976 p.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Components of the dance language
At its core. A bee that performs a waggle dance runs straight ahead for a short distance. less than 50 meters away). The form of this dance is crescent-shaped. is performed by bees foraging at food sources that are over 150 meters away from the hive. returns in a semicircle to the starting point.e. a transitional dance between a round dance and a figure-eight waggle dance (see below). She does so by running around in narrow circles. communicates both distance and direction² to potential recruits. there are two things communicated in a dance: distance and direction. She may repeat the dance several times at the same location or move to another location to repeat the dance.
When a food source is very close to the hive (i. suddenly reversing direction to her original course. communicates distance ("close to the hive"). After the round dance has ended. or wag-tail dance. unlike the round and sickle dances. between 50 and 150 meters away from the hive. These two pieces of information are translated into separate components of the dance. then makes a
.. A round dance.
The relationship is roughly linear.5 seconds is recruiting for a food source located approximately 2625 meters away. The angle that the bee adpots. The figure below gives three examples. At the same time. of the
duration of the straight run portion of the dance. represents the angle to the flowers relative to the direction of the sun outside of the hive.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
semicircle in the opposite direction to complete a full. The sound is produced by wingbeats. For example. a forager that performs a waggle run that lasts 2. While several variables of the waggle dance are correlated with distance information (e. measured in seconds. is the simplest and most reliable indicator of distance. especially the abdomen. This vibration of the body gives a tail-wagging motion. figure-eight circuit. dance "tempo".
While the representation of distance in the waggle dance is relatively straightforward. While running the straight-line course of the dance. the method of communicating direction is more complicated and abstract. buzzing duration sounds). the dancing bee transposes the solar angle into the gravitational angle. wags vigorously sideways. In other words. as shown in the figure. The orientation of the dancing bee during the straight portion of her waggle dance indicates the location of the food source relative to the sun. relative to vertical. As the distance to the food source increases. the bee emits a train of buzzing sound at a low frequency of 250-300 Hertz (cycles per second) with a pulse duration of about 20 milliseconds and a repetition of frequency of ca 30 seconds. the duration of the waggling portion of the dance (the "waggle run") also increases. the bee’s body. A forager recruiting to a food source in the same direction as the sun will perform a dance with the waggle run portion
Direction figure: from Barth. if the food source were located directly away from the sun. Thus the time of day (or. a forager's dance for a particular resource will change over time. p. the straight run would be directed vertically down. but will have foragers dance approximately straight down in the late afternoon (because the sun sets in the west). F.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
directly up on the comb. This is because the sun's position moves over the course of a day. more importantly. For example. If the food source were 60 degrees to the left of the sun. 221. a food source located due east will have foragers dance approximately straight up in the morning (because the sun rises in the east). Conversely. 1982.
. the waggle run would be 60 degrees to the left of vertical. not the compass direction. Princeton University Press Because the direction information is relative to the sun's position. G. the location of the sun) is an important variable to interpret the direction information in the dance. Insects and Flowers: The Biology of a Partnership.
the sun will always be in the north. the sun can pass to the south or to the north. date. one must know the angle of the waggle run (with respect to gravity) and the compass direction of the sun (which depends on location. However.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
The sun's position is also a function of one's geographic location and the time of year. above the tropic of cancer. depending on the time of year. The sun will always move from from east to west over the course of the day.
[To see a waggle dance go to U-tube http://www. whereas below the tropic of capricorn.youtube. In summary. Within the tropics. the sun will always be in the south. in order to translate the direction information contained in the honey bee dance language. and time of day).com/watch?v=-7ijI-g4jHg]
But they are going to produce meaningful.youtube. Of course. Grey parrots.com/watch?v=ywdTfEBVcSY&NR=1
http://www. such as Alex and Griffin.
http://www.03] A Talk with Irene Pepperberg What the data suggest to me is that if one starts with a brain of a certain complexity and gives it enough social and ecological support. are never going to sit here and give an interview the way you and I are conducting an interview and having a chat. It is incredibly fascinating to have creatures so evolutionarily separate from humans performing simple forms of the same types of complex cognitive tasks as do young children.html
Introduction by Marc D.23. a flurry of research on the great apes—chimpanzees. that brain will develop at least the building blocks of a complex communication system. Everyone soon weighed in on this
.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Honeybee Waggle Dance Experiment
http://uk. complex communicative combinations.edge. chimpanzees don't proceed to develop full-blown language the way you and I have. gorillas. Hauser In the late 1960s. and orangutans—began to challenge our uniqueness.org/video/dsl/pepperberg.edge.org/3rd_culture/bios/pepperberg.html
"THAT DAMN BIRD" [9. especially our capacity for language and abstract conceptual abilities.
and so forth. She started with a challenge: do you really need a big primate brain to run these computations? After over 20 years of work with her African Gray parrot Alex.
. but it is clear that Irene. The main focus of her work is to determine the cognitive and communicative abilities of these birds. Alex and her new stars will teach us a
lot along the way. How far this work will go is anyone's guess. and author of Wild Minds: What Animals Think. Her work has revealed that Alex can grasp important aspects of number. the difference between presence and absence. Director of Primate Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at Harvard. One corner of this debate focused on the assumption that you need a big primate brain to handle problems of reference. the clear answer is "No!" Irene's intellectual journey with Alex is an impressive one because she has sustained a consistent line of research exploring some of the deepest problems concerning the nature of mind. Dr. These results are not only relevant to the evolution of human cognition. Pepperberg is a a research scientist at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning. and the psychologist Burrhus Skinner. the philosophers John Searle and Daniel Dennett. abstract representations. marine mammals. She is studying the mechanisms of their learning as well as the outcomes. we can apply such knowledge to what parrots do in the wild.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
debate including the linguist Noam Chomsky. the relationship between language and thought. syntax. Hauser. but they are also relevant to the evolution of animal cognition. and compare their abilities with those of great apes. the kinds of strategies they might use to negotiate in such a complex social world. and young children. and a Research Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Brandeis University. Marc D. By understanding what animals such as Alex can do under tigthly controlled laboratory conditions. color concepts. and physical properties of objects such as their shape and material. and in particular. It was to this corner of the debate that Irene Pepperberg first turned. IRENE PEPPERBERG studies Grey parrots.
Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. Previous researchers have tried to overcome that liability by teaching apes sign language.. They are like us." Instead of using behaviorism -."
. like chimpanzees. shares 98 to 99 percent of human genes. a Georgia State University biology professor.like American Sign Language. says the accepted wisdom reflects a long bias and that modern studies are refuting it. argue that it's a uniquely human gift.' one is struck by the intense give and take.org/058language/ape_talk. But other researchers disagree.rewarding the apes with food each time they use a word correctly -. According to this school.html
Speaking to the relatives Where did our capacity for language originate? Many linguists.a relative of ours that. Savage-Rumbaugh uses a "keyboard" consisting of 400 symbols. They look like us. echoing the influential Noam Chomsky. they can't make human language. think like us. symbolic communications systems -. she says. at least to some extent. pointing out that a few apes can use.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Taken from ‘Do Apes Have Language’ http://whyfiles. smell like us. Savage-Rumbaugh observed that since apes don't have a vocal tract.she allows the animals to pick up words in "normal" conversation. E. "the differences don't loom very large.. This seems to work. "If you talk to apes and point to little symbols. care like us. and what she finds is controversial. they learn to understand language just as I'm talking to you.languages -. When you spend all day with bonobos. chimpanzees and other close relatives could not use language because they lack the human brain structures that make language." Speaking at the recent American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Philadelphia. "Watching Kanzi [an experimental bonobo] in casual 'conversation. Savage-Rumbaugh studies bonobos -.
This one resembles road signs built of smashed plants rather than steel. SavageRumbaugh began wondering how one group manages to follow another to the next hangout.have a second communication system. Please step on the daisies Savage-Rumbaugh also contends that wild bonobos -." Thus in swamps. "This is the first time that anyone has tried to say that this altered vegetation is communicating anything.how babies learn to talk.and talk." And on the ground. she observed that their trails were clearly marked by smashed plants and branches planted at an angle to the direction of travel. a Japanese primate researcher in the Congo forest.. The finding grew from the observation that troops of bonobos hang out in various locations during the day. Hart found. When bonobos go foraging on the ground. the small groups must maintain "radio silence" to evade predators. "These clues are not left at arbitrary points in the vegetation but rather at locations where trails split and where an individual following might be confused as to the correct direction to take. but since they congregate in trees in groups of about 100.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language wrote journalist Stephen Hart (see "The Language of Animals" in the bibliography).only an estimated 4. Savage-Rumbaugh suspects that it does represent the kind of symbolic communication system humans rely on..000 survive in Congo.
. the researchers found Kanzi's understanding of new sentences to be about equal to that of a two-and-one-half-year-old child. "it's almost impossible to study them. they are silent to avoid predators.
She suspects that bonobos are using language in the wild. During two days of following troops with local bonobo trackers. Furthermore. where plenty of footprints mark the trail. While the finding has not been replicated in other primates. she contends they actually were road signs since they occurred only at trail intersections. Savage-Rumbaugh spent two months studying bonobos at a research station operated by Takayoshi Kano.000 to 40. the road signs are not needed and not seen. formerly Zaire -. In 1995. and talk.
Although skeptics could counter that she was just seeing trampled plants." This just in -.
4.. Jul/Aug 2000
It was exactly 33 years ago that 1 first met of one of my oldest and dearest friends. In fact. I was
. 68. To this day. 6 pgs Abstract (Document Summary) Thirty years of working closely with chimpanzees have convinced Fouts that. chimps nurture family bonds.33. like humans. the most outstanding aspect of her personality remains a quality I noticed the very first time I laid eyes on her: She is one of the most caring and compassionate people I know She's also a chimpanzee. mourn the death of mothers.D. I first encountered Washoe during an interview with R. Copyright Sussex Publishers. New York: Jul/Aug 2000. chimpanzees are the closest psychological cousins to humans. Allen Gardner.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
"My best friend is a chimp" Roger Fouts. Gardner was seeking assistants to teach his young chimp American Sign Language (ASL). Vol. Iss. pg. adopt orphans. Psychology Today. Ph. an experimental psychologist at the University of Nevada at Reno. self-medicate and wage war. Inc.
without breaking stride. It also got me the job. but they still share the same underlying ancestral intelligence. chimps are highly intelligent. struggle for power and wage war. Research suggests that. two people were playing with what seemed to be a human infant. I could think of no one who needed a hug more at that moment than I did. because the chimp brain and the human brain both evolved from the same brainthat of our common ape ancestor. the child began running across the yard towards us. Within. At first sight of us. humans having branched off from chimpanzees just six million years ago on the evolutionary tree. Chimps. scientific evidence on chimps and other nonhuman primates has poured in to support one basic fact: We have much more in common with the apes than most people care to believe. She reached the fence and. landed in my arms and gave me a big hug. practice self medication. leaped over the top. And that only makes sense. The interview did not go particularly well. but I said yes nonetheless. That first glimpse of Washoe's seeming capacity for empathy not only foreshadowed how much I would eventually learn about the complex inner lives of chimpanzees. cooperative and sometimes violent primates who nurture family bonds. It was then that I realized that this "child" was actually Washoe. adopt orphans. mourn the death of mothers. known for his strict laboratory methods and mathematical precision. As Gardner ended the meeting.
. Gardner and I strolled across the Reno campus toward a play yard enclosed by a 4-foot-high chain link fence. like us. I was sure I had lost any chance of scoring the job. according to Gardner-did not impress the toughminded scientist. Often cited is the statistic that humans have 98. Gardner seemed as surprised as I was: Washoe had chosen a complete stranger to embrace over her surrogate father. My research background in clinical psychology and my interest in philosophy-"soft" subjects.4% of the same DICTA as chimps. he asked if I wanted to meet Washoe. a 2-year-old chimpanzee. The mental processes inside these two brains have become specialized as they adapted to different social needs over six million years. Our Closest Cousins In the past few decades.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
desperately seeking a graduate assistantship to help fund my studies in experimental psychology.
Washoe herself has been the subject of groundbreaking and seminal studies on primate communication. and that these behaviorswhich range from using rocks as hammers to crack nuts to not using tools at all vary geographically. Many scientists beg to differ. and colleagues published a study in the journal of Comparative Psychology showing that baboons don't respond to each others' callsmother baboons don't even return the calls of their lost infants.D." or the ability to infer another being's thoughts and feelings. and Andrew Whiten. showed that rhesus monkeys have rudimentary arithmetic skills.. After 30 years of conversing with and observing chimpanzees-watching them closely and interacting with them on a day-to-day basisI'm more convinced than ever that chimp and human minds are fundamentally alike. When they don't match up.D. the researchers assume that their intellects are completely unlike ours. but to monkeys and apes of all kinds.D. head researcher Franc de Waal.D. for example. A 1999 Columbia study conducted by psychologist Herbert Terrace. suggests that this kind of cooperation may be an essential element of human society And a study published last May in the journal Nature by famed chimpanzee researchers Jane Goodall. Drew Rendall. monkey and chimp minds to human minds.D. Ph. In March. Ph. and that they can think using symbols. The Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center released a study in April indicating that capuchin monkeys work together to gather food and then share the fruits of their labor. Ph. She was the very first nonhuman to learn a human langageASL. But I don't need to read clinical studies or technical research texts to see that chimps behave much like we do. sound evidence that chimps might have region-specific cultures.. Ph. Ph. assistant professor of psychology at Canada's University of Lethbridge...
. The problem with this logic: Scientists often attempt to compare ape. and she even passed her second language on to her adopted son. Cameras have recorded her signing with other chimps with no humans present.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
In the past year alone. Rendall offers this as "proof" that nonhuman primates lack "theory of mind. numerous studies have highlighted our remarkable likeness not only to chimps.. shows that chimpanzees engage in more behaviors than are necessary for mere survival.
comparing their specific behaviors to those of humans. their empathy. not the kind of mental processes they employ. their duplicity. humans and chimpanzees dif fer in intellectual ability.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Certainly. their cooperation. These up-close-and-personal experiences have given me proof of their compassion. But what differs is their degree of intelligence. they are also our psychological and emotional cousins. The reason that chimps are the frequent subjects of scientific experimenu is the very reason that testing and inferior treatment is wrong: More than just our biological cousins. My careful observations of chimps. There is no bold line separating human intelligence from chimp intelligence.
. have shown me that our thoughts and actions overlap in many ways.
. From day one. but the youngster remained sitting where he was.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Natural Nurturers One of the emotional traits that people deem most uniquely "human" is empathy Yet empathy is one of Washoe's most obvious personal characteristics. Washoe also displayed her nurturing mentality during even more perilous rescue missions while at the Institute. All of the animals moved rapidly away from that end of the island. Here. Washoe stood up and emphatically signed "COME HUG COME HUG" to Bruno. where she would've become a subject in medical experiments had the Gardners not taken to her during a visit to the program. a resident chimp cried out. Amazingly. Washoe seemed to feel responsible for the young transplants. (She had been "wild-collected" from Africa at an early age by the U. so he wasn't trained in basic chimpanzee survival skills or accustomed to the wilds of Oklahoma. The island was surrounded by a moat with steep and slippery red clay sides.)
One of the new arrivals. One day. a two-strand. took Bruno by his hand and led him to the safe end of the island. Chimpanzees are naturally frightened of snakes. signaling that snakes were present. blissfully unaware of impending danger. except for Bruno. Soon. Washoe scurried back to the danger zone. space program.S. Bruno. since he hadn't yet learned ASL. where water moccasins and copperheads abounded. After a drowning occurred. when Gardner's entire research unit moved to the Oklahoma Institute of Primate Studies. Washoe was halfway to safety when she turned and saw Bruno sitting on the snake-infested side of the island. He had been raised by humans since birth. Washoe was no longer the baby of the family but was now living with chimpanzees a few years younger than herself. mine. so there were always young chimps coming and going. The Institute was a sort of home for wayward chimpanzees. I had already seen traces of Washoe's ability to react to other creatures' feelingsnamely. But I truly detected her compassion in 1970. had come to Oklahoma after participating in Herbert Terrace's failed language project in New York. perhaps because she had been one herself.
She had taken a running jump over the fence and into the moat a frightening situation. I fell and broke my arm. so I approached and knelt down by the wire mesh partition surrounding the chimps' large living space. While acting as a parent volunteer on a high school ski trip one weekend. rowing them back to the island's landing. She grabbed one of Penny's arms and pulled her to safety. She gently put her fingers through the wire and groomed my arm gently. All of the chimpanzees must have seen the pain I was trying to hide written plainly on my face. She jumped over the electric fence. since chimpanzees can't swim. grassy ledge at the edge of the moat. The metal poles holding the wire were placed in the grassy ledge about six inches from the water. The following Monday I walked into our laboratory with my arm in a sling. landing precariously on the short. I am astounded by the dangerous rescue that I witnessed. one she had known for only a few hours. a new chimpanzee. In 1980.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
fence was built around the edge of the island. Washoe had risked her own life to save another chimpanzee. likely as a result of being teased by the boys. Reading Feelings Perhaps the most striking examples of the chimpanzees' sense of sympathy and empathy involves their emotional reactions to seeing humans in pain. when I was on the mend. from the Gardners' second project. and other surrogate siblings. because instead of the raucous pant-hoot greeting they typically let loose upon seeing me.
. Washoe and I moved to Central Washington University-our current home-along with Loulis. her adopted son. Penny. signed "HURT" and gently touched me as well. Moja. To this day. My physician had not put my arm in a cast. Washoe signed "THERE" and pointed to my arm. Dar and Tatu. then slipped into the water while holding onto the bottom of the electric fence post. arrived on the island one morning and. in turn. Tatu. they all sat very still and watched me intently. I ran for a boat and dragged both of them into it. so any movement was quite painful until the bones knitted. Even 10-year-old Loulis understood enough not to ask me for his usual "CHASE" game until several weeks later. I heard her screaming at the top of her lungs. later that day. making a soft clicking noise with her tongue. Penny must have panicked. I was prepared to go in after her but Washoe beat me to it. because the next sound I heard was a splash.
) Unfortunately. People who should be there for her and aren't are often later given the cold shoulder-her way of informing them that she's miffed at them. One of our longtime volunteers. often asking her about her "BABY". sweeter emotions aren't the only evidence of their intellectual capacity. more grammatically perfect sentences. She doted on him. Kat eventually miscarried.) Kat later remarked that that one sign told her more about Washoe and her mental capabilities than all her longer. and Washoe was fascinated with her swelling belly. signing "MY BABY DIED. Washoe adopted Loulis when he was 10 months old after having lost two of her own babies. She finally peered into Kat's eyes again and carefully signed "CRY. like ours."
Hair-Brained Schemes Chimps' softer. then looked down. So Loulis would often abuse his special status and Washoe's loving nature to get his way-and to get other chimpanzees in trouble. one to a respiratory illness. became pregnant in the summer of 1982. She also seems to know what the parent-child relationship involves. Washoe signed "ROGER DEBBI BABY". She signed "PLEASE PERSON HUG. Kat made her apologies to Washoe. strategy and manipulation. since she has been pregnant twice and lost both offspring-one to a congenital heart defect. One facet of Washoe's personality is that she has extremely high expectations of her friends. leaving no doubt about Hillary's identity and her relationship to us. (Chimpanzees don't shed tears. My wife Debbi and I thought we had Washoe fooled about our relationship until one day we asked her who she thought our 5-yearold daughter Hillary was. and couldn't visit the chimpanzees for several weeks. capable of deception. Washoe did not want her to go without some emotional support. All he
.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Washoe has astutely reacted to the feelings of others as well. Kat Beach. Their minds are also. She showed signs of depression each time." touching her cheek and drawing her finger down the path a tear would make on a human. then decided to tell her the truth. (Washoe understood what babies were and where they came from. Washoe greeted Kat in just this way when she finally returned to work with the chimps." Washoe stared at her. When Kat prepared to leave that day.
alternating it with a look toward Loulis.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
had to do was scream. Dar went over and pinched Loulis hard for no reason that we could see. after comforting him. Chimps are People. This started a screaming fight between the two. The tables had been turned. We observed that sometimes another chimpanzee would not even touch him and he would scream and point at an innocent bystander. just to get attention. Washoe then comforted a smug Dar. she would discipline the perpetrator. by claiming that chimps' physiology and biology is so similar to humans that the findings they yield are likely to apply to us as well. Dar was the one who finally figured out how to use Loulis' game to his own advantage. he stood for a moment as if he couldn't believe his eyes. are so close to us.
. where all animals are equal. we're not as unique as we believe. But as my observations of Washoe in natural social situations show. What they ignore is that creatures who are so physiologically similar to us may also be psychologically and mentally similar to us. We were like the pigs on George Orwell's Animal Farm. ravaging them with the AIDS virus. but some are more equal than others. This turned Loulis into a bit of a spoiled brat. hepatitis and brain injury. They can't have it both ways. I believed what I had been taught by society: that humans were intellectually and emotionally superior to all other species. grooming him until he calmed down. When Washoe started swaggering in Loulis' direction to exact punishment. The biomedical community justifies experimenting on chimps. Ironically. organ transplantation. Too Before I started on Project Washoe three decades ago. When Washoe rushed in from another room Dar immediately threw himself on his back and started screaming and signing "HUG HUG HUG". but has actually worked against their welfare. and Washoe would come running. by the experimenters' own admission. She would sign "HUG" to him and then. They ignore the ethical and moral implications of experimenting on creatures that. chimpanzees' remarkable similarity to humans has served not to protect them. then retreated rapidly from the room.
I would never support or be a part of a project like Project Washoe again. of the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute
. and any interaction with us is up to them. Enrichment of both humans and chimps is a full-time effort at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. In 1993. I act on behalf of the chimpanzees. As a scientist. If you met them.. forest destruction. While Washoe's circumstances are better now. Their interests and well-being are our first priority. Loulis. using apes in entertainment and captive breeding. they are not bribed with food. Given my current knowledge of freeliving chimpanzee culture and emotional life. It was a project that condemned a young girl to a life in which she would always be out of place and. I speak out against logging. too. you would. sanctuaries and protecting preserves against biomedical research. forced with threats or socially harangued into submission. Roger Fouts. I have to accept that Washoe is a person by any reasonable definition. either. She was never taught the skills she would need to survive in her native Africa. Tatu. Moja and Dar take part in research only if they wish. Deborah Fouts. and yet she does not entirely belong here in the human world. Working closely with chimps forced me to recognize that I was a part of a research project whose prime subject was a helpless baby taken from her mother and her African homeland. I regret that I cannot ever return her to her home. in effect. and it goes on all day But Washoe. I established the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. So I act. with caretakers who love and respect her rather than owners who do not appreciate her.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Changing this mindset was one of the most difficult things that I personally have ever done.D. is professor of psychology at Central Washington University and co-director with his wife. I speak out in favor of better living conditions. We do not enter the chimps' home or play areas. a safe research environment based on mutual respect between humans and chimpanzees. in prison. and that the community of chimpanzees from which she was stolen are a people. Ph. she can never go home again.
Cambridge. "My best friend is a chimp" Roger Fouts.html Dyslexia. 1997) Statistical Learning by 8-month-old Infants.D.html. The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees. Ithaca. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and Roger Lewin. 181-96.ncsu. 1/10/07 Anatomy of A Controversy: The Question of a "Language" Among Bees. Frisch. pg. 1996. Science. 6 pgs Next of Kin. Wells. 5 Jan. 1989) Word Segmentation: The Role of Distributional Clues. Aug. Roger Fouts.edu/entomology/apiculture/Dance_language. Gardner and `h.” Wenner. 11/96. Henry Holt. 274. Giving Language Skills a Boost. Denise Mandel et al. Kanzi: The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind. 27-8..Y. p. New York. 157 pp. pp. R.33. 29 January. New York. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1967. 1996. Iss. 1995. Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees. Time Magazine.
. The Language of Animals. A. Van Cantfort (SUNY Press. Scientific American. Stephen Hart. '96. Karl von. Infants Remember the Order of Words in a Spoken Sentence. 1926-8. v. Journal of Memory and Language. Chemical Senses. Sally Shaywitz. (Bard. Revised Edition. New York. Ph. John Wiley and Sons. pp. Massachusetts. Science.
Taken from the Department of Entomology: NY State University: http://www. Adrian M. 1996.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Charles Hockett (1966). 606-621. Vol. 399 pp. Karl von. and Language. "The Problem of Universals in Language"
Can Video Games Treat Learning Disorders? J. 1996. and Patrick H. 566 pp. pp. ‘Do Apes Have Language’ Sue Savage-Rumbaugh http://whyfiles. Psychology Today.cals. 1990Columbia University Press. Gardner. N. Cognitive Development. Frisch. pp. Jenny Saffran et al. Jenny Saffran et al. 98 ff. Bees: Their Vision. April-June 1996. E. Madeleine Nash. B.org/058language/ape_talk. 1976 Cornell University Press. Marcia Barinaga.T. December. 4. New York: Jul/Aug 2000. 68.
edge. 1995. Hauser..org/3rd_culture/bios/pepperberg.23. Seeley. http://www. Thomas D. Harvard University Press.03] A Talk with Irene Pepperberg Marc D.
"THAT DAMN BIRD" [9.html 1-10-07
.. Marc D.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
The Wisdom of the Hive: The Social Physiology of Honey Bee Colonies.
Read it but not all in one sitting.E.
Consider how far animals have language as opposed to communication. What do you think makes us different from animals other than things at a surface structure level (i.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language Homework Read: Read ALL the texts below
Academic Reading and How to Make Notes M.
. so any aspect that you have not understood (do not say everything) can be discussed in this format. do not get too bogged down. we are not unique just part of the animal continuum. Come prepared next week to argue with three points either: agreeing that man is unique or disagreeing. Hediger PDF file
Using the templates in your Academic Reading and How to Make Notes do the note taking exercises.P. clothes etc). Next week will be a tutorial.e. Clinton The Clever Hans Phenomenon from an Animal Psychologist’s Point of View Heini K. The academic reading is there for you to get used to academic reading. Mary. Enjoy.
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Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
NFINITE NUMBER OF SENTENCES
Robert Mannell (1999)
or any other living language (1). but unique sentences may potentially be generated from it by making slight changes to it (eg. rate of utterance and the placement and timing of pauses that occur as a consequence of the combined effects of prosody. vocal pitch (fundamental frequency). If we consider spoken language. but this excludes many colloquial forms . To do so. however. change "green" to "red"). It is well known. or meaningless) event with a particular named person on a particular date. We will examine the "infinite sentences" claim for English. We might additionally consider the manipulation of vocal resonance (frequencies of spectral peaks)." (2) Once this sentence has been written or spoken. It's actually quite easy to come up with a unique. For example: "On 31st October 1999. then we would come to a similar conclusion if we examine only the word content of spoken sentences. for example. purposes we can say that the English language. that English sentences can be up to 100 words in length (a fairly reasonable working assumption) that any individual word can occur 0 to 100 times in a single sentence (an unrealistic assumption) that words can be combined in any order (a false assumption)
then we can determine that there could be as many as about 10570 possible sentences (very much greater than estimates of the number of atoms in the observable universe). combine an unlikely (or impossible.000 in the 20 volume Oxford English Dictionary. So for all practical.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
The claim. but the resulting number of possibilities would still be extremely large (more than could ever be spoken in the entire history of human languages let alone during the much shorter life span of an individual language). vocal loudness (intensity). vocal emotion.although it does include many obsolete forms).000 words (there are about 450. is not strictly true. Robert had a colourless green idea. intensity and timing). subsequent productions of this same sentence are not unique. sentence. is an open system. Across the possible human vocal range of these acoustic dimensions there is only a finite number of discriminable (just noticeable) steps. as would the requirement that all sentences be meaningful. whilst writing a lecture on animal communication. that the human brain is only able to discriminate discrete (step-wise) changes in each of these dimensions. neither of these requirements are possible for any human language (or for any imaginable communication system made up of discrete word-like units of meaning). it is also well established that meaningful changes in each of these
. and size. If we assume:• • • •
that English has about 500. often repeated by linguists. that we can potentially produce an infinite number of sentences in a language. non-mathematical. There are potentially an infinite number of infinitesimally different productions of any sentence (infinitesimal differences of frequency. Additionally. never before produced. Of course. Grammatical rules would greatly reduce this number of sentences. age and gender differences. For such a claim to be true there must either be the possibility of sentences of infinite length or there must be an infinite number of words in the language.
sentence. Natural animal communication can include:-
. Can animals be taught to use languages that are analogous to or the same as human language? Pearce (1987. This second requirement ensures that it isn't merely being transmitted as a fragmentary partial language (isolated words and phrases). as Chomsky suggested. which we will also use as a working definition in this lecture:Animal communication is "the transmission of a signal from one animal to another such that the sender benefits. but finite.
ANIMAL Natural COMMUNICATION Animal Footnote Communication AND LANGUAGE
1. The Hague/Paris: Mouton) Robert Mannell (1999) The aim of this lecture (1) is to examine the following questions:1. How do the forms of communication used by animals differ from human language? 2. see Pearce for reference). number. This means that all of the meaningful vocal nuances of all of the possible sentences in English would be a large. on average. A "living language" is a fully operational language being passed on to a new generation. This loose definition permits the inclusion of many types of behaviour and allows "communication" to be applied to a very large range of animals.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
dimensions tend to involve significantly larger changes than those changes that are just noticeable perceptually. including some very simple animals. from the response of the recipient". never before produced. Some people also require that it be the first language of at least some speakers. extremely likely to have been a unique. (Chomsky. Syntactic Structures. 2. When Noam Chomsky came up with his famous sentence "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously" it was also. p252) cites a definition of animal communication by Slater (1983. Noam (1957).
eg. skunk secretions repel)
• • • • • •
Touch Movement Posture (eg. feathers) Sound (eg. very many vertebrate and invertebrate calls)
Such signals have evolved to:• • • • • •
attract (especially mates) repel (especially competitors or enemies) signal aggression or submission advertise species warn of predators communicate about the environment or the availability of food
Such signals may be:• •
instinctive. geese) Facial gestures (eg. 1957. that is genetically programmed learnt from others
Some linguists (eg Chomsky. pheromones attract. 1982. dogs.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Chemical signals (used by some very simple creatures. both cited in Pearce.
. including protozoa) Smell (related to chemical signals. dogs snarling) Visual signals (eg. Macphail. 1987) have argued that language is a unique human behaviour and that animal communication falls short of human language in a number of important ways.
It also does not apply to written language. Such lists tend to be quite similar and certain elements of the Hockett list are considered particularly important in evaluating the question "can animals be taught language?" Hockett's thirteen "design-features" for language are as follows:1. This applies to many animal communication systems. 1987) made the claim that "humans acquire language (and non-humans do not) not because humans are (quantitatively) more intelligent. This is true of all systems involving sound. Some researchers have provided lists of what they consider to be the criteria that animal communication must meet to be regarded as language. That is. Total feedback: The sender of a message also perceives the message. Rapid fading (transitory nature): Signal lasts a short time. For this lecture the list devised by Hockett (1960) is utilised. you hear what you say. Broadcast transmission and directional reception: this requires that the recipient can tell the direction that the signal comes from and thus the originator of the signal. No natural non-human system of communication shares this common grammar. although this list is not the only such list available.
. but there are many exceptions. 5. This is not always true for some kinds of animal displays. it does not apply to human sign language. Vocal-auditory channel: sounds emitted from the mouth and perceived by the auditory system. males produce one set of behaviours and females another and they are unable to interchange these messages so that males use the female signal and vice versa. 2. It doesn't take into account audio recording technology and is also not true for written language. he claims.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Chomsky (1957) claims that humans possess an innate universal grammar that is not possessed by other species. which meets all the other 12 requirements. This can be readily demonstrated. Also. but because humans possess some species-specific mechanism (or mechanisms) which is a prerequisite of language-acquisition". It tends not to apply to animal signals involving chemicals and smells which often fade slowly. This is different to some communication systems where. by the universality of language in human society and by the similarity of their grammars. Macphail (1982. 3. cited by Pearce. Interchangeability: All utterances that are understood can be produced. for example. 4.
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6. on the other hand fail to develop the calls of their species when raised in isolation. Traditional transmission: Each generation needs to learn the system of communication from the preceding generation. for example. rather than a continuous change of meaning (eg. morphemes or words) produced from a small number of meaningless units (eg. Apes. do not share this feature in their natural communication systems. Discreteness: Language can be said to be built up from discrete units (eg. or to different calls of different sub-species of a single bird species having the same meaning. on the other hand be changed continuously without abrupt changes of meaning. Duality of patterning: Large numbers of meaningful signals (eg. Displacement: Communicating about things or events that are distant in time or space. Click here to see a table that examines the extent to which various communication systems meet these 13 design features. Arbitrariness: There is an arbitrary relationship between a signal and its meaning. but changes abruptly in meaning at some point. the calls of gibbons who have a finite number of calls and thus a closed system of communication. 12. This is not a feature of. Productivity: Language is an open system. Bee dancing is an example of this. Semanticity: There is a fixed relationship between a signal and a meaning. Some animals. for example. is related to the meaning by convention or by instinct but has no inherent relationship with the meaning. This is an abrupt change. 7. Many species produce the same uniform calls regardless of where they live in the range (even a range spanning several continents). Specialisation: The signal produced is specialised for communication and is not the side effect of some other behaviour (eg. Speech loudness and pitch can. Exchanging such discrete units causes a change in the meaning of a signal. 13. 10. phonemes in human language). We can potentially produce an infinite (2) number of different messages by combining the elements differently. the panting of a dog incidentally produces the panting sound). Human language is very unusual in this respect. 8. the signal. Such systems can be assumed to be defined by instinct and thus by genetics. 11. "cat" doesn't gradually change in meaning to "bat".
. 9. That is. This can be seen in different words in different languages referring to the same meaning. phonemes).
can't produce a large proportion of the vowels and would have difficulty with some of the consonants. to teach apes language that involves them using their hands (eg. attempt to teach such animals spoken human language. We might attempt. We could.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
It seems well established that no animal communication system fulfils all of the criteria outlined by Hockett (1960). It is also true for most other species such as parrots and may also be true for animals such as dolphins. sign language or the manipulation of symbols).
What kind of language should we teach these animals?
We must avoid using features of human language that are physiologically difficult or impossible for the animal to manage. For example. Apes. Some birds. on the other hand. spoken human language is extremely difficult or impossible for most animals because of the structure of their vocal organs.
What do we test for?
Animal communication systems generally lack one or (usually) more of the following features:-
. This is certainly true for the apes. therefore. Dolphins cannot be taught either type of language but may be able to understand sounds or gestures and to respond by pressing specially designed levers. This may be due not only to the shapes of the vocal organs but also to the limitations of the motor centres in the brain that control these organs.
Why try to teach a human-like language to another species?
Just because a species doesn't have such a communication system in the wild doesn't necessarily prove that they are incapable of using one. are able to mimic human speech with great clarity. such as certain parrots and the Indian Hill Mynah. for example. who have a complex communication
Teaching Language to Apes (and other animals)
system which involves a complex combination of various sounds.
Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
• • • • •
Semanticity Arbitrariness Discreteness Displacement Productivity
Most researchers attempting to teach language to animals are attempting to test for the existence of these features in the "language" use of their subjects. Apart from some very early attempts to teach spoken language to chimpanzees (generally resulting in the production of no more than 3-4 words) language production training has involved the use of the hands. Comprehension training has involved these types of language as well as training in the comprehension of spoken language. chimpanzee. either through the manipulation of symbols or through the use of sign language.
Projects with Apes
The ape species include gorilla. Here are some of the most important studies on apes and language:•
Gardner and Gardner (1969) Chimpanzee (Washoe) American sign language Patterson (1978) Gorilla (Koko) Sign language Premack and Premack (1972) Chimpanzee (Sarah and others) Plastic symbols
. bonobo (a distinct species of chimpanzee) and the orangutan.
by George Johnson A British newspaper report (July.
Projects with Birds
Projects with birds usually involve parrots or the Indian Hill Mynah. USA A 1995 New York Times article entitled "Chimp Talk Debate: Is it really language?". Panbanisha) Understanding spoken language Symbols on a keyboard
There are some web pages that you might wish to look at.
Pepperberg African Grey Parrot (Alex) Spoken "language"
Here are a few web pages that discuss the work of Irene Pepperberg and colleagues with Alex the African Grey Parrot.
. Iowa. The African Grey Parrot and the Indian Hill Mynah are generally considered to be the birds with the greatest ability to mimic human speech patterns but a number of other species (mainly parrots such as the budgerigar) can be trained to "speak". They include:• • •
Great Ape Trust. These birds are selected for their ability to mimic human speech. They describe the work of Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and colleagues. 1999) describing the use of a speech synthesiser interfaced to the bonobos' keyboards.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
Terrace et al (1979) Chimpanzee (Nim Chimpsky) Symbols Rumbaugh and Savage-Rumbaugh Chimpanzee (Sherman and Austin) Symbols on a keyboard Savage-Rumbaugh Bonobo Chimpanzee (Kanzi.
Language & Communication. (1969). 664-672. have been shown to be readily trainable to respond to gestures and sometimes to verbal and other acoustic commands. Gardner. R. (1982).A. (1982)..Wang. B. K. E. & Gardner.. (1960). Human communication: Language and its psychobiological bases. Chomsky.Wang..S. S-Y. (3) 2. "The gestures of a gorilla: language acquisition in another pongid. (1978). Brain and intelligence in vertebrates. Patterson. N. (1996). Scientific American. Macphail. Science. 211. K. Richards and Wolz (1984) Dolphins (Akeakamai and Phoenix) Gestures (Akeakamai) Sounds (Phoenix)
1.). & Savage-Rumbaugh.). (refer to chapter 8 of Pearce (1987) for a description of this project). (1981). Semantic structures. Patterson. such as whales and dolphins. R. one dolphin was trained on gestures and the other with sounds. 86-88. Scientific American. Petitto.G.G.16.. "The origin of speech". F. 361-380.. 3.. "Ape Language". It has been hypothesised that it may be possible to train them to understand language encoded in either gestures or appropriate acoustic signals. Sanders.. (1962). Production". F. L. The Hague: Mouton 4. Hockett.F. many species have very complex acoustic communication systems. C. (1957). D. pp.
. von. "The development of language skills in pan . Scientific American) 7. 4. (also published in:.II. Frisch. Terrace. W. T. and Bever..A. "Dialects in the language of bees". In the project listed below.
Herman. Scientific American) 5. S-Y. Vol.S. (ed. (also published in:.J. Brakke..".. (1982).E. 6..Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
The Alex Foundation research page (links to various papers and a short movie) "Studies to determine the intelligence of African Grey Parrots". 165. E. Irene Pepperberg.M.G. No.T. Science. Bindra. W. Brain and language 5: 72-97.. Oxford: Clarendon 8. Also. 1995
References Projects with Cetaceans
Cetaceans. Appropriate acoustic signals are assumed to be sounds that are similar to the natural communicative sounds that these animals produce. Human communication: Language and its psychobiological bases... (ed. H. "Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee".
(1979). This topic was originally presented as a first year linguistics lecture in early November 1999. Human communication: Language and its psychobiological bases.
1. 200. one by each of Bindra and Patterson. S. pp251-283 (Library call number QL785.. Vol... Williams.J. London: Hamlin. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Serial No. K. Sparks.. pp.M.. & Premack. S-Y. T. 58. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. & Rumbaugh.. Brakke... "Can an ape create a sentence?". (1982). The content hasn't been significantly updated since then so it's now very likely to be out of date. R.A. on Terrace et al.M. 1987. An Introduction to Animal Cognition.). D. Sanders. 3. Terrace. Nos. E. (ed. Brakke.G. "Comprehension skills of language-competent and nonlanguagecompetent apes". No. Murphy. 4. "Teaching language to an ape". Language & Communication.
. as external links have ceased to exist.. A continuing effort has been made. 14. (1993).L. Pearce.S. (1979). (1969). however. local copies of the affected documents have been made available. 2. J. J. Bird behaviour. This was not a single paper. followed by a response by the original authors.. to keep external links up to date. (1972).17. Petitto. & Bever.L.E. 3-4 12.Wang.. Sevcik. E. & Savage-Rumbaugh. Scientific American) 11. Click here for a discussion of the claim that a human language can potentially have an infinite number of sentences. In some cases. 301-317.E.. 891-902. 233.. Vol.. Science. Chapter 8.. S.A.J.S...S. D. (1997). H. A. Williams.. Savage-Rumbaugh. J. "Language Comprehension in Ape and Child". Scientific American.Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language
9. 13. Premack. W. L. R. (also published in:.P42)
10. "Communication and Language". K. but was instead 2 commentaries.