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Human Rights and the Media (WSOA2004):
Course Outline

COURSE ADMINISTRATION 2
COURSE OVERVIEW 2
INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES 2
LECTURE CALENDAR 2
LECTURE TOPICS AND READING LIST 4
LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA / FOUNDATIONAL THEORIES OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION 4
LECTURE 2: MEDIA, HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY 5
LECTURE 3: FREEDOM OF SPEECH, CULTURE AND RELIGION 5
LECTURE 4: INTERNET AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION 6
LECTURE 5: SOCIAL MEDIA AND HUMAN RIGHTS 7
LECTURE 6: MEDIA, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND THE POOR 8
ATTENDANCE 9
ASSESSMENT 9
ASSIGNMENT REGULATIONS 9
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 9
ESSAY TOPICS 10
EXAMINATION 10
READING REQUIREMENTS 10
ESSAY STYLE GUIDE 11

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Human Rights and the Media (WSOA 2004):
Course Outline

Course Administration

Course Convenor: Dr Sarah Chiumbu
Room 3063, Third Floor, Senate House
Tel: 011 717 4248
Email: sarah.chiumbu@wits.ac.za
Consultations: Wednesdays 10h00 – 12h00
Or by appointment





Course Overview

The course will address the complex interconnection between human rights and the media. Dis-
cussions will address issues that have to with philosophical, legal and cultural aspects of the de-
bate over human rights and the media. Students will develop foundational knowledge in media
and human rights theory, policy and practice, and explore both historical developments and
contemporary issues. Special attention will be directed towards the relationship between hu-
man rights and the media in a context of rapid social and technological change.

Intended Learning Outcomes

At the conclusion of the course, students will be expected to develop a critical understanding of:

The relationship between human rights and the media
The key features of freedom of expression theories
The changing nature of freedom of expression and human rights in the digital age
Lecture Calendar

Lectures: Mondays, 14h15 – 17h00
Tutorials Mondays, 13h15-14h15
Venue: CB15






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Attendance at lectures is compulsory. This matrix summarises the lecture calendar and indi-
cates when each lecture is scheduled:


Week Lecture Topic
1 (16 July)

Collection of Readers from IHRE offices

2 (23 July)
Monday
Introduction to Media/ Foundational theories of freedom of expression and
human rights
3 (30 July)

Media, Human Rights and Democracy
4 (6 August)

Freedom of Speech, Culture and Religion
5 (13 August)

Internet and Freedom of Expression
6 (20 August)

Social Media, Human Rights and Freedom of Expression
7 (27 August)

Media, Social Justice and the Poor



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LECTURE TOPICS AND READING LIST

The readings indicated below are required reading for each lecture. Readings are listed in the
order they appear in the course reader.

Lecture 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA / FOUNDATIONAL THEORIES OF FREEDOM OF
EXPRESSION

This lecture introduces students to the field of media studies and the role the
media play in society and shaping students. In addition, the lecture examines the
theoretical foundations of freedom of expression and thought and introduced
students to theories of early classical thinkers in the field of freedom of speech.

Readings:

O’Shaughnessy, M and Stadler, J (2002) Media and Society: An Introduction. 2
nd

Edition. Oxford University Press. (p. 2-38)

Thomas, P and Zahorom, N (2004) Who Owns the Media: Global Trends and local
resistances. London: Zed Books. Chapter 1 (p.3-22)

Keane, J (1991) ‘Liberty of the Press’, The Media and Democracy. London: Polity.
pp 2-50

Barendt, E (2005) ‘Why Protect Free Speech’, Freedom of Speech. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. p. 1-139)

Barendt, E (2005) ‘Freedom of Speech in the Media”, Freedom of Speech. Oxford
University Press. (p 417-450)

Case Studies:
(a) Universal Declaration of Human Rights – retrieve it at
http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
(b) Declaration on Freedom of Expression in Africa – retrieve it on
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/achpr/expressionfreedomdec.html

Tutorial discussion points:
1. Managing the reading
2. Preparing for lectures and tutorials
3. Understanding the assessment criteria and planning ahead


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Lecture 2: MEDIA, HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY

Closely related to Lecture 2, this lecture gives a short historical perspective of
the relationship media-democracy by focusing on some of the major philosophi-
cal ideas related to the role of media (the press) in a democratic system. The in-
ter-relationship between media and human rights is also explored.

Readings

McQuail, D (2005) Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage Publications. 5
th

Edition, Chapter 7 (p. 161-188)

Berger, G (2002) ‘Theorising the Media-Democracy Relationship in Southern Af-
rica’, International Journal for Communication Studies, Vol. 64(1):21-45

Case studies:

(a) Media Appeals Tribunal in South Africa

(b) The phone-hacking scandal in the United Kingdom

Tutorial discussion points:

1. In African/developing countries, think about 3 issues that affect the relation-
ship between media and democracy?

2. In light of the case studies discussed in this lecture, what dangers do political
power, the state and big money pose for democracy and freedom of expres-
sion?


Lecture 3: FREEDOM OF SPEECH, CULTURE AND RELIGION

This lecture examines tensions and contradiction in the relationship between
freedom of expression, religion and culture. What cultural and religious conflicts
arise within notions of Western conceptualisation of human rights and freedom
of expression?

Readings:

Penna, D and Campbell, P (1998) Human rights and culture: beyond universality
and relativism. Third World Quarterly, Vol 19, No 1, pp 7-27, 1998

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Sturges, P (2006) Limits to Freedom of Expression? Considerations arising from
the Banish Caitoons affaii", IFLA Journal 32(3):181-188

Case Studies:

(a) Art, freedom of expression and culture: The Spear controversy

(b) Religion and freedom of expression : The Danish Cartoon



Tutorial discussion points:

1. Discuss the pros and cons of ‘universalism’ and ‘cultural relativism’ in light of
the following:

a. The banning of the hijab in many Western societies
b. Female genital mutilation
c. Family planning (reproductive rights)
__________________________________________________________________________________
Lecture 4: INTERNET AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

New media technologies, most specifically the Internet, are challenging tradi-
tional notions of freedom of expression, human rights and notions of privacy.
How should our theories of freedom of expression change to take these technol-
ogies into account? The digital revolution offers unprecedented opportunities
for creating a vibrant system of free expression, but at the same time presents
new dangers for freedom of speech. This lecture discusses these challenges.

Readings:

Baienut, E (2uuS) Fieeuom of Speech anu the Inteinet", Freedom of Speech. Ox-
ford University Press. (p 451-474)

Lynch, Lisa (2u1u) "We"ie uoing to Ciack the Woilu 0pen": Wikileaks anu the
future of investigative reporting, Journalism Practice, Vol.4, No 3: 309-318

Pilgei, } (2u1u) Why Wikileaks Nust Be Piotecteu", Z Space: A Community of
people committed to Social Change. August 2010, available at
http://www.zcommunications.org/why-wikileaks-must-be-protected-by-john-
pilger, accessed 31 May 2011

Case studies:

(a) Wikileaks
(b) Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA)

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Tutorial discussion points:

1. With regard to Wikileaks, what are the tensions that exist between national
security, public interest and human rights?

2. Should the Internet be regulated? In what ways?. Give reasons for your an-
swer.




Lecture 5: SOCIAL MEDIA AND HUMAN RIGHTS

The role of Internet and social media as carriers of freedom of expression has
been highlighted, especially in light of revolutions in the uprisings in North Afri-
ca and Middle East in 2011. This lecture examines the relationship between so-
cial media and freedom of expression. The lecture in addition interrogates
whether social media are threatening rights to personal privacy.

Readings:

Bohler, Muller, N and Van der Merwe, C (2011) „The potential of social media to
influence socio-political change on the Afiican continent", African Institute of
South Africa Policy Brief, No 46.

Nahei, Beathei (2uu9) Twitteiing The Tyiants: New Neuia"s Role in Authoiitar-
ian Regimes, RadioFreeEurope/Radio Liberty, Available at
http://www.rferl.org/content/Twittering_The_Tyrants_New_Medias_Role_In_Au
thoritarian_Regimes/1860083.html, accessed on 31 May 2011

Pippiui, A & Nunteanu, I (2uu9) Noluova"s "Twittei Revolution", Journal of De-
mocracy. Vol, 20, No. 3, July 2009

Nulhollanu, B & Bowcott, 0 (2u11) Footballei"s injunction challengeu by the
Sun": Newspapei"s high couit biu to lift iuling comes aftei Baviu Cameion calls
foi cuiient law on piivacy ,unsustainable", The Guardian, 23 May 2011. Availa-
ble at http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/may/23/privacy-law-social-
media-cameron/print, accessed 31 May 2011

Halliday, J (2011) Twitter faces legal action by footballer over privacy. The Gurd-
ian.co.uk, 20 May 2011 Satter, R (2011) UK Privacy Law Thrown Into Turmoil by
Media, Twitter. The Huffingtonpost.com, 23 May 2011

Case Studies:

(a) The Arab Spring – cases from Tunisia
(b) Privacy laws and social media – the UK Superinjunction case
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Tutorial discussion points

1. How big a change is the social media from the perspective of freedom of ex-
pression and civic participation? Is social media only a positive phenomenon,
or are there also some downsides or threats to it? Discuss and sum up the
main strengths and weaknesses of the social media from the point of view of
human rights.

2. How are rights to privacy violated by social media? Use examples to in the
discussion.



Lecture 6: MEDIA, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND THE POOR

This lecture examines the role of the media in promoting economic and social
rights. Research has shown that mainstream media, often driven by commercial
interests, provide very little space for marginalised groups. For instance, media
representation of social movements globally show a pattern that indicate nega-
tive representation. Social movements have relied on different forms of alterna-
tive media to highlight their concerns.

Readings

Atton, C (2003) Reshaping Social Movement Media for a New Millennium, Social
Movement Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2003

Ballard, R, Habib, A, Valodia, I and Zuern, E (2005) „Globalisation, Marginalisa-
tion anu Contempoiaiy Novements in South Afiica", African Affairs, 104/417,
615-634

Case Studies:

(a) Social movements and the media in South Africa

Tutorial discussion points

There will be tutorial in this lecture. Instead, the class will watch a documentary
on a social movement in South Africa – Dear Mandela – 90 Mins. This means that
the lecture will be shorter than the other lectures.



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Attendance

1. The course requires 100% attendance at lectures except in cases of illness or other emer-
gencies (in which circumstance evidence must be provided). A register will be taken in each
class. Please ensure that you have personally signed the register.
2. Where a student misses a lecture a written explanation and acceptable proof, e.g. doctor’s
note should be handed in to the course coordinator in Senate House Room 3063 as early as
possible.
3. Lecture presentations will be uploaded on the Wits eLearning Platform, Sakai.

Assessment

The course is assessed by one written assignment (counting 50%) and one unseen three-hour
examination (counting 50%).
Assignment Regulations
1. Essays should be no shorter or longer than 3000 words in length.
2. The assignment for this course is compulsory and must be completed in order to qualify for
examination.
3. No essays will be accepted after the stipulated deadline. Any request for extensions
must be made to the course convenor (Dr Sarah Chiumbu) four days in advance. All re-
quests for extensions must be in writing and documentation supporting the extenuating cir-
cumstances must be provided.
4. All essays MUST be typed and double-spaced.
5. Essays must be submitted to the essay box outside Room 3063 Senate House before 12h00
on the due date.
6. Assignments received on the due date between 12h01 and 16h00 will have 10% deducted
from the final mark.
7. Assignments received after 16h00 on the due date or thereafter will receive 0.
8. If there are extenuating circumstances which make it impossible for you to submit your es-
say on the due date, you MUST email the course coordinator explaining as such no later than
16h00 on the day on which the essay is due. Your email should explain your circumstances
and indicate when you will submit the essay. The submission MUST be accompanied by
documentary evidence supporting your circumstances (a sick note, evidence of bereave-
ment, et cetera). If an explanatory email is not received on the due date of the essay, a
late submission will not be accepted.

Additional Information
1. Your cover page should follow the guidelines found (see pages 10 - 14 of this outline).
2. The purpose of essays is to test the ability to perform a deep analysis of human rights, free-
dom of speech and the media .You should undertake a close and detailed reading of the texts
assigned in this course, and you should frame your interpretations with reading from the
course pack, as well as beyond it. Evidence of this should be apparent in your essay and es-
say reference list.


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Essay Topics


With regard to the painting of President Jacob Zuma – the Spear – that was shown at the Good-
man Gallery in May 2012, critically discuss the tensions that exist between the constitutional
rights to freedom of expression and human dignity. In your answer, examine other similar con-
troversies involving art and freedom of expression.



OR


Using concrete examples from any country of your choice, discuss why democracy is dependent
upon freedom of expression and of the media.



Due date: Monday, 20 August by 12h00

Examination

There will be a three-hour exam written in the November exam period. The purpose of the exam
form of assessment is to test your broad knowledge of the topics covered in the entire course,
thus the exam questions will draw on material from every lecture in the course, and will test
your knowledge of the entire course reader. It is recommended that you keep up with reading
every week so as not to find yourself at a disadvantage at the end of the quarter.


Reading Requirements

1. There will be one reader for the whole course. Each student must ensure they have a read-
er for the course by the end of the first week of the third quarter.
2. The readings in the reader will cover topics and issues for the topics addressed in each lec-
ture. Students are advised to read all the unit readings in preparation for lectures.
3. Students are encouraged to set up informal reading and discussion groups with peers in or-
der to share perspectives and notes on the core readings.







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ESSAY STYLE GUIDE

The Cover Page


NOTE: Always attach a cover page to the front of all your essays. Your cover page should contain
all relevant information as shown. Do not add borders or graphics to your cover page. Please
use a 12pt font size and 1.5 line spacing.





Sample Cover Page

Name: Thato Ndlovu

Student No. 0227789J

Level: WSOA 2004

Course: Human Rights and the Media

Lecturer: Dr Sarah Chiumbu

Word Count: 2527 (include the exact word count)

Date Due: 20 August 2012

Essay Topic: Include the exact wording of the essay topic.

Abstract

An Abstract is NOT an Introduction. An Abstract presents the (a) arguments and (b) conclu-
sions of your essay. When the reader reads the Abstract, they should get an idea of what your
paper (essay) is looking at and what its findings were. It is maximum 150 words long and
should have no in-text referencing.

Plagiarism Declaration

I hereby declare that this is my original work, and that it has not been copied or cited without
relevant referencing.

Signature and Date:

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Acknowledging your sources
Essays should show some evidence of diverse and independent research through further read-
ing in the libraries.
1. Avoid quoting lengthy undigested passages from your sources. Rather put the time and ef-
fort to demonstrate your understanding of the concepts by discussing them in your own
words, making sure to include proper referencing for all ideas that are not your own.
2. Short quotations must be placed within double inverted commas and the source
acknowledged and referenced. For example: It has been argued that “the media have be-
come the dominant social institution in contemporary society” (Croteau and Hoynes
2003:4). Failure to use double inverted commas as shown will result in a failure for
plagiarism.
3. Quotations longer than three lines must be indented and single-spaced.
4. All quotations must be fully and correctly acknowledged.
5. You must follow the Harvard (or ‘author – date – page/s’) method of documenting sources.
If you are unsure how to reference, refer to the style guide.
6. The University does NOT consider Wikipedia or any other online reference such as Free
Dictionary, Free Research Papers, etc, acceptable academic sources. Any essays citing the-
se sources will receive a 10% deduction.

Referencing within your essay and in the Bibliography
All references to monographs, articles and statistical sources are to be identified at a suitable
point in the text by the last name of the author, year of publication and, where appropriate,
page number/s. All this information must be in parenthesis.

The following table lays out how to reference in the body of the essay and how to present your
sources in the Bibliography. This is the standard format required from you in your essays:

Source type In-text reference Bibliography
Books Smith (1990:27) defines living as
“the convergence…”
This trend has been labelled as a
unique phenomenon by Smith
(1990:27)…
These two trends are clearly linked
(Smith 1990:27-32).
Smith, J. 1990. The Meaning of Life – A Critical Over-
view. Johannesburg: Juta.


Articles/Chapters from
an edited work (a book
with an overall editor,
that has chapters writ-
ten by different authors)
Same as “books” above.
The in-text reference uses the name
of author of the article/chapter
you’re using.
Doe, J. 1992. What is the Meaning of Life? In Miller,
B. (ed.), Life Discussed. New York: Routledge, 200-
227.
The page numbers given here are the pages of
the entire article/chapter you’ve referenced
from.
Journal articles Same as “books” above.
The in-text reference uses the name
of the author of the article you’re
using.
Hall, B. 2000. The Emergence of an Anti-Capitalist
Society. Media, Culture and Life. 27: 101–111.
The “27” indicates which volume of the journal
you’re referencing from.
The page numbers are the same as “arti-
13
cles/chapters from an edited work” above.
Newspapers Same as “books” above.
The page number indicates the page
that the article appeared on in the
newspaper.




If there is no name for the author /
reporter, then use the title of the ar-
ticle as the source in the in-text ref-
erencing.
Black, J. 2007. Why America? The Sunday Times. 27
February, 8.

The “8” indicates the page that the article was
published on. If it ran over more than one page,
indicate as follows: “27 February, 8–9.”
New drug appears to sharply cut the rate of stupidi-
ty in sample group. 2007. The Sunday Times. 25 De-
cember, 3.
Magazines Same as “books” above.
The page number indicates the page
that the article appeared on in the
magazine.
Ego, A. 2007. Why Democracy is Failing the World.
The Media, 27-28, February 7.

The “27-28” indicates the pages that the article
was published on.
Interviews Jones (2007) expresses …
According to Jones (2007), the
meaning of life is …
Physical interviews:
Jones, R. 2007. The Meaning of Life. Interviewed by
Janeske Botes. The Sandton Hilton, Johannesburg, 7
February at 13h30.
“The Meaning of Life” refers to the broad topic
of the interview.
Your name will replace mine, as you will be the
interviewer.
“The Sandton Hilton” refers to the location of
the interview – it can be anywhere!
Telephonic interviews:
Jones, R. 2007. The Meaning of Life. Telephone in-
terview by Janeske Botes. Johannesburg, 7 February
at 14h00.
In this case, “Johannesburg” refers to where the
interviewee was – where the call was made to.
The rest of the format is the same as “physical
interviews” above.
Lecture notes Bauer (2007:3) explains genre as
being …
Visual culture is critical to the un-
derstanding of the mass media
(Bauer, 2007:3).
The phenomenon of visual culture is
explained by Bauer (2007:3) …
Bauer, K. 2007. Print Media Genres. Print Journal-
ism. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
28 February.

“Print Media Genres” refers to the heading of
the work the information you have referenced
is under.
“Print Journalism” is the name of the course the
lecture notes are for.
“28 February” refers to the date the notes are
14
for.
You may only reference notes that are physically
given to you by the lecturer – not your class
notes.
Web sources Neethling (2007) states that …
Swimming is a great spectator sport
(Neethling, 2007).
Swimming is great exercise, as
Neethling (2007) indicates …











The FBI (2007) has found that …
The criminal mind is a complex
thing (FBI 2007).
Neethling, R. 2007. The World’s Best Swimmers.
Retrieved February 28, 2007 from the World Wide
Web: http://www.ryk.com


Must give complete web address, as appears in
the address bar.
If the web page has an author, then the refer-
encing looks like this – as if you are referencing
a book, but with the web address included.
However, the format changes if it is a web page
from a body, or organisation:

Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2007. Criminal
Procedures. Retrieved February 28, 2007 from the
World Wide Web: http://www.fbi.com
Email communication In an email communication with
Janeske Botes (personal communi-
cation, February 10, 2007) …
Janeske Botes (personal communi-
cation, February 10, 2007) states
that …
Botes, J. 2007. Journalism as a career. Personal
communication with John Smith. 10 February.

‘John Smith’ is the student’s name.

Important Information (General)
Please note that the references used in the table above are fictional. Do not copy them.
Wikipedia is NOT an acceptable reference.
Google is NOT an acceptable academic reference – it is a search engine.
Do not use direct quotes unless absolutely necessary. Rather paraphrase more, as it shows
that you are able to incorporate someone else’s ideas into your essay and mould them to
suit your argument.
Avoid using sources in your Introduction and Conclusion. The Introduction states what is to
come in the body of the essay, and so, you should not be presenting any new information
yet. The Conclusion sums up what was said in the body of the essay, and so, should not in-
clude any new information. Obviously, there are exceptions to the rule – come see me if you
are unsure.

Important Information (In-text referencing format)
1. If the authors’ name is in the text, follow it with the year and relevant page number in pa-
renthesis ... McQuail (2000: 54) has argued that …
15
2. If the author’s name is not in the text, insert at an appropriate point the last name of the au-
thor, the year of publication and relevant pages, separated by colon with no spaces. It has
been noted (Fiske 1992: 61 –64) that …
3. Incorporate within parenthesis any brief phrase associated with the reference:
…have claimed that this is so (but see Khuzwayo 1990: 99 for a conflicting view).
4. With dual authorship, give both last names: for more than two authors, use the first one and
“et. al.”: ….in modern society (Brown et al 2001: 15)…
5. For institutional authorship, give both last names; for more than two authors, use first one
and “et. al.”.
6. For institutional authorship, supply minimal identification from the beginning of the com-
plete citation: … new data (Bureau of Census 1983: 117) reveal …
7. If you refer to different texts produced by the same author in the same year, distinguish
them from one another by use of letters attached to the year of publication, in the text and in
the bibliography e. g. … as was previously suggested (McQuail 1992a: 241).
8. Enclose a series of references within a single pair of parenthesis and separated by semi-
colons: … as many have noted poverty compounds the HIV/Aids pandemic (Rasnick 1995;
Mbeki 2000, Trengrove-Jones 2002), but …


16
Important Information (Bibliography format)
A list of ALL works referred to, and ONLY those referred to, should be included in a Bibliog-
raphy attached to the back of your essay.
Your Bibliography should always start on a new page.
Your Bibliography should be single-spaced with a double-space between each entry.
List items alphabetically by author adhering to the format presented in the table.
The first part of every source’s Bibliography entry (before the year) should be what
appears in the parentheses in the in-text referencing.
The following are variations of the broader source categories presented in the table:

Book: Multiple authors
Brown, R.S., Smith, P.G., Ross, I. & King, P.Q. 1987. The tenets of moral philosophy. New York:
Routledge.

Book: No author
Advertising in the Western Cape. 1990. Cape Town: ABC Publishers.

Book: Edition other than the first
Smith, T. R, & York, J. R. 1987. People in organizations: an introduction to organizational behav-
ior. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Two (or more) publications/works by same author in same year
Hall, S. 1997a. Race as a floating signifier. Retrieved April 1, 2010 from the World Wide Web:
https://www.msu.edu/course/atl/125/fernandez/hall.html

Hall, S. 1997b. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Milton Keynes:
Open University Press.

Online: An abstract
Rosenthal, R. 1995. State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels: An overview of [Abstract].
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 247 – 271. Retrieved January 25, 1996 from the World
Wide Web: http://wwww.apa.org/journals/abl.html

CD-ROM
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 1998. Encryption: Impact on law enforcement.
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from SIRS Government Reporter, CD-ROM, Fall 1998 release.

Citing a whole web site:
To cite an entire Web site (but not a specific document on the site), it is sufficient to give the ad-
dress of the site in the text. For example: Wordplay is a wonderful interactive Web site for writ-
ers (http://www.wordplay.org). No Bibliography entry is then needed.

Show links and transitions between ideas by using words such as:

Accordingly
Agrees
Argues
Asserts
Challenges
Claims
Comments
Consequently
Contends
Contests
Declares
Disagrees
Discusses
Disputes
Explains
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Hence
Identifies
Illustrates
In contrast
Indicates
Maintains
Mentions
Observes
Points out
Recommends
Refers
Relates
Reports
Reveals
Similarly
States
Subsequently
Suggests
Sustains
Therefore
Thus
Upholds

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