Tindak Balas Pengoksidaan dan Penurunan (REDOKS

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NOTA Pengekstrakan logam daripada bijihnya dalam industri Logam Kalium Natrium Kalsium Magnesium Aluminium Zink Besi Stanum Plumbum Kuprum Merkuri Argentum Emas Pemanasan sulfida logam dalam udara Wujud sebagai unsur logam dalam kerak bumi Jadual 1 Penurunan oksida logam oleh karbon Logam-logam yang kurangreaktif Elektrolisis aluminium oksida lebur Elektrolisis klorida logam lebur Kaedah Pengekstrakan Catatan

Logam-logam yang sangat reaktif

1. Jadual 1 menunjukkan kaedah yang digunakan di dalam industri bagi mengekstrak logam daripada bijihnya. 2. (a) Pengekstrakan timah( stanum) dalam industri - Bijih timah yang dilombong dipanggil kasiterit, iaitu stanum(IV) oksida. - Bijih timah dibersihkan dan dipekatkan melalui proses pengapungan dan kemudian dipanggang untuk mengeluarkan kotoran seperti sulfur. - Stanum (IV) oksida yang tulen dicampur dengan kok( karbon ) dan

Bauksit dicampurkan dengan kriolit dan dipanaskan sehingga lebur di dalam sel elektrolis menggunakan grafit( karbon ) sebagai katod dan anod.2H2O).Bijih besi kemudian diturunkan kepada besi oleh karbon monoksida dan kok ( karbon ). . (b) Pengekstrakan besi( ferum ) dalam industri .126. (c) Pengekstrakan aluminium dalam industri .asp?e=SPM&s=KIM&b=APR&m=2&r=m&i=NOTA . . Fe2O3(p) + 3CO(g)  2Fe(ce) + 3CO2(g) 2Fe2O3(p) + 3C(p)  4Fe(ce) + 3CO2(g) Fe3O4(p) + 4CO(g)  3Fe(ce) + 4CO2(g) Fe2O3(p) + 2C (p)  3Fe(ce) + 2CO2(g) .Bauksit ditulenkan untuk menghasilkan aluminium oksida tulen.Bijih besi bersama batu kapur dan kok( karbon ).Besi lebur yang terhasil membentuk suatu lapisan di bahagian bawah relau.(ce)  O2 (g) + 4e Al3+(ce) + 3e  Al (ce) . .Tindak balas berikut menghasilkan timah lebur SnO2 (p) + C (p)  Sn (ce) + CO2 (g) SnO2 (p) + 2C (p)  Sn (ce) + 2CO (g) SnO2 (p) + 2CO (g)  Sn (ce) + 2CO2 (g) . Kok juga bertindak balas dengan udara panas menghasilkan gas karbon dioksida. . dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah relau bagas.dimasukkan kedalam sebuah relau kemudian dipanaskan kepada suhu 1350oC.85/tutor/arkib2002.Timah lebur dialirkan ke dalam acuan untuk dibekukan.Aluminium lebur terbentuk di bahagian bawah sel Rujukan: http://202. .Udara panas yang memanaskan relau bagas itu akan menguraikan kasium karbonat dan menghasilkan gas karbon dioksida. .190.Bijih aluminium yang dilombong dipanggil bauksit ( Al2O3. .Tindak balas di anod: Tindak balas di katod 2O2.Bijih besi yang dilombong dipanggil hematit ( Fe2O3) dan magnetit (Fe3O4).

the ore is first concentrated by froth floatation process.The chief ore of lead is galena. small quantities of lead ores are found in Rajasthan. PbCO3 (iii) Anglesite. PbSO4. The process is called liquation. Bijih utama yang terdapat pada plumbum ialah galena. Untuk mengestrakkan plumbum daripada galena. which rises to the surface and is removed. 2. In order to extract lead from galena. In India. which can be removed. Tin is extracted from cassiterite through the following steps: 1. This ore contains about 10% of tin. Limestone is added to produce a slag with the impurities. Sub Topics 1. lead and other metals. PbS (ii) Cerussite. It is. This process is called poling. SnO2. The ore is then roasted to remove arsenic and sulphur as volatile oxides. Lead Lead Back to Top The ores of lead are: (i) Galena. The easily fusible tin melts away and the less fusible impurities are left behind. . bijih tersebut terlebih dahulu perlu ditepuan melalui proses pengapungan buih. Crude tin so obtained is contaminated with iron. Tin is obtained by reducing it with coal in a reverberatory furnace. In this process any remaining metal impurities are oxidized forming a scum. The crushed ore is washed with water to remove lighter impurities. Molten tin is finally stirred with green poles of wood in contact with air. therefore.Extraction of Tin and Lead The chief ore of tin is cassiterite or tinstone. remelted on an inclined furnace. 3.

campuran sulfida (PbS and ZnS) dipanggang untuk mendapatkan oksida.php Extraction of Lead from its Ore Lead is mainly extracted from the sulfide ore galena.Concentration: The ore is concentrated by froth flotation process in which the ore is mixed with water and pine oil and is continuously agitated which produces forth. the unreacted PbS reacts with PbO and PbSO4 to produce lead metal (self-reduction method). Zinc sulfide ore is preferentially wetted by the froth where as the impurities remain in the solution. The temperature of furnace is controlled by regulating the air supply. Zinc vapors. During roasting. are condensed Rujukan: http://www. Campuran oksida tersebut diturunkan kepada logam masing-masing dengan menggunakan arang kok di dalam relau bagas. Introduction to Extraction of lead from its ore The extraction of element lead from its ore takes place in two steps. If the air supply is now reduced. The mixed oxides are reduced to their respective metals with coke by heating in blast furnace. Galena contains Zinc sulfide and small quantity of Silver.Bijih yang tepu dipanggang di udara untuk ditukarkn kepada plumbum oksida (PbO) dan plmbum sulfat (PbSO 4). Dikondesasikan. Jika bekalan udara dikurangkan.com/content/chemistry/chemistry-iv/p-block-elements/tin-lead- extraction. Wap zink yang muncul daripada bahagian atas relau. which come out from the top of the furnace. Smelting in a Reverberatory furnace: The concentrated ore is roasted in a reverberatory furnace at a moderate temperature. Sebahagian galena yang tinggal juga tidak berubah. PbS yang tidak bertindakbalas akn bertindakbalas dengan PbO dan PbSO4 untuk menghasilkan logam plumbum (kaeedah penurunan sendiri) The concentrated ore is roasted in air to convert it into lead oxide (PbO) and lead sulphate (PbSO4). lead is partly oxidized to lead monoxide and partly to lead sulfate.tutorvista. Molten lead is tapped from the bottom of the furnace. They are 1. Dalam keadah yang lain. Some galena is also left unchanged. . 2. Leburan plumbum dikikis daripada bawah relau.

Electrolytic refining: Very pure lead is obtained by this process in which the impure lead is made as anode and pure lead is made as cathode and the electrolyte is the mixture of lead fluorosilicate and hydrofluorosilicic acid. gold and iron. copper. Lead sulfide reacts with two oxidized products giving lead. 3. the rest passes into slag. 2. It is refined by the following process 1. Lead is recovered from the slag by heating with powdered coke and lime. Lead melts and flows down the slope.wikipatents. Liquation: The impure metal is heated on a sloping hearth. The metallic impurities which are more electropositive than lead. go into the solution while the rest of the impurities are thrown down as anode mud. About 90% of lead is obtained as metal. at two different temperatures.3PbS +3O2---->2PbO +2SO2 PbS + 2O2---->PbSO4 More of galena is then added.com/US-Patent-4191729/hydrometallurgical-process-for-separating-leadand-zinc-from-oxidized/Page-2 Title Publisher 2008 Bilingual CHEMISTRY Arah Pendidikan Sdn Bhd Author Tan Pek Soo. The infusible impurities remain in the hearth. such as iron and tin. tin.tutorvista. Purification of Lead Extraction Lead extraction from the above process contains impurities such as silver. Rujukan: http://www. PbS + 2PbO ----->3Pb +SO2 PbS + PbSO4 ------> 2Pb + 2SO2 Thus in this process of extraction of lead roasting and smelting are carried out in the same furnace. bismuth. Desilverization: Silver is removed by Pattinson’s process or Park’s process.com/chemistry/extraction-of-lead-from-its-ore http://www. The temperature is raised and simultaneously the air supply is reduced. .

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