Aviation Carbon Footprint

Global Scheduled Domestic Passenger Flights - 2012

This report provides a detailed breakdown of CO2 emissions from global scheduled domestic passenger aircraft operations in 2012. The carbon footprint of the operations is disaggregated at the country, airport and airline level. The document also provides a breakdown of the carbon costs and revenues associated with scheduled domestic passenger operations. Comparisons are made with the carbon footprint of scheduled global international flights to provide a picture of the total carbon footprint for global scheduled passenger aviation in 2012.

Dave Southgate August 2013
1

FOREWORD
This is the third book in a trilogy I have published over the past year on the carbon footprinting of aviation. This book, which is focused on global domestic aviation, builds on the earlier work to complete a picture of the carbon footprint of global scheduled passenger flights in 2012. In order to facilitate cross comparison between the books I have tried as far as possible in this document to retain the style and feel of the earlier books by applying the same data analysis approaches and by presenting the information using similar visualisations. In common with the second book in the trilogy, the coverage of this book is constrained by data availability and it therefore relates solely to global scheduled domestic passenger operations. It is estimated that this captures about 85% of the total carbon footprint for global domestic aircraft operations. While this document is focused on global domestic aviation, throughout the text the domestic carbon footprint is compared to the international footprint and the two sectors are combined in many places to provide a picture of aviation’s total carbon footprint. Conventionally, domestic and international aviation footprints are examined separately for jurisdictional reasons – providing an insight on the total footprint gives a useful industry wide perspective. In common with the earlier books, this document does not suggest policy options for managing aviation’s carbon footprint but rather is intended as a data resource to assist deliberations on options for addressing the issue. One of my key aims in writing the books has been to stimulate thought and discussion on ways in which simple carbon footprinting techniques can be used track and transparently report global aviation’s evolving carbon footprint. The information in the document has been generated from a publicly available dataset of global scheduled passenger services in 2012. The data analysis and report generation has been carried out using widely available software applications.

Dave Southgate Canberra August 2013

©dgsouthgate 2013 Any material in this document may be freely reproduced and distributed without acknowledgement. 2

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

OBSERVATIONS
Page 4

INTRODUCTION
Page 9

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 3

COUNTRIES

Page 3 Page 13

AIRPORTS

Page 3 Page 39

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 5

AIRLINES
Page 52

MONEY
Page 62

CHAPTER 6

COMPUTATION & VALIDATION
Page 67

FOOTPRINT PROFILES
Page 81

Author

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Page 196

[These are live tiles – click a tile to navigate to the desired location]

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Observations/Thoughts on Carbon Footprinting
I have now published three books (including this one) which together provide a picture of the total carbon footprint of global scheduled passenger flights for 20121,2 – I will refer to this as my carbon footprinting trilogy throughout this document. Having got to this point I have included this short chapter to put forward some personal thoughts on the carbon footprinting exercise I have undertaken; in particular I am interested in how ‘simple’ carbon footprinting can be expanded and how it can find a place in the long term management of aviation’s carbon footprint. The following dot points capture some of my key thoughts – they are not intended to be in any order of priority and I must emphasise they are my own subjective conclusions; the trilogy is not intended to be an academic treatise but rather an attempt to communicate information and trigger ideas which I hope will assist policy development discussions:  The carbon footprinting of aviation using great circle techniques is not difficult. The input data required to carbon footprint the global aviation system with a reasonable level of confidence is readily available to the public and is not expensive. The computations are straightforward; graphical carbon footprint reports can be rapidly generated using ‘standard’ non-expert software. For most aviation bodies the resources required to carry out a carbon footprinting exercise would be minimal.  Validation of carbon footprinting is currently difficult due to a range of issues (see the next Section – ‘Current Situation’). Having said that, great circle computation appears to provide carbon footprint results which lie within 5-10% of the ‘true’ answer. Great circle computation techniques are not suitable for determining carbon liabilities in legislated regimes such as emissions trading schemes (ETS) but would appear to be well suited to environmental reporting (eg ongoing reporting of carbon trends, carbon analysis in environmental assessment processes, etc).  I have found the exercise of producing the three books very instructive and now have a much better grasp of the nature of aviation’s carbon footprint. While much of this new information falls in the territory of ‘background knowledge/understanding’ (essential terrain for awareness of potential carbon management options/impacts) there were a number of issues which caught the attention of both myself and/or the readers; these include:  the bulk of aviation’s global carbon footprint is generated by a relatively small number of (long haul) flights (this contrasts for example with private motor vehicles where the carbon footprint is primarily generated by a very large number of short trips); the bulk of aviation’s global carbon footprint is generated by a very small number of aircraft types;

1

The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/02/01/aviation-carbon-footprint-reporting/ 2 Aviation Carbon Footprint: Global Scheduled International Passenger Flights – 2012, D Southgate, 2013: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/04/20/76/

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the United States aviation carbon footprint dwarfs that of most other countries (it is almost three times the size of the footprint of the country with the second largest footprint – China); the US aviation footprint makes up about 25% of the total global aviation footprint; London (Heathrow) Airport stands out as the prime carbon footprint node of global international aviation (its footprint also dominates the global airport total carbon footprint (domestic + international) hierarchy); Australia’s aviation CO2/capita footprint is significantly higher than that for other countries (except for some small nations which are major international aviation hubs), for example while Australia’s domestic aviation CO2/capita footprint is the same as that for the US its total CO2/capita figure is about 25% larger.

 There is a surprising lack of consolidated aviation carbon footprint reports at the country level. While negotiations on finding ways to manage aviation’s carbon footprint are primarily focused on discussions between officials from United Nations member states, these countries for the most part have not been forthcoming in releasing national aviation carbon footprint reports. The notable exception is India3 and its leadership in aviation carbon footprinting is highly commended.

Current Situation
Carbon footprinting underpins the management of aviation’s contribution to climate change. There is likely to be little confidence in any internationally agreed climate change management program if its CO2 outcomes cannot be independently tracked and validated. At the present time the confidence that can be placed in the validation of global aviation’s carbon footprint is weakened due to a number of issues:  There are no published consolidated reports, derived from a common base of computation, which provide verified carbon footprint information for the global aviation network.  There are a number of ‘official’ published sources of fuel use and/or CO2 generation for aviation, both international and domestic, but they are not consistent. For example:  it is often not clear what aviation sub-sectors are covered by the published data – the lack of clarity relates to differentiating between, for example, scheduled and non-scheduled operations, freight and passenger traffic, freight carried in dedicated freighters compared to freight carried in the belly of passenger aircraft, military and non-military aviation; some datasets allocate CO2 between ‘domestic’ and ‘international’ on the basis of the ICAO approach (a ‘domestic’ leg of an international flight is treated as ‘international’) while other datasets use the UNFCCC allocation approach (a ‘domestic’ leg of an international flight is treated as ‘domestic’) – the distinction is often not explicitly stated; allocation of CO2 between countries is sometimes based on aircraft country of registration and sometimes on the basis of the territory where the fuel is uplifted – again it is often not clear which approach has been used; there are significant data gaps which are often not identified – freight, military, business aviation are prime examples;

3

Carbon Footprint of Indian Aviation 2011, Government of India: http://dgca.nic.in/env/carbon_ind.htm

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time periods covered by datasets are sometimes based on calendar years sometimes on financial years (which vary from country to country).

Where to from here?
If a carbon management regime for aviation involves the acquittal of financial carbon liabilities this will need to have some form of detailed formal verifiable tracking regime (eg based on fuel sales data). Such verification systems are by necessity complex and have significant time lags between CO2 emission and reporting; they are non –transparent except at an aggregated level (fuel use data is usually ‘commercial in confidence’); and hence they are not open to detailed independent scrutiny. Verification systems solely based on non-transparent reporting are likely to generate mistrust and to ultimately be challenged. Footprint transparency could be introduced by running some form of parallel carbon footprint reporting/tracking regime based on great circle analysis. This would facilitate open, and rapid, third party verification of aviation carbon footprints. In order for this to take place key aviation bodies would need to play an active role. The following is a listing of the sorts of actions that could be taken by these bodies to develop an open carbon footprinting regime for aviation. Adoption of the suggested actions would be unlikely to involve the outlay of significant resources. ICAO Great circle carbon footprinting techniques rely on some form of distance/fuel use conversion table for different aircraft types. ICAO has published such a table4 (the CORINAIR dataset) – this table underpins the carbon computations in this report (the computations also use the great circle adjustment table embedded in the ICAO Carbon Calculator). Against this background, the establishment of a robust global carbon footprinting regime would be greatly assisted if ICAO were to:  maintain the CORINAIR (or equivalent) dataset on an ongoing basis and make it prominently available on its website;  develop a carbon footprinting protocol that permits footprinting to be carried out on a standard basis (eg agreed method to allocate the aviation footprint between international and domestic, agreed method to allocate the carbon footprint of freight);  produce a global aviation carbon footprint report, at least for international aviation, say on a three yearly basis to coincide with the ICAO Assembly. Countries National governments are the key players. Countries are leading the discussion within ICAO on the management of international aviation’s carbon footprint and are also imposing climate change management regimes on their own domestic aviation sectors. Actions which national governments could take to advance carbon footprinting include:  publishing annual comprehensive country carbon footprinting reports (these could feed into the ICAO report);

4ICAO

Carbon Emissions Calculator Methodology, ICAO, 2012, Appendix C: http://www.icao.int/environmentalprotection/CarbonOffset/Documents/Methodology%20ICAO%20Carbon%20Calculator_v5-2012.Revised.pdf

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 ensuring (whole of flight) carbon footprint analysis becomes part of formal environmental assessment processes for proposed aviation projects (eg new runways, new aircraft types);  ensuring (whole of flight) CO2 analysis is factored into airport master planning assessment and approval processes. Airports Airports are the nodes of an aviation network and an understanding of the quantum of CO2 generation associated with flights from each airport in the network is fundamental to examination of the management of aviation’s carbon footprint. Airports are commonly the interface between the aviation industry and the community and airports are often best placed to establish the collaborative engagements needed to ensure a sustainable aviation industry. Against this background the industry would be well served by airports:  adopting comprehensive carbon footprint reporting regimes based on whole of flight carbon footprints (whole of flight footprinting is recommended by the Airports Coordination International (ACI)5) – reports could be placed on airport web sites and regularly updated;

 including whole of flight CO2 emissions analyses in both Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
and master planning studies. Airlines Fuel use data - the ‘gold plated’ information of carbon footprinting – is owned by the airlines. This data is usually confidential and is only released with high levels of aggregation. In recent years some airlines have incorporated carbon footprint reporting in their annual and/or sustainability reports – these reports have been invaluable sources of validation for the three books in the trilogy. This reporting has been a very positive initiative and could be taken further by the airlines:  being more explicit about the carbon footprints of the airline sub-components (eg the footprint of freight carried in the belly of passenger aircraft versus that carried in dedicated freighters);  working within ICAO on the continual updating of the distance/fuel use tables (eg the CORINAIR (or equivalent) datasets) which underpin great circle carbon footprint computations. Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs) The ANSPs generate and own comprehensive operational datasets which contain details of every flight handled (eg aircraft type; origin/destination; distance travelled; etc). These datasets are fundamental input for the computation of great circle carbon footprints. This data is very important both for generating carbon footprint reports and also for validating carbon footprint information derived from other sources. The ANSPs could play an important role in carbon footprinting by:  routinely collating and providing operational datasets to government departments for the production of annual footprint reports and to academics and other researchers to improve the knowledge/understanding of aviation network carbon footprints;

 producing real time, or close to real time, aviation system carbon footprint reports and
publishing these on ANSP websites.

5

Airports Council International (ACI), p19, para 4.7.6: http://www.aci.aero/Publications/Full-PublicationsListing/Guidance-Manual-Airport-Greenhouse-Gas-Emissions-Management

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PART I

DISCUSSION & ANALYSIS

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Introduction
This report is based on the author’s earlier carbon footprinting books: The Carbon Footprint of Aircraft Operations in Australia – 2011, released in October 20126; and Aviation Carbon Footprinting; Global Scheduled International Passenger Flights-2012, released in April 2013.7 This book is aimed at filling in the gap left by the previous books – the carbon footprint of global scheduled domestic passenger operations. This document therefore completes a trilogy which provides an overview of the total carbon footprint of global scheduled passenger aviation and an example of a country based aviation network carbon footprint report. To supplement the second book in the trilogy the author has released three ‘carbon footprint profile generators’ which allow the user to interrogate Microsoft Excel pivot tables to gain information on the carbon footprints of all the countries, airports and airlines contained within the global scheduled international passenger flights dataset for 2012.8 This book uses the previous work as a template and hence this document has a similar structure to the other books. An identical great circle carbon footprinting methodology has been used to compute the carbon footprint information in all three documents. As far as possible, in order to facilitate cross referencing between the documents the same form of graphics has been used in all the books and parts of the text are common between the documents where a particular message applies equally across the reports. The broad style of presentation has been retained and the footprint examination from the perspective of identifiable sub-sectors such as country, airport and the airline has also been retained. Like the earlier books, this document is designed as a data resource for researchers, aviation professionals, decision makers and members of the public. As such it is directed at describing the carbon footprint of global domestic aviation and is not aimed at discussing or promoting particular policy options for managing that footprint. An important aim of the first book in the trilogy was to test the application and robustness of great circle carbon footprinting techniques to the carbon footprinting of an aviation network. That exercise generated results that gave good agreement with the available validation points at the aggregated level and indicated that great circle techniques can be used to generate a good indicative carbon footprint picture for aviation. While the first report generated confidence in the computational methodology, a key chapter in all the books has been entitled ‘Computation and Validation’ – Chapter 6 in this report. The reader is strongly encouraged to read this chapter to gain an appreciation of the robustness of the data presented throughout this document. A prime driver behind the production of this report has been the author’s longstanding interest in public access to data and in transparency in environmental decision making. If there is to be an effective response to climate change, decision makers need to be provided with information they can understand and trust. If there is to be public support for those decisions, members of the public

6

The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/02/01/aviation-carbon-footprint-reporting/ 7 Aviation Carbon Footprinting: Global Scheduled International Passenger Flights-2012 http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/04/20/76/ 8 Carbon Footprint Profile Generators, D Southgate, 2013: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/05/09/carbonfootprint-profile-generators/

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need to be in a position which enables them to understand why decisions have been made and to easily track whether the outcomes of decisions are achieving proclaimed goals. In order to fit in with transparency principles, the work in this report has been based on publicly available data and on the use of inexpensive non-expert data analysis and reporting software (see Chapter 6).

1.1

Differentiating Between International and Domestic Aviation

Given that the previous book in the trilogy looked solely at the carbon footprint of international aviation this book focuses on global domestic aviation in order to complete the picture of the footprint of global aviation. The rationale for constraining the second book in the trilogy to international operations was explained in Section 1.2 in that book. In essence it is important to differentiate between international and domestic CO2 emissions when carbon accounting since the international aviation emissions fall under the responsibilities of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) while domestic aviation emissions are treated as part of country greenhouse gas emissions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the carbon footprint of domestic aviation is not of direct interest in the discussions currently taking place within ICAO on the future management of international aviation’s carbon footprint, it is not unrelated. Many of the initiatives to reduce the carbon footprint of aviation capture both domestic and international aviation (eg more efficient aircraft, improvements in the efficiency of ATM and airports, etc) and many government officials involved in the discussions have responsibilities for both domestic and international aviation. Furthermore, it is useful when discussing the management of international aviation’s carbon footprint to have an understanding of domestic aviation’s carbon footprint to ensure that action in one sub-sector does not adversely affect the other. While the focus of this book is on global domestic aviation, throughout the report when the domestic CO2 contribution by a particular entity/element is being examined detailed comparisons are, wherever possible, also made with equivalent international CO2 emissions. In particular, the carbon ‘footprint profiles’ (dashboard style presentations used to summarise carbon footprint in all the trilogy books) in this book capture both domestic and international for at least some of the components of the footprint being examined. Ideally this report would capture all of the carbon footprint of global domestic aviation but, In common with the previous work on footprinting international passenger flights, there are significant data gaps which make this impractical at the present time (see Section 6.4). The analysis in Chapter 6 tentatively suggests that the footprint of scheduled domestic passenger operations makes up about 85% of the total carbon footprint of domestic aircraft operations.

1.3

Methodology

The carbon footprint information in this report has been derived by computing and aggregating the carbon footprints of individual flights contained in a database of global scheduled passenger aircraft operations carried out in 20129. The flight by flight carbon footprints have been computed using a great circle computation tool –TNIP Carbon Counter- developed by the Australian Government

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The database used for the computations in this report is an updated version of that used to develop the information for international aviation in the second book in the trilogy. This results in minor differences in the quantum of the reported international footprint between this and the earlier book.

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Department of Infrastructure and Transport.10 The algorithms in this software tool are based on those contained in the ICAO Carbon Calculator.11 The reader is encouraged to examine Chapter 6 to learn about the methodology adopted to compute the CO2 data in this report and to compare this data against the published validation points. Input Data All the CO2 computations in this report are based on a database sourced from Innovata, a provider of data for global aviation.12 This dataset is discussed further in Chapter 6. Scope The carbon footprint computations relate only to the CO2 generated by scheduled domestic passenger services in the year 2012. The footprinting does not extend to ground based non-aircraft activities such as the operation of ground service equipment or energy use associated with the operation of airport terminals. The carbon computations for any given entity (eg country, airport, etc) are confined solely to departing aircraft to avoid double counting of carbon. This methodology, which effectively computes notional global aviation fuel uplifted for scheduled domestic passenger services, is consistent with the UNFCCC carbon reporting regime.13 The UNFCCC carbon accounting regime is based on computing the weight of six greenhouse gases.14 When reporting total greenhouse gases, the six gases are converted to CO2 equivalent (CO2-e). However, the accepted practice within ICAO when carbon footprinting aviation is to only compute and report CO2 emissions since the quantity of the other five UNFCCC greenhouse gases produced by aviation is small compared to the quantity of CO2. The literature commonly raises the question of whether, or how, to include the non-CO2 impacts of aviation in carbon footprint reporting. These impacts are taken into account by the incorporation of a multiplier, usually referred to as the ‘Radiative Forcing Index (RFI)’, into carbon computations. At the present time there is no agreement on how the RFI should be applied and accordingly the accepted ICAO practice is to use ‘RFI=1’ when carbon footprinting.15 This is the approach adopted in this document. Should the reader wish to incorporate a different RFI value into the results in this report, this can be done simply by multiplying any of the reported CO2 values by the RFI value. Interesting discussion on the RFI can be found in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere.16

10 11

TNIP Carbon Counter: http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/aviation/environmental/transparent_noise/tnip_CC.aspx ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx 12 Innovata: http://www.innovata-llc.com/ 13 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, p1.6: http://www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/guidelin/ch1ref1.pdf 14 UNFCCC Fact Sheet: http://unfccc.int/files/press/backgrounders/application/pdf/press_factsh_mitigation.pdf 15 ICAO Carbon Calculator. FAQ No 1: http://www.icao.int/environmentalprotection/CarbonOffset/Pages/FAQCarbonCalculator.aspx 16 Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/sres/aviation/index.php?idp=64

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Limitations It is important that the reader is aware of the limitations of, and the likely confidence that can be placed on, the carbon footprint values reported in this document. This topic is discussed in some detail in Chapter 6. At the top level the broad limitations which are likely to influence the robustness of the reported CO2 values include:  the reported carbon data is based on computation. Ideally the figures would be based on actual fuel use data for every individual flight in 2012 but this information is owned by the airlines and is commercial in confidence;  the carbon results are derived from a great circle computation methodology which provides average CO2 information;  the dataset used to compute the carbon footprint is a scheduled passenger movements dataset and does not contain information on other aviation operations such as unscheduled flights or movements by dedicated freighters – these constiute a significant data gap (see Section 6.4);  information expressed in ‘per passenger’ metrics (CO2/PAX) relies on assumptions relating to both load factors and seat configurations and has greater uncertainty than the results solely reporting CO2.

1.4

Report Structure

This document provides an example of the type of picture that can be presented of an aircraft operations network carbon footprint through the use of ‘simple’ great circle techniques. It is divided into two Parts. Part I is the main body of the report and contains the discussions and the prime data analysis. Part II essentially contains carbon footprint datasheets for the network components (eg country, airport, airline) introduced in Part I. In Part I of the report the underlying dataset is filtered to generate subsets which capture the CO2 emissions of the key entities (‘entity’ being country, airport or airline) – notionally termed the ‘top 10’. Depending on the level of disaggregation and the component type, this involves in practice providing footprint information for the top 5 to the top 30 entities. Footprint information on some of the remaining entities is shown in Part II. The report is structured in a way that progressively examines the carbon footprint of global scheduled domestic passenger flights in 2012 by breaking down the global footprint into layers and then by separately examining the footprint from the perspective of countries, airports and the airlines. Chapter 2 gives a disaggregated overview of the global domestic carbon footprint at the country level. Chapters 3 and 4 respectively examine the global footprint from the perspective of the airports and the airlines. In keeping with the current interest in Market Based Measures (MBMs) Chapter 5 reports the carbon information presented in the early chapters in terms of monetary values. Chapter 6 is particularly important as it describes the computational approach used to generate the information in Chapters 2 to 5 and assesses the robustness of the computations by comparison with publicly available validation points. Part II of the report – entitled ‘Footprint Profiles’ – is a data resource which provides about 110 pages of carbon footprint information for the key entities.

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The Countries
2.1 Introduction
This chapter examines the carbon footprint of global scheduled domestic passenger aviation operations in 2012 at the country level. The discussion also includes comparisons with global scheduled international passenger flights over the same period in order to put the domestic operations in context.

Total CO2 = 584 Mt
Domestic
39%

International
61%

Sector Domestic International Total

CO2 (kt) 225,716 358,538 584,254

Figure 2.1: Domestic/International breakdown of global scheduled passenger flights 2012

Figure 2.1 shows the magnitude of the computed domestic footprint and also its proportion of the total global footprint for scheduled passenger flights in 2012. As indicated in the previous chapter the reader is strongly encouraged to examine Chapter 6 to gain an appreciation of the reliance that can be placed on this and subsequent data which appears throughout the report. While the overall split between domestic and international aviation at the global level is about 40/60 there is significant variation in this split from country to country. This is discussed in Section 2.2; subsequent sections examine the domestic footprint from the perspective of routes, aircraft type and operation distance. The final section in this chapter examines the global scheduled passenger aviation carbon footprint in terms of CO2 per capita for the top 30 countries in the world ranked by total aviation carbon footprint. In a similar manner to this book’s sister report on international aviation, carbon footprint overviews are captured using ‘carbon footprint profiles’ – dashboards designed to show snapshots of key discrete elements of the carbon footprint. The carbon footprint profile for the total carbon footprint of global domestic scheduled passenger flights in 2012 is shown in Figure 2.2. In order to provide context, four of the six elements in this profile show footprint information for both domestic and international operations. More details on the footprints of international operations can be found in the second book in the trilogy. 13

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Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

Global Footprint
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% International B737 A320 B777 A330 B747 B767 A340 B757 DC9 CRJ Other types 0

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type

Domestic International
225,716 358,538

Total
584,254

20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000120,000140,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 32 117 853 51 302 2,125 83 187 1,237
Mvts 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 -2,000,000
Trip Distance (km)

50%
40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Chicago 5,503 Atlanta 5,382 Los Angeles 4,997 Beijing 4,503 Dallas-Fort Worth 4,269 Denver 3,696 San Francisco 3,641 Tokyo (Haneda) 3,553 Shanghai 3,532 Houston 3,130 Phoenix 3,061 Moscow 2,989 Las Vegas 2,920 New York (JFK) 2,764 Washington DC 2,697 Other Airports 169,080 Total 225,716

Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Delta Air Lines 19,651 United Airlines 17,658 Southwest Airlines 15,557 American Airlines 14,946 US Airways 9,291 China Southern Airlines 8,152 China Eastern Airlines 6,171 Air China 5,562 All Nippon Airways 5,288 JetBlue Airways 3,952 TAM Airlines 3,712 Alaska Airlines 3,617 VRG Linhas Aereas 3,392 Qantas Airways 3,314 Japan Airlines 3,110 Other Airlines 102,344 Total 225,716

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 100,000
80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Total CO2 (kt) Domestic

Total CO2 (kt) International

Total Movements Domestic

Total Movements International

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In addition to repeating the domestic/international split revealed in Figure 2.1, the profile shows that:  the B737 and A320 families of aircraft dominate the domestic footprint making up about 65% of the global domestic footprint; they also make an approximate 40% contribution to the total footprint (ie domestic + international) United States airports dominate the domestic aviation airport hierarchy (11 of the top 15 airports are in the US) – the top 15 airports make up 25% of the total global domestic footprint [the airports in the hierarchy are ‘grouped’ by city – see discussion in Section 6.2] in a similar manner, US airlines occupy the top 5 positions in the domestic footprint hierarchy the data revealed by the CO2 v Distance element is not unexpected: there are many more domestic operations than international; most of the domestic operations are in the short haul end of the scale but this is not uniform – there is a significant number of international operations in the 500-1000km range while there is also a significant number of domestic operations travelling between 3,000km and 5,000km; the greatest contribution to the domestic footprint comes from flights in the 500-1,000km range the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows generic information which facilitates interesting cross comparisons between the different elements shown throughout the report – the CO2/capita figure is discussed in Section 2.7; the CO2/PAX and distance/flight indicators are broadly related to the route structures within countries (which are in turn related to country size and geographical location). These indicators should not be used to cross compare efficiencies between say countries or airlines since they are based on generic load factors and (adjusted) great circle distances (see discussion in Section 6.2).

 

2.2

Country Footprint Overview

Figures 2.3 and 2.4 show hierarchies for the top 30 global airports by carbon footprint size. Figure 2.3 shows the hierarchy for domestic operations and Figure 2.4 is a combined hierarchy for both domestic and international flights ordered by total CO2. It can be seen that for domestic operations the carbon footprint for the United States far exceeds that for other countries being more than 2.5 times the size of the second country (China) and about nine times the size of the third country (Japan). The top 10 countries in the domestic operations hierarchy largely represent a suite of countries which occupy large land masses and it is not surprising that there is a broad correlation between land area and domestic carbon footprint. Japan is the exception – it is number 3 in the domestic carbon footprint hierarchy but is only about the 60th country in the world when ranked by land area.17 The top 6 countries make up about 75% of global domestic operations carbon footprint; the top 15 countries make up about 90% of the global domestic operations footprint. The combined hierarchy (Figure 2.4) shows some interesting relationships between the domestic and international footprints. The Figure reveals that four of the top 5 countries in the domestic hierarchy have domestic footprints that exceed their international footprints (Japan is the

17

Countries of the World. Worldatlas.com¨http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/populations/ctyareal.htm

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exception). The domestic footprint in China is about 2.5 times that of its international footprint. By way of contrast there are a number of major aviation countries which have either no, or very small, domestic carbon footprints – the UAE, Hong Kong, Singapore and the Netherlands are prominent examples. About 70 countries in the database effectively have no domestic aviation carbon footprint; in addition to the major hubs cited in the previous sentence these are typically small countries such as island States. The top 30 countries in the domestic operations hierarchy capture more than 95% of the total domestic footprint. The top 30 countries in the combined hierarchy capture about 85% of the total footprint. Figure 2.5 is a thematic country map showing the complete global domestic operations carbon footprint hierarchy. It can be seen that almost all countries in Africa have small domestic aviation carbon footprints. Other country groupings with small domestic carbon footprints are Eastern Europe and ‘the Stans’ countries in central Asia.

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Country
United States China Japan Brazil Russia Australia India Indonesia Canada Mexico Spain Italy Turkey France Germany Saudi Arabia Philippines South Africa Malaysia United Kingdom Thailand Colombia South Korea Norway Vietnam Chile Argentina Iran New Zealand Peru Other Countries

Domestic CO2 (kt)
96,956 36,806 10,533 9,796 7,500 7,044 6,267 5,637 5,489 3,404 2,765 2,547 1,994 1,966 1,796 1,725 1,684 1,551 1,511 1,487 1,464 1,295 1,247 1,231 1,156 997 983 900 751 680 6,551

CO2/PAX (kg)
144 121 100 101 191 121 99 99 117 110 77 83 77 82 68 103 85 110 82 67 86 72 59 69 94 121 121 108 75 106 68

Cumulative %
43 59 64 68 72 75 77 80 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 100

Country
United States China United Kingdom Japan Germany Australia France Brazil United Arab Emirates Canada India Spain Russia Hong Kong Italy Singapore Thailand South Korea Indonesia Netherlands Mexico Turkey Malaysia Saudi Arabia South Africa Taiwan Switzerland Philippines Qatar Argentina

Domestic CO2 (kt)
96,956 36,806 1,487 10,533 1,796 7,044 1,966 9,796 7 5,489 6,267 2,765 7,500 2,547 1,464 1,247 5,637 1 3,404 1,994 1,511 1,725 1,551 169 44 1,684 983

International CO2 (kt)
47,871 13,899 24,654 13,956 18,729 9,489 13,771 5,929 14,558 8,378 7,190 10,592 5,752 10,386 7,460 9,819 8,207 8,305 3,064 7,547 3,936 5,061 4,508 3,857 3,611 4,341 4,387 2,652 3,900 2,480

Total CO 2 (kt)
144,827 50,706 26,142 24,489 20,524 16,534 15,737 15,725 14,565 13,867 13,456 13,357 13,251 10,386 10,007 9,819 9,671 9,552 8,701 7,549 7,340 7,055 6,019 5,582 5,162 4,510 4,431 4,335 3,900 3,463

Total

225,716

117

Other Countries Total

13,342 225,716

70,250 358,538

83,592 584,254

Figure 2.3: Country hierarchy – global domestic scheduled passenger movements 2012

Figure 2.4: Country hierarchy – domestic/international footprint comparison global scheduled passenger movements 2012

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Figure 2.5: Country carbon footprints – scheduled domestic passenger flights 2012 This figure is a thematic map giving a visualisation of the global country domestic footprint hierarchy. The colour relates to the quantum of the country footprint – the values are shown in the legend. There are three countries in the first category (> 10,000 kt of CO2); 6 countries in the second category; 16 countries in the third category and 8 countries in the fourth category. The remaining countries, with CO2 emissions of less than 500 kt, are in the last category.

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Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author Carbon Footprint Profile - Top 5 Countries

2.3

This section briefly discusses the carbon footprint profiles for the top 5 domestic emitting countries (ie those countries which have the greatest notional fuel uplift for domestic scheduled passenger operations as shown in Figure 2.3). The profiles are shown in the pages accompanying the discussion. In the hierarchy boxes in the profiles it is important to be aware that

 airports have been grouped by city – see discussion in Section 6.2
 domestic operations are defined using the UNFCCC definition – a domestic flight is one that lands and takes off within the same country – this means that foreign airlines appear in the ‘Airlines (Domestic)’ hierarchy [in this context ‘domestic’ refers to flights, not to the country of registration of the airline]. United States The United States carbon footprint profile shows:      the US footprint for domestic flights significantly exceeds the footprint for international operations – the ratio is about 2 to 1 the B737 is the dominant aircraft type; single aisle aircraft make up around 90% of the domestic footprint and about 70% of the total footprint the top 15 airports make up about 55% of the domestic footprint; there is no dominant domestic hub the top 4 airlines have significantly larger footprints than the other airlines – between them they make up about 70% of the domestic footprint the CO2 v Distance profile indicates that the domestic footprint is (not surprisingly) concentrated in flights which travel less than 5,000km; there is very little contribution to the international footprint from flights in this range; there is a significant number of flights which travel <500km; flights in the range 3000-5000km make a substantial contribution to the domestic footprint the ‘Other Indicators’ box demonstrates the approximate 2:1 domestic/international split when expressed as CO2/capita – while the magnitude of the domestic CO2 footprint swamps that of all other countries the per capita value of 307 kg of CO2 per US inhabitant is the same figure as that for Australia (see Section 2.7 for detailed comparison).

China The China carbon footprint profile shows:    an even greater bias in the carbon footprint toward domestic operations than the US with the domestic contribution being over 70% of the footprint in a similar manner to the US, single aisle aircraft make up about 85% of the domestic footprint the top 3 airports – Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzou - make up about 35% of the footprint; the top 15 airports make up about 65% of the domestic footprint 19

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United States
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Chicago Atlanta Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth Denver San Francisco Houston Phoenix Las Vegas New York (JFK) Washington DC Seattle Orlando Newark Minneapolis Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 5,503 5,382 4,997 4,269 3,696 3,641 3,130 3,061 2,920 2,764 2,697 2,496 2,307 2,238 2,136 45,718 96,956
Airlines (Domestic) Delta Air Lines United Airlines Southwest Airlines American Airlines US Airways JetBlue Airways Alaska Airlines AirTran Airways Continental Airlines Frontier Airlines Virgin America Hawaiian Airlines Spirit Airlines Allegiant Air Philippine Airlines Other Airlines Total CO2 (kt) 19,651 17,605 15,557 14,936 9,291 3,952 3,617 2,923 2,013 1,622 1,394 1,291 1,142 991 257 714 96,956

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 10,000 20,000 30,000

Domestic International
96,956 47,871

Total
144,827

40,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) 307 CO2/PAX (kg) 144 Distance/trip (km) 1,044 International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 152 518 3,463 459 189 1,228
Mvts 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 -500,000

International

Domestic

B737 A320 B777 B757 MD80 B767 B747 CRJ A330 RJ140 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 25,000

CO2 v Distance

20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000

-

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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China
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Beijing Shanghai Guangzhou Chengdu Zhenzhen Kunming Xi'an Chongqing Urumqi Hangzhou Xiamen Changsha Wuhan Nanjing Zhengzhou Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 4,503 3,532 2,503 1,794 1,780 1,373 1,354 1,321 1,128 1,064 837 793 760 758 730 12,578 36,806
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) China Southern Airlines 8,152 China Eastern Airlines 6,167 Air China 5,562 Hainan Airlines 2,650 Shenzhen Airlines 2,407 Xiamen Airlines 2,249 Sichuan Airlines 1,750 Shanghai Airlines 1,342 Shandong Airlines 1,328 Deer Jet 803 Spring Airlines 724 Grand China Express Air 664 Juneyao Airlines 643 Lucky Air 442 China United Airlines 417 Other Airlines 1,505 Total 36,806

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 International B737 A320 A330 B777 B747 A340 B757 B767 Embraer 170/190 A380 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 5,000 10,000 15,000

Domestic International
36,806 13,899

Total
50,706

20,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) 27 CO2/PAX (kg) 121 Distance/trip (km) 1,080 International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 10 341 2,711 37 147 1,224
Mvts 1,000,000

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

CO2 v Distance

800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 -

-200,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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China (continued)   there are three dominant airlines which make up more than 25% of the domestic footprint; the top 15 airlines make up more than 95% of the domestic footprint the CO2 v Distance profile indicates the domestic footprint is focused in the range 500-2,000km – this is a markedly different profile to the US domestic footprint which contains a significant contribution from flights in the 2,000-5,000km range (presumably driven by differences in distances between major cities in the two countries). the CO2/capita figures in the ‘Other Indicators’ box are consistent with the domestic v international split in the total carbon footprint; the per capita value of China’s domestic carbon footprint (27 kg of CO2 per China inhabitant) is broadly comparable to several other countries but the total footprint per capita (37kg of CO2 per inhabitant) only exceeds that of two other countries in the top 30 hierarchy (Indonesia and India).

Japan The Japan carbon footprint profile shows:   a somewhat different picture for the domestic/international split compared to the US and China – domestic operations contribute about 40% of the total footprint in contrast to the US and China wide bodied aircraft make a significant contribution to the domestic footprint (the B777 + the B767 make up about 50% of the domestic footprint) Tokyo (Haneda) is the dominant national hub for domestic operations – about 35% of the domestic footprint is associated with Haneda the top 2 airlines generate about 80% of the domestic footprint; the CO2 v Distance profile shows that the domestic footprint is very focused on flights in the 500-1,000km range (close to 65% of the domestic footprint) – this presents a very different profile to the US and China (again presumably determined by the geographical location of its major cities) the domestic CO2/capita figure of 83 kg of CO2 per Japanese inhabitant is high compared to most countries but significantly less than the US, Australia and Canada; the distance per trip for domestic operations is, not surprisingly, smaller than for the other four countries in the top 5; on the other hand the distance per trip for international operations is significantly greater than the figure for China and is of similar magnitude to the US figure.


 

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Japan
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Tokyo (Haneda) Sapporo/Chitose Okinawa Fukuoka Itami Nagoya Osaka Kagoshima Tokyo (Narita) Kumamoto Nagasaki Miyazaki Sendai Hiroshima Kobe Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 3,553 1,007 973 815 553 298 284 273 216 186 183 173 144 138 134 1,601 10,533
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) All Nippon Airways 5,288 Japan Airlines 3,110 Skymark Airlines 659 Hokkaido International Airlines 329 Japan Transocean Air 303 Skynet Asia Airways 239 StarFlyer 170 Japan Air Commuter 113 Peach Aviation 76 Fuji Dream Airlines 71 Ibex Airlines 66 Go One Airways 61 Air Asia Japan 25 Qatar Airways 15 Oriental Air Bridge 8 Other Airlines 0 Total 10,533

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 B767 B737 A330 B747 A320 A340 B787 A380 CRJ Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

Domestic International
10,533 13,956

Total
24,489

10,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 83 100 674 110 427 3,644 194 178 1,173
Mvts 500,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -

-100,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Brazil The Brazil carbon footprint profile shows:   domestic operations make up more than 60% of the Brazil footprint in a similar manner to the US and China narrow bodied aircraft dominate the domestic footprint (effectively 100% of the domestic footprint) but they only make a small contribution to the international footprint (about 15%) there are three dominant airports which make up about 45% of the domestic footprint; the top 15 airports make up about 85% of the domestic footprint the top 2 airlines are very prominent and contribute about 70% of the footprint; there are effectively only 7 domestic operators the CO2 v Distance chart shows that the domestic footprint arises almost totally from flights up to 2,500km in length with the peak contribution occurring in the 500-1,000km range; in a similar manner to the US there are a significant number of flights of less than 500km the numbers in the ‘Other Indicators’ box reflect a lower than global average for CO2/PAX for domestic of around 100kg (global average 117kg) – this is similar to the figure for Japan; the domestic CO2/capita figure of 49 is of a similar magnitude to the figure for Russia; the international distance per trip of greater than 5,000km is significantly further than the distance for the US, China, Japan and Russia - presumably reflecting the relative geographic isolation of Brazil from the main global population centres.

  

Russia The Russia carbon footprint profile shows:   a slight bias in favour of domestic over international (about 55% of the footprint is domestic) in line with all the other top 5 countries, except Japan, the B737 and A320 family aircraft dominate the domestic footprint (more than 60% of the domestic footprint); these aircraft types also contribute around 50% of the international footprint Moscow (grouped airports) totally dominates the domestic footprint (making up about 40% of the domestic footprint); the top 15 airports contribute about 75% of the domestic footprint the top 3 three airlines make up about 45% of the domestic footprint – the top 15 airlines contribute about 90% of the domestic footprint the CO2 v Distance relationship is somewhat different to the other four countries; there is virtually no carbon contribution from flights travelling less than 500km; there are significant domestic footprint contributions from flights travelling between 3,000km and 7,000km – this is consistent with the geographic spread of Russia and its major cities the numbers in ‘Other Indicators’ box indicates a CO2/PAX for domestic operations that is around twice that of the other countries; the total CO2/capita figure of 93 is relatively low by global standards; the international distance/trip is similar to the figure for China but is significantly lower than the figures for the US, Japan and Brazil – this presumably reflects a focus on Moscow, located in Europe, as the major aviation hub for Russia.

 

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Brazil
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro Brasilia Salvador Belo Horizonte Recife Fortaleza Porto Alegre Campinas Curitiba Manaus Belem Natal Cuiaba Florianopolis Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,994 1,205 1,001 545 480 456 402 369 349 306 247 234 166 162 158 1,722 9,796
Airlines (Domestic) TAM Airlines VRG Linhas Aereas Azul Brazilian Airlines Avianca Brazil WebJet Linhas Aereas TRIP Linhas Aereas Passaredo United Airlines LAN Airlines American Airlines Air Italy PLUNA TAP Portugal Aerolineas Argentinas Surinam Airways Other Airlines Total CO2 (kt) 3,707 3,392 893 614 560 488 115 15 5 5 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 0 9,796

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 International B737 A320 B777 A330 Embraer 170/190 B767 A340 B747 F100 ATR Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
9,796 5,929

Total
15,725

4,000

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 49 101 815 30 598 5,004 79 147 1,055
Mvts 500,000

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -

-100,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Russia
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Moscow 2,989 St. Petersburg 422 Khabarovsk 266 Vladivostok 258 Novosibirsk 257 Krasnoyarsk 176 Yekaterinburg 165 Krasnodar 163 Sochi 158 Irkutsk 149 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy 129 Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk 119 Tyumem 105 Ufa 100 Yakutsk 96 Other Airports 1,948 Total 7,500
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Aeroflot Russian Airlines 1,429 S7 Airlines (Siberia Airlines) 1,099 UTair Aviation 1,070 Transaero Airlines 858 Rossiya - Russian Airlines 389 Vladivostok Air 338 Yakutia Airlines 311 Ural Airlines 257 Yamal Airlines 215 Orenair (Orenburg Airlines) 179 Taimyr Airlines 164 Aeroflot-Nord 146 Aeroflot-Don 138 VIM Airlines 125 Kuban Airlines 104 Other Airlines 676 Total 7,500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 A330 B767 B777 B747 B757 Yak 42 CRJ Tupolev 204 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
7,500 5,752

Total
13,251

4,000

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) 53 CO2/PAX (kg) 191 Distance/trip (km) 1,554 International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 40 264 2,301 93 217 1,785
Mvts 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,500 1,000 500

-

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

`

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2.4

The Footprint by Route

One option commonly raised as a possible avenue to a global solution for managing aviation’s contribution to climate change is to incrementally implement measures on a route by route basis. For example, the construction of a high speed train or a major motorway may be proposed as a way to reduce the aviation footprint for travel between two, or a number of, cities. Certain market based mechanisms could be trialled on specific aviation routes where there are no issues around competitive distortions.

Route
New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Sapporo/Chitose-Tokyo (Haneda) Beijing-Shanghai Fukuoka-Tokyo (Haneda) New York (JFK)-San Francisco Tokyo (Haneda)-Okinawa Beijing-Guangzhou Melbourne-Sydney Los Angeles-Chicago Los Angeles-Honolulu Keku-Seoul Vancouver-Toronto Cape Town-Johannesburg Chicago-San Francisco Beijing-Zhenzhen Mumbai-Delhi Perth-Sydney Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City Beijing-Chengdu Jeddah-Riyadh Melbourne-Perth Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo Zhenzhen-Shanghai Guangzhou-Shanghai New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Jakarta-Medan Washington DC-Los Angeles Atlanta-Los Angeles Washington DC-San Francisco Itami-Tokyo (Haneda) Other Routes Total

Domestic CO2 (kt)
1,334 1,141 997 958 927 828 786 748 690 675 639 639 637 633 626 602 568 565 559 555 526 506 505 469 468 466 464 463 448 434 205,860 225,716

CO2/PAX (kg)
316 118 134 131 334 181 205 92 246 357 65 283 137 256 196 116 319 143 152 127 257 66 119 127 134 141 317 279 306 85 114 117

Figure 2.6: Global domestic route hierarchy 2012 Figure 2.6 shows the hierarchy for the top 30 global domestic routes for scheduled passenger services in 2012. It can be seen that the top routes are contained in a range of countries – the top 16 routes in the hierarchy occur in 8 different countries. The routes typically involve city pairs between key commercial centres (eg Beijing-Shanghai, Melbourne-Sydney, Mumbai-Delhi, etc). 27

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There is also a noticeable diversity in the type of route – some are short range (eg Keku-Seoul which has a footprint of 65 kg of CO2 /PAX) while others have CO2/PAX footprints which are around 5 times those of the short routes. Delving a little deeper, Figure 2.7 examines the carbon footprint of the top 15 routes in each of the top 5 domestic countries discussed in the previous section. These are shown in the boxes in the top half of the Figure. The bar graphic under the boxes shows the carbon distribution between airlines on the top 10 domestic routes contained in the boxes. It is interesting to note the differences between the route hierarchies in the five countries in Figure 2.7. In Russia, Moscow (combined airports) is part of every route, in China, Japan and Brazil one or two key domestic hubs dominate the hierarchy. The situation is somewhat different in the United States were there is a much greater diversity in airports on the top routes. This presumably reflects the greater geographical dispersion of population centres across the United States compared to the other countries where the population centres tend to be concentrated in particular regions. The route graphic contained in the lower half of Figure 2.7 is an example of the type of information that may be useful, for example, in filtering out routes which may have potential for the application of some form of market based measure (MBM). This graphic gives the reader a rapid appreciation of whether a route is likely to be open to competitive distortion if a differentiated MBM were to be introduced. The geographic distribution of the top 20 routes for each of the top 5 countries can be seen in the quantity flow diagrams shown in Figure 2.8 to Figure 2.12.

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United States
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-San Francisco Los Angeles-Chicago Los Angeles-Honolulu Chicago-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Washington DC-Los Angeles Atlanta-Los Angeles Washington DC-San Francisco Las Vegas-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Boston-San Francisco Los Angeles-Miami Denver-Chicago Chicago-Phoenix Total CO2 (kt) 1,334 927 690 675 633 468 464 463 448 421 410 385 367 344 343 8,373

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author
China Japan
CO2 (kt) 997 786 626 559 505 469 375 368 364 289 279 273 265 261 253 6,671 Route Sapporo/Chitose-Tokyo (Haneda) Fukuoka-Tokyo (Haneda) Tokyo (Haneda)-Okinawa Itami-Tokyo (Haneda) Kagoshima-Tokyo (Haneda) Kumamoto-Tokyo (Haneda) Miyazaki-Tokyo (Haneda) Kita Kyushu-Tokyo (Haneda) Nagasaki-Tokyo (Haneda) Hiroshima-Tokyo (Haneda) Osaka-Sapporo/Chitose Fukuoka-Okinawa Oita-Tokyo (Haneda) Matsuyama-Tokyo (Haneda) Osaka-Okinawa Total CO2 (kt) 1,141 958 828 434 332 288 239 235 234 220 183 180 178 170 156 5,776

Brazil
Route Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Salvador Brasilia-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Recife Fortaleza-Sao Paulo Brasilia-Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro-Salvador Belo Horizonte-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Porto Alegre Rio de Janeiro-Recife Curitiba-Sao Paulo Porto Alegre-Sao Paulo Florianopolis-Sao Paulo Manaus-Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro-Porto Alegre Total CO2 (kt) 506 361 357 297 255 236 195 192 177 171 169 147 138 134 134 3,467

Russia
Route Vladivostok-Moscow Khabarovsk-Moscow Novosibirsk-Moscow St. Petersburg-Moscow Krasnodar-Moscow Krasnoyarsk-Moscow Irkutsk-Moscow Yekaterinburg-Moscow Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy-Moscow Sochi-Moscow Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk-Moscow Mineralnyye Vody-Moscow Yakutsk-Moscow Rostov Na Donu-Moscow Moscow-Ufa Total CO2 (kt) 409 340 264 263 225 219 204 199 197 192 187 144 131 125 120 3,220

Route Beijing-Shanghai Beijing-Guangzhou Beijing-Zhenzhen Beijing-Chengdu Zhenzhen-Shanghai Guangzhou-Shanghai Beijing-Kunming Shanghai-Chengdu Beijing-Urumqi Beijing-Chongqing Beijing-Hangzhou Guangzhou-Chengdu Shanghai-Chongqing Beijing-Xi'an Xiamen-Shanghai Total

0% New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Sapporo/Chitose-Tokyo… Beijing-Shanghai Fukuoka-Tokyo (Haneda) New York (JFK)-San Francisco Tokyo (Haneda)-Okinawa Beijing-Guangzhou Los Angeles-Chicago

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

American Airlines
All Nippon Airways Air China All Nippon Airways American Airlines All Nippon Airways Air China American Airlines

Delta Air Lines

JetBlue Airways Qantas Airways United Airlines Japan Airlines

Virgin America
Skymark Airlines Spring Airlines

Hokkaido International Airlines China Eastern Airlines Japan Airlines

China Southern Airlines

Shanghai Airlines Skymark Airlines StarFlyer Juneyao Airlines Virgin America Hainan Airlines Skymark Airlines Hainan Airlines

Delta Air Lines

JetBlue Airways

United Airlines Japan Airlines

Japan Transocean Air China United Airlines

China Southern Airlines Southwest Airlines Spirit Airlines United Airlines

Virgin America United Airlines Virgin America

Los Angeles-Honolulu
Chicago-San Francisco

American Airlines ContinentalAirlines Delta Air Lines American Airlines ContinentalAirlines Southwest Airlines

Hawaiian Airlines Philippine Airlines United Airlines

Figure 2.7: Domestic route carbon footprint hierarchies for the top 5 countries The five boxes at the top show the top 15 routes for the 5 countries with the greatest carbon footprint for scheduled domestic passenger operations in 2012. The lower graphic analyses the top 10 routes from the country hierarchies and shows (albeit a little confused) the relative CO2 contribution made by each of the airlines which operated on those routes.

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Figure 2.8: United States domestic route carbon footprint hierarchy This figure shows the top 20 domestic routes by CO2 footprint in 2012 for the US contiguous States (routes to Hawaii are not shown). The thickness of the flow lines is proportional to the quantity of CO2 on the route. The blue lines represent the top 5 routes ranked by carbon footprint; in the next group there are 7 red routes; the 8 green routes have the smallest carbon footprints. The CO2 quantum of the top 15 routes is shown in Figure 2.7.

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Figure 2.9: China domestic route carbon footprint hierarchy This figure shows the top 20 domestic routes by CO2 footprint in 2012 for China. The thickness of the flow lines is proportional to the quantity of CO2 on the route. The blue lines represent the top 5 routes ranked by carbon footprint; in the next group there are 7 red routes; the 8 green routes have the smallest carbon footprints. The CO2 quantum of the top 15 routes is shown in Figure 2.7. 31

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Figure 2.10: Japan domestic route carbon footprint hierarchy This figure shows the top 20 domestic routes by CO2 footprint in 2012 for Japan (routes to Okinawa are not shown). The thickness of the flow lines is proportional to the quantity of CO2 on the route. The blue lines represent the top 5 routes ranked by carbon footprint; in the next group there are 7 red routes; the 8 green routes have the smallest carbon footprints. The CO2 quantum of the top 15 routes is shown in Figure 2.7.

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Figure 2.11: Brazil domestic route carbon footprint hierarchy This figure shows the top 20 domestic routes by CO2 footprint in 2012 for Brazil. The thickness of the flow lines is proportional to the quantity of CO2 on the route. The blue lines represent the top 5 routes ranked by carbon footprint; in the next group there are 7 red routes; the 8 green routes have the smallest carbon footprints. The CO2 quantum of the top 15 routes is shown in Figure 2.7.

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Figure 2.12: Russia domestic route carbon footprint hierarchy This figure shows the top 20 domestic routes by CO2 footprint in 2012 for Russia. The thickness of the flow lines is proportional to the quantity of CO2 on the route. The blue lines represent the top 5 routes ranked by carbon footprint; in the next group there are 7 red routes; the 8 green routes have the smallest carbon footprints. The CO2 quantum of the top 15 routes is shown in Figure 2.7.

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2.5

Figure 2.13 gives an overview of the contribution made by the top 30 aircraft types to the global scheduled aviation carbon footprint. The hierarchy is ranked by decreasing total carbon contribution. The figure breaks the carbon footprint down into the domestic and international operations components. More detailed breakdowns of the aircraft type carbon footprint are provided in the carbon footprint profiles which appear throughout the report. The aircraft types in the Figure have been grouped into families – each family can contain many different versions of the aircraft type.

Aircraft Type
B737 A320 B777 A330 B747 B767 A340 B757 MD80 CRJ Embraer 170/190 A380 RJ140 Dash 8 B717 ATR A310 F100 A300 BAe 146 B787 Embraer Brasilia Yak 42 Saab 340 Tupolev 204 Beechcraft Iluyshin IL96 Tupolev 154 F70 F50 Jetstream 31/32/41

Domestic CO2 (kt)
80,616 63,856 5,460 4,652 1,461 7,506 333 13,443 11,851 9,460 7,455 119 6,317 3,694 2,630 1,530 172 986 645 333 386 351 337 318 200 233 16 176 19 153 156

International CO2 (kt)
41,969 52,492 83,996 56,229 39,219 25,058 25,365 6,983 2,264 2,045 3,687 10,662 1,083 949 167 460 1,663 757 797 938 608 12 8 24 120 29 234 60 214 73 13

Total CO 2 (kt)
122,585 116,347 89,457 60,880 40,679 32,564 25,698 20,426 14,116 11,505 11,143 10,781 7,400 4,643 2,797 1,991 1,835 1,743 1,442 1,270 995 362 345 343 320 262 251 236 233 227 169

Cumulative % 21 41 56 67 74 79 84 87 89 91 93 95 96 97 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Other Aircraft Types Total

852 225,716

358 358,538

1,210 584,254

100 100

Figure 2.13: Global domestic CO2 footprint by aircraft type

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It is interesting to note the relatively small number of aircraft types that make up the bulk of aviation’s carbon footprint. It can be seen that the top 5 aircraft types (families) make up about 75% of the total footprint. The top 10 aircraft types make up more than 90% of the footprint. The top 2 contributors to the footprint (comprising about 40% of the footprint) are narrow bodied aircraft. These two types – the B737 and A320 – not only dominate the domestic aviation footprint but also make a significant contribution to the international aviation footprint. The top 30 hierarchy contains a number of regional jets and props. It can be seen that the contribution by these aircraft types is not large despite the relatively high number of movements made by regional aircraft. The relationship between aircraft type, number of operations and carbon contribution is discussed in the next section.

2.6

CO2 Emissions v Trip Distance

The carbon footprint profiles which are used as the basic footprint capture tool throughout this report all include a ‘CO2 v Distance’ element. Figure 2.14 shows an expanded view of the domestic component of the CO2 v Distance element in the Global Network profile shown in Figure 2.2.

CO2 (kt)

CO2

Aicraft Movements

Mvts

70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000

9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 Trip Distance (km)

30,000
20,000 10,000 -

Figure 2.14: Relationship between CO2 footprint, trip distance and number of operations for domestic operations

This indicator provides a useful insight into which operations/routes are making the greatest contribution to the global domestic carbon footprint. In simple terms there is a trade-off between the number of movements and the distance travelled for any given aircraft type. Commonly a relatively small number of flights (those engaged in long haul operations) will make an apparently disproportionate contribution to the total footprint. This can be seen for example in the 3,000-5,000km range in the Figure. Conversely even a very large number of short haul movements can make a surprisingly small contribution to the carbon footprint. The data behind the Figure shows that 70% of scheduled domestic movements in 2012 travelled less than 1,000km. These flights made up about 45% of the global domestic carbon footprint. About 40% of the movements travelled less than 500km – these ‘short haul’ flights made up about 15% of the global domestic footprint. 36

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2.7

CO2 per capita

While consideration of the absolute magnitude of country carbon footprints is the common way to consider the relative carbon contribution of different countries, it is instructive to normalise the absolute data to per capita data to gain a different perspective on the contributions. This type of technique is not uncommon and authoritative bodies such as the World Bank publish carbon footprint information in this form.18 Figure 2.15 converts the top 30 country total carbon footprint hierarchy shown in Figure 2.4 into per capita using country population data generated by the United Nations.19

Country Qatar Singapore United Arab Emirates Hong Kong Australia Switzerland United States Netherlands United Kingdom Canada Spain Germany France Malaysia South Korea Saudi Arabia Taiwan Japan Italy Thailand South Africa Turkey Russia Argentina Brazil Mexico Philippines China Indonesia India

Domestic CO2/capita (kg) 1 307 6 307 <1 24 158 59 22 31 52 26 60 7 83 42 21 31 27 53 24 49 29 17 27 23 5

International CO2/capita (kg) 2,011 1,868 1,796 1,443 414 567 152 452 393 242 226 228 217 154 171 134 187 110 122 117 71 68 40 60 30 34 27 10 13 6

Total CO2/capita (kg) 2,011 1,868 1,797 1,443 721 573 459 452 416 400 286 250 248 205 197 194 194 194 164 138 102 95 93 84 79 63 45 37 36 11

Figure 2.15: Aviation CO2 per capita – top 30 ‘total footprint’ countries The table shows values for both the domestic and international footprints and is ordered according to decreasing total CO2/capita.

18
19

World Bank: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: http://esa.un.org/wpp/unpp/panel_population.htm

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It can be seen that the country ordering in the per capita hierarchy is significantly different to the hierarchy based on the absolute footprint size. The top 4 countries in the Figure have significantly greater per/capita total footprints than the other countries. These four countries have relatively small populations and are active international aviation hubs (all of these countries effectively have no domestic carbon footprint). Australia is the first country in the hierarchy with a significant domestic carbon footprint. The per capita domestic footprints of Australia, the United States, and to a lesser extent Canada, are significantly greater than for any of the other countries. The total per capita aviation footprint for Australia is also much greater than for other, what may be considered broadly comparable, countries. This is presumably due to both the large distances between domestic centres in Australia (which increases the domestic footprint) and also the geographic isolation of Australia from other countries (which increases the international footprint). The relatively small population of Australia is also presumably an important factor.

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The Airports
3.1 Introduction
This chapter provides a breakdown of the global scheduled domestic passenger flights carbon footprint for 2012 from the perspective of the airports. It also puts this information into context by providing a number of comparisons with the carbon footprint of international scheduled passenger movements for the same time period. The information in this chapter relates to aircraft operations and not to the carbon footprint of the airports themselves. That is, this chapter does not compute or report on the carbon footprint associated with airport buildings, ground transport or non-aircraft emissions. These latter emissions are commonly referred to as ‘Scope 1’ emissions – the emissions directly in control of airport companies.20 It is estimated that Scope 1 emissions for an airport are typically only a small percentage (about 2%) of an airport’s carbon footprint if the whole-of-flight carbon footprint of departing aircraft is taken into account.21 When developing a carbon inventory for an airport, aircraft emissions are referred to as ‘Scope 3’emissions – typically the greenhouse gases emitted in the LTO (landing and take-off) cycle comprise about 8% of the total footprint while the whole-of-flight emissions make up about 90% of the footprint. The ACI (Airports Council International) recommends emissions from entire flights be included in airport inventories for ‘completeness and credibility’.22 When carrying out an aviation network carbon footprinting exercise the airports are the transport nodes and an understanding of individual airport (aircraft flight) footprints is fundamental to an understanding of potential carbon management measures and impacts. From an airport’s perspective it is important that it has a clear understanding of its whole-of-flight departing aircraft carbon footprint for a number of reasons. In particular, when an airport puts forward proposals for new developments (eg a new runway) the decision makers need be able to ascertain the potential increase in Scope 3 emissions that will be induced by the proposed infrastructure upgrade (for example in environmental assessment or master planning processes). Clearly, expanding airport infrastructure (eg a new runway) directly facilitates growth in an airport’s whole of flight carbon footprint. Reporting Scope 3 emissions is also important from the point of view of transparency and the establishment of community support for airports. Local communities are interested in understanding the full carbon implications of their airports. If airport carbon footprinting is solely restricted to Scope 1 emissions there is likely to be a breakdown in trust - any perceived attempt to grossly understate carbon emissions may act as a trigger for intense, and possibly hostile, public scrutiny of an airport.

20

Greenhouse Gas Protocol: http://www.ghgprotocol.org/ Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory 2006. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. http://www.airportattorneys.com/files/greenhousegas06.pdf 22 Airports Council International (ACI), p19, para 4.7.6: http://www.aci.aero/Publications/Full-PublicationsListing/Guidance-Manual-Airport-Greenhouse-Gas-Emissions-Management
21

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The computation of an aggregated carbon footprint for Scope 3 emissions is very straightforward for an airport that is generating aircraft noise contours using the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) – these contours are commonly generated as part of EIA and Master Planning processes. The INM files for an airport noise forecast contain all the operational information that is required to compute an aggregated carbon footprint for the airport – the aircraft type and stage length data in the INM input data can be translated into CO2 data by reference to the distance/fuel use tables published on the ICAO website. This approach adopts an average distance for each INM stage length rather than computing the actual great circle distance for any given city-pair – this will induce errors but they are not likely to be significant in the context of a traffic forecast (which inherently has large errors). It is important to be aware that airport naming is deliberately not consistent throughout this report. In some tables and charts airports have been grouped using city names to allow the user to gain an appreciation of the carbon footprint of a city, rather than an airport, when comparing competing transport options (eg when comparing air v rail the interest is usually in the number of passenger movements between a city pair rather than an airport pair). However, throughout this chapter the airports have been individually identified by their IATA codes to enable the user to examine airport specific footprints. There is further discussion on this issue in Section 6.2 This Chapter, and Profile F2 in Part II of the report, provide carbon footprint profiles (essentially whole of flight Scope 3 emissions) for the top 20 airports in the domestic operations carbon footprint hierarchy. In addition, Profile F3 in Part II contains a carbon footprint listing for the top 1,000 global domestic airports.

3.2

Airport Footprint Overview

Figure 3.1 shows the ranking of the top 30 airports in the world by CO2 footprint of departing domestic aircraft. Figure 3.2 puts the airports in Figure 3.1 in perspective by comparing the domestic carbon footprints with the international and total footprints – this figure shows the top 30 airports ranked by total footprint. The domestic hierarchy is not particularly diverse - 22 of the top 30 airports are in the United States, 6 are in China and there is 1 airport in both Japan and Indonesia. By way of contrast, when considering the top 30 hierarchy for the total footprint eighteen different countries are represented and there are only two United States airports in the top 11. The carbon footprint of many airports appears to be heavily weighted toward either domestic or international operations – this is not necessarily reflected in the numerical split of international/domestic operations since airports often have large numbers of short haul operations which add very little to the total carbon footprint. The top 30 airports in the domestic hierarchy make up about 35% of the global domestic footprint. The total footprint hierarchy shown in Figure 3.2 clearly demonstrates the dominant carbon position occupied by Heathrow (in both the ‘international’ and ‘total’ hierarchies) – no single airport dominates the domestic hierarchy in the same way. The maps in Figures 3.3 & 3.4 show the locations of the airports with the greatest carbon footprints in North America and a large part of Asia. These figures show clear differences in the pattern of the distribution of the key airports - in North America the airports are dispersed across the continent while in Asia the top carbon footprint domestic airports are much more geographically concentrated. Fifteen of the top global domestic airports (those with a domestic footprint > 2,000 kt of CO2) are located in North America while only three are located in Asia.

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Airport
Atlanta (ATL) Los Angeles (LAX) Beijing (PEK) Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Chicago (ORD) Denver (DEN) San Francisco (SFO) Tokyo (Haneda) Phoenix (PHX) Las Vegas (LAS) New York (JFK) Guangzhou (CAN) Seattle (SEA) Houston (IAH) Newark (EWR) Orlando (MCO) Minneapolis (MSP) Charlotte (CLT) Boston (BOS) Shanghai (SHA) Jakarta (CGK) New York (La Guardia) Philadelphia (PHL) Detroit (DTW) Chengdu (CTU) Zhenzhen (SZX) Honolulu (HNL) Miami (MIA) Shanghai (PVG) Fort Lauderdale (FLL) Other Airports

Domestic CO2 (kt)
5,382 4,997 4,297 4,269 4,139 3,696 3,641 3,553 2,959 2,920 2,764 2,503 2,495 2,438 2,238 2,206 2,136 2,001 1,972 1,972 1,888 1,866 1,861 1,815 1,794 1,780 1,622 1,572 1,560 1,488 145,893

CO2/PAX Cumulative % (kg)
133 209 136 160 143 151 209 105 158 163 209 127 180 144 167 152 143 105 156 121 105 130 138 130 131 128 252 166 129 162 105 117 2 5 7 8 10 12 13 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 33 34 35 35 100

Airport
London (Heathrow) Los Angeles (LAX) Dubai (DXB) New York (JFK) Frankfurt (FRA) Hong Kong (HKG) Paris (CDG) Singapore (SIN) Beijing (PEK) Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok (BKK) Atlanta (ATL) Chicago (ORD) Seoul (ICN) San Francisco (SFO) Amsterdam (AMS) Shanghai (PVG) Sydney (SYD) Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Newark (EWR) Madrid (MAD) Tokyo (Haneda) Sao Paulo (GRU) Miami (MIA) Toronto (YYZ) Kuala Lumpur (KUL) Houston (IAH) Istanbul (IST) Guangzhou (CAN) Denver (DEN)

Domestic CO2 (kt)
193 4,997 1 2,764 222 206 4,297 216 533 5,382 4,139 28 3,641 0 1,560 1,415 4,269 2,238 729 3,553 1,232 1,572 1,237 591 2,438 567 2,503 3,696

International CO2 (kt)
16,391 6,870 10,986 8,027 10,190 10,386 10,120 9,819 5,074 8,905 7,517 2,428 3,583 7,627 3,797 7,298 4,788 4,815 1,629 3,418 4,741 1,575 3,781 3,343 3,664 4,233 2,014 3,834 1,645 287

Total CO 2 (kt) 16,584
11,866 10,986 10,791 10,412 10,386 10,326 9,819 9,371 9,121 8,050 7,810 7,721 7,655 7,438 7,298 6,348 6,230 5,899 5,656 5,470 5,128 5,013 4,915 4,901 4,824 4,452 4,401 4,148 3,983

Total

225,716

Other Airports Total

171,497 225,716

185,754 358,538

357,251 584,254

Figure 3.1: Airport hierarchy – global domestic scheduled passenger movements 2012

Figure 3.2: Airport hierarchy – domestic/international footprint comparison global scheduled passenger movements 2012

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Figure 3.3: Domestic carbon footprint by airport – North America This map shows the carbon footprint associated with domestic departures from airports in North America. The airports are identified by the quantum of their carbon footprints – the details are shown in the legend. 42

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Figure 3.4: Domestic carbon footprint by airport - Asia This map shows the carbon footprint associated with domestic departures from airports in a large part of Asia. The airports are identified by the quantum of their carbon footprints – the details are shown in the legend.

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Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author Carbon Footprint Profile - Top 5 Domestic Airports

3.3

In a similar manner to the previous chapter, this chapter briefly discusses the carbon footprint profiles of the top 5 domestic airports ranked by the whole of flight carbon footprint of departing aircraft. Profiles of the top 20 global airports, ranked by total footprint, are contained in Profile F2 in Part II. In the hierarchy boxes in the profiles it is important to be aware that  airports have been grouped by city – see discussion in Section 6.2  domestic operations are defined using the UNFCCC definition – a domestic flight is one that lands and takes off within the same country – this means that foreign airlines appear in the ‘Airlines (Domestic)’ hierarchy [in this context ‘domestic’ refers to flights, not to the country of registration of the airline]. Atlanta (ATL) The carbon footprint profile for Atlanta shows:     a strong bias toward domestic operations – about 70% of the airport’s carbon footprint is generated by domestic operations in contrast to the other aircraft types encountered so far, the MD80 and the B757 dominate the domestic footprint (contributing about 55% of the footprint) there is a spread of destination airports, with broadly similar carbon footprints; the top 15 destination airports make up about 40% of the total domestic footprint Delta Airlines dominates the airport’s carbon footprint (making up about 75% of the domestic footprint); only a limited number of airlines contributed to the domestic footprint in 2012 – the top 4 airlines constitute about 95% of the domestic footprint the CO2 v Distance relationship shows a peak in the carbon footprint in the 500-1,000km range which also correlates with a peak in movement numbers; the domestic footprint contains flights up to the 3,000-5,000km range the ‘Other Indicators’ box indicates a CO2/PAX for domestic that is below the average for the US but somewhat above the global average.

Los Angeles (LAX) The Los Angeles carbon footprint profile shows:

 

a carbon footprint breakdown between domestic and international which approximates to the global split – 60% international and 40% domestic the B737, B757 and the A320 dominate the domestic footprint (contributing about 70% of the total); a relatively small proportion of the domestic footprint is carried out in wide bodied aircraft New York (JFK), the domestic destination airport with the greatest footprint, has a footprint approaching twice that of the next airport (Chicago); three of the airports in the top 15 domestic destinations are located in the Pacific (Hawaii + Guam); the top 15 airports make up about 65% of the LAX domestic footprint 44

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Atlanta (ATL)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% International MD80 B757 B767 B737 B777 CRJ B717 A330 A320 B747 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
5,382 2,428

Total
7,810

Other Indicators
2,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

133

40% 30% 20%
10% 0% Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 988 International CO2/PAX (kg) 476 Distance/trip (km) 3,994 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 171 Distance/trip (km) 1,214
Mvts
200,000 150,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Los Angeles New York (La Guardia) Las Vegas Chicago San Francisco Washington DC Dallas-Fort Worth Denver Phoenix Seattle Fort Lauderdale Houston Orlando Boston Philadelphia Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 231 168 159 155 148 143 142 133 127 126 125 118 114 107 106 3,280 5,382

Airlines (Domestic) Delta Air Lines AirTran Airways Southwest Airlines American Airlines United Airlines US Airways Spirit Airlines Frontier Airlines Alaska Airlines Continental Airlines Island Air Pacific Wings Vision Airlines Asiana Airlines Hainan Airlines Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 4,159 758 126 117 75 74 20 20 18 12 2 0 0 0 0 0 5,382

CO2 (kt)
2,500 2,000

CO2 v Distance

1,500
1,000 500 -

100,000
50,000 -50,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Los Angeles (LAX)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% International B777 B747 B737 B757 A320 B767 A380 A340 A330 CRJ Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500

Domestic International
4,997 6,870

Total
11,866

Other Indicators
3,000 3,500

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

209

40% 30% 20%
10% 0% Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,753 International CO2/PAX (kg) 832 Distance/trip (km) 6,275 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 368 Distance/trip (km) 2,482
Mvts
70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) New York (JFK) Chicago Honolulu Atlanta Washington DC Dallas-Fort Worth Miami Boston Houston Kahului San Francisco Newark Agana Denver Philadelphia Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 667 351 339 232 228 207 180 162 160 154 144 140 137 128 107 1,660 4,997

Airlines (Domestic) American Airlines United Airlines Delta Air Lines Southwest Airlines Virgin America US Airways Philippine Airlines Alaska Airlines JetBlue Airways Hawaiian Airlines Continental Airlines AirTran Airways Qantas Airways Spirit Airlines Frontier Airlines Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 1,261 1,154 857 509 325 148 140 131 110 90 70 53 44 33 32 40 4,997

CO2 (kt)
3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Los Angeles (LAX) (continued)  American and United Airlines are dominant – together they contribute about 50% of the domestic footprint; the top 5 airlines make up about 80% of the footprint the CO2 v Distance element shows a high number of movements in the up to 500km range (but these only make a small contribution to the domestic footprint); the bulk of the domestic footprint is generated by flights in the 3,000—5,000km range the ‘Other Indicators’ box indicates the relatively long distance of the average domestic flight from LAX (>1,700km); coupled with the long distance for the average international flight (LAX is a hub for flights across the Pacific into SE Asia and Australiasia) gives a total CO2/PAX which is significantly greater than the other top 5 airports and the global average.

Beijing (PEK) The Beijing carbon footprint profile shows:

 

that domestic operations contribute just under half of the airport’s carbon footprint narrow bodied aircraft dominate the domestic footprint (together the B737 and the A320 comprise about 65% of the domestic footprint); the A330 makes a significant contribution to the domestic footprint the top 3 destination airports make up about 25% of the domestic footprint; the top 15 airports make up about 65% of the domestic footprint the domestic footprint of Air China, the top airline, is about twice that of the second airline (China Southern Airlines); relatively few domestic airlines contribute significantly to the domestic footprint – the top 6 airlines make up about 95% of the footprint the CO2 v Distance element reveals that the domestic footprint predominantly lies in the range 500-2,500km; there are relatively few operations travelling less than 500km the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows a domestic CO2/PAX value which is somwhat above the global average and similar to the figure for Atlanta.

 

 

Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) The Dallas-Fort Worth carbon footprint profile shows:

 

the airport’s carbon footprint is heavily weighted toward domestic operations – more than 70% of the footprint derives from domestic operations the MD80 is overwhelming the No 1 aircraft type (about 50% of the domestic footprint); the domestic footprint is almost exclusively generated by narrow bodied aircraft (>95% of the total footprint) there is a relatively even spread of the domestic carbon footprint between destination airports – the top 15 destination airports make up less than 50% of the footprint American Airlines dominates the footprint (about 85% of the DFW domestic footprint); effectively only 10 airlines made significant contributions to the airport’s domestic footprint in 2012

 

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Beijing (PEK)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% A330 B737 B777 A320 B747 A340 B767 A380 B757 A300 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
4,297 5,074

Total
9,371

Other Indicators
2,000 2,500

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

136

International

40% 30% 20%
10% 0% Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,265 International CO2/PAX (kg) 504 Distance/trip (km) 4,326 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 225 Distance/trip (km) 1,832
Mvts
80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Shanghai Guangzhou Zhenzhen Chengdu Kunming Urumqi Chongqing Hangzhou Xi'an Xiamen Sanya Wuhan Haikou Changsha Harbin Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 498 386 308 258 188 176 139 136 133 104 103 96 87 87 84 1,513 4,297

Airlines (Domestic) Air China China Southern Airlines China Eastern Airlines Hainan Airlines Xiamen Airlines Sichuan Airlines Shenzhen Airlines Shanghai Airlines Shandong Airlines Grand China Air Deer Jet Chongqing Airlines Grand China Express Air Lucky Air Spring Airlines Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 1,790 891 667 439 129 102 73 45 42 39 38 12 11 9 5 5 4,297

CO2 (kt)
2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% International MD80 B737 B777 RJ140 B767 B757 A320 B747 CRJ A330 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type

Domestic International
4,269 1,629

Total
5,899

Other Indicators
2,000 2,500

0

500

1,000

1,500

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

160

40% 30% 20%
10% 0%

Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,254 International CO2/PAX (kg) 507 Distance/trip (km) 3,341 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 197 Distance/trip (km) 1,426
Mvts
90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Los Angeles New York (La Guardia) San Francisco Washington DC Chicago Atlanta Boston Seattle Denver Las Vegas Miami Phoenix Philadelphia Newark Charlotte Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 203 165 152 149 148 142 110 108 106 103 96 94 93 92 89 2,420 4,269

Airlines (Domestic) American Airlines Delta Air Lines United Airlines US Airways Spirit Airlines Virgin America Frontier Airlines Alaska Airlines JetBlue Airways Continental Airlines Sun Country Airlines Cathay Pacific

CO2 (kt) 3,633 164 127 119 93 47 26 26 15 14 4 0

CO2 (kt)
1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 4,269

Total Movements Domestic

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Dallas-Forth Worth (DFW) (continued)

the CO2 v Distance element reveals a relatively high number of movements of less than 500km (but only making a small contribution to the domestic carbon footprint); most of the domestic carbon footprint was generated by flights travelling between 500 and 2,500km the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows a domestic CO2/PAX which is broadly of the same magnitude of the other airports (LAX is the exception).

Chicago (ORD) The Chicago carbon footprint profile shows:

 

an almost equal split between domestic and international contributions to the carbon footprint the domestic footprint is almost totally derived from narrow bodied aircraft; ORD is the only airport in the top 5 where the carbon footprint generated by the A320 exceeds that of the B737 there is a fairly even footprint spread across the top 15 destination airports – these airports contribute about 50% of the domestic footprint two airlines – United and American – dominate the domestic footprint; together they make up about 85% of the footprint; only 9 airlines made a significant contribution to the airport’s domestic footprint in 2012 the CO2 v Distance element reveals an interesting bimodal picture with prominent CO2 peaks in the 1,000-1,500km and the 2,500-3,000km ranges; there were a significant number of movements in the less than 500km range but, consistent with most other airports, these made a relatively small contribution to the domestic footprint the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows a domestic CO2/PAX which is broadly of the same magnitude of the other airports (LAX is the exception).

 

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Chicago (ORD)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% B777 A320 B737 RJ140 B767 MD80 B747 B757 CRJ A330 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
4,139 3,583

Total
7,721

Other Indicators
2,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

143

International

40% 30% 20%
10% 0% Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,073 International CO2/PAX (kg) 639 Distance/trip (km) 4,051 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 224 Distance/trip (km) 1,373
Mvts
140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) San Francisco Los Angeles New York (La Guardia) Dallas-Fort Worth Seattle Washington DC Las Vegas Boston Phoenix Denver Miami Houston San Diego Newark Atlanta Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 284 278 207 148 142 133 128 121 115 101 100 93 91 86 86 2,026 4,139

Airlines (Domestic) United Airlines American Airlines Delta Air Lines Spirit Airlines US Airways Virgin America Alaska Airlines Continental Airlines JetBlue Airways Hainan Airlines Air Choice One Frontier Airlines Iberia Airlines Asiana Airlines Korean Air Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 1,961 1,604 151 119 115 59 57 45 26 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 4,139

CO2 (kt)
1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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The Airlines
4.1 Introduction
This chapter examines the carbon footprint of the scheduled domestic passenger flights from the perspective of the airlines. This chapter adopts the same format and approach as the previous two chapters - focussing on the top 5 airlines and using carbon footprint profiles as the tool to provide some details of the footprints. Profile F4 in Part II contains profiles for the top 20 airlines ranked by total carbon footprint. Figure 4.1 gives the hierarchy for the top 30 airlines operating on global domestic routes. Figure 4.2 places this information in context by comparing it with the international footprint for the top 30 airlines ranked by total carbon footprint. The entries in Figure 4.2 are ranked in order of decreasing total carbon footprint. The top 5 airlines make up about 35% of the global domestic footprint, while the top 10 make up close to 50% of that footprint. When considering the total footprint the top airlines make significant contributions. United Airlines and Delta Airlines, which head the list, would occupy the 3rd and 4th positions in the country hierarchy if they were countries. The domestic/international comparison in Figure 4.2 shows that while the top 3 airlines have significant domestic and international footprints many of the major international airlines have no, or very small, domestic footprints. By way of contrast, Southwest Airlines has a very significant domestic footprint (no 3 in the domestic hierarchy) but does not operate international services. It is not the intention of this chapter to compare the relative climate change performance of competing airlines. The high level great circle carbon computation methodology adopted in this report would not allow robust comparisons even if this were a goal. This chapter is simply aimed at presenting a comprehensible picture of the composition of the airline footprints in order to raise awareness, aid understanding and to generate thinking on new approaches to managing aviation’s carbon footprint.

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Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

Airline
Delta Air Lines United Airlines Southwest Airlines American Airlines US Airways China Southern Airlines China Eastern Airlines Air China All Nippon Airways JetBlue Airways TAM Airlines Alaska Airlines VRG Linhas Aereas Qantas Airways Japan Airlines AirTran Airways Air Canada Hainan Airlines Shenzhen Airlines Xiamen Airlines Lion Air Virgin Australia Continental Airlines WestJet Sichuan Airlines LAN Airlines Frontier Airlines Air France Saudi Arabian Airlines Indigo Airlines Other Airlines

Domestic CO2 (kt)
19,651 17,658 15,557 14,946 9,291 8,152 6,171 5,562 5,288 3,952 3,712 3,617 3,392 3,314 3,110 2,923 2,899 2,652 2,407 2,249 2,110 2,072 2,015 1,889 1,750 1,709 1,622 1,598 1,598 1,484 71,367

CO2/PAX (kg)
137 155 128 165 119 124 115 134 102 164 114 153 97 130 102 152 134 128 123 122 97 119 149 130 124 105 148 83 103 108 96.0

Cumulative %
9 17 24 30 34 38 41 43 46 47 49 51 52 54 55 56 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 64 65 66 67 67 68 69 100

Airline
United Airlines Delta Air Lines American Airlines Emirates Airline Lufthansa British Airways Southwest Airlines Air France US Airways China Southern Airlines Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific Air China KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Air Canada All Nippon Airways China Eastern Airlines Qantas Airways Korean Air Ryanair Turkish Airlines Qatar Airways Japan Airlines Thai Airways International TAM Airlines Easyjet Iberia Airlines Saudi Arabian Airlines Etihad Airways JetBlue Airways

Domestic CO2 (kt)
17,658 19,651 14,946 1,162 684 15,557 1,598 9,291 8,152 37 45 5,562 21 2,899 5,288 6,171 3,314 503 1,083 1,266 35 3,110 560 3,712 898 1,018 1,598 2 3,952

International CO2 (kt)
14,584 12,527 9,569 17,333 15,344 15,769 12,347 2,751 2,690 10,498 10,135 4,108 9,072 6,179 3,689 2,791 5,181 7,981 6,803 6,171 7,366 3,991 6,308 2,634 4,629 4,200 3,195 4,779 730

Total CO 2 (kt)
32,242 32,178 24,516 17,333 16,506 16,453 15,557 13,945 12,042 10,843 10,535 10,180 9,670 9,093 9,078 8,977 8,961 8,495 8,483 7,886 7,437 7,402 7,101 6,868 6,346 5,527 5,217 4,792 4,781 4,682

Total

225,716

117

Other Airlines Total

95,945 225,716

145,183 358,538

241,128 584,254

Figure 4.1: Airline hierarchy – global domestic scheduled passenger movements 2012

Figure 4.2: Airline hierarchy – domestic/international footprint comparison global scheduled passenger movements 2012

53

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Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

4.2

Carbon Footprint Profile - Top 5 Domestic Airlines

This section uses carbon footprint profiles to provide an insight into the carbon footprints of the top 5 domestic airlines by CO2 footprint size (ie the airlines which emitted the greatest amount of CO2 on domestic operations). In the hierarchy boxes in the profiles it is important to be aware that

 airports have been grouped by city – see discussion in Section 6.2
 domestic operations are defined using the UNFCCC definition – a domestic flight is one that lands and takes off within the same country – this means that foreign airlines appear in the ‘Airlines (Domestic)’ hierarchy [in this context ‘domestic’ refers to flights, not to the country of registration of the airline]. Delta Airlines The Delta carbon footprint profile shows:   about 60% of the Delta carbon footprint derives from domestic operations the Delta domestic footprint derives almost totally from narrow bodied aircraft – the B757 and the MD80 are the two leading aircraft types (together they contribute about 45% of the domestic footprint); regional jets also makes a prominent contribution (more than 20% of the footprint) the footprint associated with departures from Atlanta makes up about 20% of the Delta domestic footprint; the Atlanta footprint is more than twice the size of the sum of the next two origin airports; the top 15 airports contribute about 65% of the domestic footprint 12 of the top 15 domestic carbon footprint routes involve flights to/from Atlanta; the top carbon footprint route for Delta - Atlanta-Los Angeles – is significantly larger than the other routes; most of the other routes in the top 15 are of broadly similar magnitude the CO2 v Distance element shows peaks in the 500-1,000km and the 3,000-5,000km ranges for domestic flights; the airline operates a significant number of flights which travel less than 500km – these only make a moderate contribution to the domestic carbon footprint the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows a domestic CO2/PAX which is broadly of the same magnitude as the airports (in particular Atlanta – which would be expected given the dominant position Delta occupies at ATL).

United Airlines The United carbon footprint profile shows:

 

domestic operations contribute about 55% of the United total footprint the United domestic footprint is predominantly generated by narrow bodied aircraft; there is a small domestic contribution by B777 and B767 aircraft; there is a notable contribution from regional jets (about 25% of the domestic footprint); a turbo prop (the Brasilia) appears in the listing the top 7 origin airports are prominent compared to the other airports; collectively these make up about 60% of United’s domestic footprint 54

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

Delta Air Lines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Atlanta Minneapolis Detroit Salt Lake City Los Angeles New York (JFK) New York (La Guardia) San Francisco Las Vegas Orlando Memphis Seattle Covington Washington DC Boston Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 4,159 1,604 1,409 969 857 791 733 385 369 363 329 325 300 273 258 6,528 19,651

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
19,651 12,527

Total
32,178

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 B757 B767 MD80 CRJ A320 A330 B737 B777 B747 Embraer 170/190 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 137 1,018 483 3,959 190 1,278
Mvts
800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles 55 Atlanta-Chicago Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author
Footprint CO2 (kt) Domestic International
17,658 14,584

United Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Chicago San Francisco Houston Denver Newark Washington DC Los Angeles Honolulu Cleveland Boston Seattle Las Vegas New York (JFK) San Diego Orlando Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,961 1,691 1,648 1,462 1,319 1,157 1,154 454 346 311 303 296 247 231 231 4,848 17,658

Total
32,242

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 B757 B737 A320 B747 RJ140 B767 CRJ Embraer 170/190 Embraer Brasilia Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 155 1,142 505 3,274 226 1,428
Mvts
500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles 56 Atlanta-Chicago Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

United Airlines (continued)   the top 15 routes are broadly of the same magnitude; the top 10 United routes involve flights to/from the west coast of the US the CO2 v Distance profile shows that United has its highest number of operations in the <500km range but this makes only a small contribution to the domestic footprint; the greatest contribution to the domestic footprint comes from the 3,000-5,000km range the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows United has a domestic CO2/PAX which is broadly of the same magnitude as American Airlines but somewhat larger than the other 3 airlines in the top 5.

Southwest Airlines The Southwest Airlines carbon footprint profile shows:    a carbon footprint that is distinctly different from the other top 5 airlines - the footprint is totally associated with domestic operations the airline operates only one aircraft type - the B737 Chicago (consolidated airports – Southwest flies to Chicago Midway) and Las Vegas are the only airports on the Southwest network where the airline’s departures generate a footprint which is over 1,000kt of CO2; the airline operates out of a broad range of airports across the US four of the top 5 routes involves Chicago (Midway); the carbon footprints of the top 15 routes are broadly of the same magnitude the CO2 v Departures element shows a peak of operations and carbon footprint contribution in the 500-1,000km range; about 75% of the footprint comes from flights of less than 2,000km; Southwest has a relatively small number of operations in the <500km range the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows Southwest has an average distance per domestic trip which is broadly similar to that of Delta, United and American but has a domestic CO2/PAX which is lower than the other airlines.

 

American Airlines The American Airlines carbon footprint profile shows:   about 60% of the airlines operations carbon footprint comes from domestic flights the airline operates aircraft from 8 aircraft families – the MD80, B737 and the B757 make the major contribution to the domestic carbon footprint (about 75% of the footprint); B767 make a meaningful contribution to the domestic footprint (about 10% of the footprint); regional aircraft make a contribution of about 15% Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) dominates as the airline’s operating base – the airline’s domestic footprint associated with DFW is approximately twice that of the next three airports combined; operations from the top 4 airports make up just over 50% of the airline’s domestic carbon footprint about half of the top 15 routes involve flights to/from DFW

57

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author
Footprint CO2 (kt) Domestic International
15,557 0

Southwest Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Chicago Las Vegas Denver Phoenix Baltimore Houston Orlando Los Angeles Oakland San Diego St. Louis Tampa Dallas Love Field Nashville Kansas City Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,242 1,145 965 920 854 615 540 509 418 412 407 382 378 366 300 6,103 15,557

Total
15,557

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 128 1,087

Domestic

Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

128 1,087
Mvts
500,000 400,000

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 5,000
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles 58 Atlanta-Chicago Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) 300,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 200,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 100,000 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author
Domestic International
14,946 9,569

American Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Dallas-Fort Worth Chicago Miami Los Angeles New York (JFK) New York (La Guardia) San Francisco Washington DC Boston Las Vegas Orlando St. Louis Honolulu San Juan (US) Seattle Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 3,633 1,604 1,268 1,261 626 441 382 319 286 228 191 170 166 164 163 4,043 14,946

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Total
24,516

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 MD80 B737 B777 B767 B757 RJ140 CRJ ATR Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 165 1,219 369 2,689 210 1,460
Mvts
300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 5,000
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles 59 Atlanta-Chicago Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

American Airlines (continued)  the CO2 v Distance element is similar to that for United and US Airways with a relatively high number of operations, but low carbon contribution, in the <500km range; the greatest contribution to the domestic footprint is from flights in the 1,500-2,000km range the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows a domestic CO2/PAX which is higher than the other airlines in the top 5.

US Airways The US Airways carbon footprint profile shows:      the airline is predominantly a domestic operator – about 80% of its operations carbon footprint arises from domestic operations the domestic footprint is dominated by the A320 (about 55% of the domestic footprint); regional jets make an important contribution to the footprint; the origin airport hierarchy shows three key origin airports make up about 45% of the airline’s domestic footprint about half of the top 15 routes involve flights to/from Charlotte the CO2 v Distance element shows a relatively high number of operations, coupled with a relatively high carbon contribution, in the <500km range; the 500-1,000km range makes the greatest contribution to the domestic carbon footprint; there is also a peak in the carbon footprint in the 3,000-5,000km range the ‘Other Indicators’ box shows a domestic CO2/PAX which is lower than the other top 5 airlines and indicates a focus on shorter domestic routes.

60

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author
Footprint CO2 (kt) Domestic International
9,291 2,751

US Airways
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Charlotte Phoenix Philadelphia Washington DC Boston New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles Las Vegas San Francisco Orlando Dallas-Fort Worth Chicago Fort Lauderdale Tampa Pittsburgh Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,754 1,365 1,179 525 216 166 148 147 144 141 119 115 110 109 106 2,945 9,291

Total
12,042

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 A320 CRJ A330 Embraer 170/190 B737 B757 B767 Dash 8 RJ140 Saab 340 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 119 877 336 2,436 139 980
Mvts
500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles 61 Atlanta-Chicago Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

Monetising Carbon
5.1 Introduction
To this point in the document the focus has been on computing and reporting the quantum of CO2 that is generated by aircraft engaged in scheduled domestic passenger operations. This chapter converts the earlier carbon footprint information into monetary terms. The text in the following paragraphs essentially repeats that in Chapter 7 in the international book in the trilogy since the fundamental principles apply equally to both domestic and international aviation. The monetary information shown has been restricted solely to domestic carbon footprints. While the focus of international debate has been on the implementation of market based measures (MBM) for international aviation, MBMs have been applied to aviation at the regional or domestic level in recent years in a number of places (eg Europe, Australia and New Zealand). The basic building block for examination of any potential MBM is knowledge of the quantum of CO2, and the equivalent monetary value, associated with the options being considered. For example, when considering the introduction of a partial MBM the policy developer will need to know, say, the carbon costs associated with particular regions or with one or a small number of routes. What will be the costs for the industry? What will be the costs for the travellers? An understanding of potential carbon revenues from the individual subsectors of aviation is likewise essential if decision makers are to be aware of the magnitude of funds that could be available for climate change expenditure. The issue of introducing market based measures is clearly complex and will be a matter of ongoing debate. In keeping with the thrust of this document, this chapter is not intended to present arguments either for or against the introduction of these measures but is rather aimed at providing information that will assist the debate. In broad terms this chapter has been structured in a way that takes selected figures from earlier in the document and simply converts CO2 values to $ values. A carbon price of $20/tonne has been used for the computations as this is a value that is commonly used when considering generic carbon price scenarios. It is recognised that this price significantly exceeds the carbon price in Europe (at time of writing just over $5/tonne) but it is less than the carbon price in Australia of $24.15/tonne which is currently being paid by domestic aviation operators. If desired the reader can readily factor an alternative carbon price into the computations by simple multiplication. The $ values shown in this chapter show the costs/revenues if some form of carbon charge were imposed on all the CO2 emitted by all aircraft captured under an MBM regime. This situation currently applies in Australia for all domestic aviation under the Australian Government’s carbon pricing regime. However, under other MBM regimes, either mooted or in place, measures such as grandfathered allocations or carbon neutral growth (based on a particular year) result in the carbon charge only being imposed on a portion of the total CO2 emissions. In order to present a balanced picture, carbon values are shown both in terms of total revenue/costs and per person costs. Quoting total carbon costs typically gives an impression of large financial imposts or revenues while reporting carbon costs on a per passenger basis often suggests relatively small impacts. While this chapter highlights particular aspects of the carbon footprint, any CO2 value in the report can of course be converted into $ terms through simple multiplication. 62

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author Countries – Monetised Domestic Footprint

5.2

Country
United States China Japan Brazil Russia Australia India Indonesia Canada Mexico Spain Italy Turkey France Germany Saudi Arabia Philippines South Africa Malaysia United Kingdom Thailand Colombia South Korea Norway Vietnam Chile Argentina Iran New Zealand Peru Other Countries

CO2 CO2 Value Cost/PAX 6 ($x10 ) ($)
1,939 736 211 196 150 141 125 113 110 68 55 51 40 39 36 34 34 31 30 30 29 26 25 25 23 20 20 18 15 14 131 2.9 2.4 2.0 2.0 3.8 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.2 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.4 2.1 1.7 2.2 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.2 1.5 2.1 1.4

Figure 5.1 converts the CO2 values in Figure 2.3 into monetary values. It shows the total monetary value of the CO2 generated by domestic operations within the top 30 countries ranked by domestic footprint. It also shows the carbon costs per passenger. It can be seen that if a carbon charge of $20/tonne had been in place for all global scheduled domestic passenger aircraft departures in 2012 approximately $4.5 billion would have been raised. On average this would have equated to a carbon charge of around $2.30 per passenger. Not surprisingly the higher costs per passenger are associated with countries with large land areas and major economic centres which are relatively widely spaced. In 2012 Russia would have had the highest average cost/passenger ($3.80) and South Korea the lowest ($1.20).

Total

4,514

2.3

Figure 5.1: Monetised CO2 by country

63

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Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

5.3

Airports – Monetised Domestic Footprint

One option that is not frequently canvassed is to introduce climate change action at the airport level. Nevertheless, knowledge of the airport carbon costs and/or revenues enables informed thinking about options.

Airport
Atlanta (ATL) Los Angeles (LAX) Beijing (PEK) Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Chicago (ORD) Denver (DEN) San Francisco (SFO) Tokyo (Haneda) Phoenix (PHX) Las Vegas (LAS) New York (JFK) Guangzhou (CAN) Seattle (SEA) Houston (IAH) Newark (EWR) Orlando (MCO) Minneapolis (MSP) Charlotte (CLT) Boston (BOS) Shanghai (SHA) Jakarta (CGK) New York (La Guardia) Philadelphia (PHL) Detroit (DTW) Chengdu (CTU) Zhenzhen (SZX) Honolulu (HNL) Miami (MIA) Shanghai (PVG) Fort Lauderdale (FLL) Other Airports

CO2 CO2 Value Cost/PAX 6 ($x10 ) ($)
108 100 86 85 83 74 73 71 59 58 55 50 50 49 45 44 43 40 39 39 38 37 37 36 36 36 32 31 31 30 2,918 2.7 4.2 2.7 3.2 2.9 3.0 4.2 2.1 3.2 3.3 4.2 2.5 3.6 2.9 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.1 3.1 2.4 2.1 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.6 5.0 3.3 2.6 3.2 2.1 2.3

Figure 5.2, which monetises the carbon footprint associated with the top 30 airports shown in Figure 3.1, shows the revenue that would have been generated if a carbon charge of $20/tonne had been imposed by airports on departing domestic passengers in 2012. Consistent with Figure 5.1, the average cost per passenger would have been $2.30. The magnitude of the average cost per passenger is primarily related to the geographic location of the airport and its distance from its major city pairs. Honolulu is the airport with the highest average cost/passenger ($5); a number of the airports have an average cost/passenger just over $2. In 2012 two airports would have generated an income of over $100 million and a further 11 would have generated an income of between $50 and $100 from domestic operations if a carbon charge of $20/tonne had been in place.

Total

4,514

Figure 5.2: Monetised CO2 by airport

64

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Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

5.4

Routes – Monetised Domestic Footprint

Figure 5.3 converts Figure 2.6 (top 30 routes) into monetary terms. It can be seen that in 2012 more than 20 global domestic routes would each have generated in excess of $10 million dollars if a route based carbon charge of $20/tonne had been in place. The greatest cost/passenger would have been $7.10 (Los Angeles-Honolulu) and the lowest $1.30 (Keku-Seoul and Rio de Janeiro – San Paulo). Further domestic route monetary values can easily be derived from the alphabetic listing of the footprints of the world’s top 1,000 domestic routes which is shown in ProfileF5 in Part II.

Route
New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Sapporo/Chitose-Tokyo (Haneda) Beijing-Shanghai Fukuoka-Tokyo (Haneda) New York (JFK)-San Francisco Tokyo (Haneda)-Okinawa Beijing-Guangzhou Melbourne-Sydney Los Angeles-Chicago Los Angeles-Honolulu Keku-Seoul Vancouver-Toronto Cape Town-Johannesburg Chicago-San Francisco Beijing-Zhenzhen Mumbai-Delhi Perth-Sydney Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City Beijing-Chengdu Jeddah-Riyadh Melbourne-Perth Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo Zhenzhen-Shanghai Guangzhou-Shanghai New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Jakarta-Medan Washington DC-Los Angeles Atlanta-Los Angeles Washington DC-San Francisco Itami-Tokyo (Haneda) Other Routes

CO2 Value 6 ($x10 )
27 23 20 19 19 17 16 15 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4,117

CO2 Cost/PAX ($)
6.3 2.4 2.7 2.6 6.7 3.6 4.1 1.8 4.9 7.1 1.3 5.7 2.7 5.1 3.9 2.3 6.4 2.9 3.0 2.5 5.1 1.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 6.3 5.6 6.1 1.7 2.3

Total

4,514
Figure 5.3: Monetised CO2 by route

2.3

65

CONTENTS:

Observations Introduction Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

5.5

Airlines – Monetised Domestic Footprint

Current MBMs which capture aviation do so through, in one way or another, imposing the liability on the airlines. Ultimately this carbon charge is passed on to the airlines’ customers.

Airline
Delta Air Lines United Airlines Southwest Airlines American Airlines US Airways China Southern Airlines China Eastern Airlines Air China All Nippon Airways JetBlue Airways TAM Airlines Alaska Airlines VRG Linhas Aereas Qantas Airways Japan Airlines AirTran Airways Air Canada Hainan Airlines Shenzhen Airlines Xiamen Airlines Lion Air Virgin Australia Continental Airlines WestJet Sichuan Airlines LAN Airlines Frontier Airlines Air France Saudi Arabian Airlines Indigo Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 CO2 Value Cost/PAX 6 ($x10 ) ($)
393 353 311 299 186 163 123 111 106 79 74 72 68 66 62 58 58 53 48 45 42 41 40 38 35 34 32 32 32 30 1,427 2.7 3.1 2.6 3.3 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.7 2.0 3.3 2.3 3.1 1.9 2.6 2.0 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 1.9 2.4 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.1 3.0 1.7 2.1 2.2 1.9

Figure 5.4 shows the revenue to the airlines (or conversely the cost to the airlines) that would have resulted if airlines had imposed a $20/tonne CO2 charge in 2012 on domestic operations (say to recoup a government imposed tax). The figure, which monetises Figure 4.1, also shows the average cost/passenger that would have been incurred by passengers of the separate airlines. American Airlines and JetBlue Airways would have had the highest per passenger carbon charge ($3.30); a number of airlines would had a carbon cost of around $2.00 per passenger. Nine airlines would have generated carbon revenues exceeding $100 million in 2012 if a $20/tonne CO2 charge had been in place.

Total

4,514

2.3

Figure 5.4: Monetised CO2 by airline

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Computation and Validation
6.1 Background
This chapter gives an overview of the methodology and tools used to generate the information contained in this report. In particular, it is directed at providing an indication of the robustness of the computed CO2 values. One of the key aims of the author in preparing the first book in the trilogy - The Carbon Footprint of Aircraft Operations in Australia – 201123 in 2012 was to test a methodology for carrying out simplified approaches to computing and reporting the carbon footprint of aircraft operations. The outcome of that book led to the same carbon counting methodology being adopted in the second book in the trilogy – Aviation Carbon Footprint: Global Scheduled International Passenger Flights – 2012. Both of these books contain a chapter which discusses the validation of the carbon footprinting methodology used to develop the information in the books. The carbon footprinting approach used in this current document is also based on the methodology used in the first two books. In order to facilitate cross referencing, as far as possible the layout and wording in this chapter is identical or similar to the wording in the validation chapters in the earlier books. The reader is encouraged to look at the validation work in the earlier books (Chapter 6 in the first book and Chapter 8 in the second book) in conjunction with the material contained in this chapter. All the information in this report has been generated using a standard home computer; publicly available data sets; and the application of free and/or reasonably priced commercially available non-expert software. The carbon footprinting of aviation is very much aided by the fact that there is a great deal of publicly available data about aircraft operations. However, when examining the carbon footprint at the global level there are many gaps in the data and care needs to be taken in interpreting the applicability of the CO2 data. The data in this book only relates to a subset of the total global domestic aviation carbon footprint, namely scheduled domestic passenger flights in 2012. Section 6.4 contains discussion about the other contributors to the global domestic footprint and provides estimates of the magnitude of the current data gaps.

6.2

Computation and Reporting

Input Data
All the information in the report has been derived from an operations dataset for global scheduled passenger aircraft operations for the year 2012. This dataset was purchased from Innovata, a US based company that specialises in ‘…the aggregation, management and distribution of…travel data’.24 The dataset file size is approximately 5MB and was provided as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet containing 148,734 rows and 6 columns – an extract from the file is shown in Figure 6.1.

23

The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/02/01/aviation-carbon-footprint-reporting/ 24 Innovata: http://www.innovata-llc.com/

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Origin Destination Equipment SubEquipment Airline TotalFlts AAA MKP ATR ATR VT 27 AAA PPT ATR ATR VT 10 AAE ALG 737 736 AH 382 AAE ALG 737 738 AH 79 AAE ALG ATR ATR AH 595 AAE CDG 32S 319 ZI 104 AAE LYS 737 738 AH 116 AAE MRS 32S 319 ZI 156 AAE MRS 737 738 AH 181 AAE ORN ATR ATR AH 64 AAE ORY 32S 319 ZI 55 AAE ORY 32S 320 ZI 8 AAE ORY 737 738 AH 169 AAE TOJ SWM SWM YO 25 AAL AAR FRJ FRJ BA 42 AAL AGP 737 73H DY! 53 AAL AGP 737 73W QI 16 AAL AMS F70 KL 939 Figure 6.1: Extract F70 from the Innovata dataset AAL AYT 737 73W QI 9 AAL BCN 32S 320 VY 69 In order to compute carbon using a great circle methodology, latitude/longitude information is AAL BER 737 73H DY! 12 required for each airport. AAL This information was32S primarily obtained from a BLL 319 TK 73global airports dataset 25 AAL Database. BLL 737 738 IATA TK 2 airport codes were also purchased from World Airport Translations from to ICAO AAL CHQ 737 73W QI 9 carried out using this database. AAL CPH 32S 319 SK 180 AAL CPH 32S 321 SK 193 AAL CPH 737 733 DY! 18 AAL CPH 737 73H DY! 1717 The derivation of CO2 information aircraft operations dataset was carried out AAL CPHfrom the Innovata 737 73W QI 25 CPH circle carbon ATR counting AT4 QI 2 using TNIP Carbon CounterAAL – a great application developed by the Australian

Carbon Counting

Government Department of Infrastructure and Transport.26 This software is available for free download from the Department’s website. TNIP Carbon Counter contains all the information that is required to compute the weight of CO2 generated by a flight between any city-pair. The program automatically computes the great circle distance between two airports based on an airport dataset which contains the geographic coordinates of the aerodrome reference points (ARPs) and applies this to fuel burn algorithms for different aircraft types to derive the amount of fuel used, and CO2 generated, for each flight. The fuel burn algorithms are the same as those contained in the ICAO Carbon Calculator.27 TNIP Carbon Counter also applies the great circle distance adjustment factors that are used in the ICAO Carbon Calculator – these add an increment to the great circle distance designed to reflect the actual distance flown. TNIP Carbon Counter can directly read in files with the format shown in Figure 6.1 and generate, amongst other things, an output table containing information on a wide range of user selected variables for each operation in the dataset (eg CO2, distance, origin/destination airport, operator, destination State/Country, passenger numbers, etc). After running TNIP Carbon Counter the output was exported to Microsoft Excel to set up a number of master worksheets. An example of an extract from one of the master worksheets is shown in Figure 6.2.

25
26

World Airports database: http://www.world-airport-database.co TNIP Carbon Counter: http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/aviation/environmental/transparent_noise/tnip_CC.aspx 27 ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx

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[The figure has been included in this format for completeness – it is recognised that it is barely legible in a printed copy of the report but it can be readily magnified and read when the report is in its electronic form.]
Airline Name Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Merpati Nusantara Airlines Airline Country Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Origin Country Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Origin Country Pop 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 244769110 Dest Country Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Origin A/P Palu Sampit Sampit Sorong Sorong Sorong Surabaya Surabaya Surabaya Surabaya Surabaya Surabaya Surabaya Surabaya Surabaya Tambolaka Tambolaka Ternate Timika Timika Ujung Pandang Ujung Pandang Ujung Pandang A/C Type 732 100 100 100 100 732 100 100 733 733 733 733 734 734 734 100 100 733 733 734 100 100 100 City Pair WAML-WAAA WAOS-WARR WAOS-WIII WASS-WAAA WASS-WASR WASS-WAAA WARR-WAAA WARR-WAOS WARR-WAAA WARR-WADD WARR-WIIB WARR-WIII WARR-WADA WARR-WADD WARR-WMKK WADT-WADD WADT-WATC WAMT-WAAA WABP-WAAA WABP-WAJJ WAAA-WAMW WAAA-WARR WAAA-WASS City Pair - Apt Names Palu-Ujung Pandang Sampit-Surabaya Sampit-Jakarta Sorong-Ujung Pandang Sorong-Manokwari Sorong-Ujung Pandang Surabaya-Ujung Pandang Surabaya-Sampit Surabaya-Ujung Pandang Surabaya-Denpasar Surabaya-Bandung Surabaya-Jakarta Surabaya-Mataram Surabaya-Denpasar Surabaya-Kuala Lumpur Tambolaka-Denpasar Tambolaka-Maumere Ternate-Ujung Pandang Timika-Ujung Pandang Timika-Djayapura Ujung Pandang-Luwuk Ujung Pandang-Surabaya Ujung Pandang-Sorong Int/Dom Tot Movements Tot Fuel (kg) Tot Carbon (kg) Tot Carbon (kt) Tot Distance (km) Tot PAX (100% LF) Load Factor (%) Adjusted PAX Distance/trip (km) RPK CO2/PAX (kg) Distance Range (km) Domestic 364 1006373 3177116 3.177116 168532 37856 80 30284.8 463 14021862.4 104.9079406 <500 Domestic 208 485965 1534189 1.534189 99387 20800 80 16640 477.8221154 7950960 92.19885817 <500 Domestic 208 672464 2122967 2.122967 163332 20800 80 16640 785.25 13066560 127.5821514 500-1,000 Domestic 156 707566 2233784 2.233784 212639 15600 80 12480 1363.070513 17011120 178.9891026 1,000-1,500 Domestic 156 308933 975301 0.975301 50848 15600 80 12480 325.9487179 4067840 78.14911859 <500 Domestic 364 1907138 6020833 6.020833 496157 37856 80 30284.8 1363.068681 41280262.4 198.8070913 1,000-1,500 Domestic 156 506339 1598509 1.598509 123365 15600 80 12480 790.8012821 9869200 128.0856571 500-1,000 Domestic 208 485965 1534189 1.534189 99387 20800 80 16640 477.8221154 7950960 92.19885817 <500 Domestic 728 2761486 8718018 8.718018 575702 94640 80 75712 790.7994505 59873008 115.1471101 500-1,000 Domestic 364 855025 2699315 2.699315 110558 47320 80 37856 303.7307692 11498032 71.30481298 <500 Domestic 364 1194386 3770683 3.770683 209653 47320 80 37856 575.9697802 21803912 99.60595414 500-1,000 Domestic 364 1292313 4079832 4.079832 251451 47320 80 37856 690.7994505 26150904 107.7724007 500-1,000 Domestic 364 842554 2659948 2.659948 140893 53872 80 43097.6 387.0686813 16681731.2 61.71916766 <500 Domestic 364 767545 2423137 2.423137 110558 53872 80 43097.6 303.7307692 13090067.2 56.22440693 <500 International 364 2222693 7017039 7.017039 606042 53872 78 42020.16 1664.950549 69961488.48 166.9922009 1,500-2,000 Domestic 209 472906 1492962 1.492962 93283 20900 80 16720 446.3301435 7462640 89.29198565 <500 Domestic 156 316117 997982 0.997982 54026 15600 80 12480 346.3205128 4322080 79.96650641 <500 Domestic 364 1650583 5210897 5.210897 395712 47320 80 37856 1087.120879 41154048 137.6504913 1,000-1,500 Domestic 364 2442495 7710958 7.710958 699069 47320 80 37856 1920.519231 72703176 203.6918322 1,500-2,000 Domestic 364 909334 2870773 2.870773 166508 53872 80 43097.6 457.4395604 19714547.2 66.61097138 <500 Domestic 156 429986 1357465 1.357465 89274 15600 80 12480 572.2692308 7141920 108.771234 500-1,000 Domestic 156 506339 1598509 1.598509 123365 15600 80 12480 790.8012821 9869200 128.0856571 500-1,000 Domestic 156 707566 2233784 2.233784 212639 15600 80 12480 1363.070513 17011120 178.9891026 1,000-1,500

Figure 6.2: Extract from an example master Excel worksheet

Data Interrogation
Almost all the data interrogation, the ‘slicing and dicing’, carried out to produce the tables/figures in the report was performed by applying Microsoft Excel pivot tables, and linked slicers, to the data in master worksheets like that shown in Figure 6.2.

Generation of Graphics
The graphics were predominantly produced using the standard chart functions contained in Microsoft Excel. The main quantity flow diagrams (eg Figure 2.8) were produced using a flow diagram software tool – e!Sankey.28 The figures containing geographic coordinate information (eg Figure 3.3) were produced using a GIS application – Maptitude.29

Important Notes
A number of assumptions and/or allocation decisions were made in the generation of the information:  When carbon counting, the default settings in TNIP Carbon Counter were used – for each operation in the Innovata dataset, for a given aircraft type, the CO2 generated was computed using the default fuel burn profile and aircraft type substitution. Metrics involving ‘per passenger’ computations were based on the TNIP default seat configurations. By default TNIP Carbon Counter uses a factor of 3.157 to convert weight of jet fuel to weight of CO2; the specific gravity of jet fuel is taken to be 0.8. Operations and the associated CO2 were allocated to either ‘domestic’ or ‘international’ on the basis of the UNFCCC definition: a flight that takes off and lands in the same country is ‘domestic’; a flight that takes off in one country and lands in another country is ‘international’. A load factor of 80% was used for all domestic flights in the database and a load factor of 78% was used for all international flights – these were IATA published worldwide average load factors for global aviation for 2011.30 IATA uses dynamic codes for airline operators – that is, if an airline operator code is no longer used it is allocated to another operator. Airline companies frequently go out of business and/or are acquired by other airlines and new entrants emerge. The non unique

28 29

e sankey: www.e-sankey.com/ Maptitude: http://www.caliper.com/maptovu.htm 30 IATA, 2012 Annual Review, p12: http://www.iata.org/about/Documents/annual-review-2012.pdf

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nature of the codes meant that in several instances the airline name in the standard databases was no longer correct. While the airline names published in this report were ‘cleaned up’ as far as possible, particularly for the major operators, it is highly likely that carbon footprint profiles in Part II contain incorrectly named minor airlines.  The naming of airports also presented challenges. In many instances an airport is known by a local name (eg Heathrow) rather than the city (or cities) in which it is located. In general throughout the report, both for ease of presentation and to provide a ‘transport’ rather than ‘airport’ perspective of carbon footprints, the airports have been named with city, rather than local, airport names. This has the effect of grouping airports for those cities which have more than one airport. Given the use of hierarchies to filter out smaller airports used in this document, this grouping is useful as it can help cities with significant aviation traffic from ‘falling under the radar’ as the result of the splitting of traffic levels into small parts. The grouping of airports has been applied to all cities except London, New York, Paris and Tokyo where separate airports have been reported using IATA airport codes (placed in parentheses following the city name) or a local name in the case of Newark. In many cases the secondary airports have small carbon footprints, but there are cities where the airports have been grouped and there is more than one significant airport (eg Moscow, Chicago). There are issues about deciding whether an airport is, or is not associated, with a particular city and there are inconsistencies in the report in this area. By way of contrast, in Chapter 4, which is focused on airports, each individual airport is identified by its IATA code (in parenthases following the city name).

6.3

Validation

Overview
There are a number of published sources of information which can be used to assess the robustness of the CO2 computations contained in this report. At the aggregated level the International Energy Agency (IEA) publishes information on jet fuel use by country and the UNFCCC reports domestic aviation in the greenhouse gas (GHG) reports for Annex 1 countries. A number of governments report energy use by their aviation sector as part of either aviation statistics, or energy/climate change, reporting regimes. Several major international airlines report fuel/CO2 data as part of their annual corporate or sustainability reporting. The ICAO carbon calculator, and other similar on-line tools provided by airlines, can be used to compute CO2 emissions on an individual flight basis. Unfortunately there are anomalies between what, on the face of it, are authoritative validation points and hence there remain uncertainties in aviation carbon footprinting. Ultimately the ‘real’ data on the carbon footprint of aircraft operations at a disaggregated level (ie the flight by flight fuel use data), is owned by the airlines and given its commercial sensitivity it is unlikely to be made available for public scrutiny. The validity of input into derived metrics such as CO2/PAX can be examined by using data on passenger numbers published by national transport statistics agencies. A key area of uncertainty is that generated by ‘data gaps’. Ideally it would be desirable to present a complete picture of the carbon footprint of all global aircraft operations but much important data is not readily available to members of the public (see Section 6.4). This report solely computes the carbon footprint of scheduled domestic passenger operations (and shows comparisons with scheduled international passenger operations) since aircraft operations data is only readily available for scheduled passenger traffic. To present a complete global carbon footprint picture of domestic

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aviation data would need to be available on other sub-sectors contributing to the carbon footprint such as airfreight, non-scheduled aviation, business aviation, general aviation, etc. Working with a database of scheduled, rather than actual, operations clearly will introduce errors. In practice scheduled services are cancelled; unscheduled services are introduced; new entrant airlines appear; existing airlines withdraw or are withdrawn. These are recognised weaknesses with the computational method adopted and could be an important source of error. This section uses the known validation points to draw a picture of the likely robustness of the scheduled international passenger CO2 computations contained in this report. Robustness of the Core Operations Dataset All the computations in this report rely, in the first instance, on the accuracy and completeness of the operations database purchased from Innovata. This can be checked by cross comparing the data relating to the number of aircraft and passenger movements contained in, or derived from, the study database with independently reported aviation activity levels. The Innovata dataset does not contain information on passenger numbers and this was derived by assigning values for both the number of seats in each different aircraft type and for the load factors. As indicated in Section 6.2, the TNIP Carbon Counter default values were used to assign the number of seats and a load factor of 80% was used for all domestic operations and a load factor of 78% was used for international operations. Applying these values to the dataset gave, for global scheduled passenger operations in 2012 (ie domestic + international), the following values: Total revenue passenger-kilometres = 5,454 x 109 In addition, the dataset contains 31.2 x106 departures Figure 6.3 shows ICAO’s published values for global passenger numbers, revenue passenger-kilometres and numbers of departures for 2012.31 It can be seen that the values computed from the Innovata dataset are in very close agreement with those reported by ICAO. Total passengers carried = 3.12 x 109.

Figure 6.3: ICAO data on global aviation 2012

31

Traffic Statistics for Revenue Scheduled Services, ICAO, 2013: http://www.icao.int/sustainability/Pages/FactsFiguresData.aspx

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As a further check, cross comparing the published number of domestic passengers at the top 4 US airports32 with the number of passengers computed via TNIP Carbon Counter gives the values shown in Figure 6.4.
Airport Atlanta (ATL) Los Angeles (LAX) Dallas-Fort Worth Chicago (ORD) Computed No of PAX (x10 ) 40,563 23,946 26,706 28,913
3

Actual No of PAX (x10 ) 40,938 23,020 25,103 27,008
3

% Difference -0.9 3.9 6.0 6.6

Figure 6.4: Comparison between computed and actual domestic passenger numbers at the top 4 US airports ranked by domestic footprint The information in Figures 6.3 and 6.4 gives a good level of confidence in the overall completeness of the Innovata dataset and gives an indication of the robustness of the CO2/passenger data reported in this document.

Validation at the Global and Country Level
Published fuel and CO2 data at the global level is almost always directed at presenting a complete picture of energy use (ie it is aimed at capturing all the jet fuel used for aircraft operations). This data is commonly sub-divided into domestic and international; jet fuel used for military purposes is typically identified separately. The most complete database giving country by country information on global aviation fuel use is published by the International Energy Agency (IEA).33 The UNFCCC also publishes similar data for Annex 1 countries – information on the carbon footprint of domestic aviation is provided by Annex 1 countries as part of their annual national reports.34 Figure 6.5 provides a country by country comparison between the published UNFCCC data for domestic aviation and the great circle computed footprint values – the country carbon footprint hierarchy (which includes non-Annex 1 countries) is shown in Figure 2.3. The data in the table relates solely to UNFCCC Annex 1 countries – note this data is for the latest year available 2011. It can be seen from the figure that, as expected, the computed scheduled domestic passenger footprint values are, for most countries, lower than the reported total domestic aviation footprint. Putting aside uncertainties arising from the use of a great circle methodology, the differences are likely to be primarily due to unaccounted CO2 emissions associated with ‘data gaps’ such as dedicated freight, business, and general aviation and non-scheduled operations (see discussion in Section 6.4).

32 33

United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics: http://www.transtats.bts.gov/airports.asp?pn=1 IEA, Statistics and Balances: http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp 34 UNFCCC, Time series – Annex 1: http://unfccc.int/ghg_data/ghg_data_unfccc/time_series_annex_i/items/3814.php

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While across the whole dataset the level of ‘undercounting’ is about 25% when the UNFCCC CO2 emissions are adjusted to a figure for 2012 (191,460 kt CO2 assuming a footprint growth of 3% per year), for some countries the difference is less than 10%. It may be surmised that in these countries the level of freight and/or other aviation activities not captured in the study dataset is lower than the average. Another area of potential error is differences in approach in allocating emissions between the domestic and international sectors. For example, cross referencing between Figure 6.4 and Figure 8.5 in the previous book indicates that for some countries while there is good agreement between the total (domestic + international) UNFCCC figure and the total computed footprint there are significant variations in the domestic/international splits (eg see the data for Japan). These differences can occur, for example, if one party follows the UNFCCC approach and reports the domestic leg of an international flight as ‘domestic’ (the approach adopted in this report) while another party adopts the ICAO approach and reports the emissions as ‘international’. This appears to be an issue with some of the published airline fuel data (see the discussion relating to Figure 6.6) The IEA data, which reports fuel use in many more countries than the UNFCCC (ie fuel use in both Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries) contains a number of apparently anomalous values. This may be related to the abovementioned domestic/international allocation issue or may relate to some countries reporting fuel use based on fuel uplifted while others report based on country of aircraft registration. In some countries the quantum of the reported international aviation carbon footprint is likely to be significantly influenced by tankering.
Country United States Japan Russia Australia Canada Spain Italy Turkey France Germany United Kingdom Norway New Zealand Sweden Greece Portugal Finland Ukraine Poland Denmark Romania Switzerland Austria Croatia Iceland Bulgaria Ireland Czech Republic Netherlands Slovakia Total UNFCCC 2011 CO2 (kt) 132,581 8,997 9,461 7,006 5,730 3,319 2,278 3,331 4,741 1,794 1,871 1,195 972 517 333 352 241 223 71 200 282 132 48 88 19 62 17 2 16 6 185,884 Computed % CO2 (kt) Difference 96,956 27 10,533 -17 7,500 21 7,044 -1 5,489 4 2,765 17 2,547 -12 1,994 40 1,966 59 1,796 0 1,487 21 1,231 -3 751 23 577 -12 358 -7 325 8 205 15 121 46 87 -24 86 57 44 84 44 67 41 15 32 63 18 5 18 71 4 75 4 -123 1 92 1 80 144,028 23

Figure 6.5: CO2 footprint comparison – computed v UNFCCC 2011 reported values

A good summary of both the IEA and UNFCCC datasets for 2008 can be found in a report published by the International Transport Forum.35

35

ITF, Transport Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2010: http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/Pub/pdf/10GHGCountry.pdf

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ICAO provides figures on the size of the global carbon footprint for aviation in its 2010 Environmental Report.36 The ICAO report (p32) indicates that in 2006 the global domestic aviation sector consumed 72 Mt of fuel. This is equivalent to the generation of 227 Mt of CO2. If this is adjusted to a 2012 value assuming 3% growth in emissions per year, 227 becomes 271 Mt of CO2 for the global footprint of domestic aircraft operations in 2012. This therefore gives a difference of about 15% between the ICAO figure for the carbon footprint of global domestic operations and the figure computed in this report of 226 Mt CO2 for the carbon footprint of global domestic scheduled passenger operations in 2012. Thus this comparison gives a somewhat smaller difference to that shown between the reported and computed footprints shown in the UNFCCC data in Figure 6.5. The group coordinating the industry response to climate change – the Air Transport Action Group (ATAG), states that “Worldwide, flights produced 676 million tonnes of CO2 in 2011”.37 If this is normalised to a 2012 figure by adding 3% growth this is equal to 696 Mt CO2. ATAG also indicates that international operations comprise 62% of the total aviation carbon footprint – therefore the ATAG figure gives a value of 696 x .38 = 264 Mt CO2 for the global domestic aviation carbon footprint in 2012. This figure is in good agreement with the ICAO figure. The IEA reports that the global consumption of jet kerosene in 2009 was 227,804 kt.38 This equates to 719 Mt of CO2 for the total carbon footprint of aviation in 2009. If the ATAG figure of 62% for the proportion of the total footprint that applies to international aviation is used to convert this into the domestic aviation carbon footprint this equals 273 Mt of CO2 (which equals 298 Mt of CO2 in 2012 if there was growth of 3%/year between 2009 and 2012). Hence the IEA figure for the size of the global domestic operations carbon footprint in 2012 is about 10% higher than for the other two sources (although it does appear that the IEA data may capture some military jet fuel). India has produced a useful aviation carbon footprint report for activities within its jurisdiction.39 This document reports that 6,755 kt of CO2 were emitted by scheduled domestic aviation passenger services in India in 2011. This gives a figure of 6,960 kt for 2012 for India assuming the standard footprint growth of 3%/year. This figure compares with a computed value of 6,267 kt of CO2 derived from the Innovata database (see Figure 2.3) – the computed value is about 10% lower than the carbon footprint figure reported by the Indian authorities. The United States Government publishes comprehensive fuel use data for domestic aviation.40 The US statistics show a carbon footprint figure of 99,792 kt CO2 for scheduled domestic operations by aviation companies which have revenues exceeding $20 million/year. The computed figure for the United States domestic carbon footprint reported in Figure 2.3 is 96,956 kt of CO2. While this agreement is within 5% there are some issues. The official reported figure includes carbon contributions from major airfreight companies Federal Express (Fedex) and United Parcel Service (UPS) (and presumably other freight companies). If the contribution from the two major freight companies is removed in order to give a broad comparison between the footprints for passenger services the US official carbon footprint figure becomes 89,820 kt of CO2 (thus now giving an approximate 7% difference between the computed and actual footprints). Preliminary examination of this discrepancy suggests that it is likely to at least partially result from differences in the way the

36

ICAO, Environmental Report 2010: http://www.icao.int/environmentalprotection/Documents/Publications/ENV_Report_2010.pdf 37 ATAG, Facts and Figures: http://www.atag.org/facts-and-figures.html 38 IEA, Oil in World 2009: http://www.iea.org/stats/oildata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=29 39 The Carbon Footprint of Indian Aviation 2011, Government of India: http://dgca.nic.in/env/Carbon%20Footprint%20Report%202011.pdf 40 United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics: http://www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp

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carbon footprint is allocated between domestic and international services (see discussion associated with Figure 6.6). Summary In broad terms the estimates for the carbon footprint of global domestic aviation in 2012 (all figures adjusted to 2012 using an annual footprint growth figure of 3%) discussed in this section are: ICAO 271 Mt CO2 (approx. 15% greater than the computed vale of 226 Mt)

ATAG 264 Mt CO2 (approx. 15% greater than the computed value of 226 Mt) IEA 298 Mt CO2 (approx. 25% greater than the computed value of 226 Mt)

It is not possible to provide a UNFCCC global figure for the carbon footprint of domestic aviation as its published data only relates to Annex 1 countries. On average the year adjusted UNFCCC values for country CO2 are about 25% greater than the computed values reported in this document. Having identified the differences between reported and computed fuel use the question then becomes to what extent are the differences due to the data gaps (see Section 6.4) as opposed to errors/inconsistencies in the computational methodology.

Validation at the Airline Level
Data published by the airlines (or reported by aviation authorities based on statutory energy/fuel use reports provided by airlines) would appear to provide a solid way to test the robustness of the computational methodology. The ‘true’ data, that is the fuel use data on a flight by flight basis, is owned by the airlines and is generally treated as the gold standard for validation purposes. A number of sources are available for comparing the computed CO2 values with those reported by airlines. Figure 6.6 provides comparisons between the computed and reported carbon footprint values for the top 5 airlines (see Chapter 4). The data in the figure is derived from fuel use information for aircraft operations in 2012 published by the United States Government.41
Computed CO2 (kt) Domestic International Total Delta Air Lines 19,651 12,527 32,178 United Airlines 17,658 14,584 32,242 Southwest Airlines 15,557 0 15,557 American Airlines 14,946 9,569 24,516 US Airways 9,291 2,751 12,042 Airline Reported CO2 (kt) International 14,595 17,129 76 9,617 2,656 % Difference Domestic International 34 -14 14 -15 -7 12 0 19 4

Domestic 14,631 15,486 16,812 13,381 7,834

Total 29,227 32,615 16,888 22,999 10,491

Total 10 -1 -8 7 15

Figure 6.6: CO2 footprint comparison – computed v reported values for the top 5 domestic airlines Note: The reported CO2 figures include fuel used by dedicated freighters and non-scheduled operations.

41

Airline Fuel Cost and Consumption, United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics: http://www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp

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It can be seen from Figure 6.6 that while there is respectable agreement between the actual and computed footprints when considering the total footprints for the airlines, there are some large discrepancies between the values when the domestic and international figures are considered separately. It is interesting to note that for the four companies that operate both domestic and international scheduled services the computed value for ‘domestic’ is greater than the ‘real’ value. A likely explanation for this discrepancy is that the airlines are reporting fuel used for domestic legs of international flights (ie legs which have a take-off and landing in the US) as ‘international’ - this is the conventional ICAO aviation statistics reporting approach. On the other hand the computations in this document report the CO2 generated by a flight that takes off and lands in the same country as ‘domestic’ irrespective of its ICAO status (ie this report adopts the UNFCCC approach to carbon allocation). The first book in the trilogy examined the accuracy of domestic flights operated by Qantas and Virgin in Australia.42 This showed a difference between computed and actual footprint for both airlines of close to 1% for 2011. The actual carbon footprint data for the airlines was sourced from the airlines’ carbon footprint reports to the Australian Government required under that Government’s carbon reporting legislation.43 Figure 6.7 shows the Qantas and Virgin computed and actual figures for 2011 and 2012 (the reported carbon footprints have been reduced by 2% to take account of airline energy use not directly associated with aircraft operations – this adjustment is discussed in the first book). It can be seen that the difference between computed and actual is less than 8% for all the entries.

2011 CO2 (kt)

2012 CO2 (kt) Actual 4,364 1,920 % Difference 6.0 7.3

Airline
Computed Qantas Virgin 4,275 1,858 Actual 4,250 1,850

% Computed Difference 0.6 0.4 4,644 2,072

Figure 6.7: CO2 footprint comparison – computed v reported values for Qantas and Virgin Australia Overall there is broad agreement between the computed and actual carbon footprints when assessed at the airline level (say in the range 5-10%). All things being equal, it would be expected that the actual airline carbon footprint would be larger than the computed footprint since the scheduled movements dataset which is used for the computations does not capture a range of additional operations which are undertaken by airlines such as ad hoc charters, maintenance, training, repositioning, etc

42

The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/02/01/aviation-carbon-footprint-reporting/ 43 Australian Government, Clean Energy Regulator, National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/National-Greenhouse-and-Energy-Reporting/publishedinformation/greenhouse-and-energy-information/Pages/default.aspx

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Validation at the Route Level
Carbon footprinting comparisons can be made at the route level by reference to recognised city-pair carbon calculators. Figure 6.8 shows the comparison between the computed footprint and the results of the output of the ICAO carbon calculator44 for the top 10 global domestic routes (see Figure 2.6). It can be seen all the ICAO values are within 20% of the computed value. The ICAO calculator has been used as it is the only recognised calculator that covers all the cited routes. It would be expected that the ICAO calculator will provide a carbon value less than the computed value since this calculator has a number of features which lower the reported carbon value compared to other calculation approaches. Firstly it provides the user with the option to select a class of travel – the values in the figure report economy class data – while other calculators apportion the total CO2 load equally across all passengers. The calculated CO2/PAX values in this report apportion the carbon across all passengers irrespective of travel class. This means that a lower footprint value would be expected to be reported by the ICAO calculator when reporting the economy class footprint. The CO2 allocation to passengers is further reduced in the ICAO carbon calculator by the application of a freight factor which ascribes a proportion of the fuel burned on each flight to the belly freight carbon footprint. The calculations in this report do not make a similar adjustment.
ICAO Carbon Calculator CO2/PAX (kg) 301 99 111 104 329 150 166 87 236 337

Route

Computed CO2/PAX (kg)

% Difference

New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Sapporo/Chitose-Tokyo (Haneda) Beijing-Shanghai Fukuoka-Tokyo (Haneda) New York (JFK)-San Francisco Tokyo (Haneda)-Okinawa Beijing-Guangzhou Melbourne-Sydney Los Angeles-Chicago Los Angeles-Honolulu

316 118 134 131 334 181 205 92 246 357

5 16 17 20 2 17 19 5 4 6

Figure 6.8: CO2 footprint comparison – computed v ICAO carbon calculator values for the top 10 domestic routes

In addition, it is important to bear in mind that the values in the table are expressed in terms of CO2/PAX; the accuracy of these computations depends on assumptions about both aircraft seat configurations and load factors. In this study generic values have been used across all countries and airlines for these two variables – clearly an unrefined approach which is likely to provide a less than robust indication of the total footprint. Nevertheless, the numbers in Figure 6.8 are broadly consistent and do not suggest any gross errors in the computations.

44

ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx

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Profile F5 in Part II contains CO2 footprint information for the top 1,000 global domestic scheduled passenger routes. The reader can use this listing to make further comparisons between the computed CO2 values shown in this report and the output of published carbon calculators.

6.4

The Data Gaps

The validations shown in this chapter to this point suggest that the great circle computation is giving answers that are generally within the range 5-10% of the true answer. Nevertheless it is useful when examining the domestic aviation carbon footprint to understand what proportion of the footprint is generated by scheduled passenger services compared to the carbon contributions from other sub-sectors such as dedicated freight aircraft, non-scheduled passenger operations, business and general aviation. The size of the total carbon footprint of global domestic aviation is not clear from published sources. The previously mentioned data produced by ICAO, ATAG and IEA suggests that the computed figure of 225,716 kt CO2 for scheduled domestic passenger services reported in this document is of the order of 15-20% below the actual total global domestic carbon footprint. However, there is some uncertainty about this value as there is no explicit description of what sub-sectors have been taken into account in the compilation of the ICAO/ATAG/IEA figures. Robust data on the ‘other’ components (freight, business aviation, etc) is not readily accessible to members of the public and these sub-sectors constitute important ‘data gaps’ which weaken our picture of the total carbon footprint for domestic aviation (a similar situation to that for international aviation). In addition, the inclusion, or non-inclusion, of CO2 associated with military operations often confuses the picture since this is commonly not transparently shown and the way it is treated in aviation carbon accounting is frequently inconsistent.

Estimation of the Carbon Footprint Contribution by the ‘Other’ Categories
At the present time consolidated robust data on the carbon footprint of the ‘other’ categories is not available to the public. The following points contain some thoughts and suggest some very preliminary figures for the magnitude of the carbon footprint contribution made by the ‘other’ categories Dedicated freight: As mentioned earlier, the fuel use data published by the United States government indicates that aircraft operated by the top 2 freight operators in the US make up about 10% of the US domestic footprint. It would be expected that operations by a range of other freight operators would increase this figure but probably not significantly and therefore 10% is probably not an unreasonable indicative number for the carbon contribution by dedicated domestic freighters in the United States. However, it is unlikely that this figure can simply be translated to global domestic services – an indicative figure of 5-10% for the freight contribution to the global domestic footprint would appear to be reasonable. Non-scheduled: the United States data suggests 1-2% of the domestic footprint is being generated by non-scheduled operations by large companies. This is consistent with the ICAO reference in the second book in the trilogy which stated that non-scheduled passenger traffic ‘…is primarily devoted to international [emphasis added] passenger traffic…’.45 An estimate of a 1-2% contribution to the global domestic footprint by non-scheduled operations would appear to be reasonable.

45

ICAO, Outlook for Air Transport to the Year 2025, p10: http://www.icao.int/sustainability/Documents/C313_Outlook_En.pdf

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Business Aviation: business aviation has released a carbon footprint statement which states ‘Business Aviation’s global CO2 emissions are very small, being approximately 2% of all aviation…’. If it is assumed that this contribution is predominantly domestic the 2% translates into about 3-4% of the domestic footprint46. General Aviation: this category includes a wide range of activities - aerial work, training, helicopters, private flying, etc. These activities are typically intermittent and short range. The ‘CO2 v Distance’ analyses throughout this report indicate that short range aviation is not likely to make a great contribution to the total global domestic footprint – maybe 1-2%. Summary This somewhat superficial examination suggests that the ‘data gaps’ constitute about 10-15% of the total global domestic aviation carbon footprint. In the second book in the trilogy the equivalent ‘data gap’ for international operations was estimated as making up about 20% of the global footprint (see Figure 8.9 in that book). If these two estimates are combined, and a value of 5-10% is factored in to take account of uncertainty in the great circle computations, it would not be unreasonable to use an overall adjustment figure of 20% in order to arrive at the global total carbon footprint for aviation. Combining the computed international and domestic footprints for scheduled passenger movements from books 2 and 3 in the trilogy and applying the assumed adjustment of 20% gives: The total carbon footprint for global civil aviation in 2012 = 700Mt CO2
[Domestic footprint = 226 Mt CO2; International footprint = 359 Mt CO2. Total = (585 x 1.2) = 700 Mt CO2]

This is consistent with the IATA figure of 689 Mt CO2 for global air transport’s carbon footprint in 2012.47

46

Business Aviation Statement on Climate Change: http://www.ebaa.org/documents/document/20130124112836bizav_and_climatechangea4_full_statement_(2)_(1).pdf 47 Fact Sheet: Climate Change, IATA, June 2013: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_figures/fact_sheets/pages/environment.aspx

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PART II

FOOTPRINT PROFILES

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FOOTPRINT PROFILES
This Part of the document contains sets of carbon footprint profiles for the three areas covered in Chapters 3 to 5 – Countries, Airports, and Airlines. There are also carbon footprint listings for the top 1,000 airports and routes used by global scheduled domestic passenger flights in 2012. Profile F1: Profile F2: Profile F3: Profile F4: Profile F5: Country carbon footprint profiles. Airports carbon footprint profiles. Airports carbon footprint listing. Airlines carbon footprint profiles. Route carbon footprint information. Fifty sheets - descending CO2. Twenty sheets - descending CO2. Top 1,000 domestic airports – country/alphabetic Twenty sheets - descending CO2. Top 1,000 domestic routes – country/alphabetic.

This Part of the report is purely a data resource and is aimed at extending the information which has been presented in Part I. The broad intent is to capture, as far as possible, information on the vast majority of the carbon footprint for global scheduled domestic passenger flights. The emphasis has been placed on presenting information at the country level since this is the level at which negotiations are carried out within the United Nations. The country footprint profiles contained in Profile F1 capture more than 90% of the total global footprint. The carbon footprint profile concept is introduced in Section 2.1 and is used throughout the report. The profiles present a dashboard style picture of different aspects of the carbon footprint for the entity being examined (eg a specific country) using a number of different elements. Each element is independent and has a total footprint which equals the total footprint for the entity under consideration. Similarly, it is important to appreciate that each of the profiles presents a picture of the same data but from a different perspective. For example, the airport profiles are independent of the airline profiles; adding data between the two profile types will lead to double counting. The total footprint for any of the high level categories (eg airports, airlines) is equal to 225,716 kt of CO2 for domestic and 358,538 kt of CO2 for international operations. The ordering of the information in the carbon footprint profiles in this Part of the report is based on total footprint (ie domestic + international) and hence is different to that shown in the second book in the trilogy. There are also minor differences in the quantum of the international footprints between this and the earlier book as the computations for this document are based on an updated operations database. The level of disaggregation that is contained in the information in this Part inevitably leads to the generation of footprint components that are small. While these are likely to contain high relative errors (given the computation methodology) the absolute errors may not be significant. Due to the assumptions required, the ‘CO2/PAX’ values have a greater level of uncertainty than the ‘CO2’ values.

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Profile F1 Country Footprint Profiles
Profile F1 contains carbon footprint profiles for the 50 countries listed in the Figure to the right. The countries are ranked based on the quantum of the total carbon footprint (ie domestic + international) for scheduled passenger flights in 2012. The Innovata database contains entries for 219 countries. A number of these are external territories of larger countries and are not normally identified as separate countries.
Country
United States China United Kingdom Japan Germany Australia France Brazil United Arab Emirates Canada India Spain Russia Hong Kong Italy Singapore Thailand South Korea Indonesia Netherlands Mexico Turkey Malaysia Saudi Arabia South Africa Taiwan Switzerland Philippines Qatar Argentina New Zealand Vietnam Portugal Colombia Norway Belgium Egypt Chile Sweden Peru Israel Denmark Austria Pakistan Greece Finland Iran Ireland Nigeria Morocco

Domestic CO2 (kt)
96,956 36,806 1,487 10,533 1,796 7,044 1,966 9,796 7 5,489 6,267 2,765 7,500 2,547 1,464 1,247 5,637 1 3,404 1,994 1,511 1,725 1,551 169 44 1,684 983 751 1,156 325 1,295 1,231 0 160 997 577 680 39 86 41 517 358 205 900 4 518 46

International CO2 (kt)
47,871 13,899 24,654 13,956 18,729 9,489 13,771 5,929 14,558 8,378 7,190 10,592 5,752 10,386 7,460 9,819 8,207 8,305 3,064 7,547 3,936 5,061 4,508 3,857 3,611 4,341 4,387 2,652 3,900 2,480 2,200 1,714 2,494 1,269 1,269 2,471 2,310 1,375 1,535 1,408 1,952 1,893 1,845 1,282 1,393 1,402 700 1,583 1,050 1,320

Total CO 2 (kt)
144,827 50,706 26,142 24,489 20,524 16,534 15,737 15,725 14,565 13,867 13,456 13,357 13,251 10,386 10,007 9,819 9,671 9,552 8,701 7,549 7,340 7,055 6,019 5,582 5,162 4,510 4,431 4,335 3,900 3,463 2,951 2,871 2,820 2,564 2,500 2,471 2,469 2,372 2,112 2,088 1,991 1,979 1,886 1,799 1,751 1,607 1,600 1,588 1,567 1,366

Other Countries Total

3,455 225,716

37,785 358,538

41,239 584,254

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United States
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Chicago Atlanta Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth Denver San Francisco Houston Phoenix Las Vegas New York (JFK) Washington DC Seattle Orlando Newark Minneapolis Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 5,503 5,382 4,997 4,269 3,696 3,641 3,130 3,061 2,920 2,764 2,697 2,496 2,307 2,238 2,136 45,718 96,956
Airlines (Domestic) Delta Air Lines United Airlines Southwest Airlines American Airlines US Airways JetBlue Airways Alaska Airlines AirTran Airways Continental Airlines Frontier Airlines Virgin America Hawaiian Airlines Spirit Airlines Allegiant Air Philippine Airlines Other Airlines Total CO2 (kt) 19,651 17,605 15,557 14,936 9,291 3,952 3,617 2,923 2,013 1,622 1,394 1,291 1,142 991 257 714 96,956

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 10,000 20,000 30,000

Domestic International
96,956 47,871

Total
144,827

40,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) 307 CO2/PAX (kg) 144 Distance/trip (km) 1,044 International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 152 518 3,463 459 189 1,228
Mvts 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 -500,000

International

Domestic

B737 A320 B777 B757 MD80 B767 B747 CRJ A330 RJ140 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 25,000

CO2 v Distance

20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000

-

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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China
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Beijing Shanghai Guangzhou Chengdu Zhenzhen Kunming Xi'an Chongqing Urumqi Hangzhou Xiamen Changsha Wuhan Nanjing Zhengzhou Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 4,503 3,532 2,503 1,794 1,780 1,373 1,354 1,321 1,128 1,064 837 793 760 758 730 12,578 36,806
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) China Southern Airlines 8,152 China Eastern Airlines 6,167 Air China 5,562 Hainan Airlines 2,650 Shenzhen Airlines 2,407 Xiamen Airlines 2,249 Sichuan Airlines 1,750 Shanghai Airlines 1,342 Shandong Airlines 1,328 Deer Jet 803 Spring Airlines 724 Grand China Express Air 664 Juneyao Airlines 643 Lucky Air 442 China United Airlines 417 Other Airlines 1,505 Total 36,806

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 International B737 A320 A330 B777 B747 A340 B757 B767 Embraer 170/190 A380 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 5,000 10,000 15,000

Domestic International
36,806 13,899

Total
50,706

20,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) 27 CO2/PAX (kg) 121 Distance/trip (km) 1,080 International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 10 341 2,711 37 147 1,224
Mvts 1,000,000

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

CO2 v Distance

800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 -

-200,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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United Kingdom
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) London (Heathrow) Edinburgh Belfast Glasgow London (Gatwick) Aberdeen (UK) Manchester (UK) London (Stansted) Jersey Newcastle (UK) Bristol Birmingham (UK) Southampton London (Luton) London (City) Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

Domestic International
1,487 24,654

Total
26,142

6,000

7,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 24 67 357 393 311 2,069 416 258 1,456
Mvts 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

International

B777 B747 A320 B737 B767 A330 A340 A380 B757 Dash 8 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) British Airways 441 Easyjet 423 Flybe 372 BMI Regional 80 BmiBaby 32 Eastern Airways 31 Aer Lingus 23 Ryanair 21 Blue Islands 16 Aurigny Air Services 13 Jet2.com 10 Air France 10 Manx2 6 Biman Bangladesh Airlines 2 Aer Arann 1 Other Airlines 4 Total 1,487

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 193 173 169 142 142 82 79 44 42 42 41 41 39 39 29 189 1,487

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Japan
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Tokyo (Haneda) Sapporo/Chitose Okinawa Fukuoka Itami Nagoya Osaka Kagoshima Tokyo (Narita) Kumamoto Nagasaki Miyazaki Sendai Hiroshima Kobe Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 3,553 1,007 973 815 553 298 284 273 216 186 183 173 144 138 134 1,601 10,533 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) All Nippon Airways 5,288 Japan Airlines 3,110 Skymark Airlines 659 Hokkaido International Airlines 329 Japan Transocean Air 303 Skynet Asia Airways 239 StarFlyer 170 Japan Air Commuter 113 Peach Aviation 76 Fuji Dream Airlines 71 Ibex Airlines 66 Go One Airways 61 Air Asia Japan 25 Qatar Airways 15 Oriental Air Bridge 8 Other Airlines 0 Total 10,533

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 B767 B737 A330 B747 A320 A340 B787 A380 CRJ Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

Domestic International
10,533 13,956

Total
24,489

10,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 83 100 674 110 427 3,644 194 178 1,173
Mvts 500,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Germany
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Munich Berlin Frankfurt Hamburg Dusseldorf Cologne-Bonn Stuttgart Hannover Dresden Nuremburg Bremen Leipzig Friedrichshafen Munster-Osnabruck Saarbrucken Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 B747 A340 A330 B777 A380 B767 Embraer 170/190 B757 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Lufthansa 1,112 Air Berlin 474 Germanwings 168 InterSky 18 Luxair 8 China Eastern Airlines 4 TUIfly 3 OLT - Ostfriesische Lufttransport2 Condor Flugdienst 2 Flexflight 2 Avanti Air 2 Cirrus Airlines <1 Cyprus Airways <1 Royal Jordanian <1 Sylt Air <1 Other Airlines 2 Total 1,796

Domestic International
1,796 18,729

Total
20,524

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 22 68 421 228 256 1,678 250 206 1,316
Mvts 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 352 295 222 214 175 127 120 52 49 49 35 27 15 15 13 36 1,796

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Australia
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Perth Adelaide Cairns Coolangatta/Gold Coast Darwin Canberra Townsville Hobart Dampier Mackay Newcastle (Aus) Alice Springs Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,415 1,290 1,043 1,017 377 285 235 193 139 93 85 64 57 51 50 651 7,044 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Qantas Airways 3,225 Virgin Australia 2,072 Jetstar Airways 1,202 Tiger Airways Australia 209 Regional Express Airlines 79 Skywest Airlines 63 Cathay Pacific 45 Skytrans Regional 32 Airnorth Regional 32 United Airlines 29 Philippine Airlines 15 Brindabella Airlines 7 Aeropelican Air Services 7 Air New Zealand 6 Air Australia 6 Other Airlines 15 Total 7,044

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A330 B737 B777 B747 A320 A380 B767 A340 Dash 8 Embraer 170/190 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
7,044 9,489

Total
16,534

4,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 307 121 917 414 627 5,258 721 226 1,416
Mvts 250,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 3,000

CO2 v Distance

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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France
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Paris (ORY) Paris (CDG) Toulouse Marseille Provence Nice Lyon Bordeaux Nantes Lille Montpellier Strasbourg Ajaccio Brest Biarritz Bastia Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A320 A330 B737 A340 B747 B767 A380 CRJ Embraer 170/190 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Air France 1,571 Easyjet 204 CCM Airlines 54 Ryanair 43 Airlinair 21 Air Senegal International 17 Air Austral 15 Twin Jet 8 XL Airways France 6 Jetairfly 6 Chalair Aviation 6 Eastern Airways 5 Vueling Airlines 4 Air Madagascar 2 Hex Air 2 Other Airlines 3 Total 1,966

Domestic International
1,966 13,771

Total
15,737

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 31 82 541 217 290 1,759 248 221 1,269
Mvts 200,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 473 206 181 181 177 117 109 74 48 41 40 40 39 35 34 168 1,966

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

150,000 100,000
50,000 -50,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

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Brazil
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro Brasilia Salvador Belo Horizonte Recife Fortaleza Porto Alegre Campinas Curitiba Manaus Belem Natal Cuiaba Florianopolis Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,994 1,205 1,001 545 480 456 402 369 349 306 247 234 166 162 158 1,722 9,796 Airlines (Domestic) TAM Airlines VRG Linhas Aereas Azul Brazilian Airlines Avianca Brazil WebJet Linhas Aereas TRIP Linhas Aereas Passaredo United Airlines LAN Airlines American Airlines Air Italy PLUNA TAP Portugal Aerolineas Argentinas Surinam Airways Other Airlines Total CO2 (kt) 3,707 3,392 893 614 560 488 115 15 5 5 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 0 9,796

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 International B737 A320 B777 A330 Embraer 170/190 B767 A340 B747 F100 ATR Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
9,796 5,929

Total
15,725

4,000

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 49 101 815 30 598 5,004 79 147 1,055
Mvts 500,000

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

90

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

United Arab Emirates
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Abu Dhabi Ras al Khaimah Dubai Al-Fujairah Sharjah Al Ain

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
7 14,558

Total
14,565

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 A380 A340 A320 B737 A310 B767 B747 B757 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 1 36 157 1,796 376 2,971 1,797 374 2,949
Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 4 2 <1 <1 <1 <1 Airlines (Domestic) RAK Airways Air India Express Sun Country Airlines Sudan Airways CO2 (kt) 4 2 1 <1

CO2 (kt) 6,000

CO2 v Distance

5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 1 7 Other Airlines Total 0 7

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

91

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Canada
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Toronto Vancouver Calgary Montreal Edmonton Ottawa Winnipeg Halifax St. Johns Saskatoon Victoria Regina Kelowna Fort McMurray Quebec Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,318 751 665 384 383 262 244 200 103 68 66 63 60 48 48 827 5,489 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Air Canada 2,899 WestJet 1,889 Porter Airlines 176 First Air 95 Canadian North 86 Air North 37 Air Inuit 33 Calm Air International 30 Provincial Airlines 29 Bearskin Lake Air Service 28 Central Mountain Air 21 Perimeter Aviation 20 Air Transat 17 Pacific Coastal Airline 16 Hawkair Aviation 16 Other Airlines 96 Total 5,489

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 B777 A320 B767 A330 Dash 8 Embraer 170/190 CRJ B747 A340 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500

Domestic International
5,489 8,378

Total
13,867

1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 158 117 666 242 353 2,132 400 197 998
Mvts 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,500
1,000 500 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

92

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

India
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Delhi Mumbai Bangalore Kolkata Chennai/Madras Hyderabad (HYD) Ahmedabad Pune Cochin Guwahati Goa Jaipur Lucknow Bhubaneswar Nagpur Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,425 1,152 516 500 456 361 181 147 110 110 107 83 75 75 66 902 6,267 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Indigo Airlines 1,484 Air India 1,400 Jet Airways 1,187 Spicejet 926 JetLite 443 Go Air 443 Kingfisher Airlines 341 Air India Express 38 Thai Airways International 2 Air Mauritius 2

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 B777 A330 B747 A340 B767 ATR Dash 8 B787 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Domestic International
6,267 7,190

Total
13,456

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 5 99 810 6 360 3,131 11 161 1,209
Mvts 250,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

200,000 150,000 100,000

50,000
-50,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 6,267

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

93

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Spain
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Madrid Barcelona Las Palmas Palma de Mallorca Santa Cruz de Tenerife Sevilla Bilbao Malaga Santiago de Compostela Lanzarote Eivissa Granadilla de Abone Valencia (VLC) Oviedo/Aviles Alicante Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 729 546 169 160 155 122 111 92 75 68 57 50 49 49 44 289 2,765 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Iberia Airlines 1,006 Vueling Airlines 561 Ryanair 534 Air Europa 414 Air Berlin 94 Binter Canarias 52 Spanair 35 Easyjet 24 Islas Airways 15 Helitt Lineas Aereas 9 Air Senegal International 8 Iberworld 3 Jetairfly 3 S7 Airlines (Siberia Airlines) 1 Meridiana 1 Other Airlines 5 Total 2,765

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 A340 A330 B767 B757 B777 CRJ B747 Embraer 170/190 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
2,765 10,592

Total
13,357

4,000

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 59 77 532 226 224 1,911 286 160 1,232
Mvts 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 3,000

CO2 v Distance

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

94

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Russia
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Moscow 2,989 St. Petersburg 422 Khabarovsk 266 Vladivostok 258 Novosibirsk 257 Krasnoyarsk 176 Yekaterinburg 165 Krasnodar 163 Sochi 158 Irkutsk 149 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy 129 Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk 119 Tyumem 105 Ufa 100 Yakutsk 96 Other Airports 1,948 Total 7,500 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Aeroflot Russian Airlines 1,429 S7 Airlines (Siberia Airlines) 1,099 UTair Aviation 1,070 Transaero Airlines 858 Rossiya - Russian Airlines 389 Vladivostok Air 338 Yakutia Airlines 311 Ural Airlines 257 Yamal Airlines 215 Orenair (Orenburg Airlines) 179 Taimyr Airlines 164 Aeroflot-Nord 146 Aeroflot-Don 138 VIM Airlines 125 Kuban Airlines 104 Other Airlines 676 Total 7,500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 A330 B767 B777 B747 B757 Yak 42 CRJ Tupolev 204 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
7,500 5,752

Total
13,251

4,000

5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) 53 CO2/PAX (kg) 191 Distance/trip (km) 1,554 International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 40 264 2,301 93 217 1,785
Mvts 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,500
1,000 500 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

95

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Hong Kong
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt)

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 B747 A340 A320 B737 A380 B767 Embraer 170/190 B757 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
0 10,386

Total
10,386

4,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 1,443 365 2,902 1,443 365 2,902
Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

International

CO2 (kt) 3,000

CO2 v Distance

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 0 Other Airlines Total 0 0

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

96

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Italy
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Roma Milano Catania Palermo Cagliari Napoli Bari Torino Bergamo Venezia Lamezia Terme Bologna Brindisi Verona Olbia Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 489 439 211 144 123 119 110 108 100 82 78 69 67 59 51 297 2,547 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Alitalia 887 Ryanair 477 Meridiana 272 Easyjet 228 Air One 221 Wind Jet 151 Volare Airlines 80 Blue Panorama Airlines 74 Alitalia Express 56 Air Italy 51 Air Senegal International 20 Korean Air 5 Air Alps Aviation 4 Ethiopian Airlines 4 Flexflight 4 Other Airlines 12 Total 2,547

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 A330 B777 B767 A340 MD80 Embraer 170/190 B747 CRJ Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
2,547 7,460

Total
10,007

4,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 42 83 588 122 193 1,435 164 145 1,058
Mvts 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

97

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Singapore
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt)

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A380 A330 A320 B747 A340 B767 B737 B787 A310 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
0 9,819

Total
9,819

4,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 1,868 382 2,902 1,868 382 2,902
Mvts 30,000

International

CO2 (kt) 3,000

CO2 v Distance

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 0 Other Airlines Total 0 0

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

98

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Thailand
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Bangkok Phuket Chiang Mai Hatyai Koh Samui Chiang Rai Udon Thani Krabi Ubon Ratchathni Surat Thani Nakhon Si Thammarat Khon Kaen Trang Nakhon Phanom Phitsanulok Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 692 208 178 87 55 44 40 33 24 24 21 15 15 5 5 17 1,464 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Thai Airways International 558 Thai AirAsia 362 Nok Air 250 Bangkok Airways 203 One-Two-GO Airlines 89 Business Air 1 Jetairfly <1 Blue Panorama Airlines <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 B747 A320 A340 B737 B767 A300 A380 MD80 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

Domestic International
1,464 8,207

Total
9,671

2,500

3,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 21 86 577 117 366 2,954 138 245 1,705
Mvts 100,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,500
1,000 500 -

80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 1 1,464

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

99

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

South Korea
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Seoul Keku Busan Gwangju Cheong Ju Daegu Yeosu Ulsan Pohang Chinju Kunsan Wojnu

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 B737 B747 A320 A380 B767 A340 A300 B757 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500

Domestic International
1,247 8,305

Total
9,552

3,000

3,500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 26 59 371 171 336 2,690 197 209 1,443
Mvts 200,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 478 465 152 33 28 26 21 19 12 6 4 3

Airlines (Domestic) Korean Air Asiana Airlines Air Busan Jeju Air Eastar Jet Jin Air Tway Air Lufthansa

CO2 (kt) 493 272 129 108 87 82 66 10

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,500
1,000 500 -

150,000 100,000
50,000 -50,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 1,247

Other Airlines Total

0 1,247

Total Movements Domestic

100

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Indonesia
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Jakarta Ujung Pandang Surabaya Denpasar Medan Balikpapan Batam Yogyakarta Banjarmarsin Manado Padang Pekanbaru Pontianak Semarang Palembang Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,895 524 497 315 296 275 137 137 125 106 94 91 82 78 75 909 5,637 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Lion Air 2,107 Garuda Indonesia 1,414 Batavia Air 728 Sriwijaya Air 532 Merpati Nusantara Airlines 289 Indonesia AirAsia 184 Wings Air 147 Citilink 84 Trigana Air Service 72 Aviastar 25 KAE 22 TransNusa Airways 15 Mandala Airlines 14 Pacific Royale Airways 3 Other Airlines Total 0 5,637

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Domestic International
5,637 3,064

Total
8,701

5,000

6,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 23 99 769 13 270 2,104 36 127 942
Mvts 250,000

International

Domestic

B737 A330 A320 B777 B747 ATR F100 B767 A340 BAe 146 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 3,000

CO2 v Distance

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

101

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Netherlands
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Groningen Rotterdam Eindhoven Amsterdam

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B747 B777 A330 B737 A320 B767 MD80 Embraer 170/190 B757 F70 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
1 7,547

Total
7,549

2,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 0 40 194 452 320 1,820 452 320 1,818
Mvts 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 1 <1 <1 <1 Airlines (Domestic) Transavia Airlines CO2 (kt) 1

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,500
1,000 500 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 1 Other Airlines Total 0 1

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

102

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Mexico
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Mexico City Tijuana Monterrey Guadalajara Cancun Hermosillo Culiacan Merida Ciudad Juarez Chihuahua Villahermosa Los Cabos Toluca Mexicali Tuxtla Gutierrez Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,167 326 284 282 261 95 73 70 56 55 51 49 47 45 40 504 3,404 Airlines (Domestic) AeroMexico Volaris Interjet VivaAerobus Aeromar MAYAir Aerolineas Argentinas Air Transat CO2 (kt) 1,404 812 732 381 68 5 2 <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 RJ140 B747 B767 B777 Embraer 170/190 A330 A340 MD80 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
3,404 3,936

Total
7,340

2,000

2,500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 29 110 849 34 280 2,300 63 163 1,234
Mvts 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 3,404

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

103

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Turkey
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Istanbul Ankara Izmir Antalya Adana Trabzon Bodrum Gaziantep Diyarbakir Kayseri Samsun Van Erzurum Elazig Dalaman Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 811 239 153 109 97 85 47 46 44 39 35 31 27 26 25 181 1,994 Airlines (Domestic) Turkish Airlines Pegasus Airlines Onur Air Atlasjet Asiana Airlines Ariana Afghan Airlines Germania Jetairfly Luxair Transavia Airlines Transavia France CO2 (kt) 1,238 497 160 96 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 A320 B777 A330 A340 B767 B757 A310 Iluyshin IL96 B747 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

Domestic International
1,994 5,061

Total
7,055

2,500

3,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 27 77 585 68 236 2,193 95 149 1,286
Mvts 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

2 1,994

Total Movements Domestic

104

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Malaysia
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Kuala Lumpur Kota-Kinabalu Kuching Miri George Town (PEN) Johor Bahru Langkawi Sibu Tawau Sandakan Kota Bharu Bintulu Labuan Kuala Terengganu Alor Setar Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 610 228 155 74 73 52 48 47 45 43 40 28 24 16 14 14 1,511 Airlines (Domestic) AirAsia Malaysia Airlines Firefly Berjaya Air Korean Air Transaero Airlines CO2 (kt) 866 603 38 3 <1 <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B777 A330 B737 B747 A380 ATR A340 B767 B757 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
1,511 4,508

Total
6,019

2,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 52 82 607 154 283 2,076 205 175 1,146
Mvts 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 1,511

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

105

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Saudi Arabia
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Riyadh Jeddah Dammam Medina Khamis Mushayat Jazan Tabuk Nejran Taif Hail Gassim Jouf Al Baha Bisha Guriat Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 553 514 171 121 90 49 40 28 21 19 19 16 15 14 11 44 1,725 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Saudi Arabian Airlines 1,598 Nas Air 96 BMI Regional 10 Lufthansa 9 Biman Bangladesh Airlines 5 Lion Air 3 Singapore Airlines 2 Korean Air 1 Batavia Air 1 Middle East Airlines <1 Wings Air <1 Egyptair <1 Royal Air Maroc <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B777 B747 A330 Embraer 170/190 B737 A340 A300 A310 A380 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
1,725 3,857

Total
5,582

2,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 60 103 749 134 257 2,030 194 176 1,270
Mvts 100,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

1 1,725

Total Movements Domestic

106

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

South Africa
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Johannesburg Cape Town Durban Port Elizabeth Lanseria East London George Bloemfontein Nelspruit Kimberley Pietermaritzburg Upington Richards Bay Hoedspruit Pietersburg Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 569 488 207 80 72 40 31 20 14 7 6 4 4 3 3 3 1,551 Airlines (Domestic) South African Airways Comair British Airways Twin Town Leasing Mango Turkish Airlines Singapore Airlines Qatar Airways Velvet Sky Etihad Airways Pelican Air Services CO2 (kt) 639 243 243 191 155 26 18 18 16 2 <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 A340 B777 B747 A330 A380 A320 MD80 CRJ Dash 8 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600 800

Domestic International
1,551 3,611

Total
5,162

1,000

1,200

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 31 110 828 71 578 3,549 102 254 1,469
Mvts 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 1,551

Total Movements Domestic

107

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Taiwan
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Taipei Kinmen Magong Kaohsiung Taichung Taitung Nangan Hualien Tainan Matsu Chiayi Hengchun Pingtung

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A330 B747 B777 B737 A320 A340 MD80 B767 Embraer 170/190 Dash 8 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Uni Air 68 Mandarin Airlines 47 TransAsia Airways 30 Far Eastern Air Transport 14 China Airlines 9

Domestic International
169 4,341

Total
4,510

200

400

600

800

1,000 1,200 1,400

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 7 41 228 187 233 1,836 194 198 1,214
Mvts 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 56 41 24 18 11 7 3 3 3 1 1 <1 <1

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

1 169

Other Airlines Total

0 169

Total Movements Domestic

108

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Switzerland
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Zurich Geneva Lugano Bern

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 A340 A330 B767 B737 BAe 146 B777 A380 F100 Embraer 170/190 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000

Domestic International
44 4,387

Total
4,431

1,500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 6 55 211 567 207 1,284 573 202 1,230
Mvts 100,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 21 20 3 <1 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Swiss International Air Lines 41 Darwin Airline 2 Royal Jordanian <1 Helvetic Airways <1 Tunisair <1 Pegasus Airlines <1

CO2 (kt) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 44 Other Airlines Total 1 44

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

109

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Philippines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Manila Lapu-Lapu Davao City Cagayan de Oro Iloilo Puerto Princesa Tacloban Bacolod Kalibo Zamboanga General Santos Tagbilaran Butuan Caticlan Dumaguete Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 742 196 139 70 63 58 47 43 42 38 34 31 22 21 19 117 1,684 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Cebu Pacific 659 Philippine Airlines 443 Air Philippines 341 Zest Airways 173 South East Asian Airlines 43 Philippines' AirAsia 22 SilkAir 2

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B747 B777 A330 A340 B767 B737 Dash 8 ATR Fairchild Dornier Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
1,684 2,652

Total
4,335

2,000

2,500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 17 85 504 27 327 2,773 45 155 942
Mvts 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,200

CO2 v Distance

1,000 800 600 400 200 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 1,684

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

110

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Qatar
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt)

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 A320 A340 B737 Embraer 170/190 B757 B787 A310 F100 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
0 3,900

Total
3,900

2,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 2,011 330 2,691 2,011 330 2,691
Mvts 25,000

International

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

20,000 15,000
10,000 5,000 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 0 Other Airlines Total 0 0

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

111

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Argentina
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Buenos Aires Ushuaia Mendoza Salta San Carlos de Bariloche Cordoba El Calafate Iguacu Neuquen Comodoro Rivadavia Tucuman Rio Gallegos Trelew Bahia Blanca Rio Grande (RGA) Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 450 54 49 48 47 46 41 39 29 27 27 21 17 12 11 65 983 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Aerolineas Argentinas 649 LAN Airlines 288 Andes Líneas Aéreas 24 SOL Lineas Aereas 15 LADE - Lineas Aereas Del Estado 8

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A340 B737 A320 B767 B747 A330 RJ140 Embraer 170/190 MD80 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600

Domestic International
983 2,480

Total
3,463

800

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 24 121 983 60 412 2,888 84 245 1,596
Mvts 50,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 983

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

112

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

New Zealand
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Auckland Christchurch Wellington Queenstown Dunedin Nelson Napier/Hastings Palmerston North New Plymouth Invercargill Tauranga Hamilton (NZ) Rotorua Blenheim Gisborne Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 256 155 151 39 33 22 16 11 10 9 9 9 7 5 5 14 751 Airlines (Domestic) Air New Zealand Jetstar Airways Air Chathams Singapore Airlines CO2 (kt) 621 127 2 1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 B737 A320 A340 Dash 8 B747 A330 B767 ATR A380 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600 800

Domestic International
751 2,200

Total
2,951

1,000

1,200

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 168 75 395 493 455 3,807 662 199 860
Mvts 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,000

CO2 v Distance

800 600
400 200 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 751

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

113

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Vietnam
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Ho Chi Minh City Hanoi Da Nang Haiphong Nha Trang Hue Vinh City Dalat Can Tho Buon Me Thuot Qui Nhon Phu Quoc Pleiku Cam Rahn Dong Hoi Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 462 392 110 35 31 29 25 13 10 10 9 9 7 3 3 9 1,156 Airlines (Domestic) Vietnam Airlines Jetstar Pacific VietJet Air Pak West Airlines Austrian Airlines CO2 (kt) 882 158 80 36 <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B777 A330 B737 B767 ATR CRJ A340 B747 F70 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600 800

Domestic International
1,156 1,714

Total
2,871

1,000

1,200

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 13 94 705 19 247 2,103 32 149 1,116
Mvts 50,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,000

CO2 v Distance

800 600
400 200 -

40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 1,156

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

114

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Portugal
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Lisboa Funchal Porto Ponta Delgada Terceira Horta Faro Porto Santo Flores Island Pico Island Vila Real Santa Maria Sao Jorge Island Graciosa Island Corvo Island Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 A330 B737 A340 B777 A310 F100 B757 RJ140 Dash 8 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) TAP Portugal 193 CO2 (kt) SATA International 69 900 SATA Air Acores 24 800 700 Easyjet 19 600 Transavia France 9 500 Ryanair 8 400 Air VIP 2 300 Air Transat 2 200 100 TAAG Angola Airlines (Linhas Aéreas <1 de Angola) Jetairfly <1

Domestic International
325 2,494

Total
2,820

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

1,400

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 30 97 572 233 234 1,886 264 201 1,498
Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 120 65 47 41 22 11 11 3 2 1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 3 325

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 1 325

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

115

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Colombia
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Bogota Rio Negro Cartagena de Indias Cali Barranquilla San Andreas Island Santa Marta Bucaramanga Cucuta Pereira Monteria Valledupar Medellin Pasto Leticia Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 552 132 109 102 78 50 45 37 29 22 19 17 14 11 9 65 1,295

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 A330 B737 A340 Embraer 170/190 B767 F50 Dash 8 B757 ATR Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales830 de Colombia, S.A. CO2 (kt) LAN Airlines 273 800 Copa Airlines 120 700 SATENA 40 600 500 Viva Colombia 18 400 #N/A 14 300 Tiara Air Aruba <1 200 100 -

Domestic International
1,295 1,269

Total
2,564

200

400

600

800

1,000 1,200 1,400

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 27 72 389 27 273 2,144 54 113 663
Mvts 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 1,295

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

116

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Norway
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Oslo Bergen Trondheim Tromso Bodo Stavanger Alesund Evenes Kristiansand Sandefjord Kirkenes Alta Haugesund Molde Kristiansund Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 415 132 124 96 81 78 31 30 25 20 18 17 16 15 13 120 1,231 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) 570 Norwegian Air Shuttle 414 Wideroe 232 DAT Danish Air Transport 9 Icelandair 2 DOT LT 2 Flexflight 1 Air Norway <1 Atlantic Airways <1 Condor Flugdienst <1 CHC Norway

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 Dash 8 A320 B777 A330 B757 Embraer 170/190 MD80 CRJ ATR Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
1,231 1,269

Total
2,500

2,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 248 69 342 256 140 1,131 504 93 554
Mvts 250,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 1,000

CO2 v Distance

800 600 400 200 -

200,000 150,000 100,000

50,000
-50,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

1 1,231

Total Movements Domestic

117

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Belgium
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Oostende Liege Brussels

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A330 B737 A320 B767 B777 BAe 146 Embraer 170/190 B757 RJ140 Dash 8 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) Jetairfly CO2 (kt) <1

Domestic International
0 2,471

Total
2,471

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 0 37 170 229 202 1,435 229 202 1,434
Mvts 50,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) <1 <1 <1

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 0 Other Airlines Total 0 0

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

118

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Egypt
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Cairo Luxor Ras Nasrani Aswan Hurghada Alexandria Abu Simbel Marsa Alam Assiut Taba Mersa Matruh Port Said

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 B777 A330 B747 Embraer 170/190 A340 B757 A300 B767 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) Egyptair Kuwait Airways Jetairfly Air Berlin Transavia Airlines Niki Austrian Airlines Belair Air Arabia Meridiana Transavia France Edelweiss Air Germania CO2 (kt) 154 1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1

Domestic International
160 2,310

Total
2,469

200

400

600

800

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 2 63 438 28 230 2,191 29 196 1,649
Mvts 20,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 71 21 20 19 16 6 3 3 1 <1 <1 <1

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

15,000 10,000
5,000 -5,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 160

Other Airlines Total

3 160

Total Movements Domestic

119

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Chile
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Santiago de Chile Antofagasta Iquique Puerto Montt Calama Punta Arenas Concepcion Copiapo La Serena Temuco Arica Isla de Pascua Balmaceda Valdivia Osorno Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 411 113 79 74 59 43 40 33 30 26 25 24 20 10 6 6 997 Airlines (Domestic) LAN Airlines Sky Airline PAL Airlines PLUNA LAN Argentina LAN Peru CO2 (kt) 709 235 52 <1 <1 <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B767 B737 A340 B777 B747 A330 Embraer 170/190 CRJ B787 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600

Domestic International
997 1,375

Total
2,372

800

1,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 57 121 896 79 377 3,199 136 200 1,448
Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 600

CO2 v Distance

500 400 300 200 100 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 1 997

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

120

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Sweden
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Stockholm Malmo Gothenburg Lulea Umea Ostersund Skelleftea Angelholm Sundsvall-Harnosand Kiruna Ronneby Visby Kalmar Jonkoping Halmstad Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 274 53 52 51 36 14 13 12 11 11 8 5 4 3 3 27 577 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) 292 Malmo Aviation 106 Norwegian Air Shuttle 87 Golden Air 26 Nextjet 18 Skyways Express 17 Direktflyg 10 Flexflight 8 Avies 7 City Airline 4 Blue1 2 Finnair <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 A320 A330 BAe 146 B747 MD80 Embraer 170/190 B757 Jetstream 31/32/41 B767 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600 800

Domestic International
577 1,535

Total
2,112

1,000

1,200

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 61 77 406 162 152 1,157 222 120 748
Mvts 100,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 600

CO2 v Distance

500 400 300

80,000 60,000 40,000

200
100 -

20,000
-20,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 577

Total Movements Domestic

121

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Peru
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Lima Cuzco Arequipa Iquitos Piura Tarapoto Juliaca Chiclayo Trujillo Tacna Pucallpa Puerto Maldonado Cajamarca Tumbes Ayacucho Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 311 104 62 37 34 20 19 17 15 15 13 11 6 6 3 7 680 Airlines (Domestic) LAN Airlines Taca International Peruvian Airlines Star Peru Aerolinea LC Busre Iberia Airlines CO2 (kt) 419 90 84 77 10 <1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B767 B737 B777 A340 A330 BAe 146 Embraer 170/190 B757 Dash 8 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600

Domestic International
680 1,408

Total
2,088

800

1,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 23 106 621 47 355 3,440 70 201 1,390
Mvts 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 600

CO2 v Distance

500 400 300 200 100 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 680

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

122

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Israel
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Tel Aviv Eilat Nevatim

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 B747 B737 B767 A320 A330 A340 B757 ATR A310 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) Arkia Israel Airlines El Al Israel Airlines Israir Airlines CO2 (kt) 16 12 11

Domestic International
39 1,952

Total
1,991

100

200

300

400

500

600

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 5 49 278 254 370 3,216 259 328 2,566
Mvts 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -2,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 20 20 <1

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 39 Other Airlines Total 0 39

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

123

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Denmark
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Copenhagen Aalborg Aarhus Karup Billund Bornholm Sonderborg Esbjerg

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 A320 A340 MD80 B747 A330 CRJ B777 B757 B767 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) 37 Norwegian Air Shuttle 28 Cimber Air 18 DAT Danish Air Transport 3 Turkish Airlines <1 British Airways <1

Domestic International
86 1,893

Total
1,979

100

200

300

400

500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 15 40 198 338 166 1,115 354 146 936
Mvts 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 43 26 6 6 2 2 1 <1

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 86 Other Airlines Total 0 86

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

124

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Austria
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Wien Innsbruck Salzburg Klagenfurt Graz Linz

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 B777 B767 F100 Embraer 170/190 Dash 8 A340 F70 A330 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) Austrian Airlines Niki Pegasus Airlines CO2 (kt) 40 <1 <1

Domestic International
41 1,845

Total
1,886

200

400

600

800

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 5 46 255 219 149 1,082 224 142 993
Mvts 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 20 8 4 3 3 2

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 600

CO2 v Distance

500 400 300 200 100 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 0 41 Other Airlines Total 1 41

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

125

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Pakistan
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Karachi Islamabad Lahore Peshawar Quetta Multan Faisalabad Sialkot Sukkur Bahawalpur Skardu Rahim Yar Khan Dera Turbat Gilgit Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 224 103 99 27 19 13 12 5 3 2 2 2 2 <1 <1 5 517 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Pakistan International Airlines324 Air Indus 71 Shaheen Air International 60 Airblue 58 Bhoja Air 3

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 B737 A310 A330 B747 A320 ATR B757 A340 A300 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 100 200 300 400 500

Domestic International
517 1,282

Total
1,799

600

700

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 3 114 711 7 281 2,371 10 197 1,346
Mvts 20,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 600

CO2 v Distance

500 400 300 200 100 -

15,000 10,000
5,000 -5,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 517

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

126

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Greece
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Athens Thessaloniki Heraklion Rhodos Chania Mytilene Kerkyra Santorini Alexandroupolis Kos Mykonos Island Samos Chios Sitia Lemnos Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 144 60 33 25 14 10 9 9 8 6 5 5 5 3 2 21 358 Airlines (Domestic) Aegean Airlines Olympic Airlines Cyprus Airways Astra Airlines Sky Express Jetairfly Condor Flugdienst Transavia Airlines Smart Wings Luxair TUIfly Air Berlin Niki Edelweiss Air Meridiana Other Airlines Total CO2 (kt) 171 142 17 13 10 2 2 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 1 358

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 Dash 8 B767 A330 B757 B777 BAe 146 A340 Jetstream 31/32/41 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 200 400 600 800

Domestic International
358 1,393

Total
1,751

1,000

1,200

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 31 56 283 122 179 1,761 153 124 931
Mvts 100,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 500

CO2 v Distance

400 300
200 100 -

80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

127

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Finland
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Helsinki Oulu Rovaniemi Kittila Ivalo Kuopio Vaasa Kuusamo Joensuu Kemi/Tornio Turku Kokkola/Pietarsaari Kajaani Tampere Mariehamn Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 A330 A340 B737 Embraer 170/190 B717 ATR B757 B767 Saab 2000 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Finnair 126 Norwegian Air Shuttle 31 Blue1 24 Flybe 18 Air Baltic 2 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) 2 Nextjet <1 Direktflyg <1 Flexflight <1

Domestic International
205 1,402

Total
1,607

100

200

300

400

500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 38 62 424 259 231 1,537 297 171 1,055
Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 101 36 17 10 7 7 6 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 3 205

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 500

CO2 v Distance

400 300
200 100 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 2 205

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

128

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Iran
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Tehran Mashhad Shiraz Bandar Abbas Ahwaz Isfahan Kish Island Zahedan Tabriz Bushehr Kermanshah Yazd Rasht Ala'Marvdasht Chah-Bahar Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 312 128 72 42 40 40 32 25 25 17 17 16 13 11 11 97 900 Airlines (Domestic) Iran Air Iran Aseman Airlines Iran Air Tours Kish Air Caspian Airlines Qeshm Faraz Qeshm Air CO2 (kt) 316 284 206 69 20 2 2

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 F100 MD80 B747 A300 A320 A310 B727 A330 B777 B737 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 100 200 300 400

Domestic International
900 700

Total
1,600

500

600

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 12 108 665 9 217 1,432 21 138 833
Mvts 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 900

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

129

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Ireland
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Dublin Killarney/Kerry Carrickfinn

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B737 A330 B757 B767 B777 BAe 146 ATR MD80 A310 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) Aer Lingus Flybe Air Transat Aer Arann CO2 (kt) 1 1 <1 <1

Domestic International
4 1,583

Total
1,588

100

200

300

400

500

600

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 1 40 241 346 151 1,178 347 150 1,150
Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 2 <1 <1

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 500

CO2 v Distance

400 300
200 100 -

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airports Total 2 4 Other Airlines Total 1 4

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

130

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Nigeria
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Lagos Abuja Port Harcourt Owerri Imo Enugu Kano Calabar Benin City Oron Warri Kaduna Maiduguri Sokoto Yola Jos Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 198 137 69 21 20 15 15 11 10 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 518 Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Arik Air 218 Aero Contractors 160 Virgin Nigeria Airways 49 Dana Airlines 43 Farnair Netherlands 18 Air France 16 Lufthansa 13 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 1

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 A330 B777 A340 B747 B767 MD80 A320 CRJ Dash 8 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 100 200 300 400

Domestic International
518 1,050

Total
1,567

500

600

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 3 74 465 6 408 3,532 9 165 1,011
Mvts 50,000

International

Domestic

CO2 (kt) 500

CO2 v Distance

400 300
200 100 -

40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 0 518

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

131

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Morocco
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic) Casablanca Agadir Marrakech El Aaiun Oujda Tanger Ouarzazate Nador Fes Tan Tan Goulimime Al Hoceima Er-Rachidia Rabat Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 A320 B767 A330 B777 B747 A340 ATR CRJ A310 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt)
Airlines (Domestic) Royal Air Maroc Jetairfly Luxair Transavia Airlines Edelweiss Air Brussels Airlines Air Arabia Maroc Transavia France CO2 (kt) 43 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1

Domestic International
46 1,320

Total
1,366

200

400

600

800

1,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/capita (kg) CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 1 47 351 41 212 2,061 42 190 1,748
Mvts 25,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 21 8 7 3 2 2 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 2 46

International CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt) 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

CO2 v Distance

20,000 15,000 10,000

5,000
-5,000

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic
Other Airlines Total 2 46

Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Total Movements Domestic

132

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Profile F2 Airport Footprint Profiles
Profile F2 contains carbon footprint profiles for the 20 airports listed in the Figure below. The carbon footprint relates to the notional fuel uplifted at an airport (ie the fuel that would have been uplifted from the airport in the absence of tankering). The 20 airports are ranked by total carbon footprint – these airports capture about 30% of the global carbon footprint for scheduled passenger flights in 2012 (both domestic and international). The Innovata database identifies 3,534 airports which had a domestic carbon footprint and 1,373 airports that had an international carbon footprint for scheduled passenger flights in 2012. There is an overlap in these numbers - the database contains 3,712 separate airports which hosted either domestic or international scheduled flights in 2012. The carbon footprint for destination airports shown in the profiles is based on grouped airports. The profiles are ordered by descending weight of total CO2.
Domestic CO2 (kt)
193 4,997 1 2,764 222 206 4,297 216 533 5,382 4,139 28 3,641 0 1,560 1,415 4,269 2,238

Airport
London (Heathrow) Los Angeles (LAX) Dubai (DXB) New York (JFK) Frankfurt (FRA) Hong Kong (HKG) Paris (CDG) Singapore (SIN) Beijing (PEK) Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok (BKK) Atlanta (ATL) Chicago (ORD) Seoul (ICN) San Francisco (SFO) Amsterdam (AMS) Shanghai (PVG) Sydney (SYD) Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Newark (EWR)

International CO2 (kt)
16,391 6,870 10,986 8,027 10,190 10,386 10,120 9,819 5,074 8,905 7,517 2,428 3,583 7,627 3,797 7,298 4,788 4,815 1,629 3,418

Total CO 2 (kt) 16,584
11,866 10,986 10,791 10,412 10,386 10,326 9,819 9,371 9,121 8,050 7,810 7,721 7,655 7,438 7,298 6,348 6,230 5,899 5,656

Other Airports Total

189,615 225,716

214,872 358,538

404,487 584,254

133

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

London (Heathrow)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% International B777 B747 A320 A340 B767 A330 A380 B757 B737 A300 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Domestic International
193 16,391

Total
16,584

Other Indicators
5,000 6,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

78

40% 30% 20%
10% 0% Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 480 International CO2/PAX (kg) 458 Distance/trip (km) 3,280 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 434 Distance/trip (km) 3,005
Mvts
60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Edinburgh Glasgow Aberdeen (UK) Manchester (UK) Belfast Newcastle (UK) Leeds/Bradford

CO2 (kt) 49 34 34 30 29 16 1

Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) British Airways 151 BMI Regional 30 Aer Lingus 10 Biman Bangladesh Airlines 2 Asiana Airlines 0

CO2 (kt)
6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 193

Other Airlines Total

0 193

Total Movements Domestic

134

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Los Angeles (LAX)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% International B777 B747 B737 B757 A320 B767 A380 A340 A330 CRJ Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500

Domestic International
4,997 6,870

Total
11,866

Other Indicators
3,000 3,500

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

209

40% 30% 20%
10% 0% Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,753 International CO2/PAX (kg) 832 Distance/trip (km) 6,275 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 368 Distance/trip (km) 2,482
Mvts
70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) New York (JFK) Chicago Honolulu Atlanta Washington DC Dallas-Fort Worth Miami Boston Houston Kahului San Francisco Newark Agana Denver Philadelphia Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 667 351 339 232 228 207 180 162 160 154 144 140 137 128 107 1,660 4,997

Airlines (Domestic) American Airlines United Airlines Delta Air Lines Southwest Airlines Virgin America US Airways Philippine Airlines Alaska Airlines JetBlue Airways Hawaiian Airlines Continental Airlines AirTran Airways Qantas Airways Spirit Airlines Frontier Airlines Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 1,261 1,154 857 509 325 148 140 131 110 90 70 53 44 33 32 40 4,997

CO2 (kt)
3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

135

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Dubai (DXB)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% International B777 A330 A380 A340 B737 A320 A310 B747 B767 B757 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

Domestic International
1 10,986

Total
10,986

Other Indicators
6,000 7,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

28

40% 30% 20%
10% 0% Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 117 International CO2/PAX (kg) 395 Distance/trip (km) 3,109 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 394 Distance/trip (km) 3,106
Mvts
30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Abu Dhabi

CO2 (kt) 1

Airlines (Domestic) Air India Express Sudan Airways

CO2 (kt) 0 0

CO2 (kt)
4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 1

Other Airlines Total

0 1

Total Movements Domestic

136

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

New York (JFK)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B777 B767 A320 B747 A330 B757 B737 A340 A380 CRJ Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500 2,000

Domestic International
2,764 8,027

Total
10,791

Other Indicators
2,500 3,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

209

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,952 International CO2/PAX (kg) 610 Distance/trip (km) 5,232 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 409 Distance/trip (km) 3,168
Mvts
40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Los Angeles San Francisco Las Vegas San Juan (US) Orlando Miami Seattle Fort Lauderdale San Diego Salt Lake City Phoenix Tampa Atlanta Honolulu West Palm Beach Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 667 463 155 136 100 91 84 83 73 71 70 46 41 37 34 614 2,764

Airlines (Domestic) Delta Air Lines JetBlue Airways American Airlines United Airlines Virgin America US Airways Qantas Airways Hawaiian Airlines EVA Air Sun Country Airlines Iberia Airlines

CO2 (kt) 791 783 626 247 164 51 44 37 13 8 0

CO2 (kt)
3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 2,764

Total Movements Domestic

137

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Frankfurt (FRA)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B747 A340 B777 A320 A330 A380 B767 B737 B757 Embraer 170/190 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500 2,000

Domestic International
222 10,190

Total
10,412

Other Indicators
2,500 3,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

58

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 326 International CO2/PAX (kg) 382 Distance/trip (km) 2,466 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 341 Distance/trip (km) 2,139
Mvts
60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Berlin Hamburg Munich Dresden Hannover Bremen Dusseldorf Leipzig Nuremburg Stuttgart Munster-Osnabruck Friedrichshafen Westerland Laage Heringsdorf Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 57 45 34 16 15 13 12 8 7 7 3 3 0 0 0 0 222

Airlines (Domestic) Lufthansa Air Berlin China Eastern Airlines TUIfly Royal Jordanian Condor Flugdienst Royal Air Maroc Cirrus Airlines SunExpress Tunisair Sun Express Georgian Airways

CO2 (kt) 208 11 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

CO2 (kt)
3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 222

Total Movements Domestic

138

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Hong Kong (HKG)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% International B777 A330 B747 A340 A320 B737 A380 B767 Embraer 170/190 B757 Other types 0

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
0 10,386

Total
10,386

Other Indicators
4,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) 365 Distance/trip (km) 2,902 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 365 Distance/trip (km) 2,902
Mvts
35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Dest Airports (Domestic)

CO2 (kt)

Airlines (Domestic)

CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt)
3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 0

Other Airlines Total

0 0

Total Movements Domestic

139

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Paris (CDG)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% International B777 A320 A330 A340 B767 A380 B747 B737 B757 Embraer 170/190 Other types 0

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000

Domestic International
206 10,120

Total
10,326

Other Indicators
4,000 5,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

86

Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 551 International CO2/PAX (kg) 387 Distance/trip (km) 2,488 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 362 Distance/trip (km) 2,280
Mvts
60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

CO2 (kt) Dest Airports (Domestic) Nice 35 Toulouse 33 Marseille Provence 30 Bordeaux 20 Lyon 18 Montpellier 15 Nantes 10 Brest 9 Pau Pyrennees 8 Biarritz 7 Strasbourg 5 Clermont/Ferrand Auvergne 5 Ajaccio 5 Bastia 3 Figari 2 Other Airports 2 Total 206

Airlines (Domestic) Air France Easyjet XL Airways France Air Austral Air Madagascar Smart Wings Flexflight CCM Airlines Twin Jet

CO2 (kt) 170 31 3 1 1 0 0 0 0

CO2 (kt)
3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 206

Total Movements Domestic

140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Singapore (SIN)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% International B777 A380 A330 A320 B747 A340 B767 B737 B787 A310 Other types 0 1,000

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000 3,000

Domestic International
0 9,819

Total
9,819

Other Indicators
4,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) 382 Distance/trip (km) 2,902 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 382 Distance/trip (km) 2,902
Mvts
30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Dest Airports (Domestic)

CO2 (kt)

Airlines (Domestic)

CO2 (kt)

CO2 (kt)
3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 0

Other Airlines Total

0 0

Total Movements Domestic

141

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Beijing (PEK)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International A330 B737 B777 A320 B747 A340 B767 A380 B757 A300 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500

Domestic International
4,297 5,074

Total
9,371

Other Indicators
2,000 2,500

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

136

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,265 International CO2/PAX (kg) 504 Distance/trip (km) 4,326 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 225 Distance/trip (km) 1,832
Mvts
80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Shanghai Guangzhou Zhenzhen Chengdu Kunming Urumqi Chongqing Hangzhou Xi'an Xiamen Sanya Wuhan Haikou Changsha Harbin Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 498 386 308 258 188 176 139 136 133 104 103 96 87 87 84 1,513 4,297

Airlines (Domestic) Air China China Southern Airlines China Eastern Airlines Hainan Airlines Xiamen Airlines Sichuan Airlines Shenzhen Airlines Shanghai Airlines Shandong Airlines Grand China Air Deer Jet Chongqing Airlines Grand China Express Air Lucky Air Spring Airlines Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 1,790 891 667 439 129 102 73 45 42 39 38 12 11 9 5 5 4,297

CO2 (kt)
2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

142

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Tokyo (Narita)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% International B777 B747 B767 A330 A380 A340 B737 A320 B787 B757 Other types 0 1,000

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000 3,000

Domestic International
216 8,905

Total
9,121

Other Indicators
4,000 5,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

101

Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 754 International CO2/PAX (kg) 556 Distance/trip (km) 5,051 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 502 Distance/trip (km) 4,153
Mvts
16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -2,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Fukuoka Okinawa Sapporo/Chitose Itami Nagoya Osaka Asahikawa Hiroshima Komatsu Sendai Kobe Kagoshima Niigata

CO2 (kt) 47 44 41 24 18 12 10 7 4 4 2 2 0

Airlines (Domestic) All Nippon Airways Japan Airlines Skymark Airlines Go One Airways Air Asia Japan Qatar Airways Ibex Airlines Air New Zealand

CO2 (kt) 61 60 45 24 12 8 6 0

CO2 (kt)
4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 216

Other Airlines Total

0 216

Total Movements Domestic

143

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Bangkok (BKK)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic B777 B747 A330 A340 A320 B767 B737 A300 A380 B757 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500 2,000

Domestic International
533 7,517

Total
8,050

Other Indicators
2,500 3,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

89

International

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 578 International CO2/PAX (kg) 384 Distance/trip (km) 3,173 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 315 Distance/trip (km) 2,394
Mvts
35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Phuket Chiang Mai Hatyai Koh Samui Chiang Rai Krabi Udon Thani Khon Kaen Surat Thani Ubon Ratchathni Nakhon Si Thammarat Trang Narathiwat Nakhon Phanom Phitsanulok Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 158 127 51 48 32 28 21 15 14 12 9 7 3 3 1 5 533

Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Thai Airways International 273 Thai AirAsia 111 Bangkok Airways 95 Nok Air 32 One-Two-GO Airlines 22 Business Air 0

CO2 (kt)
2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 533

Total Movements Domestic

144

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Atlanta (ATL)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International MD80 B757 B767 B737 B777 CRJ B717 A330 A320 B747 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500

Domestic International
5,382 2,428

Total
7,810

Other Indicators
2,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

133

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 988 International CO2/PAX (kg) 476 Distance/trip (km) 3,994 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 171 Distance/trip (km) 1,214
Mvts
200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Los Angeles New York (La Guardia) Las Vegas Chicago San Francisco Washington DC Dallas-Fort Worth Denver Phoenix Seattle Fort Lauderdale Houston Orlando Boston Philadelphia Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 231 168 159 155 148 143 142 133 127 126 125 118 114 107 106 3,280 5,382

Airlines (Domestic) Delta Air Lines AirTran Airways Southwest Airlines American Airlines United Airlines US Airways Spirit Airlines Frontier Airlines Alaska Airlines Continental Airlines Island Air Pacific Wings Vision Airlines Asiana Airlines Hainan Airlines Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 4,159 758 126 117 75 74 20 20 18 12 2 0 0 0 0 0 5,382

CO2 (kt)
2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

145

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Chicago (ORD)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B777 A320 B737 RJ140 B767 MD80 B747 B757 CRJ A330 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500

Domestic International
4,139 3,583

Total
7,721

Other Indicators
2,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

143

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,073 International CO2/PAX (kg) 639 Distance/trip (km) 4,051 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 224 Distance/trip (km) 1,373
Mvts
140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) San Francisco Los Angeles New York (La Guardia) Dallas-Fort Worth Seattle Washington DC Las Vegas Boston Phoenix Denver Miami Houston San Diego Newark Atlanta Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 284 278 207 148 142 133 128 121 115 101 100 93 91 86 86 2,026 4,139

Airlines (Domestic) United Airlines American Airlines Delta Air Lines Spirit Airlines US Airways Virgin America Alaska Airlines Continental Airlines JetBlue Airways Hainan Airlines Air Choice One Frontier Airlines Iberia Airlines Asiana Airlines Korean Air Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 1,961 1,604 151 119 115 59 57 45 26 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 4,139

CO2 (kt)
1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

146

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Seoul (ICN)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B777 A330 B747 A380 B737 A320 B767 A340 B757 Embraer 170/190 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500 2,000

Domestic International
28 7,627

Total
7,655

Other Indicators
2,500 3,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

60

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 349 International CO2/PAX (kg) 383 Distance/trip (km) 3,099 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 376 Distance/trip (km) 3,016
Mvts
35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Busan Keku Daegu Gwangju

CO2 (kt) 15 9 4 0

Airlines (Domestic) Korean Air Asiana Airlines Lufthansa Tway Air

CO2 (kt) 14 10 5 0

CO2 (kt)
2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 28

Other Airlines Total

0 28

Total Movements Domestic

147

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

San Francisco (SFO)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B747 A320 B777 B757 B737 B767 A340 CRJ A380 MD80 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500

Domestic International
3,641 3,797

Total
7,438

Other Indicators
2,000 2,500

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

209

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,777 International CO2/PAX (kg) 842 Distance/trip (km) 5,984 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 339 Distance/trip (km) 2,296
Mvts
70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) New York (JFK) Chicago Washington DC Boston Honolulu Newark Dallas-Fort Worth Atlanta Los Angeles Philadelphia Denver Agana Houston Seattle Las Vegas Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 463 320 218 190 163 160 156 148 147 123 121 115 113 91 87 1,025 3,641

Airlines (Domestic) United Airlines Virgin America Delta Air Lines American Airlines Southwest Airlines US Airways JetBlue Airways Philippine Airlines Alaska Airlines Continental Airlines AirTran Airways Hawaiian Airlines Frontier Airlines Sun Country Airlines Asiana Airlines Other Airlines Total

CO2 (kt) 1,691 386 385 382 188 144 121 117 57 53 45 31 30 11 0 0 3,641

CO2 (kt)
2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

148

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Amsterdam (AMS)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B747 B777 A330 B737 B767 A320 MD80 Embraer 170/190 B757 F70 Other types 0

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
0 7,298

Total
7,298

Other Indicators
2,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

21

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 74 International CO2/PAX (kg) 337 Distance/trip (km) 1,881 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 337 Distance/trip (km) 1,881
Mvts
80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Eindhoven Rotterdam

CO2 (kt) 0 0

Airlines (Domestic) Transavia Airlines

CO2 (kt) 0

CO2 (kt)
2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airports Total

0 0

Other Airlines Total

0 0

Total Movements Domestic

149

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Shanghai (PVG)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B777 A320 A330 A340 B737 B747 B767 A380 A300 B757 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500

Domestic International
1,560 4,788

Total
6,348

Other Indicators
2,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

129

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,243 International CO2/PAX (kg) 418 Distance/trip (km) 3,414 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 270 Distance/trip (km) 2,092
Mvts
45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Chengdu Shenyang Harbin Xi'an Chongqing Changchun Beijing Dalian Zhenzhen Sanya Haikou Wuhan Guangzhou Guilin Qingdao Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 143 100 99 96 96 88 81 80 66 61 58 41 36 29 25 462 1,560

Airlines (Domestic) China Eastern Airlines China Southern Airlines Air China Shanghai Airlines Juneyao Airlines Spring Airlines Sichuan Airlines Hainan Airlines Shenzhen Airlines Chongqing Airlines Chengdu Airlines Shandong Airlines Grand China Express Air

CO2 (kt) 555 244 189 161 161 115 49 40 22 11 7 5 2

CO2 (kt)
1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 1,560

Total Movements Domestic

150

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Sydney (SYD)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B747 A330 B777 B737 A380 A320 B767 A340 Dash 8 Embraer 170/190 Other types 0

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Domestic International
1,415 4,815

Total
6,230

Other Indicators
2,000

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

111

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 807 International CO2/PAX (kg) 724 Distance/trip (km) 6,136 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 322 Distance/trip (km) 1,890
Mvts
70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Melbourne Perth Brisbane Adelaide Coolangatta/Gold Coast Cairns Darwin Canberra Hobart Maroochydore Lara Ayers Rock Hamilton Island Townsville Launceston Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 374 284 194 102 96 76 45 29 24 20 16 15 13 13 11 102 1,415

Airlines (Domestic) CO2 (kt) Qantas Airways 638 Virgin Australia 451 Jetstar Airways 235 Tiger Airways Australia 45 Regional Express Airlines 18 United Airlines 14 Philippine Airlines 6 Aeropelican Air Services 3 Air New Zealand 2 Air Mauritius 1 Brindabella Airlines 1 Skytrans Regional 1 Medavia 0 Air Vanuatu 0 Other Airlines Total 0 1,415

CO2 (kt)
2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total Movements Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

151

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International MD80 B737 B777 RJ140 B767 B757 A320 B747 CRJ A330 Other types 0 500

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 1,500

Domestic International
4,269 1,629

Total
5,899

Other Indicators
2,000 2,500

Domestic CO2/PAX (kg)

160

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,254 International CO2/PAX (kg) 507 Distance/trip (km) 3,341 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 197 Distance/trip (km) 1,426
Mvts
90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) Los Angeles New York (La Guardia) San Francisco Washington DC Chicago Atlanta Boston Seattle Denver Las Vegas Miami Phoenix Philadelphia Newark Charlotte Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 203 165 152 149 148 142 110 108 106 103 96 94 93 92 89 2,420 4,269

Airlines (Domestic) American Airlines Delta Air Lines United Airlines US Airways Spirit Airlines Virgin America Frontier Airlines Alaska Airlines JetBlue Airways Continental Airlines Sun Country Airlines Cathay Pacific

CO2 (kt) 3,633 164 127 119 93 47 26 26 15 14 4 0

CO2 (kt)
1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 4,269

Total Movements Domestic

152

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Newark (EWR)
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Domestic International B777 B737 B757 B767 A320 A340 RJ140 A330 B747 Embraer 170/190 Other types 0 200

Footprint CO2 (kt)
Footprint by Aircraft Type
400 600 800

Domestic International
2,238 3,418

Total
5,656

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) 167

1,000 1,200 1,400

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

Distance/trip (km) 1,417 International CO2/PAX (kg) 525 Distance/trip (km) 3,958 Total CO2/PAX (kg) 284 Distance/trip (km) 2,033
Mvts
40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Dest Airports (Domestic) San Francisco Los Angeles Houston Chicago Phoenix Denver Orlando Dallas-Fort Worth Las Vegas Seattle Fort Lauderdale Atlanta Miami Charlotte Honolulu Other Airports Total

CO2 (kt) 155 140 137 115 112 95 94 92 90 83 79 75 63 52 51 806 2,238

Airlines (Domestic) United Airlines Continental Airlines American Airlines Southwest Airlines Delta Air Lines JetBlue Airways US Airways Alaska Airlines Frontier Airlines Asiana Airlines El Al Israel Airlines

CO2 (kt) 1,319 376 116 116 110 89 81 30 1 0 0

CO2 (kt)
2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Trip Distance (km)
Total CO2 (kt) Domestic Total CO2 (kt) International Total Movements International

Other Airlines Total

0 2,238

Total Movements Domestic

153

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Profile F3 Domestic Airport Footprints
The following pages contain a listing of the values of the total CO2 (kt) and CO2/PAX (kg) for the top 1,000 global ‘domestic airports’ ranked by domestic carbon footprint (ie ranked by the weight of the ‘whole of flight’ CO2 generated by domestic flight departures). The Innovata database on which this study is based identifies 3,534 airports across the globe which hosted domestic scheduled passenger flights in 2012. The footprint of the top 1,000 airports, which are airports with a carbon footprint that is => 15 kt CO2, captures more than 97% of the global domestic scheduled passenger operations carbon footprint. The airports are shown in groups under country headings – the countries are listed alphabetically. The airports are also listed alphabetically within each of the country groupings. In 2012 there were 146 countries which hosted domestic scheduled passenger services.

154

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Country/Airport
Algeria Algiers (ALG) Angola Luanda (LAD) Argentina Buenos Aires (AEP) Buenos Aires (EZE) Comodoro Rivadavia (CRD) Cordoba (COR) El Calafate (FTE) Iguacu (IGR) Mendoza (MDZ) Neuquen (NQN) Rio Gallegos (RGL) Salta (SLA) San Carlos de Bariloche (BRC) Trelew (REL) Tucuman (TUC) Ushuaia (USH) Australia Adelaide (ADL) Alice Springs (ASP) Ayers Rock (AYQ) Brisbane (BNE) Broome (BME) Cairns (CNS) Canberra (CBR) Coolangatta/Gold Coast (OOL) Dampier (KTA) Darwin (DRW) Hamilton Island (HTI) Hobart (HBA) Kalgoorlie (KGI) Lara (AVV) Launceston (LST) Mackay (MKY) Maroochydore (MCY) Melbourne (MEL) Mount Isa (ISA) Newcastle (NTL) Newman (ZNE) Paraburdoo (PBO) Perth (PER) Port Hedland (PHE) Rockhampton (ROK) Sydney (SYD) Townsville (TSV) Austria Wien (VIE) Bangladesh Chittagong (CGP) Dhaka (DAC) Bolivia Cochabamba (CBB) La Paz (LPB) Santa Cruz (VVI)

CO2 (kt)
30 34 415 35 27 46 41 39 49 29 21 48 47 17 27 54 377 50 31 1,043 40 285 139 235 64 193 27 85 15 22 45 57 39 1,290 22 51 26 22 1,017 44 31 1,415 93 20 20 30 36 53 43

CO2/PAX (kg)
66 95 124 151 135 87 155 120 106 111 166 122 139 123 119 185 113 162 178 123 165 154 74 109 138 211 130 96 88 106 81 95 116 116 128 90 113 136 219 137 70 111 106 47 66 61 70 82 85

Country/Airport
Brazil Aracaju (AJU) Belem (BEL) Belo Horizonte (CNF) Brasilia (BSB) Campinas (CPQ) Campinas (VCP) Campo Grande (CGR) Cuiaba (CGB) Curitiba (CWB) Florianopolis (FLN) Fortaleza (FOR) Goiania (GYN) Iguassu Falls (IGU) Ilheus (IOS) Imperatriz (IMP) Joao Pessoa (JPA) Juazeiro do Norte (JDO) Londrina (LDB) Maceio (MCZ) Manaus (MAO) Maraba (MAB) Maringa (MGF) Natal (NAT) Navegantes (NVT) Palmas (PMW) Petrolina (PNZ) Porto Alegre (POA) Porto Seguro (BPS) Porto Velho (PVH) Recife (REC) Riberao Preto (RAO) Rio Branco (RBR) Rio de Janeiro (GIG) Rio de Janeiro (SDU) Salvador (SSA) Santarem (STM) Sao Jose do Rio Preto (SJP) Sao Luis (SLZ) Sao Paulo (CGH) Sao Paulo (GRU) Teresina (THE) Uberlandia (UDI) Vitoria (VIX) Burma Yangon (RGN) Canada Abbotsford (YXX) Calgary (YYC) Charlottetown (YYG) Comox (YQQ) Deer Lake (YDF) Edmonton (YEG) Fort McMurray (YMM) Fredericton (YFC) Grande Prairie (YQU) Halifax (YHZ) Hamilton (YHM)

CO2 (kt)
78 234 467 1,001 29 320 95 162 306 158 402 142 79 32 24 94 31 42 90 247 30 30 166 57 26 21 369 43 77 456 42 31 781 424 545 30 30 129 762 1,232 63 41 146 19 25 665 17 16 24 383 48 16 18 200 39

CO2/PAX (kg)
101 122 86 122 66 86 96 113 74 80 137 87 97 89 103 169 128 62 122 156 92 61 138 75 94 86 101 90 124 131 69 138 116 76 114 79 74 124 82 123 113 70 79 47 88 130 111 65 129 125 114 111 78 120 199

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Country/Airport
Iqaluit (YFB) Kelowna (YLW) London (YXU) Moncton (YQM) Montreal (YUL) Ottawa (YOW) Prince George (YXS) Quebec (YQB) Rankin Inlet (YRT) Regina (YQR) Saskatoon (YXE) Sept-Iles (YZV) St. Johns (YYT) Sudbury (YSB) Thunder Bay (YQT) Toronto (YTZ) Toronto (YYZ) Vancouver (YVR) Victoria (YYJ) Whitehorse (YXY) Winnipeg (YWG) Yellowknife (YZF) Chile Antofagasta (ANF) Arica (ARI) Balmaceda (BBA) Calama (CJC) Concepcion (CCP) Copiapo (CPO) Iquique (IQQ) Isla de Pascua (IPC) La Serena (LSC) Puerto Montt (PMC) Punta Arenas (PUQ) Santiago de Chile (SCL) Temuco (ZCO) China Aksu (AKU) Baotou (BAV) Beihai (BHY) Beijing (NAY) Beijing (PEK) Changchun (CGQ) Changde (CGD) Changsha (CSX) Changzhi (CIH) Changzhou (CZX) Chengdu (CTU) Chifeng (CIF) Chongqing (CKG) Dalian (DLC) Daqing Shi (DQA) Daxian (DAX) Dayong (DYG) Dongsheng (DSN) Dunhuang (DNH) Foshan (FUO) Fuzhou (FOC)

CO2 (kt)
30 60 28 33 384 261 18 48 21 63 68 16 103 15 44 81 1,237 747 63 27 244 47 113 25 20 59 40 33 79 24 30 74 43 411 26 24 80 49 205 4,297 353 16 793 28 81 1,794 18 1,321 488 30 18 52 114 27 15 412

CO2/PAX (kg)
150 76 115 113 111 114 77 90 104 122 113 114 142 52 90 65 159 147 88 168 137 121 117 108 110 124 85 104 115 306 87 120 165 129 111 85 102 127 108 136 129 107 109 88 128 131 72 123 96 132 140 105 107 129 164 115

Country/Airport
Ganzhou (KOW) Guangzhou (CAN) Guilin (KWL) Guiyang (KWE) Haikou (HAK) Hailar (HLD) Hangzhou (HGH) Harbin (HRB) Hefei (HFE) Hohhot (HET) Hotan (HTN) Huai'an (HIA) Huangshan (TXN) Huangyan (HYN) Ji An (JGS) Jiamusi (JMU) Jinan (TNA) Jingdezhen (JDZ) Jinghong (JHG) Jining (JNG) Kashgar (KHG) Korla (KRL) Kunming (KMG) Lanzhou (LHW) Lhasa (LXA) Lianyungang (LYG) Lijiang (LJG) Linyi (LYI) Liuzhou (LZH) Luoyang (LYA) Luxi (LUM) Luzhou (LZO) Manzhouli (NZH) Mianyang (MIG) Mudanjiang (MDG) Nanchang-Changbei (KHN) Nanchong (NAO) Nanjing (NKG) Nanning (NNG) Nantong (NTG) Nanyang (NNY) Ningbo (NGB) Qingdao (TAO) Quanzhou (JJN) Sanya (SYX) Shanghai (PVG) Shanghai (SHA) Shangri-La (DIG) Shantou (SWA) Shenyang (SHE) Shijiazhuang (SJW) Song Pan (JZH) Taiyuan (TYN) Tengchong (TCZ) Tianjin (TSN) Tongliao (TGO) Ulanhot (HLH) Urumqi (URC)

CO2 (kt)
34 2,503 291 474 569 58 1,064 560 288 296 25 17 30 25 25 18 503 23 85 22 63 23 1,373 288 143 28 136 44 47 41 32 23 16 46 19 331 18 758 392 28 26 268 586 106 722 1,560 1,972 21 106 544 236 65 400 34 458 26 17 1,128

CO2/PAX (kg)
105 127 109 111 124 117 124 140 110 105 110 103 98 125 106 129 123 97 76 128 119 65 127 120 168 89 98 97 118 112 96 137 112 131 116 103 140 115 116 116 103 116 101 101 149 129 121 84 104 126 122 76 116 81 120 98 109 175

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
Wanxian (WXN) Weihai (WEH) Wenzhou (WNZ) Wu Hai (WUA) Wuhan (WUH) Wuxi (WUX) Wuyishan (WUS) Xiamen (XMN) Xi'an (XIY) Xiangfan (XFN) Xining (XNN) Xuzhou (XUZ) Yancheng (YNZ) Yanji (YNJ) Yantai (YNT) Yibin (YBP) Yichang (YIH) Yinchuan (INC) Yining (YIN) Yiwu (YIW) Yulin (UYN) Yun Cheng (YCU) Zhanjiang (ZHA) Zhengzhou (CGO) Zhenzhen (SZX) Zhoushan (HSN) Zhuhai (ZUH) Colombia Barranquilla (BAQ) Bogota (BOG) Bucaramanga (BGA) Cali (CLO) Cartagena de Indias (CTG) Cucuta (CUC) Monteria (MTR) Pereira (PEI) Rio Negro (MDE) San Andreas Island (ADZ) Santa Marta (SMR) Valledupar (VUP) Congo Brazzaville (BZV) Pointe Noire (PNR) Croatia Zagreb (ZAG) Cuba La Habana (HAV) Denmark Aalborg (AAL) Copenhagen (CPH) Ecuador Cuenca (CUE) Guayaquil (GYE) Quito (UIO) Seymour (GPS)

CO2 (kt)
19 38 305 17 760 171 35 837 1,354 25 158 57 19 33 130 23 54 214 23 61 42 47 31 730 1,780 30 144 78 552 37 102 109 29 19 22 132 50 45 17 21 18 15 26 26 43 18 106 142 25

CO2/PAX (kg)
117 96 112 87 111 121 84 111 115 108 116 113 143 90 87 151 107 110 72 128 75 106 98 123 128 99 123 100 71 61 64 92 73 83 48 62 117 97 110 61 81 58 79 49 41 51 66 60 123

Country/Airport
Egypt Aswan (ASW) Cairo (CAI) Hurghada (HRG) Luxor (LXR) Ras Nasrani (SSH) Finland Helsinki (HEL) Oulu (OUL) Rovaniemi (RVN) France Ajaccio (AJA) Bastia (BIA) Biarritz (BIQ) Bordeaux (BOD) Brest (BES) Hyeres (TLN) Lille (LIL) Lyon (LYS) Marseille Provence (MRS) Montpellier (MPL) Nantes (NTE) Nice (NCE) Paris (CDG) Paris (ORY) Pau Pyrennees (PUF) Strasbourg (SXB) Toulouse (TLS) Germany Berlin (BER) Berlin (SXF) Berlin (TXL) Bremen (BRE) Cologne-Bonn (CGN) Dresden (DRS) Dusseldorf (DUS) Frankfurt (FRA) Friedrichshafen (FDH) Hamburg (HAM) Hannover (HAJ) Leipzig (LEJ) Munich (MUC) Nuremburg (NUE) Stuttgart (STR) Greece Athens (ATH) Heraklion (HER) Rhodos (RHO) Thessaloniki (SKG) India Agartala (IXA) Ahmedabad (AMD) Amritsar (ATQ) Aurangabad (IXU) Bagdogra (IXB) Bangalore (BLR) Bhopal (BHO) Bhubaneswar (BBI)

CO2 (kt)
19 70 16 21 20 101 36 17 40 34 35 109 39 21 48 117 181 41 74 177 206 473 27 40 181 24 28 243 35 127 49 175 222 15 214 52 27 352 49 120 144 33 25 60 22 181 18 18 30 516 20 75

CO2/PAX (kg)
78 66 57 63 56 62 72 92 83 81 89 80 85 95 100 71 88 86 79 86 86 83 83 76 86 71 86 70 77 74 71 66 58 83 73 71 60 68 55 74 55 61 67 66 55 94 64 78 89 108 64 106

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
Calicut (CCJ) Chandigarh (IXC) Chennai/Madras (MAA) Cochin (COK) Coimbatore (CJB) Delhi (DEL) Goa (GOI) Guwahati (GAU) Hyderabad (HYD) Imphal (IMF) Indore (IDR) Jaipur (JAI) Jammu (IXJ) Kolkata (CCU) Lucknow (LKO) Mangalore (IXE) Mumbai (BOM) Nagpur (NAG) Patna (PAT) Port Blair (IXZ) Pune (PNQ) Raipur (RPR) Ranchi (IXR) Srinagar (SXR) Trivandrum (TRV) Udaipur (UDR) Vadodara (BDQ) Varanasi (VNS) Vishakhapatnam (VTZ) Indonesia Ambon (AMQ) Balikpapan (BPN) Banda Aceh (BTJ) Bandar Lampung (TKG) Bandung (BDO) Banjarmarsin (BDJ) Batam (BTH) Bengkulu (BKS) Biak (BIK) Denpasar (DPS) Djayapura (DJJ) Gorontalo (GTO) Jakarta (CGK) Jambi (DJB) Kendari (KDI) Kupang (KOE) Malang (MLG) Manado (MDC) Medan (MES) Padang (PDG) Palangkaraya (PKY) Palembang (PLM) Palu (PLW) Pangkalanbuun (PKN) Pangkalpinang (PGK) Pekanbaru (PKU) Pontianak (PNK) Praya (LOP)

CO2 (kt)
18 37 456 110 54 1,425 107 110 361 22 48 83 37 500 75 26 1,152 66 49 43 147 48 28 57 56 15 28 32 47 53 275 21 26 72 125 137 21 26 315 74 15 1,888 41 31 58 20 106 296 94 32 75 40 23 39 91 82 43

CO2/PAX (kg)
64 86 104 92 82 115 81 83 93 62 70 93 63 114 82 74 103 91 87 131 97 93 95 74 81 72 73 89 86 121 102 84 55 108 92 99 82 132 94 116 93 105 85 75 100 108 145 125 101 106 65 98 95 77 96 101 73

Country/Airport
Semarang (SRG) Solo City (SOC) Sorong (SOQ) Surabaya (SUB) Tarakan (TRK) Ternate (TTE) Timika (TIM) Ujung Pandang (UPG) Yogyakarta (JOG) Iran Ahwaz (AWZ) Bandar Abbas (BND) Bushehr (BUZ) Isfahan (IFN) Kermanshah (KSH) Kish Island (KIH) Mashhad (MHD) Shiraz (SYZ) Tabriz (TBZ) Tehran (THR) Yazd (AZD) Zahedan (ZAH) Israel Eilat (ETH) Tel Aviv (TLV) Italy Alghero (AHO) Bari (BRI) Bergamo (BGY) Bologna (BLQ) Brindisi (BDS) Cagliari (CAG) Catania (CTA) Firenze (FLR) Genova (GOA) Lamezia Terme (SUF) Milano (LIN) Milano (MXP) Napoli (NAP) Olbia (OLB) Palermo (PMO) Pisa (PSA) Reggio Calabria (REG) Roma (CIA) Roma (FCO) Torino (TRN) Trapani (TPS) Treviso (TSF) Trieste (TRS) Venezia (VCE) Verona (VRN) Japan Akita (AXT) Amami O Shima (ASJ) Aomori (AOJ) Asahikawa (AKJ) Fukuoka (FUK) Fukushima (FKS)

CO2 (kt)
78 38 19 497 35 27 24 524 137 40 42 17 40 17 32 128 72 25 312 16 25 20 16 38 110 100 69 67 123 211 15 33 78 270 169 119 51 144 45 28 29 460 108 42 18 21 82 59 52 22 38 83 815 26

CO2/PAX (kg)
65 72 128 90 77 130 134 121 76 99 125 113 97 96 115 121 109 110 105 99 125 50 55 71 83 87 82 89 82 94 72 73 94 92 105 81 78 84 74 93 60 72 93 83 87 75 89 95 71 65 80 110 110 101

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
Hakodate (HKD) Hiroshima (HIJ) Ishigaki (ISG) Itami (ITM) Izumo (IZO) Kagoshima (KOJ) Kita Kyushu (KKJ) Kobe (UKB) Kochi (KCZ) Komatsu (KMQ) Kumamoto (KMJ) Kushiro (KUH) Matsuyama (MYJ) Memanbetsu (MMB) Miyakojima (MMY) Miyazaki (KMI) Morioka (HNA) Nagasaki (NGS) Nagoya (NGO) Nagoya (NKM) Niigata (KIJ) Obihiro (OBO) Oita (OIT) Okayama (OKJ) Okinawa (OKA) Osaka (KIX) Saga (HSG) Sapporo/Chitose (CTS) Sendai (SDJ) Shizuoka (FSZ) Takamatsu (TAK) Tokushima (TKS) Tokyo (Haneda) Tokyo (Narita) Toyama (TOY) Ube (UBJ) Yonago (YGJ) Kazakhstan Aktau (SCO) Aktyubinsk (AKX) Almaty (ALA) Astana (TSE) Atyrau (GUW) Shimkent (CIT) Kenya Mombasa (MBA) Nairobi (NBO) Libya Benghazi (BEN) Tripoli (TIP) Malaysia Bintulu (BTU) George Town (PEN) Johor Bahru (JHB) Kota Bharu (KBR) Kota-Kinabalu (BKI) Kuala Lumpur (KUL) Kuala Lumpur (SZB)

CO2 (kt)
84 138 66 553 30 273 118 134 53 93 186 32 106 51 48 173 16 183 276 22 49 46 99 68 973 284 18 1,007 144 17 69 40 3,553 216 35 65 21 41 18 157 101 34 16 34 52 17 17 28 73 52 40 228 591 19

CO2/PAX (kg)
99 102 69 85 68 91 100 88 71 75 101 91 93 109 64 87 93 99 101 82 96 106 86 95 127 103 109 112 90 114 72 64 105 101 59 111 82 155 128 133 116 129 111 74 68 82 82 69 58 78 56 105 101 29

Country/Airport
Kuala Terengganu (TGG) Kuching (KCH) Labuan (LBU) Langkawi (LGK) Miri (MYY) Sandakan (SDK) Sibu (SBW) Tawau (TWU) Maldives Male (MLE) Mexico Acapulco (ACA) Aguascalientes (AGU) Cancun (CUN) Chihuahua (CUU) Ciudad del Carmen (CME) Ciudad Juarez (CJS) Culiacan (CUL) Guadalajara (GDL) Hermosillo (HMO) La Paz (LAP) Leon (BJX) Los Cabos (SJD) Mazatlan (MZT) Merida (MID) Mexicali (MXL) Mexico City (MEX) Monterrey (MTY) Morelia (MLM) Oaxaca (OAX) Puebla (PBC) Puerto Vallarta (PVR) Reynosa (REX) Tampico (TAM) Tijuana (TIJ) Toluca (TLC) Torreon (TRC) Tuxtla Gutierrez (TGZ) Veracruz (VER) Villahermosa (VSA) Morocco Casablanca (CMN) Mozambique Maputo (MPM) Nepal Kathmandu (KTM) Netherlands Antilles Philipsburg (SXM) New Zealand Auckland (AKL) Christchurch (CHC) Dunedin (DUD) Napier/Hastings (NPE) Nelson (NSN) Queenstown (ZQN) Wellington (WLG)

CO2 (kt)
16 155 24 48 74 43 47 45 18 21 17 261 55 15 56 73 282 95 30 31 49 22 70 45 1,167 284 17 22 15 36 17 21 326 47 20 40 38 51 21 24 20 15 256 155 33 16 22 39 151

CO2/PAX (kg)
52 87 69 63 70 90 68 98 90 70 86 139 116 96 133 109 107 127 116 91 120 102 115 170 105 104 121 81 161 87 92 62 186 98 97 100 73 94 47 130 35 96 86 77 85 70 63 91 69

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
Nigeria Abuja (ABV) Enugu (ENU) Lagos (LOS) Owerri Imo (QOW) Port Harcourt (PHC) Norway Alesund (AES) Alta (ALF) Bergen (BGO) Bodo (BOO) Evenes (EVE) Haugesund (HAU) Kirkenes (KKN) Kristiansand (KRS) Molde (MOL) Oslo (OSL) Sandefjord (TRF) Stavanger (SVG) Tromso (TOS) Trondheim (TRD) Oman Muscat (MCT) Salalah (SLL) Pakistan Islamabad (ISB) Karachi (KHI) Lahore (LHE) Peshawar (PEW) Quetta (UET) Papua New Guinea Port Moresby (POM) Peru Arequipa (AQP) Chiclayo (CIX) Cuzco (CUZ) Iquitos (IQT) Juliaca (JUL) Lima (LIM) Piura (PIU) Tarapoto (TPP) Philippines Bacolod (BCD) Butuan (BXU) Cagayan de Oro (CGY) Caticlan (MPH) Davao City (DVO) Dumaguete (DGT) General Santos (GES) Iloilo (ILO) Kalibo (KLO) Lapu-Lapu (CEB) Legazpi (LGP) Luzon (CRK) Manila (MNL) Puerto Princesa (PPS) Tacloban (TAC) Tagbilaran (TAG)

CO2 (kt)
137 20 198 21 68 31 17 132 81 30 16 18 25 15 415 20 78 96 124 26 25 103 224 99 27 19 50 62 17 104 37 19 311 34 20 43 22 70 21 139 19 34 63 42 196 16 19 742 58 47 31

CO2/PAX (kg)
73 70 77 71 74 64 88 56 76 104 59 106 57 63 75 58 53 95 65 95 98 110 130 120 99 92 85 103 101 101 128 94 110 122 106 70 88 88 52 106 100 115 71 64 78 62 89 89 91 82 96

Country/Airport
Zamboanga (ZAM) Poland Warsaw (WAW) Portugal Funchal (FNC) Lisboa (LIS) Ponta Delgada (PDL) Porto (OPO) Terceira (TER) Romania Bucharest (OTP) Russia Abakan (ABA) Anapa (AAQ) Arkhangelsk (ARH) Astrakhan (ASF) Barnaul (BAX) Blagoveschensk (BQS) Chelyabinsk (CEK) Chita (HTA) Gelendzhik (GDZ) Groznyj (GRV) Irkutsk (IKT) Izhevsk (IJK) Kaliningrad (KGD) Kazan (KZN) Kemerovo (KEJ) Khabarovsk (KHV) Khanty-Mansiysk (HMA) Krasnodar (KRR) Krasnoyarsk (KJA) Magadan (GDX) Makhachkala (MCX) Mineralnyye Vody (MRV) Mirny (MJZ) Moscow (DME) Moscow (SVO) Moscow (VKO) Murmansk (MMK) Nadym (NYM) Nizhnevartovsk (NJC) Nizhniy Novgorod (GOJ) Nojabrxsk (NOJ) Noril'sk (NSK) Novokuznetsk (NOZ) Novosibirsk (OVB) Novy Urengoy (NUX) Omsk (OMS) Orenburg (REN) Perm (PEE) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy (PKC) Rostov Na Donu (ROV) Salehard (SLY) Samara (KUF) Saratov (RTW) Sochi (AER) St. Petersburg (LED) Stavropol (STW)

CO2 (kt)
38 37 65 120 41 47 22 19 19 49 40 23 45 56 65 40 18 19 149 17 59 48 25 266 17 163 176 58 40 92 33 1,327 985 676 43 22 54 18 18 59 23 257 60 76 27 50 129 79 33 77 36 158 422 17

CO2/PAX (kg)
90 47 119 112 105 92 76 50 281 173 116 144 250 399 164 292 160 224 268 175 116 103 247 304 109 150 250 369 198 153 266 205 202 184 149 194 184 75 171 218 287 226 220 220 140 139 415 131 156 123 143 158 144 148

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
Surgut (SGC) Syktyvkar (SCW) Tomsk (TOF) Tyumem (TJM) Ufa (UFA) Ulan Ude (UUD) Vladikavkaz (OGZ) Vladivostok (VVO) Volgograd (VOG) Yakutsk (YKS) Yekaterinburg (SVX) Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (UUS) Saudi Arabia Dammam (DMM) Gassim (ELQ) Hail (HAS) Jazan (GIZ) Jeddah (JED) Jouf (AJF) Khamis Mushayat (AHB) Medina (MED) Nejran (EAM) Riyadh (RUH) Tabuk (TUU) Taif (TIF) South Africa Bloemfontein (BFN) Cape Town (CPT) Durban (DUR) East London (ELS) George (GRJ) Johannesburg (JNB) Lanseria (HLA) Port Elizabeth (PLZ) South Korea Busan (PUS) Cheong Ju (CJJ) Daegu (TAE) Gwangju (KWJ) Keku (CJU) Seoul (GMP) Seoul (ICN) Ulsan (USN) Yeosu (RSU) Spain Alicante (ALC) Barcelona (BCN) Bilbao (BIO) Eivissa (IBZ) Fuerteventura (FUE) Granada (GRX) Granadilla de Abone (TFS) Jerez de la Frontera (XRY) La Coruna (LCG) Lanzarote (ACE) Las Palmas (LPA) Madrid (MAD) Malaga (AGP)

CO2 (kt)
89 30 46 105 100 42 18 258 29 96 165 119 171 19 19 49 514 16 90 121 28 553 40 21 20 488 207 40 31 569 72 80 152 28 26 33 465 450 28 19 21 44 546 111 57 32 27 50 21 31 68 169 729 92

CO2/PAX (kg)
192 154 251 151 148 334 176 375 120 301 150 284 110 77 78 98 109 103 95 83 102 108 99 98 77 132 89 106 111 109 107 106 57 56 54 45 61 62 60 54 53 65 79 83 54 56 76 137 83 88 77 84 84 79

Country/Airport
Menorca (MAH) Oviedo/Aviles (OVD) Palma de Mallorca (PMI) Santa Cruz de Tenerife (TFN) Santander (SDR) Santiago de Compostela (SCQ) Sevilla (SVQ) Valencia (VLC) Vigo (VGO) Sudan Juba (JUB) Khartoum (KRT) Nyala (UYL) Sweden Gothenburg (GOT) Lulea (LLA) Malmo (MMX) Stockholm (ARN) Stockholm (BMA) Umea (UME) Switzerland Geneva (GVA) Zurich (ZRH) Taiwan Kaohsiung (KHH) Kinmen (KNH) Magong (MZG) Taipei (TSA) Tanzania Dar es Salaam (DAR) Kilimanjaro (JRO) Mwanza (MWZ) Thailand Bangkok (BKK) Bangkok (DMK) Chiang Mai (CNX) Chiang Rai (CEI) Hatyai (HDY) Khon Kaen (KKC) Koh Samui (USM) Krabi (KBV) Nakhon Si Thammarat (NST) Phuket (HKT) Surat Thani (URT) Trang (TST) Ubon Ratchathni (UBP) Udon Thani (UTH) Turkey Adana (ADA) Ankara (ESB) Antalya (AYT) Bodrum (BJV) Dalaman (DLM) Diyarbakir (DIY) Elazig (EZS) Erzurum (ERZ) Gaziantep (GZT) Hatay (HTY)

CO2 (kt)
33 49 160 155 31 75 122 49 29 20 61 18 52 51 53 209 66 36 20 21 18 41 24 51 30 17 19 533 158 178 44 87 15 55 33 21 208 24 15 24 40 97 239 109 47 25 44 26 27 46 21

CO2/PAX (kg)
55 86 60 83 74 94 92 59 77 134 124 114 79 97 92 77 84 84 59 56 34 48 31 44 56 66 96 89 82 95 92 98 59 66 84 85 101 76 93 73 69 82 68 67 66 66 102 96 104 96 92

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
Istanbul (IST) Istanbul (SAW) Izmir (ADB) Kayseri (ASR) Konya (KYA) Malatya (MLX) Samsun (SZF) Sanliurfa (GNY) Trabzon (TZX) Van (VAN) Ukraine Kiev (KBP) Simferopol (SIP) United Kingdom Aberdeen (ABZ) Belfast (BFS) Belfast (BHD) Birmingham (BHX) Bristol (BRS) Derby (EMA) Edinburgh (EDI) Glasgow (GLA) Guernsey (GCI) Inverness (INV) Isle of Man (IOM) Jersey (JER) Liverpool (LPL) London (City) London (Gatwick) London (Heathrow) London (Luton) London (Stansted) Manchester (MAN) Newcastle (NCL) Southampton (SOU) United States Agana (GUM) Aguadilla (BQN) Akron (CAK) Albany (ALB) Albuquerque (ABQ) Alexandria (AEX) Allentown (ABE) Amarillo (AMA) Anchorage (ANC) Appleton (ATW) Asheville (AVL) Aspen (ASE) Atlanta (ATL) Atlantic City (ACY) Augusta (AGS) Austin (AUS) Bakersfield (BFL) Baltimore (BWI) Bangor (BGR) Baton Rouge (BTR) Bellingham (BLI) Bethel (BET)

CO2 (kt)
567 244 153 39 18 21 35 15 85 31 55 17 82 95 74 41 41 17 173 141 19 24 19 42 23 29 142 193 39 44 79 42 39 56 39 107 150 380 15 43 48 445 26 26 21 5,382 67 17 627 19 1,459 30 42 73 16

CO2/PAX (kg)
79 72 63 80 66 91 85 99 99 112 84 95 84 77 61 59 80 67 75 74 30 84 43 48 57 71 73 78 91 87 55 67 59 517 195 124 114 126 89 111 94 181 97 79 70 133 134 68 131 127 130 125 99 157 85

Country/Airport
Billings (BIL) Birmingham (BHM) Bismarck (BIS) Bloomington/Normal (BMI) Boise (BOI) Boston (BOS) Bozeman (BZN) Branson (BKG) Bristol/Johnson/Kingsport (TRI) Buffalo (BUF) Burbank (BUR) Burlington (BTV) Cedar Rapids (CID) Charleston (CHS) Charleston (CRW) Charlotte (CLT) Charlotte Amalie (STT) Charlottesville (CHO) Chattanooga (CHA) Chicago (MDW) Chicago (ORD) Chicago/Rockford (RFD) Christiansted (STX) Cleveland (CLE) Colorado Springs (COS) Columbia (CAE) Columbus (CMH) Corpus Christi (CRP) Covington (CVG) Dallas (DAL) Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Dayton (DAY) Daytona Beach (DAB) Denver (DEN) Des Moines (DSM) Detroit (DTW) Duluth (DLH) Durango (DRO) Eagle (EGE) El Paso (ELP) Eugene (EUG) Evansville (EVV) Fairbanks (FAI) Fargo (FAR) Fayetteville (FAY) Fayetteville/Springdale (XNA) Flint (FNT) Florida Beaches (ECP) Fort Hood (GRK) Fort Lauderdale (FLL) Fort Myers (RSW) Fort Wayne (FWA) Fresno (FAT) Gainesville (GNV) Grand Forks (GFK) Grand Junction (GJT) Grand Rapids (GRR) Great Falls (GTF)

CO2 (kt)
50 184 28 25 140 1,972 52 17 16 293 222 60 66 144 31 2,001 100 21 28 1,365 4,139 16 18 607 98 55 393 32 393 396 4,269 154 25 3,696 125 1,815 19 16 34 223 38 19 79 48 20 88 52 47 15 1,488 518 30 71 17 19 26 122 24

CO2/PAX (kg)
110 106 124 107 108 156 127 130 81 111 93 89 123 100 97 105 149 84 91 143 143 198 80 120 108 98 115 71 124 86 160 118 93 151 117 130 127 77 137 122 99 114 132 122 81 127 126 95 67 162 155 115 122 97 153 112 109 118

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
Green Bay (GRB) Greensboro (GSO) Greer (GSP) Gulfport (GPT) Harlingen (HRL) Harrisburg (MDT) Hilo (ITO) Honolulu (HNL) Houston (HOU) Houston (IAH) Huntsville (HSV) Idaho Falls (IDA) Indianapolis (IND) Islip (ISP) Jackson (JAC) Jackson (JAN) Jacksonville (JAX) Jacksonville (OAJ) Juneau (JNU) Kahului (OGG) Kailua/Kona (KOA) Kalispell (FCA) Kansas City (MCI) Ketchikan (KTN) Key West (EYW) Knoxville (TYS) Lafayette (LFT) Lansing (LAN) Las Vegas (LAS) Lexington (LEX) Lihue (LIH) Lincoln (LNK) Little Rock (LIT) Long Beach (LGB) Los Angeles (LAX) Louisville (SDF) Lubbock (LBB) Madison (MSN) Manchester (MHT) Mc Allen (MFE) Medford (MFR) Melbourne (MLB) Memphis (MEM) Miami (MIA) Midland (MAF) Milwaukee (MKE) Minneapolis (MSP) Minot (MOT) Missoula (MSO) Mobile (MOB) Moline (MLI) Monterey (MRY) Montgomery (MGM) Myrtle Beach (MYR) Nashville (BNA) New Orleans (MSY) New York (JFK) New York (La Guardia)

CO2 (kt)
25 95 105 37 31 68 55 1,622 692 2,438 75 18 462 92 33 74 313 16 45 543 233 24 697 29 29 98 24 19 2,920 62 213 16 141 188 4,997 206 50 70 153 42 30 23 417 1,572 54 541 2,136 29 37 34 47 21 19 68 649 564 2,764 1,866

CO2/PAX (kg)
69 89 99 106 79 102 95 252 124 144 107 110 124 130 111 107 112 83 91 203 181 137 132 59 70 110 83 77 163 108 172 101 108 127 209 106 92 88 126 108 105 113 118 166 97 143 143 134 135 102 109 103 95 96 124 128 209 130

Country/Airport
Newark (EWR) Newburgh (SWF) Newport News (PHF) Norfolk (ORF) Oakland (OAK) Oklahoma City (OKC) Omaha (OMA) Ontario (ONT) Orlando (MCO) Orlando (SFB) Palm Springs (PSP) Pasco (PSC) Pensacola (PNS) Peoria (PIA) Philadelphia (PHL) Phoenix (AZA) Phoenix (PHX) Pittsburgh (PIT) Plattsburgh (PBG) Ponce (PSE) Portland (PDX) Portland (PWM) Providence (PVD) Raleigh/Durham (RDU) Rapid City (RAP) Redmond (RDM) Reno (RNO) Richmond (RIC) Roanoke (ROA) Rochester (ROC) Sacramento (SMF) Salt Lake City (SLC) San Antonio (SAT) San Diego (SAN) San Francisco (SFO) San Jose (SJC) San Juan (SJU) Santa Ana (SNA) Santa Barbara (SBA) Sarasota/Bradenton (SRQ) Savannah (SAV) Seattle (SEA) Shreveport (SHV) Sioux Falls (FSD) South Bend (SBN) Spokane (GEG) Springfield (SGF) St. Louis (STL) St. Petersburg-Clearwater (PIE) Syracuse (SYR) Tallahassee (TLH) Tampa (TPA) Traverse City (TVC) Tucson (TUS) Tulsa (TUL) Valparaiso (VPS) Washington DC (DCA) Washington DC (IAD)

CO2 (kt)
2,238 22 40 193 647 223 254 255 2,206 101 102 34 77 39 1,861 102 2,959 477 18 19 1,032 91 229 511 34 20 208 192 33 131 590 1,310 497 1,335 3,641 590 678 623 39 77 84 2,495 31 52 32 155 51 856 60 103 31 1,125 15 231 172 41 1,326 1,372

CO2/PAX (kg)
167 121 116 102 125 109 120 116 152 161 138 105 99 124 138 174 158 118 180 193 155 107 128 107 121 87 112 107 91 103 135 141 123 160 209 138 192 142 106 125 95 180 94 115 104 106 136 127 165 97 91 141 82 129 103 106 124 165

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Airport
West Palm Beach (PBI) White Plains (HPN) Wichita (ICT) Wilkes-Barre/Scranton (AVP) Wilmington (ILM) Windsor Locks (BDL) Uzbekistan Tashkent (TAS) Venezuela Barcelona (BLA) Barquisimeto (BRM) Caracas (CCS) El Vigia (VIG) Maracaibo (MAR) Porlamar (PMV) Puerto Ordaz (PZO) Valencia (VLN) Vietnam Da Nang (DAD) Haiphong (HPH) Hanoi (HAN) Ho Chi Minh City (SGN) Hue (HUI) Nha Trang (NHA) Vinh City (VII) Yemen Sanaa (SAH)

CO2 (kt)
402 127 99 22 33 355 27 38 19 200 17 43 58 39 22 110 35 392 462 29 31 25 18

CO2/PAX (kg)
145 139 117 85 83 132 75 77 75 87 109 95 80 93 88 74 115 117 101 79 68 84 63

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Profile F4 Airline Footprint Profiles
Profile F4 contains carbon footprint profiles for the 20 airlines listed in the Figure below. The carbon footprint profiles have the same format as those shown in Chapter 4 and hence contain information on both the domestic and international footprints of airlines. The listing in the Figure is ranked by total carbon footprint (ie domestic footprint + international footprint). This Profile repeats the 5 airline carbon footprint profiles shown in Chapter 4 in order to avoid the confusion – the listing in Chapter 4 is ranked by domestic footprint and hence is different to that shown in the Figure below. It can be seen that the 20 airlines listed capture about 50% of the global carbon footprint for both scheduled domestic and scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. The Innovata database identifies 605 airlines that operated scheduled domestic passenger flights in 2012 and 511 airlines that operated scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. As indicated in the body of the report, the CO2 arising from a flight that takes off and lands in the same country is treated as being ‘domestic’ even if the flight is categorised as being ‘international’ by aviation authorities (ie the carbon accounting in this report applies the UNFCCC methodology). The carbon footprint profiles in the following pages are ordered according to the positions in the hierarchy shown in the Figure.

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United Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Chicago San Francisco Houston Denver Newark Washington DC Los Angeles Honolulu Cleveland Boston Seattle Las Vegas New York (JFK) San Diego Orlando Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,961 1,691 1,648 1,462 1,319 1,157 1,154 454 346 311 303 296 247 231 231 4,848 17,658

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
17,658 14,584

Total
32,242

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 B757 B737 A320 B747 RJ140 B767 CRJ Embraer 170/190 Embraer Brasilia Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 155 1,142 505 3,274 226 1,428
Mvts
500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 166 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Delta Air Lines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Atlanta Minneapolis Detroit Salt Lake City Los Angeles New York (JFK) New York (La Guardia) San Francisco Las Vegas Orlando Memphis Seattle Covington Washington DC Boston Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 4,159 1,604 1,409 969 857 791 733 385 369 363 329 325 300 273 258 6,528 19,651

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
19,651 12,527

Total
32,178

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 B757 B767 MD80 CRJ A320 A330 B737 B777 B747 Embraer 170/190 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 137 1,018 483 3,959 190 1,278
Mvts
800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

American Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 0 International MD80 B737 B777 B767 B757 RJ140 CRJ ATR Other types 1,000

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
14,946 9,569

Total
24,516

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 165 1,219 369 2,689 210 1,460
Mvts
300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

90%
80% 70% 60% 50%

40%
30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Dallas-Fort Worth Chicago Miami Los Angeles New York (JFK) New York (La Guardia) San Francisco Washington DC Boston Las Vegas Orlando St. Louis Honolulu San Juan (US) Seattle Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 3,633 1,604 1,268 1,261 626 441 382 319 286 228 191 170 166 164 163 4,043 14,946

Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 5,000
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 168 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Emirates Airline
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 0 B777 A380 A330 A340 International 2,000

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
0 17,333

Total
17,333

Footprint by Aircraft Type
4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 490 4,353 #DIV/0! 4,353
Mvts
50,000 40,000

90%
80% 70% 60% 50%

40%
30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) CO2 (kt)

Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 169 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Other Airports Total

0 0

Route CO2 (kt) 30,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 20,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 10,000 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Lufthansa
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 0 A340 B747 A320 A330 A380 B737 Embraer 170/190 CRJ Dash 8 F100 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
1,162 15,344

Total
16,506

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 66 395 264 1,584 218 1,288
Mvts
250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

90%
80% 70% 60% 50% International

40%
30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Munich Frankfurt Hamburg Berlin Dusseldorf Stuttgart Cologne-Bonn Hannover Bremen Dresden Nuremburg Leipzig Munster-Osnabruck Port Harcourt Lagos Other Airports Total

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 240 208 148 144 109 53 51 36 31 30 26 17 10 6 6 47 1,162

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 170 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

British Airways
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 0 B747 B777 A320 B767 B737 Embraer 170/190 Fairchild 328 RJ140 B757 A340 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
684 15,769

Total
16,453

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 86 601 412 2,587 356 2,139
Mvts
80,000 60,000

90%
80% 70% 60% 50% International

40%
30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) London (Heathrow) Johannesburg Cape Town Edinburgh Glasgow London (Gatwick) Durban Manchester (UK) Aberdeen (UK) Port Elizabeth London (City) Newcastle (UK) Jersey Belfast Isle of Man Other Airports Total

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 151 97 80 65 57 47 38 31 30 27 22 16 12 10 1 1 684

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 171 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) 40,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 20,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 -20,000 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Southwest Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 0 B737 5,000

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
15,557 0

Total
15,557

Footprint by Aircraft Type
10,000 15,000 20,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 128 1,087

90%
80% 70% 60% 50% Domestic

40%
30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Chicago Las Vegas Denver Phoenix Baltimore Houston Orlando Los Angeles Oakland San Diego St. Louis Tampa Dallas Love Field Nashville Kansas City Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,242 1,145 965 920 854 615 540 509 418 412 407 382 378 366 300 6,103 15,557

Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

128 1,087
Mvts
500,000 400,000

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 5,000
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 172 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

-

Route CO2 (kt) 300,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 200,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 100,000 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Air France
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 0 B777 A320 A330 A380 A340 B747 Embraer 170/190 CRJ BAe 146 RJ140 Other types

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
1,598 12,347

Total
13,945

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 83 563 370 1,983 265 1,388
Mvts
200,000 150,000

90%
80% 70% 60% 50% International

40%
30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Paris (ORY) Paris (CDG) Toulouse Marseille Provence Nice Bordeaux Lyon Nantes Montpellier Strasbourg Lille Biarritz Pau Pyrennees Brest Ajaccio Other Airports Total

Domestic

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

CO2 (kt) 425 170 140 133 132 92 91 53 40 38 37 28 26 26 21 146 1,598

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 173 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego

Route CO2 (kt) 100,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 50,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 -50,000 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

US Airways
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Charlotte Phoenix Philadelphia Washington DC Boston New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles Las Vegas San Francisco Orlando Dallas-Fort Worth Chicago Fort Lauderdale Tampa Pittsburgh Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,754 1,365 1,179 525 216 166 148 147 144 141 119 115 110 109 106 2,945 9,291

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
9,291 2,751

Total
12,042

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 A320 CRJ A330 Embraer 170/190 B737 B757 B767 Dash 8 RJ140 Saab 340 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 119 877 336 2,436 139 980
Mvts
500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -100,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 174 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

China Southern Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Guangzhou Beijing Urumqi Shanghai Zhenzhen Zhengzhou Changsha Hangzhou Wuhan Xi'an Chengdu Chongqing Shenyang Sanya Kunming Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,264 891 528 452 431 304 234 212 212 202 193 192 190 188 181 2,478 8,152

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
8,152 2,690

Total
10,843

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 A320 B737 A330 B777 B757 A380 Embraer 170/190 RJ140 CRJ Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 124 1,119 317 2,502 146 1,260
Mvts
200,000 150,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 175 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) 100,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 50,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 -50,000 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Singapore Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Cape Town Johannesburg Phoenix Philadelphia Anchorage Orlando Brisbane Oakland Riyadh Jeddah Christchurch Rotorua Hamilton (NZ) Auckland Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
37 10,498

Total
10,535

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A380 A330 A340 B747 A320 B737 ATR B757 Other types 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 180 1,718 531 4,743 527 4,689
Mvts
25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 9 9 8 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 37

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 176 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Cathay Pacific
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Adelaide Brisbane Cairns Dallas-Fort Worth

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
45 10,135

Total
10,180

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 B747 A340 A320 MD80 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 139 1,025 468 4,215 463 4,165
Mvts
20,000
15,000

International

Other types Domestic
CO2 (kt) 17 16 12 0

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 177 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Other Airports Total

0 45

Route CO2 (kt) 10,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 5,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 -5,000 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Air China
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Beijing Chengdu Shanghai Guangzhou Zhenzhen Hangzhou Chongqing Urumqi Kunming Xi'an Tianjin Wuhan Sanya Guiyang Xiamen Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,790 616 376 327 238 212 204 108 105 83 73 68 67 64 59 1,171 5,562

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
5,562 4,108

Total
9,670

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 B737 A330 A320 B777 B747 A340 B757 B767 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 134 1,227 445 3,396 190 1,559
Mvts
140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 178 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Kilimanjaro Philipsburg Quito Abuja Curacao

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
21 9,072

Total
9,093

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B747 B777 A330 B737 MD80 Embraer 170/190 F70 F100 Other types 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 103 448 387 1,843 384 1,837
Mvts
100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 8 7 4 1 1

Domestic CO2 (kt)

International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 179 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Other Airports Total

0 21

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Air Canada
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Toronto Vancouver Calgary Montreal Edmonton Ottawa Halifax Winnipeg St. Johns Saskatoon Fort McMurray Quebec Regina Victoria Moncton Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 835 476 275 267 163 146 116 100 65 40 35 34 33 27 22 267 2,899

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
2,899 6,179

Total
9,078

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 A320 B777 B767 Embraer 170/190 A330 Dash 8 CRJ Beechcraft Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 134 859 372 2,231 237 1,320
Mvts
200,000
150,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 2,000
1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 180 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) 100,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 50,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 -50,000 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

All Nippon Airways
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Tokyo (Haneda) Sapporo/Chitose Okinawa Fukuoka Itami Nagoya Kagoshima Osaka Miyazaki Hiroshima Nagasaki Kumamoto Sendai Matsuyama Tokyo (Narita) Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,793 482 454 398 313 190 128 122 98 97 97 93 92 80 61 790 5,288

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
5,288 3,689

Total
8,977

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 B777 B767 B737 A320 B787 B747 Dash 8 CRJ Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 102 659 455 4,103 150 1,015
Mvts
250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -50,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 181 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

China Eastern Airlines
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Shanghai Beijing Kunming Xi'an Guangzhou Nanjing Chengdu Zhenzhen Hangzhou Wuhan Chongqing Taiyuan Qingdao Changsha Hefei Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 1,210 667 582 438 224 212 193 179 144 129 125 108 107 91 81 1,681 6,171

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
6,171 2,791

Total
8,961

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 A320 B737 A330 A340 B767 A300 CRJ Embrear Bandierante Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 115 988 281 2,279 141 1,162
Mvts
200,000 150,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 182 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) 100,000 Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 50,000 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 -50,000 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Qantas Airways
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Sydney Perth Melbourne Brisbane Adelaide Cairns Canberra Darwin Dampier Alice Springs Los Angeles New York (JFK) Townsville Port Hedland Ayers Rock Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 638 617 511 505 186 106 95 93 56 50 44 44 37 32 25 273 3,314

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
3,314 5,181

Total
8,495

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B747 B737 A380 A330 B767 Dash 8 B717 F100 F50 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 130 960 769 5,913 264 1,506
Mvts
100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Domestic

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 183 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Korean Air
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Seoul Keku Busan Daegu Ulsan Gwangju Yeosu Cheong Ju Chinju Pohang Milano Wojnu Seattle Kunsan Jeddah Other Airports Total

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
503 7,981

Total
8,483

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 B747 B737 A380 A300 A320 B767 B757 MD80 Other types Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) 58 350 425 3,423 309 2,213
Mvts
70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -10,000

International

Domestic
CO2 (kt) 181 163 69 16 15 12 10 10 5 5 5 3 2 2 1 2 503

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 184 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Ryanair
Domestic/International CO2 Split
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Origin Airports (Domestic Flights) Barcelona Bergamo Madrid Bari Trapani Cagliari Sevilla Palma de Mallorca Santiago de Compostela Brindisi Palermo Las Palmas Roma Pisa Granadilla de Abone Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 101 96 88 44 39 39 38 36 36 34 33 33 30 30 29 378 1,083

Footprint CO2 (kt)

Domestic International
1,083 6,803

Total
7,886

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B737 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000

Other Indicators Domestic CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) International CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km) Total 83 710 131 1,300 121 1,184
Mvts
160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -20,000

International

Other types Domestic Domestic CO2 (kt) International CO2 (kt)

CO2/PAX (kg) Distance/trip (km)

Domestic Route Hierarchy
Route New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago New York (JFK)-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Miami-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas New York (La Guardia)-Miami Total CO2 (kt) 466 344 344 272 240 233 230 217 201 188 183 178 178 177 167 3,616

CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines
Route Atlanta-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Los Angeles Atlanta-San Francisco Atlanta-Las Vegas Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Salt Lake City New York (JFK)-San Francisco Atlanta-Seattle Detroit-Los Angeles Atlanta-Chicago 185 Atlanta-Minneapolis Atlanta-San Diego Atlanta-Orlando

Route CO2 (kt) Atlanta-Los Angeles 375 New York (JFK)-Los Angeles 274 Atlanta-San Francisco 233 Atlanta-Las Vegas 226 Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) 223 Trip Distance (km) Atlanta-Washington DC 214 Atlanta-Salt Lake City 204 Total CO2 (kt) Domestic New York (JFK)-San Francisco Total CO2 202(kt) International Atlanta-Seattle 197 Total Movements Domestic Total Movements International Detroit-Los Angeles 173 Atlanta-Chicago 167 Atlanta-Minneapolis 167 Atlanta-San Diego 163 Atlanta-Orlando 162 Atlanta-Boston 160 Total 3,140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Profile F5 Domestic Route Footprints
Profile F5 lists carbon footprint information for the top 1,000 global domestic routes categorised by the size of the carbon footprint. These routes have a carbon footprint that is => 57 kt CO2. This listing is different to the listing in Profile F5 in the second book in the trilogy in that each entry in this listing captures the CO2 for all traffic operating between an airport pair (ie it reports the total CO2 for traffic in both directions). The listing in the earlier book split the footprint into a separate CO2 value for each direction. The entries in the listing show the values of the total CO2 (kt) generated in 2012 and the CO2/PAX (kg) for each of the routes. In a similar manner to Profile F3, the routes are shown in groups under country headings – the countries are listed alphabetically. The routes are ranked within each of the country groupings according to descending value of carbon footprint. The order of the airports in the description of each route is determined by the alphabetical order of the airport ICAO codes (eg the listing describes a route as ‘Cairns-Sydney’ rather than vice versa since the ICAO Code for Cairns is YBCS while the code for Sydney is YSSY). The route names are based on grouped airports and not airport pairs. There are approximately 11,105 domestic and 12,459 international scheduled passenger routes in the Innovata dataset. The top 1,000 domestic routes captured about 60% of the global carbon footprint for scheduled domestic passenger flights in 2012.

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Country/Route
Argentina Buenos Aires-Ushuaia Buenos Aires-San Carlos de Bariloche Buenos Aires-Mendoza Buenos Aires-Salta Buenos Aires-Cordoba Buenos Aires-Iguacu Australia Melbourne-Sydney Perth-Sydney Melbourne-Perth Brisbane-Sydney Brisbane-Melbourne Brisbane-Perth Adelaide-Sydney Coolangatta/Gold Coast-Sydney Coolangatta/Gold Coast-Melbourne Melbourne-Adelaide Brisbane-Cairns Cairns-Sydney Brisbane-Townsville Dampier-Perth Adelaide-Perth Brisbane-Adelaide Cairns-Melbourne Hobart-Melbourne Brisbane-Mackay Darwin-Sydney Brisbane-Darwin Melbourne-Canberra Port Hedland-Perth Brisbane-Canberra Melbourne-Darwin Canberra-Sydney Broome-Perth Brazil Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Salvador Brasilia-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Recife Fortaleza-Sao Paulo Brasilia-Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro-Salvador Belo Horizonte-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Porto Alegre Rio de Janeiro-Recife Curitiba-Sao Paulo Porto Alegre-Sao Paulo Florianopolis-Sao Paulo Manaus-Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro-Porto Alegre Belo Horizonte-Rio de Janeiro Goiania-Sao Paulo Fortaleza-Rio de Janeiro Brasilia-Salvador Brasilia-Belo Horizonte

CO2 (kt)
86 83 82 78 75 72 748 568 526 402 394 280 205 193 190 180 179 152 113 111 109 106 94 93 93 90 84 80 78 71 63 58 57 506 361 357 297 255 236 195 192 177 171 169 147 138 134 134 127 117 113 108 106

CO2/PAX (kg)
235 141 111 136 89 120 92 319 257 91 133 315 120 88 125 84 141 177 115 129 189 153 191 82 100 258 239 66 133 107 241 43 174 66 144 107 182 193 115 131 75 103 178 62 103 75 242 120 65 102 201 123 88

Country/Route
Sao Paulo-Natal Curitiba-Rio de Janeiro Brasilia-Recife Rio de Janeiro-Vitoria (VIX) Cuiaba-Sao Paulo Brasilia-Manaus Recife-Salvador Brasilia-Fortaleza Sao Paulo-Vitoria (VIX) Rio de Janeiro-Natal Campo Grande-Sao Paulo Belem-Sao Paulo Fortaleza-Recife Belem-Brasilia Belo Horizonte-Salvador Rio de Janeiro-Joao Pessoa Brasilia-Porto Alegre Sao Paulo-Maceio Florianopolis-Rio de Janeiro Brasilia-Cuiaba Belem-Fortaleza Brasilia-Curitiba Belem-Manaus Curitiba-Porto Alegre Canada Vancouver-Toronto Calgary-Toronto Edmonton-Toronto Montreal-Toronto Vancouver-Calgary Halifax-Toronto Montreal-Vancouver Winnipeg-Toronto Ottawa-Toronto Edmonton-Vancouver St. Johns-Toronto Ottawa-Calgary Winnipeg-Calgary Montreal-Calgary Ottawa-Vancouver Toronto-Montreal Vancouver-Winnipeg Thunder Bay-Toronto Edmonton-Calgary Halifax-St. Johns Saskatoon-Toronto Chile Santiago de Chile-Antofagasta Iquique-Santiago de Chile Calama-Santiago de Chile Santiago de Chile-Puerto Montt Santiago de Chile-Concepcion China Beijing-Shanghai Beijing-Guangzhou Beijing-Zhenzhen Beijing-Chengdu Zhenzhen-Shanghai

CO2 (kt)
105 105 102 97 96 94 94 94 91 85 79 77 76 76 73 70 66 65 64 61 58 58 58 57 639 379 267 190 177 149 147 139 139 119 100 88 87 86 80 71 68 66 66 62 61 165 117 105 76 66 997 786 626 559 505

CO2/PAX (kg)
194 91 159 68 144 176 92 153 99 184 104 222 86 155 112 183 156 159 101 107 120 124 132 77 283 231 236 75 89 132 290 150 61 98 201 257 127 269 279 64 174 107 56 102 198 132 155 133 121 81 134 205 196 152 119

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

Country/Route
Guangzhou-Shanghai Beijing-Kunming Shanghai-Chengdu Beijing-Urumqi Beijing-Chongqing Beijing-Hangzhou Guangzhou-Chengdu Shanghai-Chongqing Beijing-Xi'an Xiamen-Shanghai Xi'an-Shanghai Guangzhou-Hangzhou Kunming-Shanghai Beijing-Xiamen Beijing-Sanya Shanghai-Shenyang Shanghai-Urumqi Zhenzhen-Chengdu Xi'an-Urumqi Sanya-Shanghai Shanghai-Harbin Beijing-Wuhan Beijing-Changsha Chengdu-Urumqi Zhenzhen-Hangzhou Guangzhou-Chongqing Shanghai-Changchun Beijing-Haikou Beijing-Harbin Guangzhou-Xi'an Beijing-Nanning Zhenzhen-Chongqing Shanghai-Dalian Beijing-Fuzhou Beijing-Guiyang Zhenzhen-Xi'an Xi'an-Hangzhou Lhasa-Chengdu Guangzhou-Nanjing Tianjin-Shanghai Guangzhou-Kunming Zhengzhou-Urumqi Changsha-Shanghai Zhenzhen-Nanjing Haikou-Shanghai Beijing-Changchun Guangzhou-Zhengzhou Guangzhou-Urumqi Chongqing-Urumqi Kashgar-Urumqi Kunming-Chongqing Shanghai-Guiyang Beijing-Nanjing Changsha-Kunming Wuhan-Shanghai Nanning-Shanghai Beijing-Dalian Jinghong-Kunming

CO2 (kt)
469 375 368 364 289 279 273 265 261 253 249 233 225 225 224 212 209 206 202 198 198 197 196 185 182 179 176 175 168 168 166 163 159 155 145 145 145 144 144 143 142 138 136 134 132 129 126 125 124 124 120 119 119 117 114 112 111 111

CO2/PAX (kg)
127 201 157 232 143 116 123 137 105 101 126 118 192 165 216 122 280 124 196 169 157 114 126 202 112 111 143 204 110 132 194 112 100 160 163 136 132 163 114 104 125 231 101 114 158 102 134 289 214 119 92 142 100 120 92 152 63 71

Country/Route
Guangzhou-Haikou Qingdao-Shanghai Kunming-Chengdu Zhenzhen-Kunming Tianjin-Guangzhou Fuzhou-Shanghai Zhengzhou-Shanghai Xi'an-Kunming Zhengzhou-Kunming Zhenzhen-Zhengzhou Guangzhou-Sanya Beijing-Lanzhou Beijing-Wenzhou Beijing-Zhuhai Guangzhou-Qingdao Hangzhou-Chengdu Beijing-Nanchang-Changbei Tianjin-Zhenzhen Nanjing-Chengdu Guangzhou-Shenyang Kunming-Hangzhou Guangzhou-Jinan Guilin-Shanghai Beijing-Ningbo Wuhan-Kunming Guangzhou-Guiyang Beijing-Qingdao Lanzhou-Urumqi Zhenzhen-Jinan Nanjing-Chongqing Hangzhou-Chongqing Sanya-Hangzhou Shijiazhuang-Shanghai Beijing-Hefei Beijing-Shenyang Beijing-Yinchuan Xi'an-Chengdu Guangzhou-Wuhan Shanghai-Yantai Taiyuan-Guangzhou Xining-Xi'an Guangzhou-Ningbo Guangzhou-Wenzhou Guangzhou-Xiamen Taiyuan-Shanghai Zhenzhen-Wuhan Beijing-Guilin Xiamen-Nanjing Lanzhou-Shanghai Zhuhai-Shanghai Sanya-Chongqing Jinan-Chengdu Guangzhou-Changchun Chongqing-Lhasa Sanya-Chengdu Beijing-Hohhot Xi'an-Nanjing Zhengzhou-Xiamen

CO2 (kt)
110 110 109 109 107 107 107 106 106 105 104 103 102 102 101 100 99 99 97 97 97 96 95 93 92 91 90 90 90 89 89 88 88 87 86 85 85 81 81 81 81 80 80 79 78 77 76 76 75 75 75 74 74 74 74 74 73 73

CO2/PAX (kg)
76 84 93 129 170 88 93 130 162 132 86 120 139 179 154 154 122 176 125 180 180 150 127 119 139 92 70 156 159 129 142 166 117 102 78 103 91 102 88 160 91 114 101 71 119 106 160 100 161 129 132 134 215 170 149 66 109 129

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Country/Route
Zhengzhou-Sanya Yinchuan-Xi'an Guangzhou-Wuxi Wuhan-Chengdu Hangzhou-Shenyang Beijing-Xining Guangzhou-Nanchang-Changbei Guangzhou-Hefei Guangzhou-Harbin Jinan-Chongqing Wuhan-Sanya Xiamen-Hangzhou Beijing-Zhengzhou Changsha-Haikou Changsha-Chengdu Kunming-Xiamen Xiamen-Chongqing Guangzhou-Fuzhou Changsha-Nanjing Kunming-Jinan Zhenzhen-Qingdao Wuhan-Urumqi Yinchuan-Urumqi Guangzhou-Dalian Changsha-Chongqing Kunming-Nanjing Shanghai-Wenzhou Lanzhou-Xi'an Changsha-Xi'an Taiyuan-Urumqi Qingdao-Harbin Zhengzhou-Chengdu Changsha-Sanya Zhenzhen-Guiyang Beijing-Baotou Haikou-Chongqing Song Pan-Chengdu Nanjing-Dalian Wuhan-Chongqing Wuxi-Chengdu Xi'an-Yulin Lijiang-Chongqing Jinan-Harbin Zhenzhen-Shenyang Zhengzhou-Chongqing Colombia Bogota-Cartagena de Indias Bogota-Rio Negro Bogota-Cali Bogota-Barranquilla Bogota-Santa Marta Bogota-San Andreas Island Bucaramanga-Bogota Ecuador Guayaquil-Quito Finland Helsinki-Oulu

CO2 (kt)
72 72 71 70 70 69 69 69 68 67 66 66 66 66 65 65 65 65 64 63 63 63 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 61 61 61 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 166 150 146 128 81 70 69 168 70

CO2/PAX (kg)
171 77 119 111 133 130 90 109 230 138 143 89 82 108 110 160 138 93 92 182 148 248 161 162 90 178 62 72 98 202 119 123 122 99 78 128 62 99 96 148 69 115 128 201 102 93 53 61 100 96 125 62 60 72

Country/Route
France Toulouse-Paris (ORY) Nice-Paris (ORY) Marseille Provence-Paris (ORY) Bordeaux-Paris (ORY) Nice-Paris (CDG) Toulouse-Paris (CDG) Marseille Provence-Paris (CDG) Germany Hamburg-Munich Dusseldorf-Munich Munich-Berlin Frankfurt-Berlin Frankfurt-Hamburg Cologne-Bonn-Munich Dusseldorf-Berlin Cologne-Bonn-Berlin Frankfurt-Munich Hamburg-Stuttgart Stuttgart-Berlin Greece Athens-Thessaloniki India Mumbai-Delhi Delhi-Bangalore Delhi-Chennai/Madras Mumbai-Bangalore Kolkata-Delhi Delhi-Hyderabad (HYD) Mumbai-Chennai/Madras Mumbai-Kolkata Pune-Delhi Mumbai-Hyderabad (HYD) Kolkata-Bangalore Guwahati-Delhi Mumbai-Goa Ahmedabad-Mumbai Kolkata-Chennai/Madras Ahmedabad-Delhi Delhi-Srinagar Mumbai-Cochin Delhi-Lucknow Kolkata-Guwahati Patna-Delhi Mumbai-Jaipur Bangalore-Hyderabad (HYD) Goa-Delhi Pune-Bangalore Hyderabad (HYD)-Chennai/Madras Indonesia Jakarta-Medan Ujung Pandang-Jakarta Denpasar-Jakarta Surabaya-Jakarta Balikpapan-Jakarta Jakarta-Padang Pekanbaru-Jakarta Jakarta-Pontianak

CO2 (kt)
194 186 112 70 70 66 60 139 115 106 105 90 80 75 74 68 65 60 71 602 355 254 230 217 214 195 192 135 124 115 104 102 102 93 88 84 82 74 67 67 67 65 62 58 57 466 421 398 350 228 163 156 145

CO2/PAX (kg)
88 93 98 71 102 95 100 82 71 68 62 59 72 73 70 50 86 79 58 116 168 165 104 127 134 115 161 119 91 157 146 63 72 141 96 85 120 68 71 106 108 71 152 94 69 141 144 113 88 126 108 105 102

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Country/Route
Yogyakarta-Jakarta Banjarmarsin-Jakarta Jakarta-Palembang Ujung Pandang-Surabaya Balikpapan-Surabaya Batam-Jakarta Semarang-Jakarta Manado-Jakarta Ujung Pandang-Djayapura Jakarta-Jambi Jakarta-Pangkalpinang Solo City-Jakarta Praya-Jakarta Banjarmarsin-Surabaya Balikpapan-Tarakan Denpasar-Surabaya Iran Tehran-Mashhad Tehran-Shiraz Italy Milano-Roma Catania-Milano Milano-Napoli Catania-Roma Palermo-Roma Torino-Roma Palermo-Milano Bari-Milano Venezia-Roma Cagliari-Milano Cagliari-Roma Japan Sapporo/Chitose-Tokyo (Haneda) Fukuoka-Tokyo (Haneda) Tokyo (Haneda)-Okinawa Itami-Tokyo (Haneda) Kagoshima-Tokyo (Haneda) Kumamoto-Tokyo (Haneda) Miyazaki-Tokyo (Haneda) Kita Kyushu-Tokyo (Haneda) Nagasaki-Tokyo (Haneda) Hiroshima-Tokyo (Haneda) Osaka-Sapporo/Chitose Fukuoka-Okinawa Oita-Tokyo (Haneda) Matsuyama-Tokyo (Haneda) Osaka-Okinawa Hakodate-Tokyo (Haneda) Sapporo/Chitose-Nagoya Nagoya-Okinawa Ube-Tokyo (Haneda) Komatsu-Tokyo (Haneda) Asahikawa-Tokyo (Haneda) Takamatsu-Tokyo (Haneda) Okayama-Tokyo (Haneda) Osaka-Tokyo (Haneda) Okinawa-Ishigaki Itami-Sendai

CO2 (kt)
141 141 138 134 132 131 130 125 82 79 73 67 66 61 60 58 114 70 217 141 113 105 89 83 75 71 62 58 57 1,141 958 828 434 332 288 239 235 234 220 183 180 178 170 156 141 139 137 130 128 125 119 116 113 111 95

CO2/PAX (kg)
64 109 64 101 101 103 64 198 210 86 77 69 113 70 70 54 110 116 80 115 98 72 69 81 110 103 79 99 66 118 131 181 85 109 106 101 100 122 100 116 100 88 109 125 99 110 133 111 66 106 69 91 75 68 83

Country/Route
Tokyo (Narita)-Fukuoka Obihiro-Tokyo (Haneda) Kochi-Tokyo (Haneda) Tokyo (Narita)-Okinawa Fukuoka-Nagoya Tokyo (Narita)-Sapporo/Chitose Sapporo/Chitose-Sendai Akita-Tokyo (Haneda) Okinawa-Miyakojima Tokushima-Tokyo (Haneda) Memanbetsu-Tokyo (Haneda) Kobe-Okinawa Sapporo/Chitose-Fukuoka Itami-Kagoshima Itami-Okinawa Kobe-Tokyo (Haneda) Kobe-Sapporo/Chitose Itami-Sapporo/Chitose Kushiro-Tokyo (Haneda) Kazakhstan Almaty-Astana Kenya Nairobi-Mombasa Malaysia Kota-Kinabalu-Kuala Lumpur Kuching-Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur-George Town (PEN) Kuala Lumpur-Langkawi Miri-Kuala Lumpur Kota Bharu-Kuala Lumpur Tawau-Kuala Lumpur Sandakan-Kuala Lumpur Sibu-Kuala Lumpur Mexico Mexico City-Cancun Mexico City-Monterrey Mexico City-Tijuana Guadalajara-Mexico City Guadalajara-Tijuana Merida-Mexico City Hermosillo-Mexico City Chihuahua-Mexico City Mexico City-Villahermosa Mexico City-Tuxtla Gutierrez Ciudad Juarez-Mexico City New Zealand Auckland-Christchurch Auckland-Wellington Auckland-Queenstown Nigeria Abuja-Lagos Lagos-Port Harcourt Norway Oslo-Tromso Oslo-Trondheim Bergen-Oslo Oslo-Stavanger Bodo -Oslo

CO2 (kt)
94 93 89 89 89 83 82 79 78 78 75 71 69 68 65 64 61 58 58 118 71 314 185 90 88 83 78 65 63 59 372 256 231 168 155 117 101 78 75 67 62 166 149 57 153 96 116 115 104 98 75

CO2/PAX (kg)
110 106 77 153 88 97 84 65 56 64 117 123 142 77 151 66 112 139 98 112 74 155 110 57 69 135 57 169 171 121 137 96 212 72 188 115 167 137 93 94 157 104 79 118 78 73 127 59 56 57 104

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Country/Route
Pakistan Karachi-Lahore Karachi-Islamabad Peru Lima-Cuzco Lima-Arequipa Lima-Piura Lima-Iquitos Philippines Manila-Lapu-Lapu Manila-Davao City Manila-Cagayan de Oro Manila-Iloilo Manila-Puerto Princesa Manila-Tacloban Manila-Bacolod Manila-Kalibo Manila-Tagbilaran Manila-General Santos Portugal Funchal-Lisboa Russia Vladivostok-Moscow Khabarovsk-Moscow Novosibirsk-Moscow St. Petersburg-Moscow Krasnodar-Moscow Krasnoyarsk-Moscow Irkutsk-Moscow Yekaterinburg-Moscow Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy-Moscow Sochi-Moscow Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk-Moscow Mineralnyye Vody-Moscow Yakutsk-Moscow Rostov Na Donu-Moscow Moscow-Ufa Omsk-Moscow Tyumem-Moscow Chelyabinsk-Moscow Blagoveschensk-Moscow Moscow-Samara Surgut-Moscow Magadan-Moscow Kaliningrad-Moscow Tomsk-Moscow Perm-Moscow Barnaul-Moscow Ulan Ude-Moscow Moscow-Kazan Makhachkala-Moscow Nizhnevartovsk-Moscow Novy Urengoy-Moscow Moscow-Saratov Noril'sk-Moscow Chita-Moscow

CO2 (kt)
170 163 183 112 66 64 264 209 122 99 96 89 81 67 63 57 89 409 340 264 263 225 219 204 199 197 192 187 144 131 125 120 120 116 107 102 100 91 90 84 82 82 82 80 77 76 75 73 70 67 59

CO2/PAX (kg)
140 144 108 115 122 133 95 121 101 75 91 88 77 63 96 126 124 589 593 229 95 135 283 342 144 623 141 603 147 416 123 135 217 175 159 454 108 217 482 120 265 138 254 381 101 196 214 242 142 255 385

Country/Route
Saudi Arabia Jeddah-Riyadh Dammam-Jeddah Medina-Riyadh Khamis Mushayat-Riyadh Jeddah-Medina South Africa Cape Town-Johannesburg Durban-Johannesburg Cape Town-Durban Cape Town-Lanseria Johannesburg-Port Elizabeth South Korea Keku-Seoul Busan-Seoul Keku-Busan Spain Barcelona-Madrid Las Palmas-Madrid Santa Cruz de Tenerife-Madrid Madrid-Palma de Mallorca Barcelona-Sevilla Barcelona-Malaga Barcelona-Palma de Mallorca Bilbao-Madrid Sweden Malmo-Stockholm Gothenburg-Stockholm Lulea-Stockholm Umea-Stockholm Thailand Bangkok-Phuket Bangkok-Chiang Mai Bangkok-Hatyai Bangkok-Koh Samui Bangkok-Chiang Rai Bangkok-Udon Thani Bangkok-Krabi Turkey Antalya-Istanbul Ankara-Istanbul Istanbul-Izmir Adana-Istanbul Gaziantep-Istanbul Istanbul-Trabzon Kayseri-Istanbul United Kingdom London (Heathrow)-Edinburgh London (Heathrow)-Glasgow London (Heathrow)-Aberdeen (UK) Belfast-London (Heathrow) Manchester (UK)-London (Heathrow) United States New York (JFK)-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-San Francisco Los Angeles-Chicago Los Angeles-Honolulu Chicago-San Francisco

CO2 (kt)
555 195 110 94 73 637 216 123 110 101 639 166 137 412 178 163 92 82 65 62 58 105 95 94 67 365 299 162 99 88 67 66 182 175 157 137 79 77 75 99 68 68 58 58 1,334 927 690 675 633

CO2/PAX (kg)
127 134 107 103 62 137 76 137 127 114 65 59 55 72 162 168 71 98 93 44 61 92 77 96 84 104 93 96 74 92 66 88 68 57 58 88 99 107 80 80 82 99 84 59 316 334 246 357 256

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Country/Route
New York (La Guardia)-Chicago Washington DC-Los Angeles Atlanta-Los Angeles Washington DC-San Francisco Las Vegas-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Los Angeles Boston-San Francisco Los Angeles-Miami Denver-Chicago Chicago-Phoenix Chicago-Seattle Atlanta-New York (La Guardia) Dallas-Fort Worth-New York (La Guardia) San Francisco-Honolulu Boston-Los Angeles Houston-Los Angeles Washington DC-Chicago Atlanta-Las Vegas Newark-San Francisco New York (JFK)-Las Vegas Atlanta-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-San Francisco Los Angeles-Kahului Seattle-Anchorage Atlanta-San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth-Chicago Boston-Chicago Los Angeles-San Francisco Atlanta-Washington DC Atlanta-Dallas-Fort Worth Newark-Los Angeles Newark-Houston New York (JFK)-San Juan (US) Atlanta-Denver Houston-Chicago Orlando-Chicago Denver-Los Angeles Atlanta-Phoenix Chicago-San Diego Atlanta-Seattle Atlanta-Fort Lauderdale Denver-San Francisco Philadelphia-San Francisco Atlanta-Houston Newark-Chicago Atlanta-Orlando Fort Lauderdale-New York (La Guardia) Houston-San Francisco Newark-Phoenix Denver-Seattle Chicago-Philadelphia Boston-Dallas-Fort Worth Dallas-Fort Worth-Seattle Los Angeles-Philadelphia Atlanta-Boston Atlanta-Philadelphia New York (La Guardia)-Miami Denver-Dallas-Fort Worth

CO2 (kt)
468 464 463 448 421 410 385 367 344 343 342 336 330 325 325 322 319 316 315 311 309 308 307 305 296 296 294 291 286 284 280 273 271 264 262 258 257 253 251 251 250 247 246 236 230 228 226 223 223 221 220 219 217 215 213 213 212 212

CO2/PAX (kg)
134 317 279 338 231 184 366 336 155 209 240 135 212 371 343 204 114 249 346 297 120 208 332 215 293 152 140 76 113 142 328 201 222 188 150 170 145 226 244 293 117 160 317 126 124 96 167 231 295 163 117 222 239 275 159 129 166 130

Country/Route
Atlanta-Minneapolis Minneapolis-Phoenix Denver-Las Vegas Dallas-Fort Worth-Las Vegas Denver-Houston Atlanta-Salt Lake City Denver-Phoenix Phoenix-Seattle Detroit-Las Vegas Denver-New York (La Guardia) Boston-Washington DC Miami-Chicago New York (JFK)-Orlando Denver-Washington DC Houston-Las Vegas Atlanta-Baltimore Philadelphia-Phoenix Los Angeles-Seattle Washington DC-Dallas-Fort Worth Seattle-San Francisco Denver-Newark Dallas-Fort Worth-Phoenix Dallas-Fort Worth-Miami Newark-Orlando Dallas-Fort Worth-Philadelphia Dallas-Fort Worth-Newark Los Angeles-Orlando New York (JFK)-Miami Washington DC-Houston Detroit-Los Angeles Newark-Las Vegas Los Angeles-Minneapolis Las Vegas-Honolulu Fort Lauderdale-Chicago Charlotte-Dallas-Fort Worth Atlanta-Tampa Detroit-Phoenix Minneapolis-Seattle Houston-Phoenix Houston-Seattle Las Vegas-San Francisco Denver-Minneapolis Orlando-Philadelphia Seattle-Honolulu New York (JFK)-Seattle Charlotte-Phoenix Chicago-Santa Ana (SNA) Dallas-Fort Worth-Orlando Fort Lauderdale-New York (JFK) Atlanta-Miami Newark-Seattle Houston-New York (La Guardia) Los Angeles-Lihue Atlanta-San Diego Dallas-Fort Worth-San Diego San Diego-San Francisco Chicago-Portland (PDX) Phoenix-Honolulu

CO2 (kt)
209 207 206 205 205 204 204 202 202 201 200 200 199 199 199 198 198 196 189 189 188 188 188 188 185 184 184 182 180 180 180 180 180 178 177 177 177 176 175 174 173 172 172 171 170 170 169 167 166 166 165 164 164 163 162 162 160 158

CO2/PAX (kg)
153 185 124 186 144 221 115 170 251 228 95 178 150 214 186 120 248 151 192 119 233 154 169 147 220 230 297 165 185 268 300 219 448 184 147 96 243 203 165 258 95 123 134 353 318 195 243 170 165 117 321 210 352 260 198 98 248 386

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Country/Route
Washington DC-Miami Newark-Fort Lauderdale Chicago-Tampa Dallas-Fort Worth-Honolulu Boston-Denver Minneapolis-San Francisco Denver-Philadelphia Boston-Miami Dallas-Fort Worth-Santa Ana (SNA) Denver-San Diego Washington DC-Seattle Atlanta-Newark Atlanta-Detroit Washington DC-Orlando Denver-Portland (PDX) Las Vegas-Minneapolis Denver-Orlando Chicago-Honolulu New York (JFK)-San Diego Los Angeles-Phoenix Las Vegas-Seattle Fort Lauderdale-Los Angeles Las Vegas-Los Angeles Detroit-Orlando New York (JFK)-Salt Lake City Houston-Philadelphia Atlanta-San Juan (US) Las Vegas-Philadelphia New York (JFK)-Phoenix Houston-San Diego Orlando-San Juan (US) Atlanta-San Antonio Los Angeles-Agana Dallas-Houston Miami-San Juan (US) Minneapolis-Chicago Chicago-St. Louis Phoenix-Salt Lake City Los Angeles-Kailua/Kona Houston-Orlando Atlanta-New Orleans Miami-San Francisco Portland (PDX)-Phoenix Charlotte-Houston New York (La Guardia)-Orlando Boston-Orlando Chicago-Fort Myers Dallas-Fort Worth-Detroit Kansas City-Chicago Orlando-Minneapolis Newark-Miami Atlanta-West Palm Beach Phoenix-San Francisco Boston-Phoenix Baltimore-Orlando Las Vegas-Phoenix Dallas-Fort Worth-Fort Lauderdale Dallas-Fort Worth-Minneapolis

CO2 (kt)
158 157 156 154 153 152 152 152 151 151 151 150 150 150 149 149 149 147 146 145 144 144 144 143 141 141 140 140 140 139 139 139 137 136 136 134 134 134 133 133 133 131 131 130 130 129 128 128 128 126 126 125 125 124 123 122 122 122

CO2/PAX Country/Route (kg)
141 161 168 493 246 229 211 187 175 148 311 139 117 131 163 192 228 703 319 86 141 313 63 157 268 202 225 267 257 194 183 148 1,051 70 161 77 75 106 338 144 103 344 163 144 157 170 187 165 99 196 166 114 115 320 148 70 168 143 Atlanta-Raleigh/Durham Charlotte-New York (La Guardia) Baltimore-Denver Washington DC-New York (La Guardia) Charlotte-Chicago Atlanta-Charlotte Denver-Salt Lake City New York (La Guardia)-Minneapolis Denver-Santa Ana (SNA) Atlanta-Milwaukee Denver-Detroit Atlanta-Fort Myers Charlotte-San Francisco Detroit-New York (La Guardia) Detroit-Fort Lauderdale Atlanta-Honolulu Baltimore-Chicago San Francisco-Agana Washington DC-Minneapolis Baltimore-Phoenix Detroit-San Francisco Atlanta-Kansas City Agana-Honolulu Houston-New Orleans Atlanta-Jacksonville (JAX) Seattle-Kahului Denver-Kansas City Atlanta-Santa Ana (SNA) Detroit-Chicago Dallas-Fort Worth-Salt Lake City Phoenix-San Diego San Francisco-Kahului Charlotte-Los Angeles Boston-Charlotte Chicago-Salt Lake City Los Angeles-Salt Lake City Washington DC-San Diego Dallas-Fort Worth-Washington DC Houston-Miami Atlanta-Richmond (US) Dallas-Fort Worth-Portland (PDX) Dallas-Fort Worth-San Antonio Dallas-Fort Worth-Tampa Baltimore-Dallas-Fort Worth Oakland-Seattle Charlotte-Newark Baltimore-Fort Lauderdale Baltimore-Houston Newark-Honolulu Denver-Sacramento Atlanta-Pittsburgh Los Angeles-St. Louis Charlotte-Las Vegas Atlanta-Austin San Diego-Seattle Atlanta-St. Louis Austin-Chicago Phoenix-Sacramento

CO2 (kt)
122 121 120 120 119 119 119 119 119 118 118 118 117 116 116 116 116 115 115 115 113 112 111 110 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 108 108 108 108 106 106 106 105 105 105 105 104 104 104 104 103 103 103 102 102 102 101 101 100 99 99 99

CO2/PAX (kg)
95 94 224 66 104 73 88 164 149 136 179 111 238 114 174 673 121 1,003 148 294 279 129 662 73 76 345 112 263 71 166 72 311 231 116 173 110 303 192 150 113 267 83 166 209 123 97 165 193 581 157 116 257 212 145 162 110 165 128

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Country/Route
Denver-Fort Lauderdale Las Vegas-Portland (PDX) Houston-Tampa Newark-West Palm Beach Boston-Houston Boston-Fort Lauderdale Dallas-Fort Worth-St. Louis Fort Lauderdale-Philadelphia Boston-Baltimore Dallas-Fort Worth-San Jose (US) Atlanta-Indianapolis Chicago-Raleigh/Durham Philadelphia-Tampa Honolulu-Kahului Detroit-Seattle Milwaukee-Phoenix Phoenix-St. Louis Seattle-Salt Lake City Phoenix-San Jose (US) Newark-San Diego Nashville-Chicago Washington DC-Phoenix Las Vegas-Miami Cleveland-Chicago Denver-St. Louis Dallas-Fort Worth-Tucson Baltimore-Tampa Washington DC-Tampa Portland (PDX)-San Francisco Newark-Tampa Austin-Los Angeles Fort Lauderdale-Houston Philadelphia-San Juan (US) San Diego-Honolulu Fort Lauderdale-San Francisco Atlanta-Portland (PDX) Fort Lauderdale-San Juan (US) New York (JFK)-Tampa Austin-Dallas-Fort Worth Windsor Locks-Chicago Charlotte-Philadelphia Dallas-Fort Worth-Houston Minneapolis-Anchorage Minneapolis-Philadelphia Houston-Honolulu Denver-Milwaukee Oakland-Phoenix Seattle-Santa Ana (SNA) Nashville-Denver Washington DC-Fort Lauderdale Atlanta-Buffalo Charlotte-Washington DC Kailua/Kona-Honolulu Detroit-Minneapolis Washington DC-Las Vegas Nashville-Dallas-Fort Worth Baltimore-Charlotte Charlotte-Denver

CO2 (kt)
99 99 98 98 98 98 98 98 97 97 97 97 97 97 95 95 95 95 95 95 94 94 93 93 93 93 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 91 91 91 91 90 89 89 89 89 88 88 88 88 88 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 86 86 86

CO2/PAX (kg)
252 140 136 158 235 182 125 156 88 243 108 125 148 50 263 232 213 124 125 326 100 265 293 74 138 158 155 142 109 154 198 153 224 371 368 289 160 154 70 142 95 74 341 155 503 163 122 166 174 148 148 78 69 108 283 131 87 158

Country/Route
Portland (PDX)-Honolulu Chicago-Pittsburgh Philadelphia-Seattle Dallas-Fort Worth-El Paso Boston-Minneapolis Detroit-Salt Lake City Albuquerque-Dallas-Fort Worth Denver-Indianapolis Boston-New York (La Guardia) New York (La Guardia)-West Palm Beach Oakland-San Diego Charlotte-Orlando Boston-Seattle Los Angeles-Portland (PDX) Denver-Tampa Atlanta-Memphis Cleveland-Houston Phoenix-Santa Ana (SNA) Miami-Philadelphia Los Angeles-Sacramento Los Angeles-Oakland San Francisco-Santa Ana (SNA) Las Vegas-Milwaukee Dallas-Fort Worth-Sacramento Las Vegas-Salt Lake City Los Angeles-San Jose (US) New York (La Guardia)-St. Louis Orlando-San Francisco Atlanta-Columbus Atlanta-New York (JFK) Charlotte-Miami Baltimore-Los Angeles Baltimore-Las Vegas Denver-San Jose (US) Detroit-Tampa Detroit-Fort Myers Atlanta-Windsor Locks Kansas City-Phoenix Newark-Minneapolis Dallas-Fort Worth-Raleigh/Durham Columbus-Chicago Atlanta-Norfolk Houston-Santa Ana (SNA) Dallas-Fort Worth-Kansas City Charlotte-Detroit Cleveland-Las Vegas Charlotte-Minneapolis Nashville-Los Angeles Washington DC-Denver Las Vegas-Oakland Charlotte-Fort Lauderdale Chicago-Minneapolis Seattle-San Jose (US) San Diego-Sacramento Dallas-Fort Worth-Kahului Houston-Portland (PDX) Seattle-Sacramento Austin-Denver

CO2 (kt)
86 85 85 85 85 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 81 81 81 81 81 80 80 80 80 80 80 79 79 79 78 78 77 77 77 77 76 76 76 76 76 75 75 75

CO2/PAX (kg)
340 95 294 128 176 209 130 170 56 170 100 90 326 140 225 90 174 78 156 95 77 87 238 242 85 78 155 324 105 127 125 324 303 155 160 168 156 181 160 192 76 113 202 117 104 256 149 261 206 96 110 84 122 104 483 251 112 140

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Country/Route
Chicago-Tucson Boston-Philadelphia New York (La Guardia)-Tampa Las Vegas-San Diego Honolulu-Hilo New York (JFK)-Honolulu Burbank-Oakland Dallas-Fort Worth-Ontario Buffalo-Chicago Newark-Santa Ana (SNA) Orlando-Phoenix Detroit-Houston Boston-Fort Myers Los Angeles-New Orleans Buffalo-Orlando Cleveland-Los Angeles San Francisco-Kailua/Kona Minneapolis-Portland (PDX) Washington DC-Salt Lake City Denver-Spokane Dallas-St. Louis Charlotte-Tampa Minneapolis-Salt Lake City Dallas-Kansas City Cleveland-Dallas-Fort Worth Nashville-Houston Minneapolis-San Diego Atlanta-Sarasota/Bradenton Denver-Honolulu San Diego-San Jose (US) Portland (PDX)-Salt Lake City Atlanta-Dayton New York (JFK)-West Palm Beach Ontario-Phoenix Albuquerque-Dallas Detroit-Philadelphia Denver-Omaha Orlando-Miami Austin-Phoenix Indianapolis-Phoenix Phoenix-Pittsburgh Atlanta-Pensacola Baltimore-Detroit Minneapolis-Fort Myers Denver-New Orleans Oakland-Honolulu Chicago-San Antonio Lihue-Honolulu Chicago-Oakland Dallas-Fort Worth-Pittsburgh Houston-Minneapolis Dallas-Fort Worth-Indianapolis Phoenix-Kahului Dallas-San Antonio Windsor Locks-Orlando Atlanta-Rochester (ROC) San Jose (US)-Honolulu Oakland-Kahului

CO2 (kt)
75 74 74 74 73 73 73 73 72 72 72 72 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 70 70 69 69 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 65 65 65 65 65 64 64

CO2/PAX (kg)
234 70 171 72 76 868 73 209 106 363 221 150 186 241 172 281 316 204 258 149 114 94 152 104 179 127 218 105 415 96 118 114 155 80 119 96 98 63 133 218 278 83 96 208 173 317 160 50 276 193 156 152 382 71 167 147 318 310

Country/Route
Baltimore-Salt Lake City Las Vegas-Reno Las Vegas-Kansas City Oakland-Portland (PDX) Chicago-San Jose (US) Columbus-Phoenix Orlando-Providence New York (La Guardia)-Milwaukee Dallas-Fort Worth-San Juan (US) Las Vegas-St. Louis Albuquerque-Phoenix Houston-St. Louis Atlanta-Flint Phoenix-Tampa Denver-Oklahoma City Philadelphia-San Diego Seattle-Fairbanks Atlanta-Charleston Houston-San Antonio Washington DC-Detroit Orlando-Milwaukee Phoenix-San Antonio Salt Lake City-Honolulu Chicago-Sacramento Austin-New York (JFK) Boston-New York (JFK) Burbank-Phoenix Charlotte-Pittsburgh New York (JFK)-Portland (PDX) Boston-Newark Portland (PDX)-Sacramento Boston-San Juan (US) Las Vegas-San Jose (US) Portland (PDX)-San Jose (US) Oakland-Salt Lake City Dallas-Fort Worth-New Orleans Columbus-Dallas-Fort Worth San Jose (US)-Kahului Newark-St. Louis Houston-Salt Lake City Phoenix-Reno Boston-Detroit Charlotte-San Juan (US) Charlotte-New York (JFK) Colorado Springs-Dallas-Fort Worth Atlanta-Akron Atlanta-Covington Denver-Miami Albuquerque-Los Angeles Windsor Locks-Dallas-Fort Worth Denver-Oakland Venezuela Porlamar-Caracas Maracaibo-Caracas Vietnam Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City Da Nang-Ho Chi Minh City Da Nang-Hanoi Haiphong-Ho Chi Minh City

CO2 (kt)
64 64 64 64 63 63 63 63 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 61 61 61 61 61 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 57 57 80 72 565 130 82 68

CO2/PAX (kg)
261 84 189 111 257 257 178 137 295 218 78 140 140 257 107 266 223 74 58 95 190 131 381 249 219 54 82 87 321 57 102 225 92 112 115 116 173 311 148 164 117 121 184 105 133 118 99 238 136 207 162 81 94 143 78 76 121

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Country Profiles–Airports Airports-Hierarchy Profiles–Airline Routes CO2

About the Author
Dave Southgate retired from the Australian Government Public Service in July 2012 after a 31 year career as an ‘environmental bureaucrat’. After working in both State and Federal Government environmental agencies for 8 years he joined the aviation area of the Australian Government Transport Department in late 1989 and stayed there until he retired. Throughout his time in Transport he specialised in aircraft noise; in the latter years he also became involved in aviation climate change issues and developed a particular interest in carbon footprinting. Dave has a longstanding interest in transparency and in facilitating public involvement in environmental decision-making through the development of ‘simple’ ways to describe patterns of pollution. As an outcome of working with representatives of the Sydney community his team developed innovative concepts for describing and assessing aircraft noise.48 In 2008 Dave was awarded the Australian Government Public Service Medal (PSM) for his work in this area.49 From 2004 to 2012 Dave was the Australian Government representative on the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP). He pursued his interest in carbon footprinting while on CAEP and was a member of the group that oversaw the development of the ICAO Carbon Calculator.50 Dave has published two books on the carbon footprinting of aviation: The Carbon Footprint of Aircraft Operations in Australia – 2011 (October 2012); and Aviation Carbon Footprint: Global Scheduled International Passenger Flights – 2012 (April 2013). 51,52 Dave has a science/engineering background and has degrees from the Universities of Liverpool, London (Imperial College) and Tasmania.

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Expanding Ways to Describe and Assess Aircraft Noise, Dept of Transport and Regional Services, 2000: http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/aviation/environmental/transparent_noise/expanding/index.aspx 49http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/honours/honour_roll/search.cfm?aus_award_id=1137899&search_type=quick&showIn d=true 50 ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx 51 The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/02/01/aviation-carbon-footprint-reporting/ 52 Aviation Carbon Footprint: Global Scheduled International Passenger Flights – 2012, D Southgate, 2013: http://southgateaviation.wordpress.com/2013/04/20/76/

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