Jardeleza Mendoza Monteroso Rubica

The Communist Theory

Communism – from the Latin words communis (common) – is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order.

COMMUNISM-RELATED TERMS

Socialism: A system that advocates the state's ownership of land, industry and capital. Communism is a branch of socialism. Capitalism: Economic system in which individuals or corporations own land and means of production Bourgeois: The middle-class/upper-class, or the owners of land and means of production Proletariat: The working-class Kulak: Wealthy peasants

• • •

Bolsheviks/Bolshevists: Russian word for "majority." Also, the political party that spawned the Bolshevik Revolution, effectively • introducing communism in Russia

Mensheviks: By definition, "minority," although this Russian party had many more supporters than the Bolsheviks when Lenin returned to Russia in 1917.

"red" is a derogatory term to describe communists. in reference to social. Karl Marx states that there are two types: higher-phase communism and lower phase communism. but also puts people in situations in where they will not have the desire to exploit their fellowmen. which includes fair share of the product and satisfying work. Communism’s outlook on freedom was based on an agent. or even have the need to exploit. the means of production is the work of the community. . Also. moral and political issue • • • • Marxism (Karl Marx) • • The main characteristic of human life in class society is alienation. obstacle and goal. obstacles are class divisions (the different social classes) which are also causes of economic inequalities. and the ultimate goal is the fulfillment of human needs. The agents are the working people (proletariat). Communism is desirable because it entails the full realization of human freedom. Communism allows people to do what they want. • • • Holds a process of class conflict and revolutionary struggle which will result in the victory of the proletariat and the establishment of a communist society in which private property and ownership is abolished over time.• Reds: Communist/Bolshevik supporters. unequal life-chances and false consciousness. Whites: Those opposed to the Bolshevik regime's takeover Money/Money form: The commodity chosen to function as the universal equivalent for all other commodities Gulags: Russian slave labor camps Utopia: A perfect place.

In a Marxist utopia. free from the restrictions that class-based systems require. The government would control all means of production so that the one-class system would remain constant. This phase has never been attained because it requires that all non-communists be destroyed in order for the Communist Party to achieve supreme equality. Free the lower class from poverty and give the poor a fighting chance. employment and even marriage. Higher Phase Communism .Lower Phase Communism – the new society after the overthrow of capitalism. During this phase. the government has supreme authority through its total control of land and means of production. everyone would happily share property and wealth. in where social classes and the state are no longer present. • Phase 1: A revolution must take place in order to overthrow the existing government. • Phase 3: Achievement of utopia.among its followers. Marx believed that the government would have to control all means of production so that no one could outdo anyone else by making more money. Communist Theories and Principles Marx believed that a truly utopian society must be classless and stateless. The philosophy of Marxism is Materialism .both economically and socially -.communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to access abundance to final goods. In the communist society that Marx described. with no possibility of any middle class citizens rising back to the top. religion. Because the government distributes land and property among the people. communism sets a standard of equality -. Marx emphasized the need for total destruction of the existing system in order to move on to Phase 2.including his or her education. • Phase 2: A dictator or elite leader (or leaders) must gain absolute control over the proletariat. a transitional stage in human social evolution that will give rise to a fully communist society. In order to liberate the lower class. Marx described three necessary phases toward achieving his idea of utopia. allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely associated individuals. the new government exerts absolute control over the common citizen's personal choices -.

Every living organism struggles to survive and thrive.” Fredrick Engels wrote in “The End of Classical German Philosophy. eluding predators. sacred. It reveals the transitory character of everything and in everything.Materialism Materialism shows that the process of humanity’s social development is tied directly with the development of production and technology.” (Engels.” Dialectical materialism A methodology which is the combination of dialectics and materialism.) The Dialectical Formula. It is directly opposed to idealism. absolute. It is a manifestation of the never-ending battle for survival. whether simply defying cold weather. nothing can endure before it except the uninterrupted process of becoming and passing away. which benefits from the promotion of those ideas. It shows that changes in society are not necessarily linear. Historical Materialism Historical materialism is the philosophical opposite of idealism. homophobia and national chauvinism are the ideas that the masses of people assimilate from the ruling class. Anti-Dühring. sexism. human society and thought. the notion that material reality is created by what people believe or perceive in their minds. Philosophic Materialism Nothing is final. searching for food or working in a factory. of endless ascendancy from the lower to the higher. Racism. Dialectics “Dialectics is nothing more than the science of the general laws of motion and development of nature. Marx also asserted that in all class societies the dominant ideas are the ideas of its ruling class. The thesis-antithesis-synthesis dialectic triad is this: . that history moves forward in fits and starts. Production is the expression of humanity’s ongoing relationship with the world.

• Antithesis: Another simple verbless concept that is the opposite of the thesis (e. usually consisting of only one or two words (e. the opposite of unconscious + union. . the antithesis has the opposite two concepts (e. the thesis is not a proposition (a statement that affirms or denies something).. "many. Sometimes each of dialectic’s three stages consists of two concepts (e. Contrary to a common misunderstanding. • Synthesis: A third simple verbless concept that somehow combines the thesis and antithesis into a sort of compromise (e.g. in the two-concepts-per-stage format.• Thesis: A simple verbless concept.g.." the opposite of "one"). or a detailed argument. conscious + separation.. "one composed of many" or. an assertion.g. unconscious + union) rather than one. "one"). "conscious" from the antithesis + "union" from the thesis). When the thesis has two concepts...g. it is not just something different or possibly a lengthy "reaction to or refutation of the thesis.g.

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