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• 
We studied measures of central tendency and 
• 
dispersion for discrete data The data was represented in form of a list 
• 
How do we deal with data with class intervals? 
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Can we find a value that represents a given class interval? 
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Class intervals could emerge from both discrete as well as continuous data 
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We would look at a dataset consisting of ‘N’ observations, distributed across ‘n’ classes 
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• 
Class mark is the midpoint of a class intervalbetween 60 and 70, (60 is the lower limit and 70 is the upper limit) 

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Calculated as the arithmetic mean of the class limits 

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E.g. if we are looking at the number of students whose scores lie 

60 + 70 

_{2} 
= 65 

is the class mark or the midpoint of the class interval 6070 

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Class mark cannot be determined for a data with open classes (intervals indicated by open bracket on either sides) 

• 
In case of overlapping classes (where the upper limit of a class and the lower limit of the next one are equal), we assign that overlapping value to that class where the value is the lower limit 
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Cumulative frequency is the frequency of values up to the upper limit of the corresponding class interval 
• 
For the ^{}^{} class, denote its frequency as _{} , cumulative frequency as _{} and class mark as _{} 
Class # 
Class interval 
Frequency 
Cumulative frequency 
Class mark 

1 
_{} − _{} 

_{} = _{} 
_{} + _{} 

_{} = 
2 

2 
_{} − _{} 

_{} = _{} + _{} 
_{} + _{} 

_{} = 
2 

3 
_{} − _{} 

_{} = _{} + _{} + _{} 
_{} + _{} 

_{} = 
2 

… 
… 
… 
… 
… 

i 
^{} ^{−} ^{} 

_{} = _{} + _{} +…+ _{} 
^{} ^{+} ^{} 

_{} = 
2 

… 
… 
… 
… 
… 

n 
^{} ^{−} ^{} 

_{} = _{} + _{} + _{} +…+ _{} = 
^{} ^{+} ^{} 

_{} = 
2 
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Weights from the ‘body measurement’ data used earlier 
• 
Weight values are given up to one decimal point 
Class interval 
Frequency 
Cumulative frequency 
Class mark 
4049.9 
27 
27 
44.95 
5059.9 
124 


6069.9 
120 


7079.9 
115 


8089.9 
87 


9099.9 
25 


100109.9 
8 


110119.9 
1 


Total 
507 
 
 
6
7
^{}
^{}
8
9



− _{}_{} 


− 
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Can easily identify the class interval with the highest frequency; the modal class 

• 
How do we determine the value which has the highest density? 

• 
Formula given by: 


= + − [ 

] 
where; 

_{} _{}_{} _{} _{}_{} 
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^{1}^{3} 13
∑ 






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We can verify that the values obtained with the formulae for grouped data, are very close to the values obtained by considering the data as ungrouped 
• 
In many situation, describing data using class intervals is more insightful 
• 
Therefore these formulae can be useful for quick hand calculation 
• 
In this age of extensive computational power, these measures can be calculated without dividing the data into class intervals 
• 
Yet, these formulae are important from theoretical point of view 
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