Text Book Series

INTEGRATED SCIENCE

CLASS THREE

TEST – TAKING S TRATEGIES
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Remember these six test-taking strategies that will help you do well on tests.

A.

Understand The Question

 Look for important words  Turn the question into a statement: “I need to find out ……….”

B.

Get Information For The Answers

 Get information from text  Get information from pictures, Maps, Diagrams, Tables, Graph

C.

Plan How To Find The Answer

 Think about problem-solving  Choose calculating methods

D.

Make Smart Choices

 Eliminate wrong answers  Try working backward from an answer  Check answers for reasonableness and estimate

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E.
   

Use Writing In Math
Make your answer brief but complete Use words from the problem and use Math terms accurately Describe steps in order Draw pictures if they help you to explain your thinking

F.

Improve Written Answers

 Check if your answer is complete  Check if your answer is clear and easy to follow  Check if your answer makes sense

TABLE OF CONTENT
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1.0 1.0

SOIL INTRODUCTION 1.1 Types of Soil 1.2 1.3 1.4 Composition of Soil Uses of Soil Try Test 1

2.0

STATES OF MATTER 2.1 2.2 2.3 Solid, Liquid and Gas Coexistence of Solid, Liquid and Gas Try Test 2

3.0

MEASUREMENT OF TIME 3.0 INTRODUCTION 3.1 Devices for Telling the Time 3.2 Timing of Event 3.3 Try Test 3

4.0 SEASONS 4.0 INTRODUCTION 4.1 Seasons in Ghana 4.2 Characteristics of Seasons 4.3 Colours of the Rainbow 4.4 Try Test 4

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5.0 SENSE ORGANS 5.0 INTRODUCTION 5.1 The Eye 5.2 Light and Sight 5.3 The Ears 5.4 The Tongue 5.5 The Nose 5.6 The Skin 5.7 The Co- Functioning Of Sense Organs 5.8 Try Test 5

6.0 FOOD 6.0 INTRODUCTION 6.1 Kinds of Food 6.2 Try Test 6

7.0 WAVES 7.0 INTRODUCTION 7.1 Waves and Energy 7.2 Try Test 7

8.0 BASIC ELECTRONICS
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1 Resistors 8.2 Root Systems of Plants 9.2 Try Test 8 9.3 Uses of Animals 10.5 Try Test 10 11.4 Uses of Plants 9.0 GROUPS OF ANIMALS 10.1 Flowering and Non-Flowering Plants 9.0 INTRODUCTION 8.0 INTRODUCTION 9.0 GROUP OF PLANTS 9.5 Try Test 9 10.3 Classify Plants According To the Characteristics of the Stem 9.8.1 Classifying Animals According To Body Covering 10.4 Pets 10.0 PERSONAL HYGIENE 6 .

4 Try Test 11 12.2 Try Test 12 13.11.1 Inclined Planes 14.1 Making Water Clean 13.0 WATER POLLUTION 12.0 INTRODUCTION 14.0 WATER PURIFICATION 13.0 INTRODUCTION 13.2 Try Test 13 14.1 Causes of Water Pollution 12.0 SIMPLE MACHINES 14.0 INTRODUCTION 11.2 Removing Body Odour 11.2 Pulleys 14.3 Try Test 14 TERM FORCAST 7 .1 Causes of Body Odour 11.3 Dangers of Sharing Personal Effects with Others 11.

0 SOIL INTRODUCTION 8 .0 4.0 2.2 7.2 3.4 5.1 13.1 5.1 4.2 6.2 10.1 4.0 9.0 14.0 3.3 11.3 3.0 7.2 9.2 5.3 6.3 5.0 9.0 10.2 8.4 14.3 13.3 8.7 2.2 13.0 12.3 4.1 10.0 5.8 2.1 2.0 11.1 5.2 1.4 3.1 8.4 6.3 10.2 5.FIRST TERM 1.4 10.2 11.1 14.6 1.1 9.2 10.0 9.1 1.1 1.2 4.3 5.0 SECOND TERM 7.1 9.4 12.0 5.5 12.1 11.2 14.5 1.5 11.

It is the earth’s surface in which farmers sow seed and plant crops. There are many different types of soil. These can be classified as 9 . Soil The soil is made up of stones. TYPES OF SOIL There are three main types of soil. Soil is not the same everywhere. dead. clay. It is the ground that people walk on. dead animals. and minerals particles. The main types of soil are sand. air.Soil is the top part of the earth. gravels and loan.

It is very loose. It does not allow water to freely pass through it. It is very tight. dig or plough. Water therefore drips through it very easily. Many plants find it difficult to grow in clayey soil. Clayey Soil is the opposite of sandy soil. Both sandy and clayey soils are not fertile for plants. 10 . dig or plough. It is heavy and difficult to hoe. easy to be hoe. We uses clayey soil to make bricks and for building laterite houses. Sandy soil  Clayey soil  Loamy soil Sandy Soil is light. We mix sandy soil with cement to build houses and bridges.

Sandy soil is usually brown. Soils have different colours. This is because each type of soil has different materials in it. Loamy soil also contains humus which is often very rich or fertile. Soils differ in quality and how we see them. clayey soil is red.Loamy Soil is good for plants. SOIL PROFILE 11 . It may consist of both sandy and clay soil. Loamy soil supports the growing of crops. and loam soil is black.

2 COMPOSITIONS OF SOIL 12 .The arrangement of the soil is known as the soil profile. The diagram below shows how the soil is arranged in the earth. The soil profile shows how the soil is arranged in the earth. Soil Profile 1.

living organisms and animal parts.3 USES OF SOIL 13 Soil has many uses. decaying leaves. and rock. It helps living things in many ways. Can you find some differences? 1. stone. fine sand. Compare the soil you see in your home to the soil in your school. . Dead Materials Fine Sand Stone / Gravel Rocks The formation of soil differs from place to place because of the weather and vegetation. air. dead plants.Soil contains water. gravel.

The pictures below show different plants growing in different soils. These include earthworms.1. They get water and nutrients from the soil. 2. rabbits. beetles and other animal. ants. 14 . Plants live in the soil. Different types of plants in the soil. Animals live in the soil.

These are used to decorate the floors of homes and offices. These are very hard and strong objects. Soil is used to make glass which is for windows.3. Soil is used for making floor tiles. bowls and statues. 4. Soil is used for making pots. 15 . door and other nice thing. 5.

A lot of people enjoy building things with beach sand.6. List the three types of soil. TRY TEST 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. schools. 7. List the four things that make up the soil. These are used to build houses. 16 . We also play with sand at the beach. Soil is used to make cement and cement blocks. hospitals and other buildings.

2. …………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………... ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….0 STATES OF MATTER 17 .…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.. State four uses o soil.

1 SOLID. In science we describe the things that surround us as matter. Many kinds of things surround us. 2.INTRODUCTION What is matter? Matter can be defined as anything that has weight and can occupy space. All these are examples of matter. LIQUID AND GAS 18 .

and human beings. ruler. We can feel them. urine. 2. tree. They are everywhere around us. It is hard to feel or touch. They have no fixed shape. They freely flow. soup. As seen from the pictures. They are not in a fixed position. globe toy. We cannot hold them. petrol. We cannot see them. We can see them. palm oil. Pepsi. We cannot touch them. fanta and sprite. It is closely –parked. THE GASEOUS STATE Something exists in a gaseous state. bowl. book. They also have weight. kerosene and diesel. But they have weight like solids and liquids. pencil. and drinks such as coca cola. They fill the total space of their containers.Matter can exist in different ways. THE LIQUID STATE Things that are in a liquid state do not have a particular shape. It can be seen. It can firmly be held together. We can touch them. They take up the shape of their containers. All these things are liquid matter. It has shape. Let us see this form the following. But we cannot firmly hold them. cooking oil. But we breathe 19 . Examples of these things are water. bottle. Some things that are solid in state are pen. All these things can be called solid matter. THE SOLID STATE When something is in a solid state. 3. 1. candle. that thing has weight. Matter exists as solid. liquid and Gas. engine oil. The state of a thing shows the particular physical form that the thing has. animals. matter can take many different forms.

liquid and gas can coexist is found in animals. it turns into VAPOUR which is gas. coexists with are stones. Another instance that shows how solid. All these coexist to form soil. water and blood. They affect each other because they are connected in some ways.some. As an example. blood and water are liquids and the air we breathe is gas. Some things can exist together at the same time or in the same place. Some can push or pull up things when they move very fast. For example. the body of a human begin is made of many things that include flesh. We call these things gas matter. Flesh and bones are solids. The soil also is made up of some things like water. solids and gases are inter-related. liquefied gas and wind. gravel decaying leaves and dead plants. it becomes solid. sand or gravel which are solid. All these things live together at the same in the human body. When water freezes into ice. 2. and then air which are gas. So we say liquid. SOLID AND GAS To coexist means to live together at the same time or in the same place. Here again we can see that water which is liquid. we can have water which is a liquid turning into ice (solid) when it is frozen. There are so many ways whereby 20 . water can be found in all the different states of matter. This means that they affect each other. bones. We smell some. stones. Still. smooth sand. human beings. plants and the soil.2 COEXISTENCE OF LIQUID. We feel some when they move. This same ice turns back into water which is liquid. when water is heated. This is because things can change from one state to the other. vapour. Examples of things in a gaseous state are air. For instance.

Use these colours to fill in the boxes  Green for the solids  Blue for the liquids  Yellow for the gases WOOD SOFT DRINK WATER MILK AIR LEAF PAPER OIL SMOKE 21 . 2. Melting and Heating. Matter can exist in …………………………………………… different ways. 3. Matter can be define as …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. They include Freezing.3 TRY TEST 2 1.things change from one state to other.

A clock only shows twelve hours or half of a day. A clock shows us what time it is. In order to use the clock. we must learn how to read the time on the clock.3. Let us learn about them. The Clock 3. These are ANALOG CLOCKS and DIGITAL CLOCKS. 22 . There are two types of clocks. Clocks are used to tell the time.0 MEASUREMENT OF TIME INTRODUCTION A day is twenty –four hours long.1 Devices for telling the time.

ANALOG CLOCK OR WATCH A clock with hands is called an analog clock or watch. The marks on the face divide the clock into 12 parts. The front of a clock is called the face.1. Can you make the clockwise direction with your hand in the air? The clock face has three hands. The number 12 is at the top and the number 1 to 11 go around in the direction shown by the arrow. Let us learn how to tell the time on an analog clock or watch. Two of them are very important in telling the time. This direction is known as clockwise. The little hand or short hand is known as the Hour 23 . Each part is one hour. The face of a clock has different parts. Below are some examples of analog clocks or watches. Some clocks have a number by each mark to make it easier to tell the time.

This means that it is two o’clock. The numbers in the circle are the hour numbers. The numbers out of the circle are the minute numbers. It is known as the minute hand. Can you indentify the hour hand and the minute hand in the picture on the left? The picture below shows the numbers for both the hour and minute on the face of a clock. 24 . The long hand tells the minutes. It tells the hour of the day. The picture only shows every 15 minutes on the face of the clock In the picture below.Hand. we see the hour hand pointing to the number 2.

There are many examples of digital watches as shown in the pictures below. The number after the colon tells the minute of the hour. DIGITAL CLOCK OR WATCH Digital clocks are not like analog clocks. Most people find it easy to use digital clocks or watches.2. 25 . The number before the colon (:) tells the hour of the day. They only have numbers that tells the time. take a good look at the numbers on the clock. Digital clock have no hands. To tell the time on the digital clock. Some clocks shows if it is morning or evening by adding AM to the time in the morning and PM to the time in the evening.

. mouth or year we use a calendars. 1. The time it takes the earth to travel around the sun is split into 12 calendar mouths. A day is …………………………………………………. A clock with hands is called an……………………………………………. A special watch used to time event correctly is known as……………………………………………………………………. Each month is usually 30 or 31 days. The front of a clock is called the ……………………………………………………………………… 4. you can use a special watch known as a Stop Watch or an ordinary clock.. Clock. This may be either digital or analog. A clock with no hands but only numbers is called a ……………………………………………………………………… 5. For the events of a week. TRY TEST 3 Answer the questions below correctly.. 2. To time an event correctly.2 TIMING AN EVENT We use watches to time events. The first clocks and calendars were based on the earth’s movements. which are divided into 12 months. We call one turn of the earth a day. 3. 26 .hours long.3. We call the time it takes for the earth to travel around the sun a year.

it rains a lot and sometimes it does not rain for a long time. In some parts of the world. A season refers to the regular change in weather that repeats them regularly every year. These are the wet season and dry seasons. there are two seasons. Sometimes it is very hot and sometime it is very cold.4. 4. This is usually as a season.1 SEASONS IN GHANA Sometimes. There as many as four different seasons. the weather stays the same for a very long time without any changes. In Ghana there are two main weather seasons. 27 .0 SEASONS INTRODUCTION Weather changes occur during the year. In Ghana. Sometimes.

During the dry season. The northern region to the upper East and upper west regions.1. the rain may fall continuously for several days. To study the seasons of Ghana. We call it conventional rainfall. During this period. The southern part of Ghana is the area from the coast to the Ashanti region and parts of the Brong Ahafo region. This reaches its peak in the months of December to January. THE DRY SEASON The dry season is the exact opposite of wet season. The land becomes hard with most plants shedding their leaves. it is very intensive in the months of June and July. This type of rainfall is very heavy. you must take into account the two parts of the country. the temperature of air increases. The weather becomes dry and hazy. Although rain falls throughout the year in several areas in Ghana. The rain falls and It is followed by thunderstorm and lighting. 28 . And the wet season is where there is continuous rainfall. Even the word dry proves that ‘‘Dry’’ is the opposite of ‘’wet’’. Farmers largely depend on rainfall when they cultivate their crops. 2. These are the Northern sector of Ghana and southern sector of Ghana. There may be no rainfall at all for a period of time. THE WET SEASON The rainy or wet season in Ghana is similar to those of the countries in West Africa.

The table below shows the month for the different season in the two sector of Ghana. So during the dry season. the weather becomes very cold. During the dry season. and the morning. The ability to see far ahead clearly is known as visibility. but very warm during the afternoon. This makes it difficult to see far ahead clearly.October November-April Season Wet Season Dry Season NORTHERN SECTOR Mouths May-October November-April CHARACTERISTICS OF SEASONS Characteristics of dry season Let us look at some of things that occur during the dry season. there is strong dry wind that blows during the say. During the dry season. This makes the temperature during the days very warm and night very cool. At this time. visibility is very 29 . water bodies such as lakes and river dry up.August September. The leaves of plants fall off and the air contains a lot of dust. the wind is very cool in the morning and evening.In the dry season both plants and some animals suffer for lack of rain water. In the night. The dry season is also called the Harmattan. Season Wet Season Dry Season SOUTHERN SECTOR Months May.

In some areas. Rivers and lakes get full during the wet season and plants grow well because they get a lot of water.poor. cracks appear in the soil and the soil becomes very hard. Farmers harvest their crops and prepare for planting during the dry season. Characteristics of wet season The wet or rainy season has a lot of rainfall. The clouds sometimes block the sunlight and make the day appear dark. COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW 30 . there are a lot of clouds in the sky. During the wet season. The temperature is usually cool throughout the day.

3. We use umbrellas mostly in rainy seasons.TRY TEST 4 Answer True or False to these sentences 1. A season is a food ingredient 2. We sweat a lot in the cold season. The wet and dry seasons are not the same. 4. 5. There are fire outbreaks in all seasons. 31 .

these are eyes. breathe. ears. hear. tongue and skin. Let us take our time to learn about the sense organs. feel. hearing. There are five sense organs. The brain Sense organs 32 . nose.0 SENSE ORGANS INTRODUCTION The sense organs help us to sense the world around us. taste and touch. The sense organs help us to see. The human body is made up of different parts which work together as one. and taste. We have five senses. These sense organs send messages to the brain. These are sight.5. All these sense organs are connected to the brain through nerves. smell.

The pupil is the small black spot in the 33 . Our eyes help us to see things in different colours. The white part of the eye is known as the sclera. We see with our eyes. Your eyes help your body to know what is going on outside your body.1 THE EYE THE EYE IS THE SENSE ORGAN FOR SIGHT. we are actually talking about the colour of his or her iris. The tiny pink threads you see on the sclera are the tubes or vessels that carry blood to the eye. When we say a person has brown eyes. The eye is in a little hole in the head known as the socket. Which part of your body are you using to read this book? Our eyes work from the movement we wake up to the moment we close them to go to sleep. The eye lid protects the eye from particles that may get onto the eye . The sclera is very hard and protects the eye ball.5.the eyelid helps the eye to be clean. The iris is the colorful part of the eye. We can see how big or far something is because of our eyes.

you are not able to see the things in the room because the things do not give off light. The part of the ear that you can see and touch is called the Pinna. When you walk into a dark room. The iris and pupils are protected by a transparent covering known as the cornea. It is also known as the external ear. We listen to music with our ears. 34 . 5. We can hear what people say with our ears.middle of the iris.2 THE DEPENDENCE OF SIGHT ON LIGHT We are able to see due to the light that comes from the objects around us. 5.3 THE EAR THE EAR IS THE SENSE ORGAN FOR HEARING. The Pinna helps in catching or collecting sounds from different places.

The brain is able to turn the shaking wave to useful information to let you know what sound you are hearing.4 THE TONGUE THE TONGUE IS THE SENSE ORGAN FOR TASTING We taste food and other liquids with our tongue. sour.The –Pinna collects sound and passes it through the ear. This helps the nerves at the end of the ear to send information to the brain. This is because of the tiny spots on the tongue. IMPORTANCE OF THE EAR TO HEARING Our ears are very important to hearing. sweet. No other part of our body can help us to hear things. sour like lime or salty like salt. The shaking of sound waves causes the ear drum to move. or salty. Canal to the ear drum. bitter like some medicine. This is because the 35 . Our tongue helps us to known if something is bitter. The tongue is able to tell if something is sweet like sugar. known as taste buds. The taste buds send signals to the brain. 5.

tongue is divided into different parts that can taste different flavors. Parts of the tongue 36 . These areas of the tongue help the brain to tell the flavour of the food we are eating. The diagram below shows the different parts of the tongue.

5. 37 . As air moves through the nose the nerves in the nose sends signals to the brain to help it identify nice scents from bad ones. Your nose helps you to smell whether an object smells nice by smelling it.5 THE NOSE THE SENSE ORGAN FOR SMELL IS THE NOSE We smell the things around us with our nose.

These are the dermis and the epidermis. The skin has many uses. It is the part that you see and touch.5. The epidermis is the upper part of the skin. The epidermis is hard enough to protect the body 38 .6 THE SKIN THE SKIN IS THE LARGEST ORGAN ON THE HUMAN BODY It can be used to feel or touch things. The skin can be divided into two parts. It reduces the loss of water from the body It helps to prevent germs from entering the body It helps to keep the body temperature at a constant level. For example     It protects the body from injury.

The body hairs grow in the dermis.7 THE CO–FUNCTIONING OF SENSE ORGANS The sense organs work together all the time. your sense of hearing and feeling become very sensitive. The dermis contains the blood vessels and nerves that send information to the brain. our sense of taste can be affected by our sense of smell. For example. Some sense organs do not work well in the absence of others.from injury. When you have a cold or you hold your nose when tasting something. 39 . For examples. Some other sense organs also become very sensitive when other sense organs are not working properly. when you close your eyes. That is why some people hold their nose when they are about to swallow a bitter pill. 5. This shows that the sense organs work together all the time. your sense of taste is not that sharp and you do not taste the flavour properly.

The part of the ear that you can see and touch is called the ……………………………………………………………………………… 3. The largest sense organ is the ………………………………………………………………………. Smell ……………………………………………………………………………… D. Taste ……………………………………………………………………………… E.. Write the sense organs for the following: A.5. The skin can be divided into two parts. …………………………………………………………………. Hearing ……………………………………………………………………………… C.. 40 .8 TRY TEST 8 Answer the questions below correctly. 1. 6. touch ……………………………………………………………………………… 2. These are the ………………………………and the ……………………………………………………. sight ……………………………………………………………………………… B. 4.help the tongue to taste food.

you will see that a line of water keeps rising. Waves 41 . It you closely observe the sea.0 WAVES INTRODUCTION Wave is a force.7. It has power or energy. It is wave that is making the water rise. river or lake. It can also move through the air. It can move through water. Because wave carries energy it can move things up and down.

The sound in the movement of waves is known as sound waves. 42 . This is where the backwash is stronger than the swash. Waves helps to transmit sound energy so that we can enjoy the music we play. Later when the water is drawn back it is called backwash There are two types of waves that move through water bodies. it is waves that carry the sound. fast and sudden movement of things. When a wave enters water bodies. Human beings use the energy in waves to do some things. the surface of the water moves or falls forward and water is thrown onto the shore. Electronic machines rely on energy and waves from their operations. When wave moves in the air it makes things vibrate. When we talk to someone on the phone. When you hit a drum or pull the stings of a guitar. We can communicate with other people through the waves. A vibration is the small. 7. This is where the swash is stronger than the backwash. The constructive wave. Wave travels with sound or light. These are: 1. Destructive wave.All waves begin with a vibration. When waves travel with light. This is known as swash.1 WAVES AND ENERGY There is energy in the movement of waves. we call it light waves. The energy in waves carries sounds far and wide. 2.

X-Rays microwaves in ovens All these wave travel through a medium. called seismic waves. Wave is a force. Waves helps us to do some things. 5. Waves move through and any object. All these waves carry energy from one place to another. Other waves include. 2.the waves move from the drum or guitar and travel through the air to our ears. Shock waves from an earthquake.     Radio waves in the air. 3. to run. Waves Vibration Energy 7. 4.2 TRY TEST 7 Answer. 43 . Waves carry energy. True or False to these sentences. To vibrate means. 1. Waves and water are the same.

8. iron. A switch is used to open or close an electronic circuit. What does a resistor do in an electronic circuit? When a substance allows electricity to pass through it. fridge and many others.0 BASIC ELECTRONICS INTRODUCTION Electronic circuits are wonderful things. A switch. 44 . we say that the substance conducts electricity. When you want to turn on a torch you use a switch. Electronic circuits help us to use many devices as calculators.

2. Batteries produce electrical energy. Resistance is a substances ability to block the flow of electricity. Bulb is an electrical appliance. Electronic things need energy to work. 5. 3. In some electrical circuits it will prevent overheating.Not all substances can conduct electric current equally well. 4. A switch opens and closes a circuit board. True or False t these sentences 1. Electronic current passes through the air.2 TRY TEST 8 Answer. R 3V LED 8. 45 .

Some grow in the soil. Flowering plants make flowers and bear fruit. They make new babies. They grow. Flowering Plant Non-Flowering Plant 46 . They die. Others grow in water bodies. Plants are living things.0 GROUPS OF PLANTS INTRODUCTION Many kinds of plants surrounds us. Different kinds of plants 9. Non-flowering plants do not make flowers or bear frits. They eat. They breath.9.1 FLOWERINGS AND NON-FLOWERING PLANTS We can classify plants as flowering plants and non-flowing plants.

The roots systems are taproot system and fibrons root system.9. 47 .2 ROOT SYSTEMS OF PLANTS Plant can also be grouped according to their root system. Maize plant has a fibrons root system and mango plant have a taproot.

9. The coconut tree is an example. An example is the sweet potato plant.3 CLASSIFY PLANTS ACCORDING TO THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STEM Plants have different kinds of stems. The yam plant is an example. They climb for support because they have weak stems. 48 . Plants are then grouped according to the nature of the stems. We call some plants creeping plants. Other still have stems that climb up any object for support. Other plants have stems that stand erect or straight. They are plants with strong stems. Their stems creep or carol on the ground.

3. 49 .      9. Some plants bear fruits. Plants are living things. 4. 1. Plants can be grouped according to their stems.4 USES OF PLANTS Plants are very important because of the following.5 Food Clothing Paper shelter and various products Fuel Medicine TRY TEST 9 Answer. True of False to these sentences. All plants creep or crawl.9. 2.

After all these we must take proper care of our body. 50 . sweat does not smell but bacteria that liveo n our skin.11. We keep ourselves clean if we wash our hands with clean water and soap. Body odour is usually caused by sweat. work on our sweat and cause it to produce a bad smell. 11. Examples are the armpit. Bacteria that also work in the mouth can also cause bad odour from the mouth. There are many places on the human body where bacteria can hide to cause body odour.  Armpit  Anus  Mouth  And in between toes.1 CAUSES OF BODY ODOUR Many things can make the body smell. mouth and in-between the toes. Taking roper care of our body means making sure that our body does not smell of odour. This is because some parts of the body are air-tight. arms. Body odour refers to the smell or scent that our body gives odour are.0 PERSONAL HYGIENE INTRODUCTION Personal hygiene forms part of the things we do to keep ourselves and the surroundings clean. Body odour can come from some parts of the body.

blade and handkerchief. care of the hair.3 DANGERS ASSOCIATED WITH SHARING OUR PERSONAL EFFECTS WITH OTHERS There are things that we use to keep our personal hygiene. tooth brush. may use things like deodorant. bathing. perfumes and pomade on their body.11. These include things like towel. This is because when we share personal effects with others we may spread 51 . sponge. washing. care of our finger nails and toe nails and ears help us to remove body odour. Some people reduce or remove body odour by using lemon juice to bath. It is wrong to share personal effects. 11. We consider these things as personal because we use them to take care of ourselves.2 REMOVING BODY ODOUR Good habits such as cleaning the teeth. Clan clothes also help us to reduce body odour. Others.

Some of the disease we can spread are HIV / AIDS.. 11.. 4... Parts of the body that gives body odour are …………………………………… .....4 TRY TEST 11 Answer the questions below correctly... 3..very dangerous diseases... 2. it is known as ………………………………………………………. …………………………………………….. a. When people smell bad.. and …………………………………………. and …………………………………………….... What should you use to trim your finger nails? ……………………………………………………. ………………………………….... To avoid body odour.. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………… 52 .State two things you must do to take care of your skin. you must take care of your …………………………………… . Therefore we must avoid the practiced of sharing such things to ensure that we stay healthy all the time.... 1.. hepatitis and skin diseases like rashes and pimples.

6. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………… 53 .5. Explain why we must not share personal effects..

1 CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION Substances that cause pollution are called pollutants. Germs are too tiny for us to see. streams.0 WATER POLLUTION INTRODUCTION When water is not safe to drink. Pollution of rivers. 12. lakes and ponds is mainly caused by. Germs and dirt pollute water.12. we say the water is polluted.       Dumping of waste Sewage Washing Swimming Chemicals for fishing Oil spills 54 .

................................. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3......12........... .................2 1.............. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… c.................................................. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… b............... 2................................... Name three things that contain germs................... Why can’t we see germs? TRY TEST 12 …………………………………………………………………………......................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 55 ...................... ................................................. Name three ways in which water becomes polluted? a....

well and boreholes is not sage to use.1 MAKING WATER CLEAN We make polluted water safe through. 13. It also means making water clean by removing dir or harmful substances.13. streams.0 WATER PURIFICATON INTRODUCTION Water from most water sources like rivers. lagoons.  Filtration of water  Addition of alum  Boiling the water By means of filtration we try to make water clear and free from germ. lakes. Water purification means making water sage before we drink or use it. We must therefore purify any water from these sources to make it safe. 56 .

The second method involves using a clean white cloth. we use filtration to remove them.FILTRATION Filtration is the process used to separate solid particles from liquids. The effect is to bring together germs and mud and cause them to sink to the bottom of the container leaving the water clear and sage to use. ADDITION OF ALUM We can add a chemical called alum to the water. Boiling an unsafe water can make it sage for drinking by killing the germs that contaminate it. The first method involves using filter paper. We will look at two of the common methods of water filtration. 57 . We can filter water in different ways. When water contains many solid particles.

When we filter unsafe water. In the big cities waste in filtered using a process known as ……………………………………………………….2 TRY TEST 13 Answer the questions below correctly.13. Yes No 58 . 1. 3. …………………………………………… is the process of making polluted water pure. 2. 4. we kill all germs in the water. …………………………………………… is the process used to separate solid particles from liquid particles.

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