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Switzer 171 Canteri, M. et al.2012. Characterization of Apple Pectin - A Chromatographic Approach. Accessed at August 25, 2013. <http://www.intechopen.

com/books/chromatography-the-most-versatile-method-ofchemical-analysis/characterization-of-apple-pectin-a-chromatographic-approach> The usual method used to completely characterize pectic polysaccharides is the combination of chemical, spectroscopic, and chromatographic methods. But still, chromatography is the primary tool in determining the composition, DE, DA, and molar mass of pectins. Size exclusion chromatography is one method used in determining the molar mass of the polysaccharides. In this method a calibration curve is obtained from the molar mass of the dextran standard. However, the drawback of this method is that use of dextran is greatly restricted. Moreover, there were also no molar mass standards that are appropriate for most types of polysaccharides. Another method is the use of high performance size exclusion chromatography with the aid of differential refractometer (RI) and multi-angle laser light scattering detector. This method determines the absolute molar masss and molar mass distribution of pectins. The RI sends signal which is directly proportional to the concentration of the sample, whereas the MALLS response amplifies the with the increase of concentration and molar mass. The monosaccharide components of pectin can also be qualitatively analyzed using simple chromatographic methods like paper and thin layer chromatography. However the pectin to be examined still needs to be hydrolyzed so as to release its monomeric components. Meanwhile, other carbohydrates can be observed with the use of gas-liquid chromatography. GC is a method that analyzes or even separates the components of the sample that can be vaporized without undergoing the process of decomposition. Another more advanced method is the use of high performance anion exchange chromatography combined with the pulsed amperometric detection. This method is used to directly examine the contents of the carbohydrates. The invention of this technique has solved most of the problems from the latter techniques. Additionally, X-ray diffraction, circular dichroism, light scattering, electron and atomic force microscopy were also other techniques used so as to analyze the structure and interaction of the pectin isolated.

POD 2 The first step in the extraction procedure is the homogenization of sample with water using a blender. Water is used as the medium for homogenization because pectin is soluble in water. In that way, pectin present in the citrus peels will be transferred to the