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Twin-turbo

Twin-Turbo, also called bi-turbo by some, refers to a turbocharged engine on which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. There are two different twin turbo configurations, parallel twin-turbo and sequential twin-turbo.

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1 Parallel Twin-Turbo 2 Sequential Twin-Turbo 3 Compound turbocharging

Parallel Twin-Turbo
Parallel Twin-Turbo refers to a turbocharger configuration in which two identical turbochargers equally split the turbocharging duties. Each turbocharger is driven by one half of the engine's spent exhaust energy. In most applications, the compressed air from both turbos is combined in a common intake manifold, and sent to the individual cylinders. Both turbos function simultaneously, unlike sequential twin-turbos. Commonly each turbocharger is mounted to its own individual exhaust/turbo manifold, however on inline-type engines both turbochargers could be mounted to a single turbo manifold. Parallel twin turbos are usually applied to V-shaped engines where one turbo is assigned to each cylinder bank, providing packaging symmetry, and simplifying plumbing; however, it is not uncommon for a parallel set-up to be used on an inline engine. Nissan's RB26DETT is an inline-6 that uses a twin-turbo set-up, the twin-turbo inline-6 in the BMW 335i (E90) coupe also utilizes a parallel twin-turbo set-up. Toyota's 1992 Supra with the 1JZ-GTE (Japan only) 6 cylinder inline engine also used this same configuration, as does Nissan's 1990-1996 Z32 300ZX in its V6 VG30DETT, and Audi's 1997-2002 S4 (B5), 1997-2004 A6, and 2003-2004 RS6.

While a parallel twin-turbo set-up theoretically has less turbo lag than a single turbocharger set up, because of marginally-reduced combined inertial resistance, and often simplified exhaust plumbing, the fact that both turbos spool at more or less the same time means that there is still a noticeable bit of lag, especially in high-flow turbo/high boost applications. One way to counter this is to use a light pressure set up where the turbos are designed to output less boost but spool earlier, however, this set up sacrifices top end power. Another system would be the use of variable geometry turbochargers, this system changes the angle of the guide vanes depending on the exhaust pressure giving the system excellent power throughout the rev range. Once used mainly

. For example if both turbochargers are running at pressure ratios of 3. resulting in a multiplication of the pressure ratios.0 and the atmospheric pressure is one bar the resulting pressures will be three bar absolute pressure at the inlet of the second turbocharger and nine bar absolute pressure (eight bar gauge) at the inlet manifold of the engine. Boost pressures of around seven bar gauge pressure (101 psi) are common and as high as 10 bar (145psi) in some cases. the 1992-2002 Mazda RX-7 Turbo (FD3S). Towards the end of this cycle. lowering the boost threshold. During low to mid engine speeds. Parallel operation of the turbochargers can still be used to great effect as demonstrated by the Bugatti Veyron. valves controlling compressor and turbine flow through the secondary turbocharger are opened completely. and both turbochargers at higher engine speeds. only one turbocharger (the primary turbocharger) is active. At this point the engine is functioning in a full twin-turbocharger form. when available spent exhaust energy is minimal. all of the engine's exhaust energy is directed to the primary turbocharger only. which runs four relatively small turbochargers in parallel. With recent advancements in turbocharger design. providing maximum power output. Sequential Twin-Turbo Sequential Twin-Turbo refers to a set up in which the motor can utilize only one turbocharger for lower engine speeds. Compound turbocharging Compound turbocharging is a technique used to achieve extremely high pressure ratios by having one turbocharger pressurize the air coming into the inlet of another. and the 1986-1988 Porsche 959. the secondary turbocharger is partially activated (both compressor and turbine flow) in order to pre-spool the secondary turbocharger prior to its full utilization. Once a preset engine speed or boost pressure is attained. In this configuration one turbocharger is used to pressurize the air coming into the inlet of the other. Same goes for exhaust plumbing. Sequential twin-turbocharger systems provide a way to decrease turbo lag without compromising ultimate boost output and engine power. A normal turbocharger has a maximum pressure ratio of around three but there are turbochargers in existence specially designed for high boost which have maximum pressure ratios of typically 4-5.in turbocharged diesel engines. It is common in racing with diesel engines (For example tractor pulling) due to their combustion properties that take well to high boost pressures and are not limited by fuel stability like spark ignition engines. and increasing power output at low engine speeds. sequential twin turbo systems have fallen out of favor because they are seen as unnecessarily costly and complex. Porsche was the first to use it in a mass-production gasoline-powered vehicle in 2006 with the 911 Turbo (997). During this period. Examples of cars with a sequential twin-turbo setup include the 1993-2002 Toyota Supra Turbo (JZA8x). The pressure ratio in this example becomes nine.