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Ma-lai-sia lah...马来西亚
Blog on the country, Malaysia. The people, the history and the land. There may be sour and sweet memory, it is still good memory. The cultural diversity, and the differences make us unique. The blog will provide fact, common ground, joy and sadness,which are part of living, we cannot avoid; but we can look at it on more part of our journey....

Friday, January 29, 2010

Jambi sultanate(1460-1906)
Jambi Sultanate

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The river port of Jambi, the capital of the province of that name, is situated in the central region of Sumatra on the river Batanghari which flows east into the Berhala Straits. Jambi is positioned on the busy sea route between China and India , and the region played a major part in early maritime trade. The Tang Annals record that as early as the seventh century A.D. and again in the ninth century Jambi sent ambassadors to the court of Chinese emperor ( Wang Gungwu 1958;74). These earliest records of Jambi show it to have been the original capital of Melayu ( Malaya Kingdom ) The ancient Hindu - Buddhist Kingdom of Sriwijaya also had its capital in Jambi at about this time. The polity of Dharmasraya was located close to the present village of Sungai Langsat on the shore of the Batang Hari in the Pulau Punjung district, Sawahlunto Sijunjung regency, West Sumatra. This is the place where the above mentioned Amoghapasa Lokesvara statue was found bearing an inscription (in contemporary East Javanese script) that the statue was presented in 1286 by King Kertanegara to King Srimat Tribuanaraja Mauliwarmadewa in Suwarnabumi (Sumatra). Chinese sources report that three kings ruled San-foch’i(Sriwijaya) in 1373,namely Palembang, Dharmasraya(Jambi), and King Adityavarman (Minangkabau). The last report that mentions this kingdom dates to 1377 when the son succeeded the maharaja of Dharmasraya. In the same year Majapahit


supplying exports of forest products.Malayu sultanate/Dharmasraya Kingdom/Jambi Kingdom (ii) 640. Article from blog owner is copy right..Ma-lai-sia lah. actually reflected hierarchical relationship. peppers.html 17/07/2011 . border between Palembang and Jambi. Jambi-Melayu Melayu Kingdom (also known as Malayu. Batin means supreme chiefs. the kingdom of Malayu became the first kingdom to be integrated into the Srivijayan Empire. Before what is now Indonesia was colonized by the Dutch East India Company. also known as Jambi. Under the leadership of Jayanasa. The move to Jambi was partly induced by the historic 1025 raid by pirates from the Chola region of southern India that destroyed much of Palembang. which was a frequent military and economic rival. Jambi can be divided into two regions: (i) Upstream interior(ulu) area . economically essential for the lowlands. Orang Asli The Orang Laut (Sea Nomads) The Baweanese (Boyanese) Batak Banjar (or Banjarese) Yunnan Kelantanese Chinese Acehnese people Bugis Minangkabau Batang Kali massacre. Some historians say that the word itself means Minangkabau two rivers.马来西亚: Jambi sultanate(1460-1906) Page 2 of 9 attacked Jambi.. Singapore left Malaysia 1963 Labuan Sabah Sarawak Federation of Malaya Kuala Lumpur Selangor Mandailing Batak(Kanak) people Negeri Sembilan Perak Pahang Johore Malacca Trengganu Kelantan Perlis British Malaya(1786-1957) Malaya(pre-British colonization) Early Malaya Malaya About Me Boon Raymond Person with broad nomad life. Srivijaya recognized that the submission of Malayu to them would increase their own prestige Melayu Kingdom is expected to become the first kingdom established by the Minangkabau. heritage lover. powerful Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. Any articles and photographic material contained within this blog is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any medium whatsoever.1288 . Baba-Nyonya (峇峇娘惹) Chitty people Kristang Kadazan-Dusun Melanau Dayak Orang Ulu Dayak Bidayuh Dayak Iban 18 points Agreemenrt 20-point agreement Malaysian Malay Malaysian Chinese Malaysian Indian Strait Settlement(1826-1946) Confrontation(1962-1966) Malayan Emergency(1948-1960) WW2. referring to a kingdom that stands between two rivers. (ii) Downsteam coastal(ilir) area . which may be the reason why Dharmasraya is not mentioned any further. Around 688 and labor in 17th & 18th century.and Penghulu. It succeeded Palembang to the south. which will enrich other people's life. was rich in gold and was held in high esteem. Upper Jambi was inhabited by Batin.Srivijaya Jambi was a vassal state of Srivijaya. Malayu.begin at Muara Tembesi. make his life more beautiful. Forest products was collected in the jungle and transport by river to the market at the coastal port of Malacca Strait. The location is approximately 200km north of Palembang.Japanese occupation 1941 Demographics of Malaysia Putrajaya 1965. This possibly occurred in the 680s. Malay and Proud of It. Jambi history can be divided into three periods historically (i) prior to 640 .blogspot. Based Inscription Kedukan Hill. namely Malays kingdom located on the banks of the river Batang Hari.Vassal state of Sri Vijaya (ii) 1460-1906 = Jambi sultanate Geographically. A migrant batin group lived at Rawas. each man in this earth should be able to enjoy their life fully. It was established around present-day Jambi on Sumatra. Value all natural being in this earth. Ethnic Malays had settled at the bank of Batang Hari and Tembesi. the kingdom was destroyed by the troops of Srivijaya in the year 683. emperor Jayanasa integrated Jambi into the Srivijaya 680s . DISCLAIMER: The articles in the blog carry the personal views of the blog author. Readers are cautioned not to http://georgetownstreet.. Love life. Dharmasraya Kingdom or the Jambi Kingdom) was a classical Southeast Asian kingdom that existed between the 4th and the 13th century of the common era.transport the products for export to outside The original Kubu population had withdrawn into the jungle. Jambi was the site of a well-established. environmental conscious. as the later capital of the ancient kingdom. though denoted separate ethnic groups(Minangkabau).

located near the town of Batusangkar. Mahesa/Kebo/Lembu Anabrang was a General of Singhasari.The demise of the kingdom Almost a century after taking over Palembang's role as the center of an empire.Ma-lai-sia lah.马来西亚: Jambi sultanate(1460-1906) Page 3 of 9 1079-1088: Centre of Srivijaya Between 1079 and 1088. Majapahit Empire(1293-1520) The Singhasari kingdom was succeed by Majapahit Empire in 1292.blogspot. the two combined actions practically stripped all territories owned by Srivijaya) 1347 -1377 Malayu's last prince. It also disavows knowledge or culpability of any such acts or claims on such acts in any way related to the views and opinions expressed in this blog. Jambi and Srivijaya experienced decline in influence. This indicated that during the reign of King Adityawarman of Minangkabau area. it therefore assumes no liability. about 30 km to the northeast from today's Jambi city. would had been better location. Gajah Mada the military leader of Majapahit installed Adityawarman as the king of Melayu to prevent the revival of Srivijaya. In 1079 in particular. Indeed. Dharmasraya was located at the border between Minangkabou and Jambi.Negarakrtagama. was the heartland of the Melayu Dharmasraya . Jambi sent two more ambassadors to China in 1082 and 1088.Parameswara In the year 1347. Dara Pertak and Dara Jingga. Indonesia. King Adityawarman left more than 20 inscriptions. Parameswara. the information stated in this blog should not be relied upon as the ultimate reference of the truth. Jambi. they bought with them 2 princess. the capital had shifted to highland. View my complete profile http://georgetownstreet. conquered Srivijaya and Melayu in 1288(at the same time Siam conquered Malay Peninsular.. Tanah Datar regency. on the bank of Batang Hari. Teba and Palembang.before that for centuries Melayu's capital must have been at coastal area. Everything presented on this blog is for informational purposes only and not to be taken as a contract. the later become the mother of King Adityawarman who ruled the Malayu kingdom from the Minangkabau Highlands between 1347 -1376. Palembang was too weak. either implicit or explicit. The first 4 region was probably the core region of Malayu kingdom. Adityawarman later conquered Tanah Datar to take control of the gold trade and founded a kingdom in Pagar Ruyung(Pagaruyung Kingdom)between 1347-1375. and majority are found in highlands of West Sumatra. 1288 . The China consider the contents written in this blog and all its ancillary documents as a legal or contracting policy advice in any way. the Majapahit defeated Palembang and ended effort to revive Srivijaya. Since the author is not responsible for its contents and the comments from the public. The last prince of Srivijayan origin. This included Minangkabau.which was completed in 1365 listed 24 territories in Malay land(Sumatra) which has been subject to control by Majapahit. but in view of the threat from the Mongol. Chinese records show that Srivijaya sent ambassadors from Jambi and Palembang. It was reported by 1310. This suggests that the centre of Srivijaya frequently shifted between the two major cities during that period. fled to Temasik to seek refuge before moving farther north. The Chola expedition as well as changing trade routes weakened Palembang. with the capital at Suroaso. where he founded what would become the Malacca Sultanate.. the shifting of capital to inland was done. In the year 1377.html 17/07/2011 . traders were allowed to trade directly instead. This was caused by a change of policy by the Song dynasty to no longer accept ambassadors from Srivijaya and Jambi's inability to cope with changing scenario.most likely Muara Jambi. an ambassador from Jambi and Palembang each visited China. allowing Jambi to take the leadership of Srivijaya from the 11th century onward. Note: Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict. When Pamelayu Expedition returned to Java in 1294. Instead of the Jambi controlling the trade through tributary system.

and the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years. Jambi became a significant economic power and wanted independence from Johor. Islam clothed the princes of Jambi in legitimacy. Islamization.. By 1666.Jambi state found. Jambi profited from the growth of trade and coming of trade partners in 16th century. The court did not obtain much revenue and had no authority over From mid 1550 to 17th century. Javanese and Makassarese were the traditional partners. it did not return even after unification in 1720s. upstream & downstream. In 1616 .the sultan's families represented the ilir related to foreigners. economic growth that took place at various parts of Indonesia Archipelago at the same period. and the ruler even pledged the pusaka/regalia as collateral. when the future colonizers were just one of several groups of traders competing with the British. Growing migration to upland areas by Minangkabou due to gold mining. The Jambi line of sultans did not boast an old age tradition. Malay. Batu Sawar. Jambi got free after the fall of Majapahit at the beginning of 16th century. he was sent to Batavia. was ruined country.html 17/07/2011 . initially with Portuguese. It had not consolidated the position until 16th century. the spread of Islam by Indian traders who were spreading Persian sect belief.come off worst. and gold become the main export.Ma-lai-sia lah. By the end of 18th century. But the Mingnankabou gold diggers exported their wares only when the price is higher. Chinese.Jambi lost its position as major pepper port on Sumatra east coast due to their conflict with Johor.The capital of Jambi is the 2nd richest port after Acheh.Dutch arrested the sultan when he arrived at trading post. 1680 . VOC(Vereenigde Odst-Indische Compagnie)traded little with Jambi after 1680.1994). and by the end of 18th century.These action had the effect of splitting Jambi into two sultanates.. not necessary from Jambi capital. Problems started between the ulu and ilir.and in 1615 with English and Dutch East Indies Company. the upland or ulu was completely controlled by the foreign Minangkabou. The upland people planted rice and cotton to replace peppers. was sacked by Jambi. British closed its trading post at Jambi in 1679. Jambi was bankrupt.Gone were the prosperity. Arabs. has lost its power. Chinese. 1688 . Jambi become the vassal state of Minangkabou prince of Pagaruyung. the Jambi sultanate profitably traded pepper with the Dutch. that Malay kingdom after 1377. it did a roaring trade in peppers. In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region. Johor's capital. and Malays. http://georgetownstreet. 1460 .blogspot. Its power grew in tandem with processes of state formation. Jambi Sultanate Islamization at 15th century.马来西亚: Jambi sultanate(1460-1906) Page 4 of 9 reported in 1397. followed by internal unrest. This relationship declined by about 1770. It made 30-35% on the pepper trade. The forefather of the sultan's family are from Turkey(Elsbeth Locher-Scholten. The ilir. From 1666. whose approval has to be obtained for Jambi choice of sultan. From 1700. a series of wars erupted between Johor and Jambi.

New trading centre established by British in Singapore 1820. inland regions of Jambi.Civil war eroded the power of sultan.In 1811. Guerrilla continued under his successor. meant the Dutch increasingly felt the need to control the actions of Jambi. 1819 . A Dutch battalion was sent to Jambi to establish Dutch control.html 17/07/2011 . They coerced Sultan Fakharuddin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade. Raden Tabun was a wealthy merchant in North Jambi.Sultan controlled upper reaches of Tembesi. rebels surrendered.the Dutch.his rule was ineffective. They met little resistance. soldiers finally managed to capture and kill Taha. Nazarudin. Sultan Taha was dethroned by Dutch 1858. and pangeran ratu(crown prince)control upper reaches of Batang Hari. The rivals married each others sisters.blogspot.马来西亚: Jambi sultanate(1460-1906) Page 5 of 9 1768 . Winto. Under the leadership of Sultan Taha..VOC closed its trading post. The British and Dutch turned to trading in west coast like Pedang and Bengkulu(British since 1658). the Dutch were stronger and.Ma-lai-sia But pangeran spent more time in Palembang than Batang Hari. Jambi rebelled. however. The Dutch installed a puppet ruler. Note: Sultan Taha become a national hero of modern Indonesia. and Sultan Taha fled to the upriver. between sultan and his cousin..Dutch Resident of Palembang administrated Jambi. In 1904. There were fighting in 1817 or 1818. although the sultanate remained nominally independent.the population of capital led by Arab merchants and suku Raja empat puluh(suku of 40 raja) rose against Sultan Mohildin. which included the capital city. and slowly reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. apparently concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers. 1811 . 1821-1829 . invaded Jambi with a force from Batavia. Mohildin was defeated and could not settled in Jambi for some time.thus breaching his father's promise to appoint his cousin Raden Tabun as pangeran ratu. in the lower region. he appointed his brother as pangeran ratu. who were well established in Palembang. Fakhruddin was pronounced as sultan. 1906. Jambi War 1901-1906(or Jambi Rebellion) 1901. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom. the entire area was brought under direct colonial rule. but the peace making process was spoiled by the previous wives. These port attracted the growing export of peppers and coffee.when Mohildin's son . as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago.minor conflicts with the Dutch. although the cousin was killed shortly after that. looking for political alliance. Dutch abolished the sultanate. 1833 . List of rulers http://georgetownstreet.

The population of the province is 2. 1904) 1858 .1904 (upriver) Taha Safiuddin bin Muhammad (2nd time) (killed by Dutch in 1904) 1904 .1833 Mahmud Muhieddin bin Ahmad Sultan Agung Seri Ingalaga 1833 .First king Datuk Paduko berhalo. State suppressed by Netherlands colonial government.1841 Muhammad Fakhruddin bin Mahmud Sultan Keramat 1841 . Rulers 1790 .1858 Taha Safiuddin bin Muhammad (1st time) (d.html 17/07/2011 .1885 Muhammad Muhieddin bin Abdul Rahman 1885 . The capital of the province is Jambi city..742.1855 Abdul Rahman Nazaruddin bin Mahmud 1855 . 1899 .1906 Winto Jambi Province Jambi today is the name of a province of Indonesia located on the east coast of central Sumatra..1881(lower region) Ahmad Nazaruddin bin Mahmud (puppet of Dutch) 1881 .1812 Masud Badruddin bin Ahmad Sultan Ratu Seri Ingalaga 1812 .blogspot.马来西亚: Jambi sultanate(1460-1906) Page 6 of 9 1460 Jambi state founded.1899 Ahmad Zainul Abidin bin Muhammad 1858 .196 (2007 BPS) Jambi province is divided into nine regencies (kabupaten) and two cities (kota): * Batang Hari * Bungo * Jambi (city) * Kerinci * Merangin * Muaro Jambi * Sarolangun * Tanjung Jabung Timur * Tanjung Jabung Barat * Tebo * Sungai Penuh (city) Jambi city http://georgetownstreet.190.Ma-lai-sia

It revealed the hierarchy of the Malay kingdom with Suruaso as its capital. the last sultan of Jambi. England. At http://georgetownstreet.old Malay kingdom during the Adityawarman age had a law that was recorded in great detail. Indonesia. Sumatra. in Jambi province. Jambi. West Sumatra) between 1345 and 1377. which was then under the Malay kingdom. This allowed a number of smaller Sumatran polities to expand their political and economic influence. even succeeding in capturing members of the royal Located in the Paalmerah suburb of Jambi. The archaeological site includes eight excavated temple sanctuaries and covers more than 1500 hectacres. During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries it seems that from its river estuarine basis along the Batang Hari. It is now protected as a national monument. ICAO: WIPA) is an airport in Jambi City in the Jambi province of Indonesia. Melayu became the dominant economic power in Sumatra.. Candi Muara Jambi Candi Muara Jambi is a Buddhist temple complex. Therefore Kozok declared that the manuscript was the oldest Malay manuscript ever found. The airport is named after Sultan Thaha. much of it as yet unexcavated. Never before had there been any research result stating that the old Malay kingdom had any written law.A radiocarbon test in Wellington. Ancient manuscript 1345-1377 found German philologist Uli Kozok rocked the world of ancient linguistics and history in Indonesia when he discovered an ancient Malay manuscript in Kerinci. Its surviving temples and other archaeological remains are estimated to date from the eleventh to thirteenth century AD. It is one of the largest and bestpreserved ancient temple complex in South East Asia. The city's age of glory came to an end in 1278 when Java's Singhasari kingdom attacked the city. The temple complex was built by the Melayu Kingdom.html 17/07/2011 . in 2002.马来西亚: Jambi sultanate(1460-1906) Page 7 of 9 Sultan Thaha Airport (IATA: DJB. It was led by Adityawarman as the king of kings. The site was rediscovered by Dutch explorers in the nineteenth century. It is situated 26 kilometers east from the city of Jambi.Ma-lai-sia lah.. The start of the rise of the kingdom of Melayu can be dated to 1025 when India's Chola kingdom attacked and destroyed the capital of the Sumatran maritime empire of Srivijaya. determined that the manuscript was produced when Adityawarman ruled the Malay kingdom in Suruaso (Tanah Datar. The substantial archaeological remains at Muara Jambi suggest that this may have been the site of the Melayu capital.blogspot. It was made in the Dharmasraya kingdom.

USA Posted byBoon Raymond at11:38 PM Labels:Ancient kingdom 0 comments: Post a Comment Comment as: Google Account Post Comment Preview Newer Post Home Older Post http://georgetownstreet.The oldest extant Malay Manuscripts(2004).. Sumatran sultanate and colonial state: Jambi and the rise of Dutch 1830-1907(1994). because Kerinci had its own sovereignty. by Syofiardi Bachyul Uli Kozok.blogspot.htm 2. UK 5. 6. The Jakarta Post.马来西亚: Jambi sultanate(1460-1906) Page 8 of 9 the middle level.hawaii."However..html.html. A 14th Century Malay Manuscript from Is Jambi Malay the origin of Malay/Melayu?. I am sure that Suruaso and Dharmasraya had their power over Kerinci only de jure (by law) and de facto (by fact). Padang.html 17/07/2011 . by Uli Kozok. Related articles/blogs/websites: published in 2004 English edition by Cornell SEAP Publications..." Kozok said. there was Dharmasraya led by the great king. published by Cambridge Univerisity Press..Ma-lai-sia lah.pdf and under Dharmasraya there was Kerinci led by the king. http://www. Sumatra. by Elsbeth Locher-Scholten.jambiexplorer. Indonesia. http://ulikozok. http://www. Tanjong Tanah Code Law . Note: A photo of the ancient manuscripts can bee seen from http://ulikozok. Uli Kozok: Discoverer of world's oldest Malay manuscript (2008). It was more about economic relations because Kerinci produced gold and agricultural products.

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