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A Translation of Susan Okie's Fed Up: Winning the War Against Childhood Obesity


University of XXXX College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences Department of Arabic Language and Literature

Supervisor Prof. XXXX



1. Introduction Translation is an important field that has enjoyed a prominent place throughout human history. It is a complex concept, and as such has inspired different theorists and scholars to come up with many different definitions to describe what it means. Some theorists such as Catford see translation as substituting the text in the original language, referred to as the source language or SL, by equivalent text in a different language, referred to as the target language or TL (20). Other scholars such as Nida and Taber view translation as "… reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meanings and secondly in terms of style" (12). As the above demonstrates, though definitions abound, they all primarily center on looking at translation as a process of, or at least an attempt at, establishing equivalence between a source language and a target language. This process is complicated due to the problems that arise in the process of establishing equivalence. These difficulties come at different levels, such as the lexical, syntactic, textual, stylistic and cultural levels. As such, translators should be aware of these difficulties as well as the methods and strategies used to overcome them. Part of translation's importance is due to the many functions it performed and continues to perform. One of the most important roles that translation fulfilled and continues to facilitate is the distribution of information and the spread of knowledge between different cultures. The Golden Age of the Islamic world in the Abbasid era was possible in great part due to transfer of knowledge through translation of the Classics of the time into Arabic, for instance (Gregorian 27). Furthermore, as per Gregorian "… from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, many Arabic translations of classic works were, in turn, translated into Turkish, Persian, Hebrew, and Latin" (27). This function of translation is still essential in our modern

These days. "Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980" ("Obesity and Overweight"). but children as well. studies and reports were and continue to be written about the issue of childhood obesity: how to prevent. . and these overweight children are more likely to become obese. The field of human health has made strides in understanding diseases of the body that afflict human societies and how to prevent and cure them. It provides ample background information. there is a worldwide focus on illnesses that are due to amendable lifestyle choices. As per the World Health Organization. because children of the Arab world are not exempt from this global epidemic. and one such illness is obesity. and one of the fields of study in which utilizing translation is especially important is that of health. The book at hand titled Fed Up: Winning the War against Childhood Obesity by Susan Okie is an easy read and an informative text that tackles the issue of childhood obesity. gives instructive case studies and offers scientific advice in overcoming this issue. understand and treat it. In this study. Thus a lot of research. premature death and disability in adulthood" ("Obesity and Overweight"). the strategies and methods used by the translator to deal with these problems will be explained. This upswing in obesity rates affects not only adults. In addition. the WHO reports that "More than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2010". or WHO. In fact. and as a result "… associated with a higher chance of obesity. effects and cures of childhood obesity should be translated into Arabic so that everyone from health providers to parents to educators are aware of the problems and solutions to this issue. and a commentary on the problems the translator encountered during the translation process will be given.3 world of course. These works and studies done on the causes. the book Fed Up: Winning the War against Childhood Obesity by Susan Okie will be translated.

Propose appropriate strategies. schools and communities with practical strategies and solutions for this problem in comparison to literature published in English. 3. syntactic and textual levels. The book to be translated is not merely a general overview of the issue. it interviews children and families suffering from childhood obesity. Purpose of the Study This study aims to accomplish the following: 1. Provide a fluent translation of the selected book titled Fed Up: Winning the War Against Childhood Obesity from English into Arabic. 3. and it talks to researchers in this field. As such. 2. methods and solutions to the problems encountered. this issue has been subject of scientific and academic research and discussion. The rising rates of childhood obesity worldwide have prompted interest in understanding and finding solutions to this epidemic. going through the family environment and reaching all the way to the school environment and then the community as a whole. Significance of the Study The significance of this study derives from the following points: 1. It also looks at the problem from a multifaceted point of view starting from the period of pregnancy and after birth. There is a serious lack of authoritative books or studies written in the Arabic language that deal with childhood obesity in an in-depth manner and provide families. . It also provides practical strategies and solutions to implement in order to solve this problem at all these different levels. Identify the problems encountered in the process of translation on the lexical.4 2. 2. 3.

TL. there is no consensus on the medical terms to be used in the process of translation. since there is a deficiency of Arabic books that tackle the subject of childhood obesity. In his essay "On Linguistic Aspects of Translation". 4.5 4. even though the book provides practical advice that could be used in any country. SL. Review of Literature As mentioned previously. the Arabic equivalents the translator will choose to use after much deliberation and research might not be unanimously accepted or even understood completely. it adopts an informal tone and utilizes many personal experiences from children. Furthermore. especially pediatric health. 5. Roman Jakobson identifies three types of translation: intraligual which involves . As such. almost all definitions circle back to talking about translation as a process of establishing equivalence between the source language. All of this might lead to Arab readers overlooking the authoritative nature of the translated book and dismissing it as not being academic enough. Furthermore. But what is equivalence? It must be emphasized that the concept of equivalence is a controversial one among scholars and theorists. Finally. However. families and researchers dealing with child obesity. The translation of this book will fill a gap in the field of children's health in the Arabic library seeing as there are hardly enough books on this particular subject that provide more than a superficial overview or few generalized solutions to what is a complex matter. translation has as many definitions as theorists and scholars care to opine. Limitations of the Study There are some impediments to this study. One problem is that there are not nearly enough academic articles or studies that deal with translating documents in the field of health. and the target language. it still deals with childhood obesity in the United States specifically. into Arabic.

by circumlocutions" (234). and naturally it follows that when tension between both arises.which was previously termed 'formal equivalence' but was revised and renamed in the second edition of their book. Here the emphasis is on the meaning rather than the form. So for Jakobson. it just means that the translator faces a problem of equivalence and should find a way to solve it (235).6 rewording or paraphrasing in the same language. the form is sacrificed (Nida and Taber 13). which might sometimes lead to problems in the comprehensibility of the translated text (201). Jakobson advances the idea of "Equivalence in difference". interligual that happens between different languages and intersemiotic which deals with translation between signs (233). Jakobson's view. For their part. and finally. there is ordinarily no full equivalence between code-units" (233). a grammatical category available in the source language but not the target language does not mean that translation cannot take place. in summary. When it comes to interligual translation which is the type translation studies deal with generally. Dynamic equivalence is defined as a "… quality of a translation in which the message of the original texts has been so transported into the receptor language that the RESPONSE of the RECEPTOR is essentially like that of the original receptors" (Nida and Taber 200). a notion he reaches as a result of his view that "… on the level of interlingual translation. is that equivalence exists between linguistic items even in the absence of a direct literal correspondence between them. "All cognitive experience and its classification is conveyable in any existing language" according to Jakobson. Nida and Taber divide equivalence into two types: 1) dynamic equivalence. As all of the previous highlights the fact that . and where gaps arise "… terminology may be qualified and amplified by loan-words or loan-translations. neologisms or semantic shifts. Indeed. Nida and Taber define formal correspondence on the other hand as an approach wherein the source language's form is maintained as much as possible during the process of translation. and 2) formal correspondence.

Instead Newmark views this effect as occurring as a result of the process of translation rather than a goal of it (48). while the second is more flexible. free translation. . Newmark considers the semantic and communicative methods to be the only methods that "… fulfill the two main aims of translation. idiomatic translation and communicative translation (45). Among these eight. literal translation. semantic translation.7 the dynamic and formal types of equivalence are on opposite sides of each other in terms of their emphasis on meaning above form and vice versa. which are first. Newmark disagrees with the notion of what he calls the Equivalent Effect. so Newmark was actually critical of Nida. It should be noted that Newmark's semantic and communicative translation methods correspond to Nida's notions of dynamic equivalence and formal correspondence. adaptation. and second. in that he does not accept the idea of producing a translation with the aim of having the same effect on the readers that the original had on its readers. which is basically Nida's Dynamic Equivalence. admits the creative exception to 100% fidelity and allows for the translator's intuitive empathy with the original" (Newmark 46). Alternatively. faithful translation. economy" (47). and these methods are: word-forword translation. with the difference between the faithful and semantic methods being that "… the first is uncom-promising and dogmatic. Peter Newmark suggests eight methods of translation that differ in the degrees of their fidelity to either the source language or the target language. the communicative translation method is defined as "… [rendering] the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership" (Newmark 47). The semantic translation method is defined as being similar to faithful translation in the sense that both attempt to "… reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures". accuracy. Nevertheless.

It comes as no surprise that defining what equivalence is leads to becoming conscious of the problem of non-equivalence. and she states in the introduction to her book In Other Words that the only reason she uses the word equivalence is "… for the sake of convenience" (5). or because of the cultural-specificity of the collocation. In general. moving to above world level. In her book. On non-equivalence problems above word level. At word level. Strategies to deal with problems at word level as per Baker include translation using a more general word. proceeding to the textual level and then finally reaching the pragmatic level (Baker 5). Baker tackles some problems of non-equivalence on all of the five equivalence levels mentioned above and provides a number of solutions to them. 59). Baker discusses some non-equivalence problems such as culture-specific concepts. equivalence exists and should be studied on several levels. 23). semantically complex words and differences in expressive meaning among other problems (21-22. Mona Baker regards the term equivalence as not holding any special status. Some of the problems with collocations arise due to assigning an incorrect meaning to them. the farther away the linguistic and cultural aspects of those two languages are. and thus the more difficult the task of establishing equivalence is. she discusses these problems from the lowest level which is at the word level. Baker . passing by grammatical level. 28.8 For her part. idioms and fixed expressions (47). 31). using a neutral or less expressive word and using cultural substitution and these are only a few examples of strategies used by professional translators to overcome nonequivalence problems at the word level (26. plus other various issues (Baker 55. For Baker. Baker talks about the problems encountered in translating collocations. the farther away two languages are from each other in terms of their genetic makeup and geographical/ cultural distance.

gender. problems at the textual level have to do with the thematic/ information structures and cohesion and how both are achieved in the source language text and the target language text (119-225). Various problems occur in the process of translating idioms due to many issues. when dealing with two different languages translators are bound to face difficulties. for instance (56). When such an idiom is unavailable. Because grammar systems are naturally different (Baker 85). such as the absence of an equivalent idiom in the target language and the fact that an idiom might be utilized simultaneously in an idiomatic and literal manner (Baker 6869). One strategy is finding and using an idiom of similar meaning and similar form (Baker 72). which is omission (Baker 77). like replacing collocations in the source language with established target language collocations.9 briefly touches upon some solutions for these problems. . Baker provides many strategies for dealing with the problems that arise when attempting translation of idioms. person. the strategy moves to using an idiom of similar meaning and dissimilar form (Baker 74). Baker indicates that the biggest difficulty is due to the fact that to translate an idiom correctly. According to Baker. the translator has to be able first to identify that the construct they face is in fact an idiom (65). voice and tense and aspect might exist in the source language but not the target language which creates difficulties within the process of translation (Baker 87110). grammatical categories such as number. So. These strategies descended from the strongest to the weakest. As for idioms. Baker also talks about the problems of non-equivalence on the grammatical level. These are only two examples of the problems Baker talks about when it comes to idioms. Non-equivalence problems on the pragmatic level are concerned by the implicit communicative meaning of a text (Baker 217-259).

and to that end the translator will be using a combination of the communicative and semantic translation methods. while the semantic method will help maintain the accuracy of the source text. These methods are adopted because the communicative method is concerned with the target language rather than the source language and as such will help the text be more reader friendly.1. Research Methodology The main aim of this study is to produce as good a translation as possible of the English language book Fed Up.with each level as a heading. textual. Research Instruments The translator will rely on dictionaries in the process of translation. Then the items that have come up in each level will be arranged into separate groups. collocations and idioms that she will face. 7. which have been already explained. she will utilize online dictionaries and glossaries for any specialized terms. Next the translation process starts along with the commentary. After that.10 6. etc. In addition. The text will be read for the first time in order to have a general overview of it.and the individual problems will be explained along with the strategies used to deal with them.) will be described.2. Research Procedures A time frame for the translation is set. the translation will be read one last time in order to ensure it is free of mistakes and reads like a fluent and natural text. 6. The translation problems and issues that are bound to surface throughout the process will be identified and the level on which they occur (lexical. Data Analysis . Internet searches and reading up articles and studies will be done when necessary. 6. grammatical.

different languages use different words to express concepts. Brief explanations of each identified problem. These problems were on the lexical.11 In the process of translating the book. Example on page 2: The words pasta.1. Examples for both are given below: 1. Sometimes the same concept will be expressed by different words and other times the same words will contain different connotative meanings. This clash is the reason lexical problems occur. They are used when describing a school activity one of the overweight children interviewed in the book is engaging in with her best friend. If the differences between these words were to . Synonymy In linguistics. As mentioned previously. along with illustrative examples of them and how they were solved are described below: 1. Lexical Problems Naturally. a synonym is "… a word that means the same or nearly the same as another word" according to The Free Dictionary. notions and ideas. lexical problems can be found on both the word and above word levels. macaroni. Non-equivalence at Word Level Some of the non-equivalence problems at word level encountered in the translation process: 1.1. many problems were encountered. noodles and spaghetti can be all considered synonymous.1. Some languages assign a word to a specific idea that does not exist in another language. grammatical and textual levels.

also : an abbreviation (as FBI) formed from initial letters" (author's emphasis). Use of interjections According the Ameka. Example on page 2: In the quotation "Mmm. tasty" the interjection Mmm is used to signify satisfaction and pleasure. So. or too many additional words to explain the distinctions between them. then we'd either end up with four unnecessary transliterations. That's why the translator decided to forego emphasizing these small dissimilarities and go with translating all of these words as ‫ٔخ‬ٚ‫ اٌّؼىش‬.3.1. 1. radar. Example from title page: . the translator simply translated this interjection literally into ُِّ .12 be fleshed out.2.1. Acronyms: According to online dictionary Merriam-Webster. which would lead to an awkward and unnatural Arabic text. which signals the same emotions in Arabic when used in this context. interjections “… form a significant subset of those seemingly irrational devices that constitute the essence of communication” (qtd in Thawabteh 5). or laser) formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term. acronyms are defined as "… a word (as NATO. interjections play an important role in facilitating communication. Carter and McCarthy have noted that interjections affect discourse because implicit within them are hidden meanings which illuminate the responses and reactions of the speaker to the discourse (qtd in Thawabteh 6). 1. Since an equivalent Arabic interjection is available.

D.‫ؽ‬.1. Since there is no Arabic acronym to describe this degree.13 The author's name is followed by the acronym M. collocations are "… the habitual juxtaposition of a particular word with another word or words with a frequency greater than chance". 1. and these are called collocations. and because creating an acronym from the initial letters of ‫ اٌطت‬ٟ‫ساٖ ف‬ٛ‫ دوز‬will produce . some words co-occur together frequently. and has a non-productive syntactic structure" ("What is an idiom").. et al. Idioms Loos. the translator decided to translate the full meaning of the term rather than use an acronym.2. Collocations According to Oxford Dictionaries online. 1. Non-Equivalence above Word Level A few of the non-equivalence problems above world level that were encountered are as follows: 1.2. it was used. Example on page 2: . which is ِٝ‫ دشاعخ اٌّش‬. or in other words holding a degree allowing the author to work as a doctor. In other terms. The term used in Arabic to describe this degree is ‫ اٌطت‬ٟ‫ساٖ ف‬ٛ‫دوز‬. Example on page 1: The collocation tend goal has an equivalent in Arabic that the translator searched for and found.2. so since an equivalent collocation exists. which stands for Medical Doctor.‫ د‬which is nonsensical in this context as it is not recognized nor accepted unanimously.2. unlike English. briefly explain that an idiom is "… a multiword construction that is a semantic unit whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of its constituents.

Hyphenated Compounds Example on page 2: . It could have been left as merely ‫ب‬ٙ‫ صِالئ‬and it would have been probably understood from context.14 The traffic is described as being "bumper to bumper". a compound is "a word composed of two or more words". which leads to the creation of a new word with a new meaning.1.2. Closed Form Compounds Example on page 1: The closed form compound classmates is translated as ‫ اٌّذسعخ‬ٟ‫ب ف‬ٙ‫ صِالئ‬. and as per The Free Dictionary.2. and so she decided to translate the meaning of the idiom and discard the form. There are three types of compounds when it comes to form: "… the closed form. Compounds In the simplest terms. but for the sake of disambiguating the meaning completely the translator chose to add ‫ اٌّذسعخ‬ٟ‫ ف‬. Some of examples the translator came across: 1. 1. in which the words are melded together… the hyphenated form… and the open form" (Capital Community College Foundation). and so compounding is basically one of the ways languages compose and come up with new words ("Compound (linguistics)"). Wikipedia tells us that compounds specifically speaking are created through bringing together two or more words that are already established.3.3. As such. 1. This is an idiom that means to convey that the traffic is moving very slowly. the translation of this idiom is ‫ئخ جذا‬١‫ ثط‬.2.2. The translator could not find an Arabic idiom equivalent in form and meaning nor could she find one that was equivalent in meaning but not in form that was appropriate and didn't sound strange in this context.3.

1. Having to explain what the cancan dance is would have taken up space and still be considered useless in this context. Because in the context it occurs in.15 The hyphenated compound single-story is translated as ‫ادذ‬ٚ ‫ راد ؽبثك‬. Technical Terms . which fulfills the meaning of the compound. since some other candy names that had no equivalents in Arabic were transliterated.2.3. since not all of those names had been transliterated and this particular open form compound already has an equivalent in Arabic. The first thought the translator had was to transliterate the word. and as such are difficult and sometimes impossible to translate into another culture.3. Cultural-specific terms Cultural specific terms are those terms which are related to the culture they were born in.2. it's not important that the kind of kick they do is associated with the cancan dance.2.4. Examples of cultural specific terms are: Example on page 2: The term cancan kicks talks about the style of kicks performed in a music hall French dance. Concepts that only occur in specific cultures will be lexicalized to fit in that culture. That is why the translator opted to omit the mentioning of 'cancan' and used the general term of ‫ سوٍخ‬instead. However. wherein Megan and her friends are competing to see who can perform the highest cancan kick. Open Form Compounds Example on page 2: The word ice cream is an open form compound and it is translated as ‫ظخ‬ٛ‫ ث‬. the translator decided to use the equivalent available.5. 1. 1.

Proper Nouns Proper nouns basically mean those names that are specific to a person. Names of People Examples on pages 1.16 According to Wikipedia. 2 and 3: The names of people mentioned in the book such as Meagan.3 After some research. technical terms are "the specialized vocabulary of any field. The translator was initially considering three translations. ْ‫ص‬ٌٛ‫فشؽ ا‬ Actually means 'overweight' and not obesity. Since the whole book is culturally tied to the . Julia and others are all transliterated. I discovered that the actual term is simply ‫صْ") اٌغّٕخ‬ٌٛ‫فشؽ ا‬ٚ ‫("اٌغّٕخ‬. and as per as the World Health Organization Arabic webpage.1 ‫ فشؽ اٌغّٕخ‬. 1. but more informal in definition and in use" ("Technical terminology"). In addition.1. So they become ْ‫جب‬١ِ and ‫ب‬١ٌٛ‫ج‬. The confusion remains over whether the term ‫ اٌغّٕخ‬is actually the general consensus for obesity.6.6.2. which are: ْ‫ص‬ٌٛ‫ فشؽ ا‬.2 ‫ فشؽ اٌجذأخ‬. et al. The translator committed to this term because the WHO uses it. a place or a thing (Loos. not just technical fields" while Jargon "… is similar.2. "What is a proper noun") 1. Example from subtitle: Obesity is the topic of this book and is used in the subtitle and repeated many times throughout the text. as research on the internet showed me that it is used to describe an obese and an overweight person interchangeable.

Example on page 2: Hot chocolate is translated into Arabic by rearranging the word order. and there are many features and traits specific to English passive and active sentence structures (Baker 102-109). 2. and because the adjective follows the noun in Arabic. subjects and objects in the context of sentence structures as well as the word order of modifiers and adverbials (Wikipedia "Word order"). Grammatical Problems Grammatical problems in translation relate to those difficulties that occur in the process of rendering a text from one language to another because of the differences in the grammatical systems of both languages.17 United States.1.2. changing the word order of the English. Example on page 2: .where the adjective precedes the noun. Passive and Active Voice In English. a passive sentence might be agentless or agentive. Word Order Through a general examination of English and Arabic.was necessary to achieve a correct Arabic translation. and so it becomes ‫الرخ اٌغبخٕخ‬ٛ‫و‬ٛ‫ اٌش‬. one would find that both retain different word orders when it comes to verbs. Some of the grammatical problems faced in the process of translating this book are as follows: 2. 2. Arabic's rules and traits for passive and active sentence structures differ. it makes sense to transliterate the names rather than attempt a strategy of domestication. and Arabic as a rule prefers active structures to passive ones (Khafaji 19).

which is a phrasal verb. who taught her about portion sizes and how to rate her hunger on a scale of 1 to 10" does not tell us the gender of the dietitian since in general words in English lack a feminine or masculine quality. and gender" (Nordquist "Agreement"). the appropriate translation is . It is also a pun. are assigned a special activity" is a passive sentence. number. Agreement Issus Agreement is defined as "The correspondence of a verb with its subject in person and number.1. Nor is any context beyond that sentence available that might clue the translator on the gender of the dietitian. Julia.18 "Meagan and her best friend. 2. 2. Example in the title: The tile of this book is Fed Up. The translator looked for an equivalent Arabic phrasal verb and found ً١‫ ؽفخ اٌى‬. and of a pronoun with its antecedent in person. Gender Example on page 1: The word dietitian in the quote "Meagan has seen a dietitian.4. In the absence of any information. The agent is without doubt their teacher. which works as well as a pun as it was intended to be in the original text.3. Because Arabic prefers an active structure and the agent is known from the context. Phrasal verbs A phrasal verb consists of a "… verb and one or more following particles and acting as a complete syntactic and semantic unit" (The Free Dictionary). So the translation is: .4.‫بَ ثٕشبؽ خبص‬١‫ب اٌم‬١ٌٛ‫ب اٌّفؼٍخ ج‬ٙ‫مز‬٠‫طذ‬ٚ ْ‫جب‬١ِ ٍٝ‫ٓ اٌّؼٍّخ ػ‬١‫رؼ‬ So the passive is turned into active voice. the translator decided to write the dietitian as female due to the fact that most dietitians do tend to be women. 2.

too. 3. and fries up a batch of soy bacon. So when 2 miles is translated it becomes ٓ١ٍ١ِ ‫ ثؼذ‬ٍٝ‫ رمغ ػ‬. She washes the bacon down with a glass of water. "Some agreements in number (and other features) should be imposed in between verbs and names" (Al-Muhtaseb and Mellish 10). Arabic does. She’s in the fifth grade at a . Ten and a half years old. she is a committed vegetarian who likes the taste of meat. and while English does not have a grammatical category of dual. So the English lexical item '2' becomes a grammatical category in Arabic that is inflected as per it's placement in the sentence.2. Examples on this aspect are as follows: 3. Textual Problems Textual problems are those problems that arise on the level of the text during the translation task. help greatly in creating this cohesiveness. Connectors and Punctuation Connecters are one of the most used cohesive devices that allow the text to flow smoothly and cohesively.4. Example on page 1: Meagan gets up early. Number Example on page 1: In Arabic. These relate to the comprehensibility. Punctuation marks. before her father and brother are awake. and she is ravenous.19 ٌٝ‫ادذ إ‬ٚ ‫بط‬١‫ ِم‬ٍٝ‫ب ػ‬ٙ‫ػ‬ٛ‫ف رمذس ج‬١‫و‬ٚ َ‫ججبد اٌطؼب‬ٚ َ‫ب ػٓ أدجب‬ٙ‫خ ػٍّز‬٠‫جبْ ِغزشبسح رغز‬١ِ ‫" ٌمذ صاسد‬ "‫ػششح‬ The whole sentence is turned into active and the verb made to agree with the feminine noun as is appropriate for Arabic (Al-Muhtaseb and Mellish 5). 2.1. coherence and cohesion of the text. then gets ready for school.

while the Arabic translation consists of only one long sentence. along with the usage of commas throughout the translated text and a period at the end of it. Conclusion The purpose of this study is to produce an appropriate translation of the book Fed Up: Winning the War Against Childhood Obesity by Susan Okie. a seaside Los Angeles suburb.‫ظ‬٠‫شد‬١‫ط ف‬ٌٛ‫ب ثب‬ّٙ‫اع‬ English prefers full short sentences that give you an idea before moving to the next in a cohesive manner. In order to accomplish that.20 public school about 2 miles from her home in Palos Verdes. while Arabic is attracted to long continuous sentences generously sprinkled with connectors that bind them together in one smooth flow. both assist in making the Arabic translation run smoothly and achieve a cohesive quality. 8. there are four complete sentences. The usage of these connectives. This helps greatly in making the translation an appropriate and correct one. The Arabic translation on the other hand is: ٟ‫ ؽفٍخ ف‬ٟٙ‫ ف‬،‫ب‬٠ٛ‫ع ِٓ اٌظ‬ٕٛ‫ب ٌٍذُ اٌّمذد ِظ‬١‫ال ٔجبر‬٠‫ ثذ‬ٍٟ‫أخب٘ب ٌزم‬ٚ ‫اٌذ٘ب‬ٚ ً‫جبْ ثبوشا لج‬١ِ ‫مع‬١‫رغز‬ ٞ‫ُ اٌطؼبَ اٌز‬ٙ‫رذت ؽؼُ اٌٍذُ فزشا٘ب رٍز‬ٚ ٟ‫ إٌجبر‬ٟ‫إٌظف ِٓ اٌؼّش ٍِزضِخ ثبٌٕظبَ اٌغزائ‬ٚ ‫اٌؼبششح‬ ‫ اٌظف‬ٟ‫ ؽبٌجخ ف‬ٟ٘ ‫ش‬١‫ د‬،‫ة ِبء صُ رغزؼذ ٌٍز٘بة ٌٍّذسعخ‬ٛ‫ب ثى‬ٙ‫ججز‬ٚ ْ‫جب‬١ِ ‫رزجغ‬ٚ ،ُٕٙ‫أػذرٗ ث‬ ‫ط‬ٍٛ١‫ط أٔج‬ٌٛ ٟ‫خ ف‬١ٍ‫خ عبد‬١‫ ػبد‬ٟ‫الغ ف‬ٌٛ‫ب ا‬ٌٙ‫ٓ ِٓ ِٕض‬١ٍ١ِ ‫ ثؼذ‬ٍٝ‫خ رمغ ػ‬١ِٛ‫ ِذسعخ دى‬ٟ‫اٌخبِظ ف‬ . In the English text. Solutions for the difficulties identified will be then proposed and implemented. the problems of non-equivalence at the lexical. The Arabic translation contains about seven or eight repetitions of a few connectors such as ‫ ف‬،ٚ ، and ‫ ي‬. The result is what is hopefully considered a reader . grammatical and textual levels will be explored.

21 friendly and informative text that could be a source of enrichment to the Arabic library. 2. 9. Recommendations 1. or if they are facing concepts that are too cultural specific and background information about them is needed. . Translator trainees should make use of the internet when terms and concepts prove difficult to decipher even after consulting dictionaries. Translator trainees should recognize that it's not enough to rely on dictionaries alone as they do not give the full meanings of terms and words in different contexts. and in this way they help the translator decide on which term to use when several options are available. Online searches also assist in determining how widespread the use of a term is.

London: Routledge. Web. Web." Grammar. Merriam. Catford. 17 Dec. 2012. 1913." Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. 2012. "On Linguistc Aspects of Translation. Web. C. 19 Dec. John. Not a Monolith." Stanford. Fed Up: Winning the War Against Childhood Obesity. Print. 18 Dec. Web. Oxford Dictionaries." UAM. Mona." Merriam-Webster. 24 Dec. Web. Rasoul. Stanford." Wikipedia. "Some Differences Between Arabic and English: A Step Towards an Arabic Upper Model. "Compound (Linguistics). . Vartan. & G. 1992. Gregorian. "Arabic Translation Alternatives for the Passive in English. Al-Muhtaseb. Okie. Oxford University Press. 2012. 2012. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. "Compound Words. 19 Dec. 2012. Washington: Jospeh Henry. 2012. 2012. 2012. 1965. "Compound (Linguistics). 2003. Merriam-Webster. Print. Capital Community College Foundation." King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Print. "Collocation". In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. Print. 24 Dec. Husni. Washington: Brookings. April 2010. Baker. King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Jakobson. and Chris Mellish. Khafaji. 15 Dec. Susan. Web. London: Oxford. Web. Islam: A Mosaic. 2005. 2012. 17 Dec.22 Works Cited "Acronym.

About. Web. 21 Dec. eds. 2012.23 UAM. ---. 2004. 2012. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2003. 2012. SIL International. 14 Dec." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. and Charles Taber. Leiden: Brill. A Textbook of Translation. "Technical Terminology. 20 Dec. 20 Dec. 2012. Wikimedia Foundation. Loos Eugene. "Obesity and Overweight.World Health Organization." Fourth Edition.3 (2010): 400-515. 2012. 2012. Web. New York: Prentice Hall." Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. HarperCollins Publishers. . Reprint. Thawabteh. 2004. World Health Organization." Érudit 55. "Phrasal verbs. 20 Dec. Peter." Wikipedia. 20 Dec. Newmark. Web. 29 Jan. 2003. 2012. Web. The Theory and Practice of Translation. 22 Dec. 2012. Mohammad. Nordquist. "Synonym. SIL International. "ْ‫ص‬ٌٛ‫فشؽ ا‬ٚ ‫"اٌغّٕخ‬. 20 Dec. Eugene. 18 Dec." World Health Organization. 1969. 2012."What is an Idiom?" Glossary of Linguistic Terms. 2012. Web. May 2012. "The Translatability of Interjections: A Case Study of ArabicEnglish Subtitling. Web. 1988. May Print. 20 Dec. "Agreement. Web. Nida."What is a Proper Name?" Glossary of Linguistic Terms. World Health Organization. 5 Jan. 2003. et al. Print. 2012.Web. Web.Web. Richard. 24 Dec.

‬‬ ‫إال أْ ‪ٚ‬صْ ِ‪١‬جبْ صاد ف‪ ٟ‬ا‪ٔٚ٢‬خ األخ‪١‬شح ثخبطخ د‪ٛ‬ي ‪ٚ‬عط‪ٙ‬ب‪ ،‬األِش اٌز‪ ٞ‬ثذأ ‪٠‬جؼٍ‪ٙ‬ب ِذؾ عخش‪٠‬خ صِالئ‪ٙ‬ب ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّذسعخ‬ ‫ف‪ ٟ‬ثؼغ األد‪١‬بْ‪٠ٚ ،‬ض‪١‬ش لٍك ‪ٚ‬اٌذ‪ٙ٠‬ب اٌٍزاْ ‪٠‬ؼّالْ وطج‪١‬جٓ ‪ٚ‬لذ ػبٌجب ؽ‪ٛ‬اي فزشح د‪١‬بر‪ّٙ‬ب اٌّ‪١ٕٙ‬خ وض‪١‬شا ِٓ األػشاع‬ ‫وأِشاع اٌمٍت ‪ ٚ‬ص‪٠‬بدح ػغؾ اٌذَ ‪ٚ‬غ‪١‬ش٘ب ِٓ اٌّؼبػفبد اٌز‪٠ ٟ‬غجج‪ٙ‬ب فشؽ اٌغّٕخ ٌذ‪ ٜ‬اٌجبٌغ‪.‬‬ ‫رزى‪ِ ْٛ‬ذسعخ ِ‪١‬جبْ اإلثزذائ‪١‬خ ِٓ ِجّ‪ٛ‬ػخ ِجبٔ‪ ٟ‬راد ؽبثك ‪ٚ‬ادذ رشثط‪ٙ‬ب عبدبد ‪ِّٚ‬بش‪٠ٚ ،ٟ‬مغ خٍف‪ٙ‬ب ِالػت ‪ٚ‬عبدخ‬ ‫ِؼشجخ وج‪١‬شح ٌٍؼت وشح اٌمذَ ‪ٚ‬س‪٠‬بػبد أخش‪٠ .‬‬ ‫ف‪ ٟٙ‬رذت اٌذٍ‪ّ٠ٚ ٜٛ‬ىٕ‪ٙ‬ب رغّ‪١‬خ وبفخ ِزبجش اٌذ‪ٔٚ‬برض ‪ٚ‬اٌج‪ٛ‬ظخ اٌمش‪٠‬جخ ِٓ د‪ٙ١‬ب اٌغىٕ‪ٚ ،ٟ‬رذت ثبألخض ِزجش ث‪ٛ‬ظخ د‪١‬ش‬ ‫‪ّ٠‬ىٓ أْ رخزبس‪ٚ‬ا دٍ‪٠ٛ‬برىُ اٌّفؼٍخ أ‪ ٚ‬سلبلبد ش‪ٛ‬و‪ٛ‬الرخ ‪٠ٚ‬م‪ َٛ‬اٌؼبٍِ‪ ْٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّذً "ث‪ٙ‬شع‪ٙ‬ب ف‪ ٟ‬اٌج‪ٛ‬ظخ" دغت ِ‪١‬جبْ‪.‬‬ ‫دشوخ اٌغ‪١‬ش ثط‪١‬ئخ جذا ف‪ ٟ‬طجبح ٘زا اٌ‪ٚ ،َٛ١‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌشغُ ِٓ ‪ٚ‬ج‪ٛ‬د ِّش ِخظض ٌٍذساجبد ػٍ‪ ٝ‬جبٔت اٌطش‪٠‬ك إال أٔٗ‬ ‫ِٓ إٌبدس أْ رشوت ِ‪١‬جبْ دساجز‪ٙ‬ب إٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌّذسعخ‪ ،‬د‪١‬ش ‪ٍ٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌذ‪ٙ٠‬ب ػٍ‪ٙ١‬ب أْ رفؼً رٌه دز‪ ٝ‬رٕبي لغطبّ ِٓ اٌزّبس‪ٓ٠‬‬ ‫اٌش‪٠‬بػ‪١‬خ سغُ لٍم‪ّٙ‬ب ثشأْ دشوخ اٌغ‪١‬ش‪ ،‬إال أٔٗ ‪٠‬ظؼت ػٍ‪١ِ ٝ‬جبْ اٌزذىُ ثبٌذساجخ ف‪ ٟ‬أجضاء اٌطش‪٠‬ك شذ‪٠‬ذح االٔذذاس‪،‬‬ ‫وّب أٔ‪ٙ‬ب ال رغزط‪١‬غ دًّ اٌج‪ٛ‬ق اٌز‪ ٞ‬رذزبجٗ ف‪ ٟ‬األ‪٠‬بَ اٌز‪ ٟ‬رزذسة ف‪ٙ١‬ب ِغ اٌفشلخ اٌّ‪ٛ‬ع‪١‬م‪١‬خ اٌّذسع‪١‬خ‪ ،‬ثبٌٕ‪ٙ‬ب‪٠‬خ فإٔٗ ِٓ‬ ‫األع‪ ًٙ‬ػٍ‪ٚ ٝ‬اٌذ‪١ِ ٞ‬جبْ اططذبث‪ٙ‬ب إٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌّذسعخ ثبٌغ‪١‬بسح ػ‪ٛ‬ػب ػٓ إلٕبػ‪ٙ‬ب ثبٌز٘بة سو‪ٛ‬ثب ػٍ‪ ٝ‬دساجز‪ٙ‬ب‪.ٜ‬غّخ ٌٍطٍجخ اٌّى‪ٛ‬س ثؼغ دلبئك ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌٍّؼت ثؼذ أْ ‪٠‬ذق اٌجشط األ‪ٚ‬ي‪،‬‬ .ٓ١‬‬ ‫‪ٌٚ‬مذ صاسد ِ‪١‬جبْ ِغزشبسح رغز‪٠‬خ ػٍّز‪ٙ‬ب ػٓ أدجبَ ‪ٚ‬ججبد اٌطؼبَ ‪ٚ‬و‪١‬ف رمذس ج‪ٛ‬ػ‪ٙ‬ب ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬م‪١‬بط ‪ٚ‬ادذ إٌ‪ ٝ‬ػششح‪،‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬ر‪ٛ‬د أْ‬ ‫(اٌظفذخ ‪) 1‬‬ ‫رٕمض ِٓ ‪ٚ‬صٔ‪ٙ‬ب ٌزز‪ٛ‬لف عخش‪٠‬خ صِالئ‪ٙ‬ب ‪ٌٚ‬ى‪ ٟ‬رغزط‪١‬غ اٌذشوخ ثشىً أعشع ػٕذ ٌؼت وشح اٌمذَ‪ ،‬إال أْ األُ٘ ِٓ رٌه‬ ‫سغجز‪ٙ‬ب ف‪ ٟ‬أْ رى‪ِ ْٛ‬غ‪١‬طشح ػٍ‪ ٝ‬د‪١‬بر‪ٙ‬ب ‪ٚ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌطؼبَ اٌز‪ ٞ‬رأوٍٗ‪.‬‬ ‫ع‪ٛ‬صاْ أ‪ٚ‬و‪ ،ٟ‬دوز‪ٛ‬ساٖ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌطت‬ ‫اٌج‪ ً١‬األعّٓ‬ ‫رغز‪١‬مع ِ‪١‬جبْ ثبوشا لجً ‪ٚ‬اٌذ٘ب ‪ٚ‬أخب٘ب ٌزمٍ‪ ٟ‬ثذ‪٠‬ال ٔجبر‪١‬ب ٌٍذُ اٌّمذد ِظٕ‪ٛ‬ع ِٓ اٌظ‪٠ٛ‬ب‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟٙ‬ؽفٍخ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌؼبششح ‪ٚ‬إٌظف‬ ‫ِٓ اٌؼّش ٍِزضِخ ثبٌٕظبَ اٌغزائ‪ ٟ‬إٌجبر‪ٚ ٟ‬رذت ؽؼُ اٌٍذُ فزشا٘ب رٍز‪ ُٙ‬اٌطؼبَ اٌز‪ ٞ‬أػذرٗ ثٕ‪ٚ ،ُٙ‬رزجغ ِ‪١‬جبْ ‪ٚ‬ججز‪ٙ‬ب‬ ‫ثى‪ٛ‬ة ِبء صُ رغزؼذ ٌٍز٘بة ٌٍّذسعخ‪ ،‬د‪١‬ش ٘‪ ٟ‬ؽبٌجخ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌظف اٌخبِظ ف‪ِ ٟ‬ذسعخ دى‪١ِٛ‬خ رمغ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ثؼذ ِ‪ِٓ ٓ١ٍ١‬‬ ‫ِٕضٌ‪ٙ‬ب اٌ‪ٛ‬الغ ف‪ ٟ‬ػبد‪١‬خ عبدٍ‪١‬خ ف‪ٌٛ ٟ‬ط أٔج‪ٍٛ١‬ط اعّ‪ٙ‬ب ثبٌ‪ٛ‬ط ف‪١‬شد‪٠‬ظ‪.‬‬ ‫ٌّ‪١‬جبْ شؼش ثٕ‪ ٟ‬رشثطٗ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬شىً ر‪ ً٠‬دظبْ ‪ٚ‬رشرذ‪ٔ ٞ‬ظبساد ؽج‪١‬خ جذ‪٠‬ذح‪ ٟ٘ٚ ،‬ؽفٍخ رو‪١‬خ ‪ ٚ‬رؼشف و‪١‬ف رؼذه‬ ‫ا‪٢‬خش‪ ،ٓ٠‬إػبفخ إٌ‪ ٝ‬اِزالو‪ٙ‬ب شخظ‪١‬خ اجزّبػ‪١‬خ ِٕجغطخ رذت اٌشلض ‪ٚ‬اٌغٕبء ‪ٚ‬دشاعخ اٌّشِ‪ ٝ‬ف‪ِ ٟ‬جبس‪٠‬بد وشح اٌمذَ‬ ‫اٌز‪ ٟ‬رشزشن ف‪ٙ١‬ب‪.‫‪24‬‬ ‫‪Appendix 1‬‬ ‫‪The Translated Text:‬‬ ‫ؽفخ اٌى‪!ً١‬‬ ‫و‪١‬ف ٕٔزظش ف‪ ٟ‬اٌذشة ػذ اٌغّٕخ ٌذ‪ ٜ‬األؽفبي‪.

‬‬ ‫(اٌظفذخ ‪)2‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬طجبح ٘زا اٌ‪ َٛ١‬رؼ‪ ٓ١‬اٌّؼٍّخ ػٍ‪١ِ ٝ‬جبْ ‪ٚ‬طذ‪٠‬مز‪ٙ‬ب اٌّفؼٍخ ج‪١ٌٛ‬ب اٌم‪١‬بَ ثٕشبؽ خبص ‪ ٛ٘ٚ‬اٌجذش ػٓ رظّ‪ُ١‬‬ ‫اٌجغ‪ٛ‬س ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اإلٔزشٔذ صُ ثٕبء ّٔ‪ٛ‬رط ثبعزخذاَ ِؼىش‪ٔٚ‬خ ِجففخ ‪ٚ‬طّغ‪ ،‬فمبِزب ثٍظك ٔ‪ٙ‬ب‪٠‬بد اٌّؼىش‪ٔٚ‬خ اٌّجففخ ثجؼؼ‪ٙ‬ب‬ ‫اٌجؼغ ثبعزخذاَ اٌظّغ ثؼٕب‪٠‬خ شذ‪٠‬ذح ‪ٚ‬رٌه ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أًِ طٕغ لٕطشح‪ ،‬إال أْ ِب طٕؼزبٖ ظً ‪ٕٙ٠‬بس‪ِّ ،‬ب جؼٍ‪ّٙ‬ب ف‪ ٟ‬إٌ‪ٙ‬ب‪٠‬خ‬ ‫‪٠‬شػ‪١‬بْ ث‪ٛ‬ػغ اٌّؼىش‪ٔٚ‬خ جٕجب إٌ‪ ٝ‬جٕت ٌظٕغ جغش ػبد‪.‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬رٕزظش ِ‪١‬جبْ د‪ٚ‬س٘ب ٌززأسجخ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أسج‪ٛ‬دخ ِظٕ‪ٛ‬ػخ ِٓ إؽبس ػجٍخ ع‪١‬بسح وج‪١‬شح‪ٚ ،‬ثؼذ ِش‪ٚ‬س ػششح دلبئك ‪٠‬زغغ اٌ‪ٛ‬لذ‬ ‫ٌززبسجخ ِ‪١‬جبْ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬األسج‪ٛ‬دخ ِشح ‪ٚ‬ادذح فمؾ لجً أْ ‪٠‬ذق اٌجشط اٌضبٔ‪٠ٚ ٟ‬ز‪ٛ‬جت ػٍ‪ٙ١‬ب اٌز٘بة إٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌفظً‪.‬‬ ‫صُ ‪ٕ٠‬ؼُ إٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌطفٍز‪ ٓ١‬طذ‪٠‬مبر‪ّٙ‬ب األخش‪٠‬بد ‪ ٚ‬رّشس ج‪١ٌٛ‬ب ػٍ‪ ٓٙ١‬اٌّبسشّ‪ٍٛ١‬ص‪ ،‬فزجذأ اٌفز‪١‬بد ثمزف‪ٙ‬ب ػبٌ‪١‬ب ‪ٚ‬اٌزمبؽ‪ٙ‬ب ف‪ٟ‬‬ ‫أف‪ٛ‬ا٘‪ ،ٓٙ‬صُ ‪٠‬زٕبفغٓ ٌزذذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ ‪ّ٠‬ىٕ‪ٙ‬ب رٕف‪١‬ز أػٍ‪ ٝ‬سوٍخ‪ٚ ،‬ثؼذ٘ب أ‪ٚ‬عغ دشوخ شك سجٍ‪ ٓ١‬اٌجّجبص‪٠‬خ‪" .‬ع‪١‬زّضق ثٕطبٌ‪ٟ‬‬ ‫اٌج‪ٕ١‬ض إرا لّذ ثشك سجٍ‪ "،ٟ‬ر‪ٛ‬لؼذ ِ‪١‬جبْ‪.ٞ‬‬ ‫رّش عبػخ ‪ٔٚ‬ظف ‪ٚ‬رجذأ اٌطفٍز‪ ٓ١‬ثبٌشؼ‪ٛ‬س ثبٌج‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬فزأوالْ أجضاء ِٓ اٌّؼىش‪ٔٚ‬خ اٌّجففخ‪ٚ ،‬د‪٠ ٓ١‬ذ‪ٚ ٓ١‬لذ اٌفشطخ‬ ‫رخشجبْ إٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌغبدخ‪ٚ ،‬رم‪ َٛ‬ج‪١ٌٛ‬ب –‪ ٟ٘ٚ‬ؽفٍخ ٔذ‪١‬فخ ‪ٚ‬وض‪١‬شح اٌىالَ ‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬دشوخ دائجخ‪ -‬ثفزخ غطبء رشِ‪ٛ‬ط ف‪ ٗ١‬ششاة‬ ‫ش‪ٛ‬و‪ٛ‬ال عبخٓ ‪ٚ‬رفزخ وزٌه و‪١‬غب ثالعز‪١‬ى‪١‬ب ف‪ ٗ١‬دٍ‪ ٜٛ‬اٌّبسشّ‪ٚ ٍٛ١‬رغأي "ِ‪١‬جبْ‪ ،‬أرش‪٠‬ذ‪ ٓ٠‬ثؼغ اٌش‪ٛ‬و‪ٛ‬ال اٌغبخٕخ؟"‬ ‫فزمجً ِ‪١‬جبْ ‪ٚ‬رم‪ٛ‬ي ‪ ٟ٘ٚ‬رزٍز ثبٌششاة "ُِّ‪ِ ،‬ب أٌزٖ‪ٚ "،‬رؼ‪١‬ف "سثّب ٔغزط‪١‬غ غّظ اٌّؼىش‪ٔٚ‬خ اٌّجففخ ف‪ٙ١‬ب‪".

She’s in the fifth grade at a public school about 2 miles from her home in Palos Verdes. The Fattest Generation Meagan gets up early. she is a committed vegetarian who likes the taste of meat. then gets ready for school. Meagan has seen a dietitian. Recently. though. before her father and brother are awake. high blood pressure. she has gained a lot of weight. but she also wants to be in charge of her own life and of what she eats. She would like to (Page 1) be leaner. Ten and a half years old. a seaside Los Angeles suburb. M. She washes the bacon down with a glass of water.26 Appendix 2 The Original Text: Fed Up! Winning the War Against Childhood Obesity Susan Okie. especially around her middle—a fact that has started to provoke occasional teasing by classmates and to worry her parents. and other complications of obesity in adults for their entire careers. and she is ravenous. both of them doctors who have been treating heart disease. to put a stop to the teasing. she’s an extrovert who loves to sing and dance and to tend goal in soccer games.D. Meagan has shiny brown hair in a ponytail and new glasses. and fries up a batch of soy bacon. . who taught her about portion sizes and how to rate her hunger on a scale of 1 to 10. Smart and funny. and to be able to move faster in soccer.

Although there’s a bike lane beside the road. The girls throw them in the air and catch them in their mouths. (Page 2) http://site. They munch on pieces of dried spaghetti. students are allowed a few minutes on the playground. Julia. are assigned a special activity: they are to research bridge design on the Internet and build an example using dried pasta and glue. They compete to see who can do the highest cancan kicks. the second bell sends her off to homeroom. Ninety minutes go by. but she has difficulty pedaling the steepest part of the route. her parents have been urging her to do so for the sake of the exercise.” Meagan predicts. At recess the two go outside to the courtyard.” This morning traffic is bumper to bumper on the way to school. they painstakingly glue tubes of macaroni end to end.” Friends join them and Julia passes around the marshmallows. “Meagan. unscrews a thermos of steaming hot chocolate and opens a plastic bag of marshmallows.action?docID=10075869&p00=fed . Julia. This morning Meagan and her best friend. backed by playgrounds and a large grassy field for soccer and other games. Driving her to school is usually easier for her mother and father than overcoming her resistance. Hoping to make an arch.” says Meagan. and the girls get hungry. chatty. Ten minutes and one spin later. She’s especially partial to one ice cream parlor where you can choose your favorite candy bar or chocolate chips and they “mush it in. Meagan waits for a turn to spin on a big tire swing. slender. Eventually they settle for laying out noodles side by side to make a beam bridge.27 She loves sweets and can name all the doughnut and ice cream stores near her neighborhood. then the widest split.ebrary. tasty. Meagan rarely rides to school. and she can’t transport her cornet by bicycle on band practice days. After the first bell rings. slurping a cupful. but their constructions keep falling apart. The elementary school is a cluster of single-story buildings connected by courtyards and walkways. and constantly in motion. “Maybe we can dip the “I’m going to break my jeans if I do a split. Despite their concerns about the traffic. you want hot chocolate?” “Mmm.