INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING

CASP Data analysis report

INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING
By Ziya Mukasi

Under the guidance of Medha M Karpurmath
TE01

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING

INTRODUCTION Cities arfe the most complex things that human beings have ever created. They arfe the well springs of culture, technology, wealth and power. People have a love-hate relationship with cities. We are torn between our needs for community and privacy and the conflicting attractgions of urban and rural life. Town planning is an art and science of ordering the use of land and siting of buildidngs and communication routes so as to secure the maximum practicable degree of economy, convenience, and beauty. Town planning is considered as an art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environmentgs to meet the various needs such as social, cultural, economic and recreational, etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work, and to play or relax, thus bringing about the social and edonomic well-being for the majority of mankind. The various fields that are encountered in Town Planning are:
Town Planning

Engineering

Architectur e

Fig.1.1

Social and Political Concerns

Today most of the towns need urbana renewal as well as new development plan related to new arfeas as per residential and industrial
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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING demands. Town planners are supposed to deal with complex issues for which there may not be simple sigle solutions. Town planning involves the allocation of scarce resources such as urban land and services and is therefore seen as an aspect of economic and social factors which create the demand for different types of land use and development. Land is required for residential and industriala requirements and for planning effective transportation systems. Traffic is one of the biggest problems for town plananers. It is generated everywhere, any where, where people live and work, and around transportation centres,l bus and railway stations. Land acquisition is a major problem in our country. Planners deala with space. Space organisation itself express meaning and has communicative properties. It is a expressed through planning for different zones, transportation network, streets and squares, open space systems, materials,colours, shapes,street furniture, and land scaping.Landscaping is essential to integrate all physical requirements. Plants and farming bring man closer to nature. It is rightly stated that “how people should behave”is the hidden thought behind a design. This is an indirect way of educating the masses. Hence town plananers require an abilioty to look at the whole situation, both causes and effects. They are also supposed to act as team ;eaders, coordinating specialist, experts such as ecologist, highway engineer,architect, landscape architects and government authorities. The overall result is a pleasing townscape which gives a pleasant feeling of a well-developed area,provides satisfaction and happiness to all sections of society, has the quality of commercial attractiveness, has plantations around buildings to soften hard layouts, add colour to the townscaoe,provides shelter along roads and river hands. Cities, well developed villages and regions are the wealth of a nation.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING The need of the hour is sustainable development. With increasing population and growing pollution, we can’t ignore the ill effects of planning on the environment. Sustainable development refers to utlising the present resources keeping in mind the future needs of the society, so as not to exhaust the resources. It should not disturb the ecological cycle and hence preserve the environment. HISTORYT OF TOWN PLANNING Town planning has always be3en of chief concern since times immemorial. Evidence of planning has been unearthed in the ruins of cities in China, India, Egypt, Asia Minor, the Mediterranean world, and South and Central America, Early examples of efforts towards planned urbana development include orderly street systems that are rectilinear and cometimes radial; division of a city into specialised functional quarters;development of commanding central sites of palaces,temples and civic buildings; and advanced systems of fortification, water supply, and drainage. Most of the evidence is in smaller cities that were built in comparatively short periods as colonies. Often the central cities of ancient states grew to substantial size before they achieved governments capable of imposing controls. MOTIVE OF TOWN Even from the earfly period of civilization water was an important element for man’s establishment. The importance of water for day-to-day life, agriculture, transportation, disposal,and environment, etc, was known to mankind therefore has tried to establiosh himself along the watyer and when by and by the number of families started increasing. Then the man himself started imposing restriction on himself and others as laws.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING In town planning we arrange and make the composition of cluster of houses with common services and implication of those elements which can provide a better and healthy environment to mankind. 1. Fortification: The primary motive of community living in the past

had been that of self defence. The earlier town plans arfe therefore characterized by an element of fortification in them against wild animals or any other enemy. 2. Trade and commerce: Human being wants companionship and social contracts which dev elops the aspect of trade and commerce. Development of trade and commerce began to affect to a great extgent the location and design of towns. Towns were located close to the line of communication like natural streams, sea shores and road junctions. 3. Political and administrative: Concentration of urban communities give birth to political and administrtative bodies, and thus a number of administrative centres springs up. 4. Religions: Man’s religious nature created a number of centres which developed into pilgrimage towns. 5. Miscellaneous: In the later period education centres (For example:

Nalanda), places of recreation, health resorts, etc, were estab lished and today we find a number of towns serving various purposes and functions.

These may be > Defence town-Today it is termed as cantonment, to work for the safety of the country.
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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING > > > > > > > Residential Town Commerciala Town-Mandi Towns Industrial town/Centres-Durgapur,Bhilai,Rourkela Administrative town-Chandigarhg,Bhubneswar,Gauhati Places of pilgrimage-Hardwar, Banaras Education Centres-Naland, Oxford,Cambridge Recreation Centres and Health Resort-Mussoorie,Shimla, Nainital and Ranchi > Antique towns of historic and archaeological interest-Chittore,Fatehpur Sikri. OBJECTS OF TOWNPLANNING The main objects of town planning are 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) Health Beauty Convenience Environment

Health The object of health is achieved by

>

creating and promoting healthy conditions and environments for all the people- rich and poor,to live, to work, to play or relax.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING > making right use of the land for the right purpose by proper division of land called zoning such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Institio9nal and Recreational etc, in order to avoid the encroachment of one zone upon other for smooth and orderly development of the town without causing future conflicts. 2. Beauty The object of beauty is achieved by > Taking the most possible advantages of the natural conditions surrounding the town and also by giving architectural finishes to the various components of the town. > Preserving trees,natural greenery,architectural control on public as well as semi-public buildings,ancientarchitectural buildings, temples,churches, mosques, buildings of cultural and historical importance. 3. Convenience The object of convenience is meant in the form of various needs of the community such as social, economic, cultural and recreational amenities, etc.

This is achieved by > providing cheap power and electricity,proper sites for industrial units,transport facilities,adequate water supply, easy disposal of sewage and industrial wastes, facilities to commercial units, etc.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING > providing rfecreational amenities include open spaces,parks,gardens and playgrounds,for children, and town-halls, stadiums,community centres,cinema houses, theatres, etc. 4. Environment The object of environment is importanbt in the sense that environment should be moulded in such a way that man can go about his normal activities with the least amount of strain. The comples problems of the modern society such as tiresome travel to work, long hours of work,limited time spent within the community, etc, have gradually led towards serious mal-adjustments between the human being and the type of life he had to live. These mal-adjustments have tended to destroy the vitalaity of urban living and the town planning is mainly concerned with bringing about a better relation between man and his environment. PRINCIPLES OF TOWN PLANNING The subject of town planning demands knowledge of various professions, especially those of engineering, architecture and surveying. The town should not be designed only to satisfy sthe needs of the future generation. Some of the guiding principles of town planning are as follows:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Housing Public buildings Civic amenities Recreation centres

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING 5. 6. 7. 1. Zoning Transport facilities Green belt Housing:- Housing accommodation to various classes of people should be allowed to develop. It should be observed that therfe is no development of slums if any should be cleared by making some alternate arrangement of accommodiation in transit camps for dishoused persons. 2. Public buildings:Public and semi-public buildidngs should be

grouped and distributed neatly throughout the town. The unnecessaryt concentration of public buildings at certain spots of the town should be avoided. 3. Civic amenities:- Civic amenities like shopping centres,dispensaries, schools, nursery,etc, should be provided to all the residents. 4. Recreation centres:Adequate open spaces should be reserved for

public recreation cenetres and also for future expansion of the town

5.

Zoning:

Zoning should be strictly followed. The town should be

divided into suitable zones such as residential zone, commercial zones, industrial zone and recreational zone,etc.Suitable rules and regulations should be formed for the development of each zone. 6. Transport facilities: The town should be provided with suitable

transport facilities so that there is minimum loss of time from place of work to the place of residence.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING 7. Green Belt:The provision of a green belt on the periphery of town

results in the limitation of its size and hence, the final size of the town can well be anticipated. (Green belt is an open strip of land all-round the town or city reserved for special purpose of limiting the growth of the city. It is primarily meant for intensive culotivation of vegetables,fruits, farm industry like poultry farms, dairies, etc,It also provides sites for recreational amenities like parks,playgrounds and picnic spots,etc) NECESSITY OF TOWN PLANNING The evils from which the town suffers in absence of town-planning are as follows: 1. The people will have to take long uncomfortable journey from place of residence to the place of work resulting increased cost. 2. 3. 4. 5. Development of slums and squatter settlements. Haphazard location of industries. Incrfeased traffic congestion,resulting in accidents. Inefficient toad system resulting in the formation of narrow streets and lanes. 6. Lack of open spaces for parks and playgrounds resulting in unhealthy living conditions. 7. Houses may constrtucted and occuipied even before water supply and drainage facilities. 8. Noisy atmosphere disturbing the pease of city dwellers.
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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING 9. 10. 11. Uncontrolled development of the town Unhealthy living conditions, etc Improper disposal of industrial waste has caused pollution of water, air, etc 12. Lack of public utility services such as water supply, drainage,sanitation, electricity, etc. 13. Haphazard construction due to lack of legislation.

The growth of towns can be classified in two ways: 1) 2) 1) Growth according to origin Growth accordidng to direction Growth accordidng to origin The growth of towns and cities according to the origin can be divided in two categories: > Natural growth > Planned growh Natural growth:- Most of the towns in the past have grown without any future planning ina natural way. The amenities such as road system,recreational facilities, schools, industrial units, business centres, hospitals, cinemas, etc, are made in an irregular way without any consideration for future expansion of the town. The natural growth of a town maya be in the form of the following four types:
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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING (i) Concentric spread (ii) Ribbon development (iii)Satelilite growth (iv) Scatgtered growth (i) Concentric spread: The town develops in the form of concentrtic rings, with nucleus as town since the natural tendency of the people is to keep the centre,nucleus or heart of the town as near as possible. Such a growth creates problems such as traffic congestion,narrow streets,concentration of population, improper houses,etc., As the town grows,the persons who can afford more transport time and charges go away from the central zone and thus low-income housing,better-class residences and high-class residences are subsequently formed away from the central business district respectively.

(ii)

Ribbon development The development ins the form of a ribbon or line ie., a single row of

houses along the bus stops, bus routes, railway lines, railway stations know as ribbon development. It is natural tendency of everyone to build as near as possible tgo the main road. The building activity therefore expands ion a natural way along the sides of main road and long fingers or ribbons of hoiuses factories,shops, etc. develop.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING This kind of development is usually very sudden due to want of a Master Plan and its strict adherence. What is desired to be achieved by a Master Plan is frustrated by a Ribbon Development. These developments take pl;ace so rapidly that it is im,possible to control it in time and after it comes up, it becomes too late to mend it. a) The development of ribbons causes to loose and to scatter the community so that there is lack of social life. b) Everybody wants to take advantage of the frontage of the main road. The interior is therefore left undeveloped, causing wastage of valuable land. c) Overcrowdidng on the road side,Stgreets become narrow and give rise to accidents. d) Future improvements become very costly

e)

As the houses extend in a long strip,there is increase in cost of various basic utility services such as water supply, electgricity, postal deliveries, telephone, etc. It thus results into wastage of available resosurces.

f)

The houses face heavy traffic associated with noise, dust and undesirable smells.

g)

The traffic capacity and efficiency of main are reduced.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING

iii)

Satellite growth A satgellite town or satellitye city is a concept in urban planning that

refers essentially to smaller metropolitan arfeas which are locaztged some what near to, but are mostly independent of larger metgropolitan areas. The development of a satellite town is mainly due to the metropolis and the term satellite is used to indicate a body under the influence of a more powerful body but possessing its own identity. Fig. 1.4 shows the development of satellite towns around the Parent city.

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING The features of a sateallite town are as follows: a) b) c) It deends to a certain extent upon a nearby large town or city. It is independent in its economic, social and cultural activities. It is connected to the parent city by local trains,buses, etc, in suchj a way that men can reach to the parent city without any difficulty. d) e) It is generally situated beyond the green belt of the parent city. It is mainly a residential area having only local shops,schools for children, etc. f) g) It is neither a village nor a suburb. Its size and development should be controlled and not allaowed to grow msore than its parent city. h) It may or may not consist of zoning. The main disadvantaghe of satellite growth is the long journey to work. This drawback of satellite growth has to be accessed by considering the efficiency of gthe different modes of transport. A number of satellite towns have been created in India since independence, such as Fariodabad near Delhi, Marimalai near Chennai, etc, (iv) Scattered growth The growtgh of a town takes place in a very irregular way. It results into traffice congestion, encroachment of industries on residential areas,slums, lack of parks and various other problems which prove to be too difficult to be solved in future.
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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING Planned growth: In this case, the town develops on pre-determined line as prepared by the town plananer. The develoipmjent is in orderlky fashion. The overall growth of the town is controlled by the enforcement of suitable rules and regulations. The concept of town planning as applied for the planned growth can be very well observed in the planning of the recent new towns in India a such as Gandhinagar and Chandigarh the capaitals of Gujarat and Puinjab respectively, the latter now is under Union Govt. While planning a town the object and objectys of town must be clearly known and we must note down the various present requirements and anticipated or projected requirements of future at least for next 50 to 100 years. Then we have to find out the relation with existing towns. The important factors to be considered for selection of site for an ideal town are: a) Availability of good surroundings, climatic conditions, contours of the area,streams and lakes,fertile land, etgc, b) c) Facilities of drainagbe, sewage disposal Availability of water sources, electric power, means of communication, transport, etc d) e) Areas for residence, public, commerce, and industry based on zoning Essential public services like water supply, drainage, electricity, telephone, gas service etgc,

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INTRODUCTION OF TOWN PLANNING f) Public amenities like post offices, police station, petrol pumps, fire brigade stations, dairies, dhobi ghats, etc, g) h) i) Educational institutions like schools, colleges, etc Recreational amenities like parks, gardens, play grounds, stadiums, etc Good network of roads.

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