Resource Letter CC-1: Controlling Chaos

Daniel J. Gauthier Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 Abstract This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on controlling chaos. Journal articles, books, and web pages are provided for the following: controlling chaos, controlling chaos with weak periodic perturbations, controlling chaos in electronic circuits, controlling spatiotemporal chaos, targeting trajectories of nonlinear dynamical systems, synchronizing chaos, communicating with chaos, applications of chaos control in physical systems, and applications of chaos control in biological systems.

I. Introduction Nonlinear systems are fascinating because seemingly simple “textbook” devices, such as a strongly-driven damped pendulum, can show exceedingly erratic, noise-like behavior that is a manifestation of deterministic chaos. Deterministic refers to the idea that the future behavior of the system can be predicted using a mathematical model that does not include random or stochastic influences. Chaos refers to idea that the system displays extreme sensitivity to initial conditions so that arbitrary small errors in measuring the initial state of the system grow large exponentially and hence practical, long-term predictability of the future state of the system is lost (often called the “butterfly effect”). Early nonlinear dynamics research in the 1980s focused on identifying systems that display chaos, developing mathematical models to describe them, developing new nonlinear


statistical methods for characterizing chaos, and identifying the way in which a nonlinear system goes from simple to chaotic behavior as a parameter is varied (the so-called “route to chaos”). One outcome of this research was the understanding that the behavior of nonlinear systems falls into just a few universal categories. For example, the route to chaos for a pendulum, a nonlinear electronic circuit, and a piece of paced heart tissue are all identical under appropriate conditions as revealed once the data has been normalized properly. This observation is very exciting since experiments conducted with an optical device can be used to understand some aspects of the behavior of a fibrillating heart, for example. Such universality has fueled a large increase in research on nonlinear systems that transcends disciplinary boundaries and often involves interdisciplinary or multi-disciplinary research teams.1 A dramatic shift in the focus of research occurred around 1990 when scientists went beyond just characterizing chaos: They suggested that it may be possible to overcome the butterfly effect and control chaotic systems. The idea is to apply appropriately designed minute perturbations to an accessible system parameter (a “knob” that affects the state of the system) that forces it to follow a desired behavior rather than the erratic, noise-like behavior indicative of chaos. The general concept of controlling chaos has captured the imagination of researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, resulting in well over a thousand papers published on the topic in peer-reviewed journals. In greater detail, the key idea underlying most controlling-chaos schemes is to take advantage of the unstable steady states (USSs) and unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) of the system (infinite in number) that are embedded in the chaotic attractor characterizing the dynamics in Throughout this Resource Letter, I assume that the reader is familiar with the general concept of chaos and the general behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems. For those unfamiliar with these topics, ref. 35 provides a good entry to this fascinating field.


phase space. Figure 1 shows an example of chaotic oscillations in which the presence of UPOs is clearly evident with the appearance of nearly periodic oscillations during short intervals. (This figure illustrates the dynamical evolution of current flowing through an electronic diode resonator circuit described in ref. 78.) Many of the control protocols attempt to stabilize one such UPO by making small adjustments to an accessible parameter when the system is in a neighborhood of the state.
near period-1 UPO

100 0 -100 V(t) (mV) 100 0 -100 100 0 -100 0 1000 time (ns)
Figure 1. Chaotic behavior observed in a nonlinear electronic circuit, from ref. 78. The system naturally visits the unstable periodic orbits embedded in the strange attractor, three of which are indicated.
near period-6 UPO near period-4 UPO




Techniques for stabilizing unstable states in nonlinear dynamical systems using small perturbations fall into three general categories: feedback, non-feedback schemes, and a combination of feedback and non-feedback. In non-feedback (open-loop) schemes (see Sec. V.B below), an orbit similar to the desired unstable state is entrained by adjusting an accessible system parameter about its nominal value by a weak periodic signal, usually in the form of a continuous sinusoidal modulation. This is somewhat simpler than feedback schemes because it does not require real-time measurement of the state of the system and processing of a feedback signal. Unfortunately, periodic modulation fails in many cases to entrain the UPO (its success or failure is highly dependent on the specific form of the dynamical system). The possibility that chaos and instabilities can be controlled efficiently using feedback (closed-loop) schemes to stabilize UPOs was described by Ott, Grebogi, and Yorke (OGY) in 1990 (ref. 52). The basic building blocks of a generic feedback scheme consist of the chaotic system that is to be controlled, a device to sense the dynamical state of the system, a processor to generate the feedback signal, and an actuator that adjusts the accessible system parameter, as shown schematically in fig. 2.


chaotic system actuator measure state of the system generate feedback signal Figure 2. Closed-loop feedback scheme for controlling a chaotic system. 5 . 78. From ref.

The dots on the plane indicate the locations where the trajectory pierces the surface. Some control algorithms only require knowledge of the coordinates where the trajectory pierces the surface. In this particular form of feedback control.In their original conceptualization of the control scheme. 6 . OGY suggested the use of discrete proportional feedback because of its simplicity and because the control parameters can be determined straightforwardly from experimental observations. X3 X2 X1 Figure 3. Figure 3 illustrates a portion of a trajectory in a three-dimensional phase space and one possible surface of section that is oriented so that all trajectories pass through it. A segment of a trajectory in a three-dimensional phase space and a possible surface of section through which the trajectory passes. indicated by the dots. the state of the system is sensed and adjustments are made to the accessible system parameter as the system passes through a surface of section.

(1) 7 . The map F is a nonlinear vector function that transforms a point on the plane with position vector zi to a new point with position vector zi+1. and it is chosen so that the adjustments δpi force the system onto the local stable manifold of the fixed point on the next piercing of the section. 34 and 55). Feedback control of the desired UPO (characterized by the location z( po) of its piercing through the section) is achieved by adjusting the accessible parameter by an amount δpi = pi . As a simple example. where γ is the feedback gain and n is a m-dimensional unit vector that is directed along the measurement direction. the control only has to counteract the destabilizing effects of noise. r) = r xn (1 .po = . Specifically. It is important to note that δ pi vanishes when the system is stabilized. consider control of the one-dimensional logistic map defined as xn+1 = f(xn. consider a system whose dynamics on a surface of section is governed by the m-dimensional map zi+1 = F(zi. The feedback gain γ and the measurement direction n necessary to obtain control is determined from the local linear dynamics of the system about z( po) using the standard techniques of modern control engineering (see refs. fortunately.z( po)] on each piercing of the section when zi is in a small neighborhood of z( po).In the OGY control algorithm. it can be determined from experimental observations of zi in the absence of control (a learning phase). where zi is its location on the ith piercing of the surface and pi is the value of an externally accessible control parameter that can be adjusted about a nominal value po. The location of the unstable fixed-point z( po) must be determined before control is initiated. Successive iterations of the map in the presence of control direct the system to z( po).xn). the size of the adjustments is proportional to the difference between the current and desired states of the system.γn[zi . pi).

9.8 0.This map can display chaotic behavior when the “bifurcation parameter” r is greater than ~3. x* = 0. r). 1. denoted by x*. n ~ 64. 1.744. (3) (2) A linear stability analysis reveals that the fixed point is unstable when r > 3. For r = 3.6 xn 0. Figure 4 shows xn (solid circles) as a function of the iterate number n for r =3.0 0 20 40 n 60 80 100 x* 8 .0 0.1/r .9. satisfies the condition xn+1 = xn = x* and hence can be determined through the relation x* = f(x*. Using the function given in eq. it can be shown that x* = 1 .2 0. It is seen that the trajectory naturally visits a neighborhood of this point when n ~ 32. The non-trivial period-1 fixed point of the map. which is indicated by the thin horizontal line in figure 4.57.4 0. and again when n ~ 98 as it explores phase space in a chaotic fashion.

where δrn = .e.γ (xn . x = x* (7) and the perturbation sensitivity by β= ∂f ( x .9. The solid line connecting the circles is a guide to the eye. r ) ∂x = r (1 − 2 x*) . The Floquet multiplier of the uncontrolled map is given by (6) α= ∂f ( x . The horizontal line indicates the location of the period-1 fixed point. it is possible to stabilize this unstable fixed point by making only slight adjustments to the bifurcation parameter of the form rn = ro + δrn. when xn is close to x*). For future reference. (9) the behavior of the controlled system in a neighborhood of the fixed point is governed by 9 .9 (the value used to generate fig.Figure 4.x*).9 and β = 0. 4). the dynamics can be approximated by a locally linear map given by xn+1 = x* + α (xn . Surprisingly.191 when r = 3. Defining the deviation from the fixed point as yn = xn . The circles denote the value of xn on each iterate of the map.x*. (4) (5) When the system is in a neighborhood of the fixed point (i. x = x* (8) where I have used the result that δrn = 0 when x = x*. α = -1. r ) ∂r = x *(1 − x*) . Chaotic evolution of the logistic map for r = 3.x*) + β δrn..

Any value of γ satisfying condition (12) will control chaos. If control is applied when the yn is not small. a single control perturbation is sufficient to direct the trajectory to the fixed point and no other control perturbations are required if control is applied when the trajectory is close to the fixed point and there is no noise in the system. Figure 5 shows the behavior of the controlled logistic map for r = 3. nonlinear effects become important and additional control perturbations are required to stabilize the fixed point. the size of the perturbations vanish as n becomes large since they are proportional to yn 10 ..9 and the same initial condition used to generate fig. it is seen from eq. For the proportional feedback scheme (5) considered in this simple example. yn+1 = α yn so that a perturbation to the system will grow (i. the fixed point is unstable) when |α | ≥ 1. In this situation.965. (10) that an initial perturbation will shrink when |α + βγ | < 0 (12) and hence control stabilizes successfully the fixed point when condition (12) is satisfied.yn+1 = (α +βγ )yn. (11) In the absence of control (γ = 0). where the size of the perturbations is given by (10) δrn =βγyn. the optimum choice for the control gain is when γ = -α/β. 4. Also. but the time to achieve control and the sensitivity of the system to noise will be affected by the specific choice. With control.e. Control is turned on suddenly as soon as the trajectory is somewhat close to the fixed point near n ~ 32 with the control gain is set to γ = -α/β = 9. It is seen that only a few control perturbations are required to drive the system to the fixed point.

When random noise is added to the map on each iterate. see ref. especially the current grant DAAD19-02-1-0223. noting those that are of a more pedagogical nature or involve experiments that could be conducted by undergraduate physics majors. as shown in fig. it is now possible to control long period orbits that exist in higher dimensional phase spaces. and the long-term financial support of the National Science Foundation and the U. Army Research Office. communicating with chaos. I highlight some of this work. In addition. In this Resource Letter. targeting trajectories of nonlinear dynamical systems. researchers have found that it is possible to control spatiotemporal chaos.S. (11)]. researchers have devised many techniques for controlling chaos that go beyond the closed-loop proportional method described above. Over the past decade since the early work on controlling chaos. synchronizing chaos. 33 for resources on the general topic of nonlinear dynamics. I gratefully acknowledge discussion of this work with Joshua Socolar and David Sukow. and using controlling-chaos methods for a wide range of applications in the physical sciences and engineering as well as in biological systems. For example. 11 . 6. That said. most of the cited literature assumes a reasonable background in nonlinear dynamical systems (and the associated jargon). the control perturbations remain finite to counteract the effects of noise.[see eq. This simple example illustrates the basic features of control of an unstable fixed point in a nonlinear dynamical system using small perturbations.

12 .0 0.control turned on 1. Controlling chaos in the logistic map.0 0 0. The perturbations δrn vanish once the system is controlled in this example where there is no noise in the system.4 0.04 -0.8 0.02 δrn/ro -0.2 0.06 -0.08 0 20 40 60 80 a) 20 40 60 80 100 b) 100 n Figure 5.6 xn 0.00 -0. Proportional control is turned on when the trajectory approaches the fixed point.

00 δrn/ro -0.02 0.0.control turned on 1.4 0.0 0 0. II.2 0. The perturbations δrn remain finite to counteract the effects of the noise. Uniformly distributed random numbers between +/.08 0 20 40 60 80 a) 20 40 60 80 100 b) 100 n Figure 6. Controlling chaos in the logistic map with noise.02 -0.0 0.8 0.1 are added to the logistic map on each interate. Journals 13 .04 -0.06 -0.6 xn 0.

Part I. Fundamental Theory and Applications (prior to 1992. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems) International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering Nature Nonlinear Dynamics Physica D Physical Review Letters Physical Review E (prior to 1993. Conferences There are several conferences on nonlinear dynamics held regularly that often feature sessions on controlling chaos. I give only a partial list of journals in which papers that are written by physicists on the topic of controlling chaos or where other seminal results can be found. American Journal of Physics Chaos Chaos. research on controlling chaos is highly interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary so that it is possible to find papers published in a wide variety of journals. 1. Physical Review A) Physics Letters A Science III.As mentioned above. The American Physical Society March Meeting 14 . Solitons and Fractals IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems.

and S. Singapore. Experimental Chaos. 1995). Pecora. 5. Vohra. Proceedings of the 3rd Conference. UK. M. W. The 5th Experimental Chaos Conference. Singapore. (A) No longer in print.8 August 1997. L. Lu. October 1-3. S. and W. M. Proceedings of the 4th Experimental Chaos Conference. 4. Edinburgh. edited by S. Ditto (World Scientific. 6. L. Florida. 2001). Scotland. Florida. Pecora. Spano (World Scientific.G. Ditto.-P. M. Pecora. edited by M. 1991. Virginia. 21 .M. W. 1996). W.23 August 1995. Proceedings of the 1st Experimental Chaos Conference. Conferences Proceedings The following proceedings give an excellent snapshot of the state of research at the time of the associated conference. USA. edited by W. S.L. Pecora. Arlington. M. Vohra. Vohra (World Scientific. Spano (World Scientific. L. M. Spano. IV. edited by R. Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Experimental Chaos. Vohra.2.L. Ditto. Dynamics Days Dynamics Days Europe Gordon Conference on Nonlinear Science (every other year). Shlesinger. Pecora. (A) 10. Ditto. Shlesinger. Arlington. W. Ding. 28 June .1 July 1999. (A) 9. Ding. Virgina. edited by M. 7. 3. Harrison. 1998). L. Singapore. Spano (World Scientific. Ditto. Orlando. (A) 15 . (A) 8. 1992). SIAM Conference on Applications of Dynamics Systems (every other year). M. and M. 6 . Singapore. Spano. 6 . L. Singapore. Boca Raton.8 October 1993.

Control and Synchronization. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. B. Valladares (World Scientific. 13. Sci. Galicia. the following thematic issues. 710 June. L. 2001). Burguete. Eng. June 28-29. 2002). for example. 8 (8) and (9). Spain. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Shanghai. Gluckman." Int. Boccaletti. and Spatio-Temporal Chaos in Coupled Chaotic Oscillators. (A) 16 . Kurths. 1641-1849 (1998). Space-Time Chaos: Characterization. 12 (5). 2226 July 2001 (AIP Conference Proceedings. Potsdam. 19-23 June 2000." Int. W. Gonzalez-Vinas. Experimental Chaos: 6th Experimental Chaos Conference. Germany. 1998. J. J. 2127-2363 (2002). "Selected Articles Presented at the First Asia-Pacific Workshop on Chaos Control and Synchronization. J. (A) 12. Pattern Formation. 622). Eng. J.J. "Selected Articles Presented at the Third EuroConference on Nonlinear Dynamics in Physics and Related Sciences Focused on Control of Chaos: New Perspectives in Experimental and Theoretical Nonlinear Science.11. (A) Some conferences have elected to have papers appear as a special issue in a journal rather than in an independent book.M. (A) 15. (A) 14.L. Pecora and M. 883-1219 (2002). J. Spain. Spano (American Institute of Physics. 2001. edited by S. 9 (11) and (12). Singapore.L. edited by S." Int. Eng. Mancini and D. New York.L. Sci. See. "Selected Articles Presented at the International Workshop on Synchronization. Boccaletti. Pamplona. H. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci.

Cambridge. (A) Chapter 7 describes research on controlling chaos. A brief discussion of modifying chaotic dynamics. (A) Contains a brief discussion of controlling chaos. Ogorzalek. New York. truly introductory text to nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Chaos in Circuits and Systems. 21. but most are monographs or collections of articles around a basic theme. M. Quite mathematical and not a lot of details given concerning building the electronic circuits.The International Society for Optical Engineering. 2nd Edition. Bellingham. Chaos in Dynamical Systems.. Singapore. (A) Chapter 11 describes work on controlling chaos. Textbooks and Expositions There are several texts on control and synchronization of chaos. 17 . G. 1996). (A) 19. Chaotic Dynamics. (World Scientific. Gollub (Cambridge University Press. 1993).J.L. Murali (World Scientific. Steeb (Kluwer Academic Publishers. The intended audience is researchers or advanced graduate students for most of these books. Chaos in Nonlinear Oscillators: Controlling and Synchronization . 20. (Cambridge University Press. An Introduction.P. Baker and J. Chen and T. edited by G. E. 1997). Singapore. Ott. Pecora (SPIE. 16. Dordrecht. (A) 18. 1996). 2002). Lakshmanan and K. Extensive bibliography. Volume: 2038. Proceedings of the SPIE. Chaos and Complexity in Nonlinear Electronic Circuits. Fairly mathematical and limited discussion of actually building the electronic circuits. M.A. Chaos in Communications. Singapore.V. Washington. van Wyk and W. (E) A good. M.-H. 2002). 17. edited by L. Ueta (World Scientific.M. 1997). (A) 22. Chaos in Electronics. 2nd Ed.

and nephrons. Schuster (Wiley-VCH. Kapitaniak (Academic Press. T. (A) Contains some sections on controlling and synchronizing chaos and a collection of reprints. G. Postnov (World Scientific. 1999). Introduction to Control of Oscillations and Chaos. 25. Florida.A. Singapore. Y. 27. interesting coverage of synchronization in pancreatic cells. Dong (World Scientific. (A) Extensive. 24. (A) Contains a brief introduction and a collection of reprints. 29. 1998). Controlling Chaos: Theoretical and Practical Methods in Non-Linear Dynamics. Controlling Chaos and Bifurcations in Engineering Systems. (A) 28. From Chaos to Order: Methodologies. Yorke (John Wiley & Sons.G. Handbook of Chaos Control: Foundations and Applications. Weinheim. Sauer and J. Singapore. L and Yu. edited by E. T. 1998). E. You may have sticker shock. Boca Raton. London. 1994). Singapore. Coping with Chaos: Analysis of Chaotic Data and the Exploitation of Chaotic Systems. A. 18 . Chen (CRC Press. 2002). Maistrenko. Fradkov. quite mathematical. including electronic circuits. lasers. Chen and X. A. Perspectives and Applications. edited by G. quite mathematical. (A) Gives a comprehensive review of chaos control with applications to a wide range of dynamical systems. 2000). 1996). and biological systems.L. (A) Nice introduction. 26. population dynamics. Ott. (A) Quite mathematical. Pogromsky (World Scientific. New York. edited by H.23. Chaotic Synchronization: Applications to Living Systems. P. and D. Mosekilde.

Reference 55 suggests using the following text to learn more about the pole-placement technique. (I) 19 . Chap. Hilborn and N. 1990). (I) Contains only a brief discussion of synchronization of chaos. which has been expanded in the following reprint collection. 2002). Pecora (World Scientific. 32. C. Massachusetts. 1995). Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control.H. Biology.B. and Engineering. (A) 33. 2000). edited by J. (I) I recommend this book highly if you are interested in constructing chaotic electronic circuits to study control and synchronization processes. 9. Ogata (Prentice–Hall. 1994).30. Singapore. Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications in Physics. There are numerous texts that treat the topic of modern control engineering at an undergraduate level. Cambridge. Singapore.. 1999). Cambridge. Strogatz (Perseus Publishing. 35. (A) Quite mathematical. Tufillaro (American Association of Physics Teachers. Maryland.C. Walleczek (Cambridge University Press. Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics. edited by R. Discussion of nonlinear dynamics appropriate for an upper-level undergraduate or lower-level graduate course. K. NJ. Carroll and L. 31. Nonlinear Dynamics in Circuits. S. Wu (World Scientific. Englewood Cliffs. 2nd Ed.W. Synchronization in Coupled Chaotic Circuits and Systems. A good place to begin to learn about nonlinear dynamics is given in a previous Resource Letter. 34. College Park. Modern Control Engineering. Chemistry. edited by T.

(A) 20 . They give a glimpse of the field without spending the day in the library searching out individual articles.html#Heading27). "The control of chaos: theory and applications. (A) Contains citations up to 1997.981 (2002). (http://amath. Internet Resources "Focus Issue: Synchronization and Patterns in Complex Systems. Chen. 42. "Focus Issue: Control and Synchronization of Chaos. (http://arxiv. C. Maza. Grebogi. 40.'' maintained by G. D. Meiss.html)." Chaos Solitons Fractals 8 (9). see the following article. Current Research Topics For a very nice and extensive review of controlling chaos that starts at a fairly elementary level. Many nonlinear dynamics with a section on controlling chaos." Chaos 6 (3)." S. (E) 38." Chaos 7 (4). 259. (A) 37. Y. 103-197 (2000).VI. Nonlinear FAQ maintained by J. are often posted on the Nonlinear Science preprint archive. "Control and synchronization of chaotic systems (bibliography)." Chaos 12 (3). (E) There have been many special issues in journals devoted to controlling chaos and its offshoots. 39. Phys. A few of these collections are given below. Rep. (http://www. (A) 43. including those on controlling chaos. 1413-1586 (1997). Lai.-C.503 (1996). which also includes a discussion of experiments. Mancini. (A) 41. 509-826 (1997). "Focus Issue: Mapping and Control of Complex Cardiac Arrhythmias. (A) "Special Issue on Controlling Chaos. Boccaletti. H. 732.colorado.

Control and Applications. 201-205 (1989." Int. Jackson." A. Fowler. (A) One of the early papers to suggest that chaos can be controlled using closed- 21 .A. 343-346 (1989). and J. Yorke. Controlling Chaos 48. Ramaswamy. Phys." IEEE Trans. R. Lett. "Adaptive Control of Chaotic Systems. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.B. Rev. "Adaptive Control in Nonlinear Dynamics. "Controlling Chaos. Physica D 43. and J.The following special issues all have at least one tutorial or review article. A 151. Usually requires a mathematical model of the system and may require the application of large perturbations to the system. (I) A. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. 1385-1523 (2001). (I) 46. 10 (3) and (4). Eng. Phys. Phys. 1196-1199 (1990)." E. 48 (12)." T.A. Sci. Autom." IEEE Trans. 2289-2649 (2000). Circuits Syst." S. (I) 45. Appl. "Special Issue on Chaos Synchronization. (I) 47. J. 44 (10). Lett. "The Entrainment and Migration Controls of Multiple-Attractor Systems. "Special Issue on Applications of Chaos in Modern Communication Systems.S. (A) 52. Control 34.) (A) 49. I. "Special Issue Control and Synchronization of Chaos. Appl. I: Fundamental Th. Sinha." E. (A) 50. 51. Fundamental Th. (A) Nonlinear control methods to direct a trajectory to a desired location in phase space. 1188-128 (1990). 44. Ott. Helv. J. "Application of Stochastic Control Techniques to Chaotic Nonlinear Systems. Sci." Int. 853-988 (1997). Bifurcation Chaos Appl. "Special Issue on Phase Synchronization. 64. 10 (10) and (11).W. Grebogi. C. Rao. Acta 62. Hubler. 511-891 (2000). Eng. 478-484 (1990).

165-192 (1992). S. Ott. Phys. As suggested by the authors. Lett. following their suggestion. it is important to read one of the many introductions to modern control engineering used in many undergraduate electrical engineering programs. (A) Time-delay coordinates are often used to reconstruct an attractor in experiments so it is important to appreciate how the use of such coordinates affects the feedback signal. 50 where the authors make a connection to and distinguish their work from previous control engineering methods. Lett.'' U. It was very accessible to researchers in the field and triggered many future studies. Rev. C.loop feedback methods. 54. Spano. The experimental system was a buckling megnetoelastic ribbon. 68. 53. The method does not require a mathematical model of the system and stabilizes the dynamics about one of an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits that are embedded in the chaotic attractor.L. the control method was very similar to elementary control techniques known from the control engineering community. "Experimental Control of Chaos." F. 65. Dressler and G. Romeiras. E. "Controlling Chaotic Dynamical Systems. 52." W. While not fully appreciated by the authors at the time. and M. 55. Rauseo. 34. See ref. Phys. Physica D 58. (A) First experimental demonstration of feedback control of chaos. see ref. Dayawansa. (I) A detailed exposition of one method for closed-loop control of chaos using a proportional error signal. Ditto. Rev. 1-4 (1992).N. Uses techniques developed in the controlling engineering field and makes a nice connection between the research of the two communities. and W. Grebogi. Read and work your way through this paper if you want to have a solid foundation for 22 .P.L. Extends the work in ref.J. 3211-3215 (1990). Nitsche. "Controlling Chaos Using Time Delay Coordinates.

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