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Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language

Week 6: Child Language : Concepts and Vocabulary Organs of Articulation

Places of Articulation: passive and active 1. Exo-Labial 4. Alveolar 7. Palatal 10. Pharyngeal 13. Radical 16. Laminal 2. Endo-labial 5. Post alveolar 8. Velar 11. Glottal 14. Postero-dorsal 17. Apical 3. Dental 6. Pre-palatal 9. Uvular 12. Epiglottal 15. Antero-dorsal 18. Sub-apical

"ll". These articulators can act independently of each other. but generally considered as a manner of articulation) In laterals. the tongue curls back so the underside touches the palate Palatal: between the middle of the tongue and the hard palate Velar: between the back of the tongue and the soft palate (the velum) Uvular: between the back of the tongue and the uvula (which hangs down in the back of the mouth) (All of the above may be nasalized. e. Hindi with dental. /l/. palatal. the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis ("radical consonants").Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("labial consonants"). and two or more may work together in what is called coarticulation List of places where the obstruction may occur • • • • • • • • • • Bilabial: between the lips. the air is released past the tongue sides and teeth rather than over the tip of the tongue. but many languages have more than one. the flexible front of the tongue ("coronal consonants"). six.) • • • • Pharyngeal: between the root of the tongue and the back of the throat (the pharynx) Epiglotto-pharyngeal: between the epiglottis and the back of the throat Epiglottal: between the aryepiglottic folds and the epiglottis (see larynx) Glottal: at the glottis (see larynx) Nasals and laterals • • In nasals. English has only one lateral. Spanish written "l" vs. and the larynx ("laryngeal consonants"). /m/ /p/ /b/ Labiodental: between the lower lip and the upper teeth Linguolabial consonant: between the front of the tongue and the upper lip Dental: between the front of the tongue and the top teeth Alveolar consonant: between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus) Postalveolar consonant: between the front of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge Retroflex: in "true" retroflexes. the middle/back of the tongue ("dorsal consonants"). the velum is lowered to allow air to pass through the nose (technically a place. and numerous Native American languages with not only lateral approximants. or even seven lateral consonants.g. and most may be lateralized. and retroflex laterals. but also lateral fricatives and affricates. . Some Northeast Caucasian languages have five.

such as labialized labials. Velarization. constriction of the throat (pharynx). palatalized velars. more commonly there is a secondary articulation of an approximantic nature. Somali has a uvular-epiglottal stop [q͡ʡ]. rounding the lips while producing the obstruction. such as Arabic "emphatic" [tˤ].Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language Coarticulation Some languages have consonants with two simultaneous places of articulation. (The glottis controls phonation and sometimes the airstream. . [lˠ] or [ɫ]. Doubly articulated stop: a stop produced simultaneously with another stop. in which case both articulations can be similar. found as distinct consonants only in a single language in New Guinea. as in the English dark l. which also contrasts labial-postalveolar stops. and therefore there may only be one each from the categories labial. raising the body of the tongue toward the hard palate while producing the obstruction.) However. such as labial-velar consonants like [kp] ͡ . called coarticulation. and is not considered an articulator. the articulators must be independently movable. Pharyngealization. and radical. There are also labial-alveolar consonants [tp ͡ db ͡ nm] ͡ . Some common coarticulations include: • • • • • Labialization. When these are doubly articulated. Palatalization. raising the back of the tongue toward the soft palate (velum). etc. found throughout West and Central Africa. as in [kʷ] and English /w/. coronal. dorsal. as in Russian /tʲ/.

Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language .

Go Higher Arts Introduction to Language .