731 views

Uploaded by ASClabISB

This tutorial on Set theory is prepared by the Applied Statistics and Computing lab at the Indian School of Business, Hyderabad. It is a part of the module on Probability and distributions, prepared by us.

This tutorial on Set theory is prepared by the Applied Statistics and Computing lab at the Indian School of Business, Hyderabad. It is a part of the module on Probability and distributions, prepared by us.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- (7) Measures of Central Tendency
- (3) Probability
- R Tutorial
- (6) Random Variables and PMF
- (4) Conditional Probability
- (15) Chi-square, Student’s t and Snedecor’s F distributions
- (2) Permutations and Combinations
- (7) Discrete Uniform Distribution
- (9) Basic Box-Plot
- (8) Measures of Dispersion
- (13) Normal Distribution
- (6) Graphical Presentation 2
- (4) Condensation of Data
- (12) Bivariate Data
- (8) Binomial Distribution
- (5) Bayes' Rule
- (9) Geometric and Negative Binomial Distribution
- (1) Introduction
- (10) Hypergeometric Distribution
- (10) Box-Plot With Fences

You are on page 1of 16

SET
THEORY

Applied
Sta+s+cs
and
Compu+ng
Lab
Indian
School
of
Business

Learning
Goals

What
is
a
Set?
Set
Theory
notaBons
Venn
Diagrams
Set
operaBons

De
Morgans
Law
CommutaBve,
AssociaBve
&
DistribuBve
Laws

Cardinality
of
a
Set

2

Sets

Are
fundamental
objects
through
which
we
can
dene
all
MathemaBcal
concepts.
Hence,
dicult
to
dene
in
terms
of
more
fundamental
objects
We
will
not
aSempt
to
dene
a
Set
here,
rather
we
will
learn
through
informal
deniBons
and
examples

Consider a Town X with 500 households Look at the properBes of the collecBon of all those households that own a car:

315 of these own a car 250 own a house

Sets

Such
well
dened
collecBon
of
disBnct
objects
is
called
a
Set
So
the
collecBon
of
all
those
households
in
town
X
that
own
car
is
a
Set.

Applied
Sta+s+cs
and
Compu+ng
Lab

Each household is dis+nct (i.e. one household is dierent from the other) This collecBon is well dened (i.e. there is no ambiguity as to whether or not a household belongs to this collecBon)

Sets:
NotaBons

Set:
{}

Example
A={1,2,3,4,5}
,
B={2,4,6,8,10,12}

Subset:

AB
,
set
A
contains
few
or
all
elements
of
B
AB
,
set
A
contains
few
elements
of
B
Example:
{1,2}{1,2,3,4,5,6}
A
B,
set
A
is
not
a
subset
of
set
B

Belongs
to:

aA,
element
a
belongs
to
set
A

Applied
Sta+s+cs
and
Compu+ng
Lab

5

We can assign names to a set: Let A be the set of all households in town X that own a car B: The set of all households in town X that own a house What is common in the deniBons of A and B? . in town X.. A,B are dened relaBve to the set, (say X) of all households in town X We call the set X the Universal Set, the set that contains all the objects involved in the problem/quesBon of interest Without a Universal Set we nd it hard to understand the meaning of Well Dened Each member in a set A ( or B, X) is called an element of A We denote houeshold1(labeled ash1) belongs to set B by h1 A

6

Sets can be pictured using Venn Diagrams or Set Diagrams

Uses circles to represent sets Drawn inside a rectangle that depicts the universal set The posiBons, overlap of these circles indicate the relaBonships between the sets concerned

X

X

A

Grey
area:
- Those
households
in
town
X
that
do
not
own
a
car
- This
is
called
the
Complement
of
the
set
A
- Denoted
by:
Ac,
contains
all
those
elements
in
X
that
do
not
belong
to
set
A

What
is
the
complement
of
the
Universal
Set
X?
- An
empty
set,
a
set
with
no
elements
- Denoted
by
{}
or
- Generally
referred
to
as
the
Null
Set

Applied
Sta+s+cs
and
Compu+ng
Lab

8

X X

B

Look
at
the
households
in
the
blue
region:
- Clear
that
those
belong
to
either
A
or
B
or
both
- These
households
own
a
Car
or
Own
a
house
or
own
both
a
car
and
a
house
- This
is
called
the
union
of
sets
A
and
B
- Denoted
by:
A
B
,
contains
all
those
elements
that
belong
to
either
set
A
or
set
B
or
both
- AAc
=X

9

What
is
the
overlapping
region?
Or
What
kind
of
households
are
in
that
region?
- Clear
that
these
belong
to
both
A
and
B
- These
households
own
a
Car
and
Own
a
house
- This
is
called
the
intersecBon
of
sets
A
and
B
- Denoted
by:
A
B,
contains
all
those
elements
that
belong
to
both
set
A
and
set
B
- AAc
=

Applied
Sta+s+cs
and
Compu+ng
Lab

Combines the three basic set operaBons The laws are: Bc - (A B)c = Ac Bc - (A B)c = Ac

Where do we use this? - If AB or AB are dicult to compute - Used to simplify set theory mathemaBcs if possible

10

Visuals
from:hSp://guideocom.blogspot.in/2011/08/de-morgans-laws-venn-diagrams-proofs.html

Consider the following scenario: X: Set of all employees in a company A: Set of all employees in the company whose monthly salary 60,000 B: Set of all women employees in the company Try to dene the set (AUB)c Let us try it the De Morgans way:

Not so simple is it? Ac is the set of all employees in the company whose monthly salary < 60,000 Bc is the set of all male employees in the company AcBc is the set of all male employees in the company whose salary < 60,000 So, (AUB)c is easier to dene using De Morgans Law

11

Commuta+ve Law AB = BA AB = BA Associa+ve Law (AB)C = A(BC) (AB)C = A(BC)

Distribu+ve
Law

A(BC)
=
(AB)(AC)
A(BC)
=
(AB)(AC)

Addi+onal
Results:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. AB
BcAc
AB
and
BC
AC
AB
and
BC
AUBC
AB
and
BA
A=B
ABA
If
CA
and
CB
CAB

12

Set:
Cardinality

Cardinality:
Number
of
elements
in
the
set
Cardinality
of
a
set
A
is
denoted
as
|A|

Consider
the
set
C
=
{2,4,6,8,10},
|C|=5

We
will
now
state
a
relaBon
that
can
be
quite
useful:
|AUB|=
|A|+|B|-|AB|
(Where
A
&
B
are
nite
sets,
i.e.
each
contains
a
nite
set
of
elements)

Applied
Sta+s+cs
and
Compu+ng
Lab

13

Consider two sets A and B where AB =

|AUB|= |A|+|B| X

Now,
consider
two
sets
A
and
B
whose
union
must
cover
all
elements
in
the
universal
set
X
,
i.e.
AUB
=
X

Such
sets
are
called
Collec+vely/Mutually
Exhaus+ve
sets
Example:
You
can
buy
,
sell
or
hold
a
parBcular
share
A={buy,hold}
B={sell,hold}
AUB
=
{buy,
sell,
hold}=X

Let
us
now
combine
both
the
ideas
menBoned
above,
if
A
and
B
were
Mutually
Exclusive
and
together
ExhausBve
what
can
we
say
about
the
Universal
Set
X
?

It
can
be
parBBoned
into
two
non-overlapping
sets
(A
and
B)!

14

We
can
look
at
a
larger
collecBon
of
Mutually
Exclusive
and
ExhausBve
Sets
that
parBBon
the
Universal
Set
X
into
several
non- overlapping
sets
This
concept
is
captured
in
the
picture
below:

A
B
C
D
X

15

Thank you

- (7) Measures of Central TendencyUploaded byASClabISB
- (3) ProbabilityUploaded byASClabISB
- R TutorialUploaded byASClabISB
- (6) Random Variables and PMFUploaded byASClabISB
- (4) Conditional ProbabilityUploaded byASClabISB
- (15) Chi-square, Student’s t and Snedecor’s F distributionsUploaded byASClabISB
- (2) Permutations and CombinationsUploaded byASClabISB
- (7) Discrete Uniform DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (9) Basic Box-PlotUploaded byASClabISB
- (8) Measures of DispersionUploaded byASClabISB
- (13) Normal DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (6) Graphical Presentation 2Uploaded byASClabISB
- (4) Condensation of DataUploaded byASClabISB
- (12) Bivariate DataUploaded byASClabISB
- (8) Binomial DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (5) Bayes' RuleUploaded byASClabISB
- (9) Geometric and Negative Binomial DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (1) IntroductionUploaded byASClabISB
- (10) Hypergeometric DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (10) Box-Plot With FencesUploaded byASClabISB
- (3) Methods of Data CollectionUploaded byASClabISB
- (14) Joint DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (5) Graphical Presentation 1Uploaded byASClabISB
- (2) Types of DataUploaded byASClabISB
- (11) Poisson DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (11) Notched and Variable Width Box-PlotsUploaded byASClabISB
- (8b) Grouped Data_central Tendency and DispersionUploaded byASClabISB
- (12)Continuous DistributionsUploaded byASClabISB
- Teradata CaseUploaded byMila Gorodetsky
- 111Uploaded byHrayer Aprahamian

- (7) Discrete Uniform DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (15) Chi-square, Student’s t and Snedecor’s F distributionsUploaded byASClabISB
- (14) Joint DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (13) Normal DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (12)Continuous DistributionsUploaded byASClabISB
- (9) Basic Box-PlotUploaded byASClabISB
- (8) Measures of DispersionUploaded byASClabISB
- (11) Poisson DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (10) Hypergeometric DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (4) Condensation of DataUploaded byASClabISB
- (12) Bivariate DataUploaded byASClabISB
- (9) Geometric and Negative Binomial DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (8) Binomial DistributionUploaded byASClabISB
- (2) Permutations and CombinationsUploaded byASClabISB
- (5) Bayes' RuleUploaded byASClabISB
- (1) IntroductionUploaded byASClabISB
- (3) Methods of Data CollectionUploaded byASClabISB
- (11) Notched and Variable Width Box-PlotsUploaded byASClabISB
- (10) Box-Plot With FencesUploaded byASClabISB
- (2) Types of DataUploaded byASClabISB
- (8b) Grouped Data_central Tendency and DispersionUploaded byASClabISB
- (6) Graphical Presentation 2Uploaded byASClabISB
- (5) Graphical Presentation 1Uploaded byASClabISB

- CL205-LAB8Uploaded byJai Karmani
- Daphni - Da AI ReportUploaded byrogerdugland
- 4.1.4.6 Práctica de Laboratorio Configuración de Los Parámetros Básicos Del Router Con La CLI Del IOSUploaded byDuvan Chala
- sage015061.pdfUploaded byali
- Table and Index PartitioningUploaded byzcqqdotcom
- Bapi Po Create1Uploaded byVikrantMane
- CS121Lec01Uploaded byygp666
- How To Make A Simple iPhone Game with Cocos2D 3.0 Tutorial | Ray Wenderlich.pdfUploaded byGabriel A. Velasquez
- 1computer Architecture OrganizationUploaded byCharan Kumar Pentakota
- RfUploaded byKushagra Abhinav
- Twp Cdc Cookbook 0206Uploaded byIam Gupit
- 02Uploaded bySenthil Ayyasamy
- IBM Tivoli Storage Management Reporting Sg246109Uploaded bybupbechanh
- Testing for DWHUploaded byrkitps
- RG2904 PI Configuration XML ArchivingUploaded byhunter.correa
- C4_2007_Jun_WSUploaded byamar_12345
- MOD-024-1 Verification of Generator Gross and Net Real Power CapabilityUploaded byBibin Nurhadi
- httprpcUploaded bygunasekaran
- Assignment 1Uploaded byKannav Manchanda
- Jay Klein - Allot CommunicationsUploaded bywallacsp
- A Comparison of Online and Postal Data Collection Methods in Marketing ResearchUploaded byMuhammad Idrees
- United States Coast Pilot 6 - 44th Edition, 2014Uploaded bycavris
- Communications of ACM April 2016Uploaded bymaria_croitor
- AUSST_technote_v2_0Uploaded byAjay_mane22
- kfrUploaded byFransiska Rina Apriliyanti
- 87894086 2G Ericsson Recommended Parameters G10Uploaded byYazeed Kheetan
- Spring BatchUploaded byrambori
- IBM IVA White PaperUploaded byTarek Fahim
- CpuUploaded byrahulrpati_2612
- Arduino Blue AndroidUploaded byMusa Mohd Yusuf