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The motion of charged particles in assumed electric and magnetic ﬁeld can provide insight into many important physical properties of plasmas. While it does not provide the full plasma dynamics it can provide clues on the collective behavior.

4.1 Gyro Motion

Lorentz force equation:

¢¡ ¢£¥¤ § ¦ ¨© ¡

In the absence of a magnetic ﬁeld the equation reduces to ¢¡ ¦ ¡ ¢£ ¤ § Assuming a constant and uniform magnetic ﬁeld, the scalar product with energy ¢¡ " §$#&% § ¡ ! ¢£ ¤ ¢£ ¤ 0 ')( 1

¡

yields the conservation of (4.1)

To solve the equations of motion let us consider a magnetic ﬁeld of ¤32547698 Denoting the direction perpendicular to @ with A the components of the equations of motion are # 6 ¢£ ¤ 0 ¢¡CB ¦ 2 ¡DBE ¢£ ¤ 4&6 §

**with the solution
**

#GF ¤ #GX ¤ # 6d¤

¨ SVU £ W # BIHQP¢R T S U £ W # BIR`Yba ¨cV #&e

(4.2)

46

The motion changes with these effects included. and time independence for the magnetic ﬁeld. lines with the same gyro-frequency. § # 6 ¢£ ¤ ¦ e (4.6) 4.7) "! ! #¤ ! . The gyro-radius for the particle motion is # B §$# B U (4. 4.1 Electric Force Drift © e 4&6 F 4 F . The motion parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld can be separated from the perpendicular motion and describes a simple acceleration along the magnetic ﬁeld. no other forces.1: Helical ion trajectory in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS B with # % ¤ # F % # X % and the trajectory 47 ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¢ £ ¡ £¢ @ ¡ @ ¢ For # 6 # B R Y a ¨TS U £ W SVU # B Q H P R ¨cSVU £ W SVU #&e £ ¡ (4.5) ¤ SVU ¤ ¦ 8 2 ¢§¦ £ ¢§¦ ¨ © © The angle of the particle trajectory with the magnetic ﬁeld is called pitch angle # B a ¤ # e (4. The location of With a ﬁnite velocity in @ the trajectories ¨ are helical the center of the particle gyro motion @ is called the guiding center of the particle motion.3) ¢ ¤ 0 the trajectories are circles in which the particles gyrate with a frequency of SVU ¤ ¦ 2 § 8 ¥¤ (4.2 Particle Drifts The discussion of the particle motion in the prior section is highly idealized because it assumes a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. ¤ Let us ﬁrst consider the presence of a uniform and time independent electric ﬁeld This requires to consider the full Lorentz force equations.4) B Figure 4.CHAPTER 4.2.

CHAPTER 4.11) 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ . SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS The equations for the perpendicular motion are ¢¡CB ¦ © B ¢£ ¤ § § 48 ¦ ¡ (4. The drift is independent of the particle charge because it represents the © B transformation into the frame where the perpendicular electric ﬁeld ¤ 0 .2 Polarization Drift Taking the cross-product of the Lorentz equation with 2 % yields § ¢¡ © ¡DB ¤ ¦ 2 % ¢£ % 2 © ¡ For uniform ﬁelds ¤ and averaging the above equation over a gyro period we obtain the drift velocity as © B ¡ SVU ¤ ¢£ (4.8) We can solve this equation either by explicit integration or ﬁnding a useful transformation in which the ¡ B perpendicular electric ﬁeld vanishes.2: Illustration of the © drift.2.10) ¦ 2 % ¥ 4. © drift does not feel the Thus a particle which drifts across the magnetic ﬁeld with this so-called perpendicular electric ﬁeld.9) E Ion B Electron Figure 4. Substituting with a time constant component the ¤ equation of motion becomes ¦ © B ¦ ¡ ¦ ¢£ ¤ § § § ¡ ¤ 0 reduces the equation for Choosing the velocity such that electric force. The resulting particle drift exposed a this constant force is ¡ ¤ (4. © ¦ The above result can be generalized by substituting with a general constant force term . Using the Lorentz transformation we obtain this velocity to be © ¡ ¤ 2 % ¢ ¦¨§ © ¦ ¥¤ ¤ ¥¤ ¡ £¢ ¢ to the case with no (4.

The corresponding correction for the electric drift is ¤ second order and becomes © ¤ ¡ U% ¢ § %¦ (4. The result is the so-called magnetic gradient drift. Taking the 2 % yields cross product with ¤ ¡¡ ¤ ¨ ¡ U ¤ 4&6 one can substitute and where denotes the average over the gyro period. SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS © The ﬁrst term is the already known ﬁeld and called the polarization drift. Assuming with the solution for the simple gyro motion "! ¡ ¡ ¡ U 2 ¤ 2 ¡ U one can substitute and with the solution for the simple gyro motion.14) 2$# 2 % ¨ ¡ U ¨¨ !£¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¨ 2 ¢ ¢ £ The gradient drift is perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and perpendicular to the gradient of the ﬁeld. In that case .12) 2 Here slow means a change on a time scale much larger than the gyro period. Only the average along is nonzero and in it general form the drift becomes §$#&B % ¨ %¢ ¡ ¤ ' ¦ 2 (4.3 Magnetic Gradient Drift In an inhomogeneous magnetic ﬁeld with a magnetic gradient the gyro radius is a function of the location in the magnetic ﬁeld.CHAPTER 4. Expanding the magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the guiding center ©¨ £ ! ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ Substituting this expansion in the Lorentz force equation yields ¢¡ ¦ ¨ ¡ ¦ ¨ ¡ ¨¨ !¢ 7 ¢£ ¤ § § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ U ¡ Splitting the velocity into the gyro and a drift motion term ¤ and assuming that the drift velocity is much smaller than the gyro velocity ¢¡ ¡ ¦ ¨ ¡ ¦ ¨ ¡ U ¨¨ !£¢ 7 ¢£ ¤ § § ¢ ¡ where we have subtracted the gyro motion of the Lorentz equation and neglected in the last term of the equation. Note that the time derivative in can be caused by a temporal change of the electric ﬁeld or by a spatial variation of the electric ﬁeld © B £ ¡£ ! ¢ © over the gyro scale. Averaging over a gyro period gets rid of the time derivative on the left side.13) ¤ ¥ 2 % ¤ ¥¤ ¨ 4. 49 drift and the second is caused by a slow change of the electric © B ¡ ¡ ¤ SVU £ (4. .2.

16) . 4. With a local coordinate system ¨ ¤ ¢ 4 ¢¤£ where s is the line element along the ﬁeld 4 ¤ 2 and 4 % ¤ and noting that 4 % line we can rewrite the curvature term as ¨ ¢ " ¢ ¢ 2 (4.4: Illustration of the curvature radius. With ¤ the curvature force is ! ¢ 7 ¡ ¤ §$# %e ¨ % 2 ¨ £ ¨ ¢ ! ¢ 7 ¢ % ' Note also that 2 ¤ ¤§¦ ©¨ . ¡ ¤ ¡ force becomes ¤ ¡ ¤ ¡ §$# %e 2 ¢ ¢ 2 The resulting drift velocity is ¡ ¤ §$# %e ¦ 2 ¨ !¢ 7 (4.2.CHAPTER 4. This force is ¡ ¤ §$# %e % ¨ where denotes the radius of curvature vector. In the absence of currents the curvature Figure 4.4 Magnetic Curvature Drift A particle which moves along a curved magnetic ﬁeld line experiences a centrifugal force on its guiding ¨ center.3: Illustration of the magnetic gradient drift. SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS B Ion 50 B Electron Figure 4.15) % ¤ ¢¥£ 2 ( ¤ 2 ¢¤£ 2 % ¢¤£ ¨ ¤ ¡ ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¡ ¡ B rc e2 e1 ¢ ¢¤£ ! ¢ We can neglect the last term because of the cross product with in the drift equation.

25) ¨ These drifts have been determined by model electric and magnetic ﬁelds.CHAPTER 4.17) 4.26) is a constant of motion and an adiabatic invariant. ¨ ) § 1` © B 7@ @ 3547698 £ 8 £ 4 ¨ ' § ¢£ ' ¤ % C § 2 ) #&) % § 1 # 1 % e eED ¨ ' A5B # 8 £ B ¨ ! ¢ 7 % ¤ ¨ § ) # )% B 2 § 1 # 1% B @ ¨ %¢ F 8 £ ¨ ' %(' ¤ 2 ' 2 # ¨ ¡ ¨ ¨ (4. SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS or in the absence of electric currents ¡ 51 ¤ §$# %e ¦ 2 # ¨ ¢ 2 (4. it should be reminded that the currents due to the drifts alter the ﬁelds.20) !£¢ ! ¦ ¤$ Y¤ a ¡¡ § © B ¦ 2 % ¢£ §$#&%e ¨ ¦ 2 §$#&B% ¨ ' ¦ 2 # (4. 4.3 Adiabatic Invariants For periodic motion with a period smaller than changes of the overall system the action integral G) ¤&HPI )c ¦ ) (4. The derived particle drifts do not contain any collective behavior.2. Thus they describe test particle motion if the electric and magnetic ﬁelds were in fact as assumed.5 Summary of Particle Drifts §¦ YbH©¨ Y ¤¢ ¤ a ¤ ¢ ¨ P H ¤ ¦ ¦ ¡£¢¥¤ H ¡ ¥¤ ¡¥ ¤ ¤ ¡¡ ¡ ¤ P¢ ¦ YbR Y P¢a ¦#" ¦ %© 2 ¦ % 2 ¤ ¤ (4. However.22) ¢ 2 ¨ ¡0) ¡21 Most drifts are associated with an electric current which is given by ¨ & ¤ %(' .18) (4. We will return to this issue in a later chapter. If these changes are small compared to the background ﬁeld it is justiﬁed to apply the drift model.23) (4. For this reason it is a nontrivial aspect to compare particle and ﬂuid plasma drifts.21) (4.19) (4. .24) (4.

e.28) e ¤ ¡ ¦ Conservation of energy ¢£ e ¢£ B ¤ 0 ¤ 2 Substituting the magnetic moment ¡ ¦ 2 £ ¦ 2 £ ¢ 2 ¦ ¢£ ¢£ ¤ ¦ 0 Which demonstrates that the magnetic moment is an invariant of the particle motion. First Adiabatic Invariant In the absence of electric ﬁelds the parallel equation of motion is # e ¢ e § £ ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2£ ¡ ¡ (4. the ¨ © . Magnetic Mirror With the pitch angle moment becomes for the particle trajectory relative to the magnetic ﬁeld orientation the magnetic §$#&% R`Y a % (4. i.1 Magnetic Moment.29) ¦ % 2 % 2 ¤ ¦ % ¦ ¢§£ ¦¥ ¢¤£ ¦¥ ¥ ¨ ¤ ¡ and therefore also conserved. Note that the ﬂux encircled by the gyro motion ' § §$% # B % ¤ (4.31) R Ya % ¤ 2 This provides the information of the change of the pitch angle along the entire ﬁeld line if it is known in one location.CHAPTER 4.30) ¦¥¤ ' 2 and in the absence of parallel electric ﬁelds (such that the energy is conserved) the pitch angle at two different location in the magnetic ﬁeld must satisfy R Ya % 2 % % (4. ¢ ¢£ ¢ © ¤ In the presence of an electric ﬁeld and of a corresponding change the magnetic moment is still conserved as long as the changes of the magnetic ﬁeld are slow compared to the gyro U% ¤ 2 is motion. SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS 52 4..3.27) with the magnetic moment ¦¥¤ The parallel equation of motion also implies ¢£ §$#&B % ¤ ' 2 ¡ 2 2 £ B 8 (4. In particular we ca compute the condition for which the pitch angle becomes ¢0 .

34) is a longitudinal invariant of the particle motion. .33) Thus particles can gain perpendicular energy (without a change of the parallel energy) by adiabatic motion. The process is similar to so-called betatron acceleration. Assuming the ﬁeld strength 2 point where a particle is mirrored we obtain anywhere on the ﬁeld line R Ya at the ¤ ¥¤ 2 2 (4. SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS 53 Mirror point Figure 4. For conﬁgurational S¦¡ changes on a time scale £¥¤ the corresponding action integral ¤ G ¤ H §$# e £ (4. Ions and electrons which penetrate into the lower ionosphere can undergo collisions with the neutrals and thereby are lost from the magnetospheric population.CHAPTER 4. Particles are conﬁned in a magnetic mirror by this mirror force. condition for which a particle is reﬂected in the magnetic ﬁeld.32) In other words at a given location particle with a pitch angle smaller than particle with a larger pitch angle are mirrored. 4. The same principle governs the magnetosphere.2 Second (Longitudinal) Adiabatic Invariant The mirror motion implies a second quasi-periodic motion for a particle in a dipole S¢¡ ﬁeld .3.e.5: Illustration of magnetic mirror motion. i. will be transmitted whereas The is important for many laboratory and space plasmas. the motion from one mirror point to the opposite and back with a bounce frequency of . particle with a smaller pitch angle are lost from the magnetic ﬁeld such that the distribution function miss this portion of phase space which is called the loss cone. Adiabatic Heating Drift motion can bring particles into regions of the magnetosphere with a larger magnetic ﬁeld strength.. The conservation of the magnetic moment implies B % ¤ 2 2 % B (4.

If changes occur on the gyro period scale all invariants are destroyed. £ ¤ ¤ S where S @ (4. The relation SVU S ¡ S ¤ ¤ (4. Conﬁgurational changes with destroy the third S £ ¡ invariant while the ﬁrst two are still conserved.36) 4.35) Therefore as the length of the ﬁeld line between mirror points changes.37) £ the fre- 4. 6 §¨ % 2 % %% ¤ 6% §¨ 2 §©¨ ¤ B ¤ e¤¡ for a (4. .3 Third (Drift) Adiabatic Invariant The third adiabatic invariant is the magnetic ﬂux encircled by the (periodic) drift path of a particle. ¢¤ H # ¨ Similar to the other invariants it requires slow conﬁgurational changes quency of the drift motion.38) S establishes a hierarchy of temporal scales. The square of this invariant implies for the parallel energy e % e¤¡ ¤ ¡ 6% % 6% (4.4 Violation of Adiabatic Invariants Adiabatic invariants require that temporal changes of a conﬁguration is slow compared to the period associated with the invariant. SINGLE PARTICLE DYNAMICS 54 e ¡ the invariant is G ¤ ' § 6 #&£ e ¡ with 6 being the length of the In terms of an average parallel velocity # ¢ entire ﬁeld line between the mirror points.3.CHAPTER 4. Thus the Adiabatic invariants provide insight into the change of anisotropy distribution function. satisﬁes I e ¤¦¥ ' between the walls and I e is the momentum normal to the wall surface. There is also a hierarchy of spatial scales which limit the inhomogeneity of the ﬁeld. Exercise: Demonstrate that the momentum of an ideally reﬂecting ball which bounces between two 4 ££ where is the distance walls which approach each other with a velocity u.3. for instance. so does the parallel energy which is basic for so-called Fermi acceleration. ¤ ¤ The same line of arguments can be made for spatial gradients because the particle motion is subject to the electromagnetic ﬁelds and spatial gradients can act similarly to temporal changes for the particle motion. gradients on the scale of the gyro radius will destroy the ﬁrst adiabatic invariant. Changes of order £ destroy the second and the third invariant and leave only the ﬁrst invariant conserved.

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