TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS

CH

CASP Data analysis report

TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS

By Abdul Rheman Shaik

Under the guidance of Medha M Karpurmath
APTE

MSPT CIVIL

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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS

R-02 TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS NECESSITY: Town planning survey is useful in the following way: NECESSITY Town planning survey is useful in the following way: 1. It helps to provide the data of the existing town and thus planning work becomes easy. 2. It helps to know exactly what is lacking and what is needed for the development of the town. 3. The survey draws attention to the inter-relation between various complicated activities of a town life. 4. It helps to know the evils from which the town suffers and provides a proper treatment to be given, i.e. it helps to diagnosis before treatment, as pioneered by Sir Patrick Geddes. 5. It helps to build up the pu7blic opinion and appreciation in favour of town planning scheme. Thus, the role played by survey in the science of town planning is as follows: > > To evaluate the effects of development; Tto present detailed reasoned reports;

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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS > To provide the necessary understanding before decisions for development are made; and > To study the situation objectively and factually.

COLLECTION OF DATA Following four surveys are carried out to collect data: 1. Functional survey 2. Social survey 3. Territorial survey 4. Vital survey 1. Functional survey The functional aspects of a town life are studied under this survey. The type of ionformation collected in the functionala survey are as follows; a) Roads including history of roads, traffic surveyu, details of width of roads and tree planting b) Railways with positions of level- crossings, passenger stations and goods sheds. c) d) e) f) Airports and seaports Waterways and canals Routes of services by bus, tram, ferry and suburban railway Local industries, thjeir classiofication and location, availability of raw materials and type of labour employed.
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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS g) h) 2. Mines and their location. Conditions of commercial activity, etc. Social survey The social aspects of a town life are studied under this survey. They type of information collected in the social survey are as follows: a) Residential areas includidng historicl studies, types of buildings, slums and suburban development. b) Historical buildings and public buildidngs, their lkocation and classification; c) Parks and playgrounds, their size and number in relation to the residential areas. d) e) f) Ancient ruins. History of growth from the study of old maps. Conditions favourable for preservation of wild life and spots of natural beauty. g) h) Birth rates, death rates and charts of diseases. Public services comprising of water supply, sewerage, drainage, electricity, telephone, street lighting, cemeteries and fire protection. 3. Territoriala survey The physicala aspecsdts of a territory are studied under this survey6. The type of information collected in the territorial survey are as follows:

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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS a) Geology showing arrangements of underlying rocks and method responsible for formation of topography. b) Contours of the land surface showing both the actual heights and variations of surface. c) d) Rivers, oceans, streams and lakes. Climatic conditions including temperature range, rainfall and direction and intensity of winds. e) f) g) 4. Types of soil including areas of first class agricultural soil. Forests and other natural vegetation. Areas which are low-lying and are likely to submerge. Vital survey The population aspects of the town under consideration are studied under this survey. The type of information collected in the vital survey are as follows: a) b) c) History of the past growth of population Characteristies of the present population. Factors which may influence the future rate of growth of the town such as msigration. Decentralization, development of new local industrieds, etc. d) Density of population.

TYPES OF SURVEYS These are broadly classified as 1. Preliminary survey
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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS 2. 3. 4. 1. Regionla Survey National Survey Civic Survey Preliminary Survey The preliminary survey is in the form oif restricted inquiries made for the town planning schemes. The data collected in the preliminary survey are of general nature and it is conduicted prior to national regional or civic surveys. The main object of the preliminary survey is to decide approximately the boundaryt of area to bed plannaed and to find out the problems requiring further attention. The topics which are covered in the preliminary survey are as follows: > > The study of civic art, parks, playground, etc. The conditions of the existing roads with respect to their construction and maintenance problems are studied. > The study of the existing housing conditions with respect to lighting, ventilation, sanitation, conveniences and amenities. > The industrial development including the arrtangement and classification of various industries, location and distribution of the manufacturing units, etc. > > The density and character of structures, divisions and uses of land, etc. The study of the sources and distribution of power and location of power supply units.

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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS > The existing srailway and volume of goods trtaffic together with the future requirements with the growth of town are considered. > The exising Water supply and sewerage facilities as well as the future requirements are studied. > The study of the highest water level, yearly and seasonal variations, navigation possibilities, etc, 2. Regional Survey The regionall surveys carried out on much larger unit than civic survey, which may consists of number of townships and villages. The investigations carried out are of general nature such as social, physical, economic conditions of region. Surveys for regional highways, rfegional transport, regional water supply come under regional survey. The topics to be covered in the regional survey are more or less the same as those of the civic survey. It helps to develop the whole region in a co-ordinated manner. 3. Nationala Survey It helps to collect information regarding natural resources and potentialities and to locate the industries in different regions. Care should be takent to see that no one regioin is allowed to develop at the cost of other regions. Survey for fixing Railway alignment, Irrigation, Hydroelectric works, Heavy industries come under national survey. The datge collectged with rfespect to following areas: > The availability of natural resources in the form of oil,minerals, gas, water, etc.

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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS > The aspects of land ownership and general administration of the country are considered. > > The distribution and densituy of population. The type of agricultural soil, the crop patterns and number of crops per year. > The existing modes of transport such as roads, railway, waterways and air routes. > The overalkl situation of economic conditions of the nation includidng availability of raw materials and labour force, types and location of industries, etc, > 4. The geological co9nditions, the extent of sea coast, etc. Civic Survey or Socio-economic Survey In this type of survey house to house survey conducted for this purpose is the socio-economic survey. The town plananer can make a correct diagnosis of various ills from which the town is suffering and prescribe the corredct remedies for their cure from this survey. The data collected during the civic survey are as follows: > The means of communication such as roads, railways, airways and waterways are studied together with their inter-relationship. > The study of contours of the area helps in deciding the gradients of roads, location of water works and sewage plants, location of public buioldings and airports, etc.
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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS > The study of agricultural lands, residential and commercial areas, parks, open spaces location of airports, etc. > The study of general historical development of town, present policy of administration physical and social aspects of the area, etc > The characteristics of houses, distributioin and relation of people to houses, etc, are studied > The character, distribution, types and speciala requirements of the local industries are studied > The study of the present and future population to be surved by the town planning scheme family structure, density of population, migration tendencies, etc. > > The study of buildings to be used by the common people. The stydy of the generala health of inhabitants, death rate,a causes of special diseases, etc. > The study of the public services such as water supply , sewerage, telephone, gas, electricity, etc. is made. > The topography of the area is studied with reference to climatic conditions, locations of rivers and streams, etc. METHODS EMPLOYED TO COLLECT DATA. The data aand information oif various surveys are collected partly by the field work and partly by analyzing the reports prepared by other bodies. The methods adopted to collect data for the surveys are as follows:

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TOWN PLANNING SURVEYS 1. House to hoiuse investigation conducted to collect information in questioinnaire form specially prepared for this pourpos. The questionnaikre may also inserted in a local newspaper or journal of any organization or it may be sent out to interested pazrties and returned by post. 2. The interviews may be arranged with individuals or organizations haging special knowledge in specific fields. The most frequent form of conducting an interview is by personal contact. 3. The specialists may be employed in some cases to supply the information on topics relating to their work. 4. The records and reports maintained by the government offices, police department, municipal offices, revenue department, etc, can be studied and analysed. 5. Reconnaissance and spot-inspection may be conducted by the town plananer himself and his staff. The observatioin can be carried out for many subjects such as physical potential of land for building purposes, generation of traffic, etc.

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