Leonard King - Seven Tablets of Creation - Vol 1 | Genesis Creation Narrative | Mesopotamian Mythology

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~ ~ H I ,

THE SEVEN TABLETS OF CREATION.

Reverse. Part af the Sixth Tablet of the Creatiou Series rccordi~~g tile Crcntion of Man (Hrit. hlus., No. 92,629).

O R THE BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN L E G E N D S CONCERNING THE CREATION O F THE WORLD AND O F MANKIND.

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L. W. K I N G , M.A., F.S.A.,
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it was recognized that there was in the Babylonian account of the Creation. It is true that the Babylonian legends which had been recovered and were first published by him were very fragmentary. or sections. Smith's worli. although they recorded the creation of the heavens and of the heavenly bodies. George Smith's work. as it existed in the seventh century before Christ. they contained no direct account of the creation of man. of which they were composed were quite uncertain ." which appeared some twentyseven years ago. their resemblance to the Hebrew narrative was unmistakable. and that. On the publication of the late Mr. other scholars produced translations of the fragments which . and that the exact number and order of the Tablets. PERHAPS no section of Babylonian literature has been more generally studied than the legends which record the Creation of the world. and in consequence they at once appealed to a far larger circle of students than would otherwise have been the case. In spite of this. much which invited comparison with the corresponding narrative in the Booli of Genesis. After the appearance of Mr. " T h e Chaldean Account of Genesis.preface. however.

and it was the most complete. Wallis Budge. which was published in 1887 by Dr. Finally. and the names of Oppert. appeared some months ago.---p--p- --- - ~ he had published. . Schrader. and a year later Professor Delitzsch of Berlin also published a rendering. and of these the most important is the fine text of the Fourth Tablet of the Creation Series. and translated by Professor Sayce in the same year. the second part of which. inasmuch as he was enabled to make use of the new tablet which restored so much of the central portion of the story. two years ago. Moreover. and Sayce will always be associated with those who were the first to devote themselves to the interpretation of the Creation Legends. containing his notes and commentary. new fragments of the legends have from time to time been acquired by the Trustees of the British Museum. In the year 1890.. in 1895 Professor Zimmern of Leipzig translated all the fragments then known. Professor Jensen of Marburg gave a translation of the legends together with a transliteration and commentary . containing the account of the fight between the god Marduk and the dragon Tiamat. in his important worlc Die KosmoLogie der BabyZonier. Professor Jensen issued a new and revised translation of the Creation Legends in the opening pages of the iirst part of his worlc Mythen und Epen. Professor Sayce's translation of the Creation Legends marked a distinct advance upon those of his predecessors.

It was not lily intention at that time to publish anything further upon the subject of the Creation Legends.Plates 1-41. n . on account of its interest.\'hile I was engaged. which Mr. During my work I was so fortunate as to recogliize this tablet. and was e~lableclto 111alte copies of all the texts.. were those relating to the Creation of the world. and one tablet. I gave a translatioll in a note to the plate on which the text appeared. it was 111y good fortune to come across rl t' loll a fine cl~~plicatc of the Second Tablet of the Cre. and of this. Part X I I I ( ~ g o r ) . but also of a number of new duplicates and fragments which I had meanwhile identified. in the B r i t i s h M z ~ s e z ~ ? and. . T h e most interesting of the new fragments there published was a tablet which restored a missing portion of the text of the Second Tablet of the Creation Series. among the documents selected for issue. ho\+-ever. which had been used by previous translators. Several of the texts of the Creation Legends. \.the writer was entrusted with the task of co1. George Smith had co~lsultecl in 1876.I n the course of the year ~ g o o . etc. had never been published. not only of those which were previously known. had not been identified by subsequent worlters. These copies appeared in C z ~ n e ( f o w ~ z T e x t s .ying the texts of a number of Babylonian and Assyrian legends for publication in the series of CzcnezJvrm T e x t s f r o m Ua(iyLoniarc Tablets. in searching for fragments of other Babylonian legends for publication officially.

I n view of the additional il~formationas to the form and contents of the poem which this new material afforded. I identified a fresh group of fragments of the poem inscribed. or hand-list. for in addition to its valuable contents it also settles the disputed question as to the number of Tablets. of the smaller fragments in the various collections of Assyrian tablets from . moreover. at the beginning of the present year. but upon Assyrian tablets. and a study of these showed me that the earlier portions of the text of the Creation Story. These plates were already printed off.Babylonia11 period. this fragment is extremely important. A further prolonged search was rewarded by the finding of other fragments of the poem. Among them. as already known. was a fragment of the poem which refers to the Creation of Man . The new fragments of the poem which I had identified up to the summer of last year are inscribed upon tablets of the Neo. or sections.XIV PKLFACE. and this I undertook forthwith. I lithographed the newly identified texts in a series of plates which are published in the second volume of the present work. At the conclusion of the examination of tablets of this class. could be considerably augmented. of which the Creation Series was composed. after my return from Assyria. it was clearly necessary that a new translation of the Creation Legends should be made. when. not upon Neo-Babylonian. At that time I was engaged on making a detailed catalogue. Series.

Those who have studied the publishecl texts of the Creation Series will remerllber that the material used by previous translators of the legends has consisted of some twenty-one tablets . may here be briefly summarized.ind fragments inscribed with . in place of the twenty-one tablets previously linown. furnished by the recently discovered material reglrding the Story of Creation.Kuyunjili. T h e number of new tablets and fragments belonging to the Creation Series which are here used and tra~lslatecl for the first time reaches the total of thirty-four. but. as a result of previous study of the legends themselves and of the Assyrian commentaries to the Seventh Tablet of the series. Thus. as I have joined up six of these to other similar fragments. the texts of the new Assyrian fragments are published by means of outline bloclis in Appendices I and I1 to the present volume. and. After the ~ - . T h e new information. this total has been reduced to twenty-eight. Hitherto our knowledge of the contents of Tablets I and I1 of the series has been very fragmentary. 11. I was enabled to identify ten new fragments of the poem which are inscribed up011 tablets from the library of Ashurbani-pal at Nineveh.portions of the poem. fortynine separate tablets and fragments have now been identified as containing portio~ls of the text of the Creation Series. In order to avoid upsetting the arrangement of the plates in Vol.

which tended to produce order in place of chaos. and a fragmentary reference to the . according to the poem. and what were the events which led up to Tiamat's preparations for battle. and E a (Nudimmud). ApsE and Mummu have a t this point entirely disappeared from the narrative. Re1 (i.. After the birth of Lakhmu and Lakhamu. his enmity was aroused. the text does not proceed to narrate in detail the coming forth of the lesser deities. what was the fate of Apsu and Mummu. what was the cause of the revolt. W e now know also that it was Apsii. but plunges at once into the story of the revolt of the primeval forces of chaos. narrative of the creation of the great gods in the opening lines of the poem. and the ally of Tiamat is the god Kingu. . and not Tiamat. Enlil. who began the revolt against the gods. are questions that have hitherto remained unanswered.first symptoms of revolt exhibited by the primeval monsters. What followed the creation of the great gods. W e now know that the accoutit of the creation of the gods was no fuller than that which has come down to us from Damascius. Apsii and Tiamat. or Illil).e. not by the creation of light as has been previously suggested. Anshar and Kishar. the minister of Apsu.XVI ~ ~ PREFACE. whom she appoints to command her forces. but by the disturbance of his rest in consequence of the new " w a y " of the gods. and Mummu. and that. Anu. there occurred a great gap in the text. and the story began again with the account of how Tiamat prepared to wage war against the gods.

XVII One of the most striking facts which the new fragments furnish with regard to the contents of the legends is the prominent part played by the god E a in the earlier episodes of the story. and carries the tidings to Anshar. W e now know that the first description of Tiamat's preparations occurs after the account of her determination to avenge her former allies . Moreover. it was the god Ea. that Tiamat began her preparations for battle. who continues to play a prominent part in the narrative. and in order to avenge them. T h e lines describing this episode are given no less than four times : in Tablet I. How Anshar repeated the lines B . and in the Second Tablet the lines are put into the mouth of E a . T h e details of Ea's action are still a matter of uncertainty. and twice in Tablet 111. Another point which is explained by the new fragments concerns the repetitions in Tablets I. and 111 of the lines containing the account of Tiamat's preparations for battle. detected their plan and frustrated it. it was only after their downfall. who. 11. and it was in consequence of the assistance he then gave her that she afterwards appointed him leader of her host.PREFACE. it is clear that A p s i and Mummu were overthrown. and that their conqueror was Ea. as I have shown in the Introduction. in Tablet 11. but. After Apse and Mummu had repaired to Tiamat and had hatched with her their t lot against the gods. abounding in all wisdom. She was encouraged in her determination by the god Icingu.

corresponds to the Hebrew word 'e.XVIII PREFACE. and from bone which he will form . as well as a number of new points . Perhaps the most striking of all the new fragments of the poem here published is that which contains the opening and closing lines of the Sixth Tablet. T h e new fragment also corroborates in a remarkable degree the account given by Berossus of the Babylonian version of the creation of man. his messenger. in connection with the account of the creation of woman. the culminating act of Creation was the malting of man.em. ii." which occurs in G.e. and. "bone. 2 3 . Bel's) head. and this agrees with the statement of Berossus. it is important to note that the Assyrian word here used for "bone." isSimtu. is already well known. at last. to Gaga. This subject is discussed at length and in detail in the Introduction. The text thus furnishes another point of resemblance between the Babylonian and the Hebrew stories of Creation.en. as in the Hebrew narrative. that Bd directed one of the gods to cut off his (i. According to the writer's rendering of the passage. which has not hitherto been known. W e now linow that. Marclult is here represented as declaring to E a that he will create man from his ow11 blood. and to form manltind from his blood mixed with earth. furnishes us with a portion of the text describing the Creation of Man. and how Gaga delivered the message to Lakhmu and Lalthamu. Marduk declares that he will use his own blood in creating mankind.

when the work of Creation was ended. Many of the missing portions of the Seventh Tablet. it has been found possible to restore from the new fragments and duplicates here published. here they seated themselves in solemn assembly and proceeded to do honour to Marduk. translations have been added of the other Babylonian accounts of the history of Creation. XIX of resemblance between the Babylonian and the Hebrew accounts of the Creation which are furnished by other recently identified fragments of the poem. Among . With regard to the extent and contents of the Creation Series. together with a translation and notes. the gods gathered together once more in Upshukkinakku. which has been constructed from all the tablets and fragments now known to be inscribed with portions of the poem. we now know that the Tablets of which the series was colnposed are seven in number . In the following pages a transliteration of the text of the Creation Series is given. which contains addresses to Marduk under his fifty titles of honour. From this we learn that. the Creator. and of some texts closely connected therewith. by reciting before him the remarkable series of addresses which form the contents of the last Tablet of the poem. For comparison with the legends contained in the Creation Series. their council .chamber .PREFACE. and we also possess the missing context or framework of the Seventh Tablet. including the opening lines.

supposed to refer to the Tower of Babel. which contain astrological interpretations and explanations of episodes of the Creation story. but is now shown by the duplicate to be part of a long didactic composition containing moral precepts. but erroneously. in her astrological character. to which the creation of the world is ascribed. I n the first Appendix the Assyrian commentaries to the Seventh Tablet are examined in detail. these are here published from a so-called " practice-tablet. The third Appendix includes some hitherto unpublished astrological texts of the period of the Arsacidae. Among the texts dealt with in the second Appendix one of the most interesting is a Babylonian duplicate of the tablet which has been supposed to contain the instructions given by Marduli to man after his creation. A remarkable address to a mythical river. they indicate that Tiamat. and are of considerable interest for the light they throw on the literary history of the poem. is also given." or student's exercise. in the fourth Appendix I have printed a copy of the text which has been commonly. was regarded as a star or constellation in the neighbourhood of the ecliptic. referring to the Creation of the Moon and the Sun .XX PREFACE these mention may be made of the extracts from a Sumerian text. Similarly. and from a somewhat similar one in Babylonian. and some fragments of texts are described which bear a striking resemblance to the Seventh Tablet. . and to have nothing to do with the Creation Series.

T o Mr. In conclusion. Wallis Budge for his friendly suggestions which I have adopted throughout the progress of the work. XXI and they moreover furnish an additional proof of 'the identification of her monster brood with at any rate some of the Zodiacal constellations. of course. Campbell Thompson I am indebted for the ready assistance he has afforded me during my search for new fragments and duplicates of the legends. During the preparation of this work I have. Zimmern.PREFACE. L. I have much pleasure in expressing here my indebtedness to their published works for suggestions which I have adopted from them. my thanks are due to Dr. and especially those of Professors Jensen. W. and Delitzsch. KING. consulted the translations and renderings of the Creation Legends which have been made by other workers on the subject. . R.

. . . . . . A N ADDRESS TO THE RIVER OF CREATION V. . . . . . . . . . . T H E T H I R D TABLET . . . . . ANOTHER VERSION OF THE DRAGOX-MYTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A REFERENCE TO T H E CREATION O F T H E CATTLE AND T H E BEASTS O F T H E FIELD 111. . . . CREATION HEBREW IN PAOZ XI I. . I. . RECONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT O F T H E TEXT TRANSLITERATIONS AND TRANSLATIONS :TABLETS OF THE HISTORY OF CREATION. . . . . . . . . . . I3O 140 . . . . . . . . BABYLONIAN 1V. . . . . . . . VI. . . . . . . OTHER ACCOUNTSOB THE HISTORY OF CREATION. V. . . SEVENTH TABLET EPILOGUE . . . DATE AND ORIGIN O F T H E BABYLONIAN CREATION OF AND THE . .4 ELISH XXV XXX LXVI LXXII 11. . . . IV. . . . . . . . . 2 22 38 58 78 86 92 1 10 11. . . T H E FIRST TABLET 1 1 . I. . . . . . VII. THE SIXTH TABLET . . . . AUTHORITIES FOR T H E TEXT O F T H E POEM ENUMR ELlSH AND T H E ASSYRIAN COMMENTARIES. . . .PREFACE . . CONIENTS O F T H E POEM AND DISCUSSION O F NEW MATERIAL 111. . . . . . . . VI. . . . . . . DESCRIPTION AND LITERATURE O F T H E POEM ENUM. . . COMPOSITION O F T H E POEM LEGENDS V. . . . . . . 1 1 1 . . . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARALLELS LITERATURE LXXX XCVII CXX VI. . . . . . . . ~ I I THE . . 116 I22 124 128 1 1 . . . . THE FOURTH TABLET. THESEVEN . . . . . T H E F I F T H TABLET . INFLUENCE LEGENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . T H E "CUTHAEAN LEGEND OF T H E CREATION" . . . . ANOTHER VERSION O F T H E CREATION O F T H E WORLD BY MARDUK . . . . . . INTRODUCTION :- . . . . . A REFERENCE TO T H E CREATION O F T H E MOON ANDTHESUN IV. . T H E SECOND T A B L E T .

. SUPPLEhIENTARY TEXTS. STARS. . 11. C. FRAGMENTS THE SERIES ENUMA O F T H E CREATION 157 ELISH. . . . INDEX TO NAMES OF DEITIES. .. . PLATES :I. . II. . . PUBLISHED I N VOL.:I. . . PLATES 1-41 PLATES I-LFXIV .XXXV XLIII . . T H E FIRST TABLET OF T H E CREATION SERIES 111.XLVII LI LXI . . 182 111. GLOSSARY. PLACES. AND I I I . . . . VIII . . CUNEIFORM TEXTS FROM BABYLONIAN TABLETS. T H E FOURTH TABLET OP T H E CREATION SERIES v. . . 11. . . . ON COMMENTARIES AND SEVENTH TABLET OF PARALLEL TEXTS THE SOME SERIES . 244 245 251 266 IV. . ETC.. I N T H E BRITISH MUSEUDI. . TO 2 ' 9 222 . A "PRAYER ISHTAR IV. . 204 . . A. . . . T H E SIXTH TABLET O F T H E CREATION SERIES 11. GLOSSARY OF SELECTED WORDS . ETC. . . . PART XI11 (I~oI). . . . THE FIFTH TABLET O F THE CREATION SERIES VI. SUPPOSED ASSYRIAN LEGENDS OF T H E TEMPTATION O F T H E RAISING O F T H E HAND" . . . ON SOME TRACES O F T H E HISTORY OF CREATION I N RELIGIOUS AND ASTROLOGICAL LITERATURE AND THE TOWER O F BABEL V. . . . . . . . . ETC. . T H E SECOND TABLET O F T H E CREATION SERIES IV. . . . INDICES. 'INDEX TO TEXTS. . DICES I. . 111. . . . T H E SEVENTH TABLET O F T H E CREATION SERIES . . . . . . . .XXIV CONTENTS PAGE APPENDICES :I. . . . . . . INDEX TO R E G I S T R A T I O N N U M B E R S . . . . . PUBLISHED IN APPEN- . . SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS. . AND ON SOME TEXTS RELATING TO T H E HISTORY OF CREATION . . . . . . . . 239 241 B . . ASSYRIAN TO 1 1 . . .

represented by the primeval water-gods Apsii and Tiamat. THEgreat Assyrian poem. and the longest one hundred and forty-six. . was termed by the Assyrians and Babylonians Enunza elif. T h e shortest Tablet contains one hundred and thirty-eight lines. after completing the triumph of the gods over chaos. "Enuma man. and tells the story of how the forces of disorder. each of which was inscribed upon a separate Tablet. it describes the coming forth of the gods from chaos." from the two opening words of the text. were overthrown by E a and Marduk respectively. which TheCreat~on narrates the story of the Creation of the world and of eltih. T h e poem embodies the beliefs of the Babylonians and Assyrians concerning the origin of the universe. "When in the height. and how Marduk. the average length of a Tablet being about one hundred and forty-two lines. T h e poem consisted of some nine hundred and ninety-four lines. and was divided into seven sections. or series of legends. and from Scner. T h e Tablets were numbered by the Assyrian scribes.Jnfrobucfion. and the separate sections of the poem written upon them do not vary very much in length. T h e poem is known to us from portions of several Assyrian and late-Babylonian copies of the work. proceeded to create the world and man.

668 to about B. are preserved in the British Museum. p. who was the first to ~ u b l i s han account of the poem. Thecreation " Enuma dish. the Babylonian copies and extracts were inscribed during the period of the kings of the Neo-Babylonian and Persian periods . the time of the first discovery of fragments ~f the poem considerable attention has been directed towards them.158. 1875. T h e late Mr. George Smith. published on March 4th.C.Smith extracts from it written out upon the so-called "practicetablets.'' First publication f fmgmentsof the legends by F. No. col. and on November 2nd in the same year he read a paper on them before the . but passag-es in them bear a strilring resemblance to the cognate narratives in the Book of Genesis concerning the creation of the world. All the tablets and fragments. recognized this resemblance and emphasized it in his papers on In the following year in the subject in 1875. Smith described the legends in a letter to the D a i l y Telegraph." or students' exercises.Series. by pupils of the Babylonian scribes. king of Assyria from B.C. j. From. 626 .' ' Mr. and one copy of the Seventh Tablet may probably be assigned to as late a date as the period of the Arsacidae.. for not only are the legends themselves the principal source of our knowledge of the Babylonian costnogony. 6. which have hitherto been identified as inscribed with portions of the text of the poem. The Assyrian copies of the work are from the great library which was founded at Nineveh by Ashur-bani-pal. He there gave a summary of the contents of the fragments. 4.s.

and vol. ~ After Smith's death the interest in the texts which he had published did not cease. and Records of the Past. London. Leipzig. New English edition. 1880.THE CREATION LEGENDS. By November.S." These plates were published in the Transactions of the Socieb of Bdlical A~ch@oZogy. pp. I 35 ff. vol. v. one tablet he interpreted as containing the instructions given by "the Deity" to man after his creation. vol.A. Rawlinson several years before.. 426 ff. edited by Delitzsch. edited by Sayce. p p 411ff. "01. German edition.. and scholars continued to produce renderings and studies of the legendss ~ o c i e t y o Biblical f Archieology. I t is declared by some scholars that the general character of the larger of the Creation fragments was correctly identified by Sir H. 349 ff. publication of he gave translations of the fragments of the poem thelcpends. and the translations made by Oppert in an appendix to Ledrain's Histoire d'lsrael. I I j ff. gremikyc partie (1879). and the copies which he had made of the principal fragments were p ~ b l i s h e d . 1875. ix ( 1 8 7 7 ) ~pp. For instance. I n noting the resemblance between the Babylonian and the Hebrew legends it was not unnatural that he should have seen a closer resemblance between them than was really the case. 3 See the papers by H. Although these identificationswere not justified. iv. 1876. ' The Chaldean Account of Genesis. and another he believed to represent a version of the story of the Tower of Babel. . XXVII his work " T h e Chaldean Account of Genesis " ' sm. the outline which he gave of the contents of the legends was remarkably accurate. iv (1876). pp...B.th. C. London.. and also of the Fourth Tablet which he entitled "War between the Gods and Chaos.. 1876 . I ff.. and by Lenormant in Les o~iginesde . he traced allusions to " t h e Fall of Man" in what is the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series." and of the Seventh Tablet which he styled "Tablet describing the Fall. and appeared after his death. Smith had prepared a series of six plates containing copies of portions of the First and Fifth Tablets. which had been identified. Fox Talbot in T.

In 1890 Professor Jensen. T h e best discussion of the relations of the legends to the early chapters of Genesis was given by Schrader in the second edition (1883) of his Keilinschrvten und das Alte Testament. bth. and added considerably to our knowledge of the story of Creation and of the order in which the events related in the story took place. a I n Records ofthe Past. 3.B.' In the Hibbert Lectures for 1887 Professor Sayce translated the new fragment of the text. pls. and published the text in P. Wallis Budge gave an account of a fine Babylonian duplicate of what proved to be the Fourth Tablet of the Creation Series . pp. 263 ff.XXVIII INTRODUCTION. app.S. p.A. pp. 1-6. x (1887). Budge gave a description of the tablet in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology for Nov.= and in the following year published a complete translationS of all fragments of the Creation Legends which had up to that time been identified. 86. see below. included a translation of the legends together with a transliteration and a number of valuable philological notes and discussion^. In 1883 Dr. vol. See Lectures on ihe Ongin and Growth of Religion as illustrated 6y the Religtbn of the Ancient BaJylonians (Hihbert Lectures for 1887)z PP. No. English translation. vol. in his studies on the Babylonian cosmogony..^ In 1895 I'histoire (1880). a portion of which he is editing. 379 ff. cvi. 1885-1888 . new series.737 . I hear from Professor Zimmern that the new edition of this work. qgqff. 1883. this document restored considerable portions of the narrative of the fight between Marduk and the dragon Tiamat. Recent transluuons of the legends. 18go). . 29. i. will shortly make its appearance. 1 2 2 ff. i (1888). pp. T h e tablet was numbered 82-9-18. See Die Kosmologie der Ba6ylonier (Strassburg. p.

published in the A6hondlungen der philologOch-hisforischen Classe der K i n i ' . vol. a number of papers and works containing descriptions and discussions of the Creation legends have from time to time been published. and put forward a number of new renderings of difficult passages. No. published in the journal of /he American Onknfal SocieQ. in legends. and the translations and discussions of the .. 1895). Siichsirchen Gesellzchaft dtr Wirsenschafllen. ii. 88ff. containing transliterations and translations (1900). ~ Zimmern published his translation as an appendix to Gunkel's Schopfung nnd Chaos in Urzeit und Endzel (Gottingen. I n addition t o the translations of the legends mentioned in the text. pp. it was published by Professor Delitzsch and included transliterations and descriptions of the various tablets and fragments inscribed with portions of the text. I ff. published as the sixth volume of Schrader's Keilinschrz~iliche B~bliofhek .xvii. Das Ba6ylonische Wellschojfungsepos.lonLciie Mythen und Epen. in 1900 Professor Jensen published a second edition of his rendering of the legends in his Mythen und Epen .' In 1896 a third German translation of the legends made its appearance .PREVIOUS TRANSLATIONS. containing commentary (1901). Assyrisch-Ba6j. 401 ff. Among those which have appeared during the last few years may he mentioned the translations of portions of Texl6uch z u n ~ the legends by Winckler in his Xeili~~schr~~lliches ANen Testament.. Barton's article on Tiamat. xv (1893)~ pp. XXIX Professor Zimmern published a translation of the translations of the legends. part 2. part r . this worli was the best which could be prepared with the material then a ~ a i l a b l e . ii (1892). similar in plan to Sayce's earlier edition . pp.% Finally. it he took advantage of some recently identified fragments and duplicates.

which had been used by George Smith.364. use was made in all of twenty-one separate tablets and fragments which had been identified as inscribed with portions of the text of the poem. gave the total number as twenty-two. those of Delitzsch and Jensen. edited by R. pp. 281 ff. that this tablet is part of a long composition containing m d a l precepts. but is part of a variant account of the story of Creation. 7 ff. 407ff.. Lcs myfies babylontkns e f les premzPrs chapitres de la Gen2se (rgor). by Gunkel in Schbpfung und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit (1895). 938 ff.) I have proved..' I n the present work thirty-four legends given in Jastrow's Religion ofBa6ylonzi and Assyn'a (1898). as four of these had been joined to others. 16 ff. . but had been lost sight of after his death. Appendix 11.as twenty-five. this fragment I identified two years ago a s I<. ' + . and by Loisy. As No.). 3. zo). recent translations of the Creation Series.267. edited by Hogarth (1899).. Discussions of the Babylonian Creation legends and their connection with the similar narratives in Genesis have been given by Lukas in Die Grund6egrtYe in den Ifosmogonien der alfen V3ker (1893). an exhaustive article on "Creation" has also been contributed by Zimmern and Cheyne to the Encyclopedia Biblica. i (1899).445 R.. On the other hand he necessarily omitted from his list an unnumbered fragment of the Seventh Tablet. Harper (. zr he included the tablet I<. pp. but there are strong reasons for believing that this tablet does not belong to the series Enuma elii". 53 ff. n tthe ~ d ~ ~ t i f i ~ I~ i ~ most ~ of new texts. and has no connection with the Creation Series. 33.go.F. gff. 396 (as No. vol. pp. of his work. 2 0 1 ff. and by Zimmern in Bi6lische und bnbylontsche Urgeschichte (Der alfe Orient. by means of the Neo-Babylonian duplicate No. see further.correctly identified up to that time n. the number of separate tablets and fragments was reduced to twenty-one. 1-46.851. 197ff. cols.XXX INTROUUCTION. Delitzsch's list of fragments. pp. but. pp. enumerated on pp. in my own Babylonian Zelglbn and Myihology (1899). 9. pp.. I t may be added that the total number of fragments . by Rlc~ss-Arnoltin As~yrianand Babylonian Literafure. but in Appendix I1 (pp.901). H e also included K. by Driver in Au/huri& and Archeology. 3. pp.

See below. ci. p. ~ On pp. 9. Nos. See below. and 2. together with part of the new.7. Nos. T h e whole of the old material. 1 5 . 10. was published in Cuneifom Textsfrom Ba&lonian Tablets. 5 . T h e total number of separate fragments of the text of the Creation Series is thus brought up to forty-nine. p. ! : $ . For the circumstances under which the new fragments were identified. p. 24. XXXI additional tablets and fragments. but. ' ' . 11. " . and by means of outline blocks in Appendices I and I1 (see pp. part xiii. the number of separate tablets and fragments here used for the first time is reduced to twenty-eight. ciii f. and 1 8 ..^ consisting of parts of one Assyrian and of three Babylonian tablets. inscribed with ? .TIlE NEW MATERIAL. xcvii ff. 3. T o the four lrnown fragments of the Third Tablet may be added five o t l ~ e r s . xcviiif. brief descriptions are given of these fortynine separate fragments of the Creation Series." T o the three known fragments of the Second Tablet may be added four other^. together with references to previous publications in which the text of any of them have appeared. zg.= consisting of two fragments of an Assyrian tablet and four Babylonian fragments and two extracts inscribed upon Babylotlia~l " practice-tablets. Nos. 4. 8. T h e texts of the new tablets and fragments which I have since identified are published in the lithographed plates of Vol. see the Preface to this volume. portions of the text of the Creation Series. 11.' T h e new material is distributed among the Seven Tablets of the Creation Series as follows :T o the four known fragments of the First Tablet may now be added eight others. 26. as six of these join other similar fragments. in the B r i f k h Museum. 159 ff.. I + . See below. 13. and 1 2 .). efc. zz. have been employed..

* See below. Nos. 41. 47. p. T h e new fragments of the text of the First and Second Tablets of the Creation Series throw light on the earlier episodes in the story of Creation.. p. See below.XXXII INTRODUCTION. 44. 40. p. Identification ofnew texts. ." T o the three known fragments of the Fifth Tablet may be added two others. No. to the two known fragments of the Seventh Tablet may now be added seven other^. and 49. which describes the condition of things before Creation See below. cviii. p. Of the Sixth Tablet no fragment has previously been known. 46..% consisting of parts of two Assyrian tablets.3 Finally. cix. 42.41gc. Thebirthof the gods.' which is inscribed upon a Babylonian "practice-tablet. xcviif. 48. By the identification of the Tablet K. 32.^ inscribed upon five Assyrian fragments and portions of two Babylonian tablets. cixf. See below. p. 37 and 38. and enable us to fill up some of the gaps in the narrative. No. and its existence was only inferred from a fragment of the catch-line preserved on copies of the Fifth Tablet . cvi. Nos. consisti~lg of fragments of one Assyrian and one Babylonian tablet and extracts inscribed upon three Babylonian " practice-tablets.' George Smith recovered the opening lines of the First Tablet. I . fragments of the text of the Sixth Tablet are published for the first time in the present work from part of a Babylonian tablet. 5. See below." T o the five known fragments of the Fourth Tablet only one new duplicate can be added. No.

to Tiamat.which correspond to Lahamu and Labmu. only preserves of whose names the text of K.T .i. r r o ~ BapuLdv. m RcGn 6uop. $ r l ~ .. i T&" BUD?" . < ~ O "F . I .pwu 6 0 L .w v iWv d. Apsii and Tiamat. the first pair. TauRL corresponds K<oaap~j to Kishar. " I h X ~ u o uw a l ' A d v i o G 62 'Aub xal A n i x l l r u i i v ycv<oRnr 7. Kopp. SSXIII when the primeval water-gods.lv MwGpiv.oc . I : . and 'A& to Anu. ~ < L ~ I I .-Quaesliones de pyinus princijris.' Now." YO?)?. T h e text then briefly relates how to Apsu and Tiamat were and born the oldest of the gods. O ~ v a. 'Aoompd* to Anshar. ?.illX&" wtl/. ' The following is the text of the passage in which Damascius summarizes the Babylonian beliefs: . cap." Bchov. r&ni l u $no~v. AnX$" x s l ArrXd8i. But as the text inscribed upon the obverse of K.T H E NETT' MATERIAL. Bup/3. since Uamascius mentions "Ihhrvos and 'A& along with 'Avhs. l i ~ r ~ o nrrri ~ $ 'Accwp.TauR.A& 74" p .covrsr.lu. E&a a3 r p l ~ ~ . A v i v ua. it was clear that the text of the poem included a clescriptio~l of the birth of the elder Bel (i. TOLL?^ 'I'auB. Of the other deities. 5 . Lal~mu Labarnu. p. I I t 8. $ v 6 ? i ~ ~ o v p 7 . 'Ex 62 i l j v u b G v uYXXrlu rlrvs. per.&u.^" K .860 8. v 8. 1 2 5 (ed. a$?. p. I a ~T&Y Zhwu LPX$v wnl)tCun~. and after a second interval by other deities." olpar 7. T h e Aaxqu and A a ~ o vof the teat should be emended to A o ~ ~ and j v A o ~ u v . Mwupis corresponds to Iklummu (see below. mingled their waters in confusion. 5. note I). 4 1 9 ~ that of Anu. Enlil or Illil) and of E a in the passage in which Anu's name occurs. L'f Gv -jcvCaOn~ r p ~ i r' . 384). ~ a 2 XwaaAv. c'f G u povorlevv waisa y ~ v v r . Z O L O ~ Y T L S . r h ~ birth of the garis.419c. sonifying chaos. xxxviii. being followed after a long interval by Anshar and Kishar. 'Awoodv to Apsi~.u wpoeXRciv. George Smith perceived that this theogony had been reproduced by Damascius in his summary of the beliefs of the Babylonians concerning the creation of the world.nrldpeuav.e.lv p2u 'Awaliljv uYv8pn ?rj.

I I (p. Tahl. for the poem contains no mention of the birth and parentage of Marduli. that the reference made by ~ ~ ~ ' See below.). who figurcs so prominently in the story from the close of the Second Tablet onwards. Ea) and A c c .) and 1. and states that he had no rival among the gods . Ea). 402.e. I. i. was the son of )A&(i. 1. like that of Mummu and of Gaga. 60 (p. 3 (p. 1. when Marduk is introduced later on. xcviii. the Creator of the world. ~ the birth of unlduk and of its Neo-Babylonian duplicate 82-7-14.2 the text proceeds to describe his marvellous wisdom and strength. and from the fact that Damascius states that Bijhos. It appeared probable that the lines which followed contained a full account of the origin of the younger gods. his existence.e. 88 f. 2. No. appears to be tacitly assumed. the birth of no other god is recorded after that of Ea. Marduk. p. 86 f. 11.e.' breaks off at 1. Damkina).). T h e new fragments of ~the First ~ ~ ~ ~ Tablet i show that ~ the account of the birth of the gods in the Creation Series is even shorter than that given by Damascius. z z f. and. it has been concluded that at any rate special prominence was given to the birth of Bel. and Tabl. 5 (p. I t is interesting to note that E a is referred to under his own name and not by his title Nudimmud upon new fragments of the poem inTabl.). 15. I . the course of the story after this point has hitherto been purely a matter for conjecture. therefore. After mentioning the birth of Nudimmud (i. .e.XXXIV INTRODUCTION. Thebirthof the gods. 1 2 f. It would seem. VI. ~ ~ (i.

. 4.28i-46.. Mas.614).. No. .Part of the First Tablet of tile Creation Series (Brit.

which indirectly throw an interesting light on the composite character and literary history of the great poem. The new fragments of the text show. . after the description of his character. In fact. his birth. ApsLi. gods represented the birth of order and system in the universe. finding ~ ~ ~ ' Sec lurther. tee h. however. While the newly created. forms the climax to which the previous lines lead up.. detecting and frustrating their plans. moreover. Apsfi and Tiamat still remained in confusion and undiminished in might. ~ b A ass that it was Apsi and not Tiamat who began thereielliOn. but it is in accordance with the other newly recovered portions of the text of the First and Second Tablets. to that of E a may at first sight seem strange. but was added by him to complete his summary of the Babylonian beliefs concerning the origin of the gods. and.THE NEW MATERIAL. moreover. the story proceeds at once to relate the rebellion of the primeval gods and the part which E a played in.11 Damascius to Marduk's parentage was not derived from the text of the Creation Series.i the earlirr part lines of the First Tablet and the prominence given or t h creation ~ story.' I t will be seen that of the deities mentioned in these earlier lines Nudimmud (Ea) is the only god whose characteristics are described in detail .. . pp. This omission of Marduk's name from the earlier E . lxvi ff. XSXX. Ea and not Marduk is the hero of the earlier episodes of the Creation story. rebellion against the gods.

but in Tabl. pattern. we may perhaps conclude that. since the explanatory text S. p.. T h e title Mummu was not only borne by Apsu's minister. 6a-a[n ka-la]. and the parallel passages. I.. xxxiii. of Mummu. p. and he adds that the title might have been applied in this sense to Tiamat. 302 f. given by Damascius. Thecauseof Apsu's i . Ea's title. 1. pattern) who created all" (cf. cited above). I f such be the case. she is described as pa-ti-$a-at ha-la-ma. 16z. 170)~ gives the equation Mu-um-mu = ?if-mu. I I j. however.). see above. I n view of the equation Mu-um-mu = rig-mu (Jensen's suggested alternatives Sim-mu and 6i-&mu are not probable). it is possible that the application of the title to Tiamat and her son was suggested by its ambiguity of meaning. pp. according to Darnascius. as voviis xdopor is also in favour of this suggestion. Tiamat and her son might have been conceived as representing the opposing " form " or " idea" of chaos and confusion. Moreover. confusion. 13.e. 2 6 1 ) .761 (seep. . I . which is there explained'as ha-a[n . z f. n.a n ka-la. who. probably.' his minister. <'the mummu (possibly. ii. took counsel with her T h e MwCpir of Damascius . I. l o (see below. Rev. "form. ' . "Creator [of all] " (cf. 1." and that consequently the title Mummu was capable of two separate interpretations. I. Mythen und Epen.).XXXVIII INTKODUCTION. and from her body heaven and earth were created . Jensen points out that E a is termed mu-um-mu & . 1 0 2 f." or "pattern" (cf. 747. much to be said for Jensen's suggestion of the existence of a word mummu meaning "form. was the son of Apsu and Tiamat. Beitriige zur Asyriolofie. in addition to the word mummu." there existed a word mummu. p. the explanation. . and the two went together to Tiamat. the son of Apsu and Tiamat. from one of the new fragments of the Seventh Tablet. it is employed as a prefix to the name of Tiamat herself. I . that his slothful rest was disturbed by the new ordcr of beings whom he had begotten. summoned Mummu." or "mould. since in Tabl. i. we now know that one of Marduk's fifty titles was Mummu. 4. I n this passage I have conjecturally rendered it as chaos" (see p. "chaos. There is.). while Marduk (and also Ea) might have borne the name as the "form" o r "idea" of order and system. . and lying down before her. I<.

representing the disappearance of mist and darkness before the rays of the sun. in Tabl. XXXIX regarding the means to be adopted to restore the old order of things. and Berossus himself mentions this interpretation of the legend (see further. ~ Jensen's translation of what is 1. log and the parallel passages. Jmsen's suggested rendering of im-ma as-7%-nik-ma.. 50 of the First Tablet represents Mummu as urging Apsfi to make the way of the gods "like night. 38 Apse complains that "by day'' he cannot rest. and "by night" he cannot lie down in peace . 38. however. and the quotation on p. 50. L. livf. is therefore also improbable." it may be inferred that day and night were vaguely conceived as already in existence. 8 ff. by night shalt thou lie down (in peace)" .hl.." I n 1. is parallel to 1. roused ApsG's resentment and led to his rebellion and d o ~ n f a l l . from the fact that he makes use of the expressions "by day" and "by night." and not I' like night. lxxxii." nut primeval gods. I.THE N E W MATERIAL. For Marduk was originally a solar deity. p. in consequence of which he can get no rest by day or night.' ApsE merely states his hatred of . a This fact does not preclude the interpretation of the fight between Marduk and Tiamat as based upon a nature-myth.p the a&tu or "way" of the gods." and implies that it was the creation of light which caused the rebellion. 50. and it is certain that the adv. Mummu then counsels him to destroy the way of the gods. according to the text of the poem. mu-%is to be rendered " b y night. in place of iv~-ma-a$-ru-nim-ma. see pp. adding in 1. It was therefore the substitution of order in place of chaos which. 1. " T h e n by day shalt thou have rest. I t may be noted that the text contains no direct statement that it was the creation of light which caused the rebellion of the Hishatredof "order. ' . notes z and I). and.-ii.

Cf. - Cf. Tabl. and there are clear indications that it was E a to whom their overthrow was due. but we know from 1. whether by actual fighting or by "his pure incantation.Our knowledge of the part played by Ea in the overthrow of Apsii and Mummu is still fragmentary. rqz. Tabl. it is also certain that the following twenty lines recorded the fate of Apsn and his minister. 11. d u e unconquered. T h e subjugation of Apsn by E a explains his subsequent disappearance from the Creation story. on lcarning from E a the news of Tiamat's preparations for battle. it is as "the Deep. 11. 75 Ff. and the former achievement he implies has been accomplished by Ea.. 60 of the First Tablet that it was he who detected the plot against the gods . Tabl. that E a caused the overthrow of Apsnl and the capture of Mummu. Mummuby Ea. I. 98. 1. 1. It is clear. I n Tablet 11. 62. . Tiamat remained ApsO and M u m m u . 1. 53 ff. Cf. contrasts the conquest of Mummu and Apst with the task of opposing Tiamat. Cf. 11. the latter supposition is the more probable of the two." and not as an active and Tiamat's malevolent deity. detcrrnination to avenge After the overthrow of Apsn. therefore. Anshar. 1 . In view of the fact that Anshar at first tried peaceful means for overcoming Tiamat before exhorting Marduk to wage battle against her. Cf.%but in what way he brought it about. 97. IV. and she continued to represent in her the c'aptuie of t o Kingu's prompting." is still a matter for conjecture. Tabl. When Apsii is next mentioned. 1. I. Tilbl.

" it may be concluded that it was Kingu who now prompted her to avenge her former EL. It was only after both he and Anu had failed in their attempts to approach and appease Tiamat that Anshar appealed to Mardulc to become the champion of the gods. 11. that Tablet 11. his father. n. but as a description of Tiamat's state of confusion and restlessness after learning of Apstl's fate. p. I are not to be taken as part of a speech. 188. but continued to play the chief r6le on the side of the gods. so now her continuation of the war against the gods was due to the prompting of another deity. h e repetitions Another point completely explained by the new T In the I'irsf. opposition to the forces of disorder. did not cease his active tile iorces of disorder. ' . n. 11. are It is possible that the fragments of I. of Tabl. aod fragments of the text is the reason for the repetitions? rhird Tablets. he carried the news to Anshar. inasmuch as she subsequently promoted Kingu . and. ~Ea. a See also p. 15-48 . ecnnd. rq. 11-48. 11. On the probable order of the attempts made by Ea and Anu respectively to oppose Tiamat. however. It will be seen that Tablet I. XLI own person the unsubdued forces of chaos. I . are repeated in Tablet 11. I .THE NEW MATERIAL. 109-142. sce Appendix 11. contintxed opposition LO ~ p o u s e . as at first she had not herself begun the rebellion. 11. 88 f. He heard of Tiamat's preparations for battle. to be the leader of her forces " because he had given her support. and he was sent by him against the monster.' But.93-104. which occur in the first three tablets of the series. T h e speech in which this deity urges Tiamat to avenge ApsE and Mummu occurs in Tablet I. .

The lines which are repeated have reference to Tiamat's preparations for battle against the gods. 11. Second.XLII INTRODUCTION. The repetitions in the First. and the fact that Berossus omits all mention of the part played by E a in the earlier portions of the story is also due to the tendency of the Babylonian priests to exalt their local god at the expense of other deities. Bcrossus and tile rnonstcr: broodof Tialllet. are repeated in the same Tablet. to whom he carried the news. 11. and later on in the Tablet Gaga repeats the message word for word to Lahmu and Lahamu. I 5-52 . and that Tablet I I I. The context of the repetitions in the Third Tablet is already known . repeated in Tablet I I I. 73-1 2 4 . immediately after she had adopted Kingu's suggestion that she should avenge the overthrow of ApsG and Mummu . when telling him to go and summon the gods to a n assembly. T h e account which we have received from Berossus of the Babylonian beliefs concerning the origin of the universe is largely talien up with a description of . Anshar first repeats the lines to his minister Gaga. 11. I 5-66. and to Anshar's summons of the gods in order that they may confer power on Mardulc as their champion. From the new fragments of the text we now know that the lines relating to Tiamat's preparations occur on the First Tablet in the form of narrative. and that in the Second Tablet they are repeated by E a in his speech to Anshar. T h e constant repetition of these lines was doubtless intended to emphasize the terrible nature of the opposition which Marduk successfully overcame . and Third Tablets.

40.Part of the Seconil Tablet of ihe Creation Series (No. .559).

.Eu'usedichmnico~umi i b e r p ~ i o r ed. I I p . 6 : EXB6wv.pour h. 1. op. . r 6: T O ~ T O L F EXB6as xal . Jensen has attempted to explain the dilficulty . 14 f. 16.i)ws?l xai ~ @ S L~ P a JXXa l cGa ~ A L . from whom Eusebius quotes in the first book of his C h r o n i c o n . O Y ~ B + J8. o6ph.IXou uu... 3 3 % T h e name 'Opdlmrr may x a l C8wp 'e?uo<. .. o idro@utiv l 72s . the Babylonian T i m t u . n. w n l dv ~ O ~ T O L P ejl0"l" ~w'woll~v"ia8al. ~ Stoak. vi. / l X e w 8: T O ~ T W Y ~ I ~ Y T W I .. :wwwv. .. . ' E ~ X ~ V L O82 : ~~ C H F ~ ) ~ ~ Y F BrlXanoa ~ C T L L[ L x a d 6: Irrdpl@ov aeX$uq]. T h e first part of the name gives the equation O p = U m m u . "sea. 06.cp. according to Berossus. Z W O ~ .. when darkness and water alone existed. "the Mother-IJubur.LIO. U Y I L 8 a u p a o i r a l wup7XXarlp. j .. p. ~ u j r 8 : ." a title of Tiamat which occurs in Tabl. Z ~ ~ . .'u 76 xal r ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~a a/6oia ~ i l a6 . RobertsonSmith. ocean " = Tiamat. 6 . "IOVP 82 xal ?e?paw?."8i)dwov~ zxw0.S&v F ~ W L L . a & iwworaura4pour ~ 7 j v.Awwv. while for 6 a X a ~ Bwe should probably read Hnpr. cit. T h e reading 'Opdpuu is an emendation for upupwrrr. fCr Assyr. cf. J@cu =a2 BljXu' xal t ~ i p a v r EvBpdraur ? a h p:v olV&u SKLX-?~ a xli p a w %ou~nr. iX860r i r T&V dwclreev pep&" i j l o u m ~ . but how Hubur has given rise to the transcription o p x a is not clear. O ~ ~ C V EvOI. o u w ~ . se :T .2 named 'OPhp~a. XLV the mythical monsters which dwelt in the deep at Ill? mooitora time when the world had not come into being and !>800dor rllilll lf.EvurrioOac. col. 7 r ~ ~ ?j ~ iduopa ~ o ' O P d P ~ a t 2 v a ~ .. r 1 3 and the parallel passages. w i u o x d ~ o ~ c&a ~ c i ) a ~ . wal JAXa 6: @a wuv~a8awGv OqpIwv pop@is 2'Xov~u.ua~ 729 ELF LXhljXwv ikilov~a' &u xul T . ' T h e account of the Creation given by Berossus in his history of Babylonia was summarized by Alexander Polyhistor. the following is his description of the mythical monsters which existed before the creation of the world :-PeuioBa~ @?mi ~ p d v o v dv $ 7 . xe@aXLr 82 860. Eu8pel.. ~ Y slrdvar Qv 7. col.TIIE NEIV MATERIAL. ~ O "7 P~ " Y ? 8 1 j l l ~ ~ ~ . . i e. eal 0 5 p n p i u 2 x o v ~ a e:v. .roas@&ou* K.: probably he identified with Ummu-Hubur. Schoene. ~IL ~ a i ~ a 6 i ) o v r dv8pdwwv rt#aXAr G j l a u ~ o za2 ~ xdvap r s r p a a w p & ~ o u r .' Over these monsters. I.al 8~wi)uodwovr.is.?OF B. F ~ . cf. TOZTO 82 X6XGaioil p i v ~<LXLX. Zeits. s: .A Lutlpdwaur.2.B&LS S L ~ I T . xai &cpa c&a x c @ a X 2 ~ phv woi o d r a r a i'w71wu . reigned a woman who is to be identified with Tiamat.xal Ywwour xu.

. p. the summary from Berossus of the incidents related on the Fourth Tablet is not very full ." precisely a s in t h e following couplet Ti-amat tap-li-ti.ra would he the Aramaic equivalent of Ummu-&bur. for @uhur may well have had the meaning "deep. I ) . cf.' Compared with the description of the monsters.~ h i . n. depth. ' According t o the poem." cannot be regarded as proved (cf. on the othcr hand. ~ the Uppcr o r Northern part of Mesopotamia." is opposed t o Ti-amaf e-li-fi.. also V R. see below. p. and. t h e North. " t h e broad Bobur." is employed in antithesis to {anzE(r) ru-&u-u-IL.and u l k i he talies as a n Assyrian translation o f e u h u r . 3 . n. pl.e. the North" (mainly from the occnrrcnce o f F u .r ~ = r ~Su-bar-ium. while the creatures themselves represent the monsterbrood which Tiamat formed to aid her in her fight against the gods. ." t h e title @6ar might have been rendered in Babylonian as urhu. " t h e Lower Ocean (Tiamat)." t h e existence of which they trace to the prevalence of t h e Aramaic dialect in Babylonia a t the time of Berossus (see SchZpfung und Chaos. Bel) slew 'OPc$xa. p. F o r ti. 16. Tiamat is definitely stated t o have created eleven kinds of monsters. This e x p l a n a t i o ~is ~ ingenious. Ornorka and BEl. 9 of this fragment t h e phrase &-bar pal-ha-ti." rather than " t h e North. thc River of the Underworld. the text states that BGhor (i. Ixxxiii.b u .) t h e meaning "depth. according t o this explanation the title 'OILdi. z.rhur he suggests t h e meaning "that which is above." is suggested by t h e word . " t h e distant heavens. 5 6 4 ) Gunkel and Zimmern. 2. see in 'Opdpra t h e equivalent of t h e Aramaic words 'Om ' o r p . in 11 R. ~- by suggesting that 'OpGpra= U m n z u . 50. 51. T h e summary from Berossus bears only a general resemhlancc t o the description of the monsters in the poem. and p. 196 f. on t h e fragment S. in I." Thus. p. I.013 (sce below. since what is in the North would have hecn regarded by the Babylonians as "behind. pl. had t h e meaning "that which is above. 1. n." F o r a possible connection between the lower waters of Tiamat and Huhur. "Mother of the Deep. as applied t o Tiamat. 1 9 ) . but that t h e title e u b u r . also Mythen. 18 f. xcivf. " t h e Upper Ocean (Tiamat).XLVI INTRODUCTION.

.

BE1 (tile D ' See below. a mansion like unto the Deep in structure. in place of " H e set the stations of BE1 and E a along with him. 1 3 . to the former of whom he entrusted the night.. go 8. Marduk is there related to have split Tiamat into halves. the fragment K. while he overcame the creatures that were within her. as related in the Creation Series. p. the monsters of the deep. from one half of her he made the earth. but records the fixing of the constellations of the Zodiac.TFIE NEW MATERIAL. T h e new fragments of the Fifth Tablet contain some interesting variants to this portion of the text. 11." According to the text Marduk appoints Nihir (Jupiter). livf. and the relative positions of the Moon and the Sun during the month. towards the end of the Fourth Tablet.e. i. Bel. and Ea to inhabit their respective districts therein. his instructions relating to the phases of the Moon. begins iheavrnly bodhes. and that he caused Anu.' T h e actual account of the creation of the world by Thecreationof heaven and the Marduli. For instance. pp. 1 3 5 ff. T h e text then goes on to state that he founded heaven." reads ' I H e set the stations of Be1 and Anu along with him. Cf.' where the narrative closely agrees with the summary from Berossus. and from the other the heavens. . SLIX and having cleft her in twain. and Marduli's charge to the Moon-god and the Sun-god. the founding of the year. 7 7 4 (see below.3 but. and to have used one half of her as a covering for heaven. note I . which is termed E-shara. 8. T h e Fifth Tablet does not begin with the account of the creation of the earth.) in I.

17 f. as the pole star of the ecliptic. I ~ f.I . and that Rlarduk entrusted the night to the Moon-god according to this version also.. p. they throw no light on what the nlissing portions of Thecreation of the Tablet contained. 1 2 . the context is broken. we may conjecture that an account of the creation of the earth occurred upon some part of the Fifth Tablet. of the the earth and ofvegetation. K. 92. I n place of Ea. the Moon-god. Thecreation From the new fragment of the Sixth Tablet. " a being of the night." in place of ""Nannar-ru. importance in an astronomical sense.774 is the substitution of hakkada-Tu. statement of Berossus that from one half of Tiamat Be1 formed the earth. Another variant reading on K. however. No. As at the north pole of the equator). who.' ' [Founder of sowing]. In view. if not greater. proving that they were already thus employed in astronomical calculations.' ' who caused [the green herb to spring up] ! ' " . Further variants occur in I. 13." in 1.774 substitutes Anu. hut we cannot doubt that iuk-nal mu-s'l. 13. in 1. It is also probable that the Fifth Tablet recorded the creation of vegetation.629.L INTRODUCTION with the exception of the last few lines of the text. ' Bestower of planting. That this formed the subject of some portion of the poem is certain from the opening lines of the Seventh Tablet. where Marduk is hailed as " Asari. would be of equal.larduk's address to the Moon-god . see below. and the creation of plants and herbs would naturally follow that of the earth.' ' Creator of grain and plants. we know that this portion of the poem related the story of the creation of man. "his star. in the days enumerated in the course of l\. of man. 13 refers to the Moon-god. and E a (probably a star in the extreme south of the heavens) as guides to the stars.

Part of the Fifth Tablet 01 the Creation Series (I<. . 3.588).567 +I<. 8.

It is interesting to note. Now in Tablet VI. it is said that "his heart prompted him and he devised [a cunning ~ l a n l . VI.. in 1. however. his cunning plan after he had "heard the word of the gods. See Tahl. 1. but the reason for man's creation may be gathered from certain indications in the text. that the creation of man is not related as a natural sequel to the formation of the rest of the universe. before proceeding to man's creation. LIII beginning of his work of creation Marduk is said to ti^^ of man. so now. T o overcome this difficulty Marduk devised the " cunning plan " already referred to . but forms the solution of a difficulty with which Marduk has been met in the course of his work as Creator." and from this it is clear that the Fifth Tablet ends with a speech of the gods. 8. W e learn from the beginning of the Sixth Tablet Thereasonof m a n s creati011 that Marduk devised. 2. and it is probable that the creation of man was regarded a s the culmination of Mardulr's creative work. Mardulr states that he will create man "that the service of the gods may be established " . have "devised a cunning plan " ' while gazing upon the dead body of Tiamat. " ~In the repetition of this phrase we may see an indication of the importance which was ascribed to this portion of the story. 1. however. he adds that ' See Tabl. IV.THE NEW MATERIAL. 1. . 136. 9 f. the context of this passage is not very clear.

~ . and he appears to threaten them with punishment. in the form in which it has come down to us. . will change the ways of the gods. as fo1iows:-0&wr 62 ~ i i u. ~ca ~ ~J y V~ ~ a i x pdn7u. $V % o x. the summary from Berossus records the creation by Be1 of the earth. that Ea dissuaded Marduk from punishing the gods. therefore. 5 ff. e i "T$Y . however. ~ V S U G~ t @ a X + v ua. ~ E~ ~ Y O ~ ~ I I U U ~ ~ 5 r 616 uospoAr V E B?V(LL x a l @ p ~ ~ O a{ ks c p ~ ~ ~ . but at the same time he appears to have decided to vent his wrath upon the gods because of their discontent. and mankind. The text of the summary from Berossus. p. and this portion of the text corroborates in a remarkable manner the account given by Berossus of the method employed by Bd for man's creation. I t may be conjectured. a x n i ~ i pi" ) . BY a6mj c&a i @ a v l c a r . though he no doubt assisted him in carrying out the first part of his proposal. nor was there anyone to worship them. of the Sixth Tablet Marduk indicates the b y Bcrorsu~ of man'5crea'10n~ means he will employ for forming man. xlv). I t is possible.' Thenccount In 11. av~or 702 w a v r i ) ~ x n i K d w u 2r a h + n l ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ O 7~ 1 ? O7. and aoimals.Xwu ouvao~~~d7wv. ~ ~ L C ( LUJ T ~ ?IOL?(TILL E ~ Y Y . xal 8 ~ n w X d r T rO. as the lviii. ?i) ( i u 6 ~ aTpa ~ o h r JXhour Ocohs @upr20a< nj cyq.' is not quite satisfactory. dXX?lyop<xiir 8.)" p Y ~O ~ C~ ~ d V@ ~~ X . T o supply this need Marduk formed the device of creating man.LIV INTRODUCTION ~ h e r e a s o s o f he mads creation. 7.jXov a ' See below. BwaveXOdvrr~ B. IaY ~d i. the gods came to him and complained that there were no shrines built in their honour. @ ? i o ~ r o S i o ? I L @ V C C D X O ~ ? Jhyp& CO~L. and the heavens.~ X Ti)" ~ 82 ~ BijXou. After the description of the monsters of the deep referred to above (see p.)82 UXXOq p ~ r u O ~ ~ L I Y~ . that after Mardulc had completed the creation of the world.

rAv dipa $ i p r ~ v .v Bv w j wpAin @ d u ~ e ~ ~ . he regarded as having been transposed. dXXjXwv. was suggested by von Gutschmidt which removes both these difficulties. T L 6: cu3a 0th t'vsrwdv~a 74" 70. ~~ c o' ~ r~~ . O~ 'Y ~T~ i Li I) C K ~ T O F Xwplsr~cc / j v rai odllnr.i. 16 f.pdv~a 7 6 oxdhos X o p l c a ~ y j v wa2 adl.aviv Lw' L X X ~ X W Y . i w ~ ~ ~ . the reading of ro~iivse in place of ~ o SE v before B p o v . but if it is placed at the end of the extract it falls naturally into place as a summary by Eusebius of the preceding account of man's creation which is said by Alexander Polyhistor to have been given by Berossus in the First Boolc of his History. aFPart. / v ~ vT O ~ F ~ 2 ~ T 7X 6 ~ Y ~ T ~ TFa .Y ( L ~ S L ~ T I 76" ~~L .ishBau~ 62 r i u B j h a v x a l l r ~ p o xal $XLOII X G ~ ( I E ~ .' By adopting this emendation we obtain Ala P s B e P ~ 7 u e & o ~ c ~ .THE NEW MATERIAL.iv L?. 'Awo.G d @?<LY i) ?IOXU?CTIU~ 'AXdfavSpos .$ 7 ~ r e ~ ~ ~ T OpL G 6 Yv ~B?jXov.hiv B7pwco. ~ b the r probable transposition of the passage which occurs in the text after v ~ 7 e v v 7 p ~ u w u . ~ SY A h p ~ B ~ p P 7 ~ e & p . wui Gcaidtmc ~ i ) v zdolrov. viz. T h e confusion Confusionin the text. .ua~ ~ I j vyijv zal G~uwXrloa~ duOpu3wour z r ~ lBvpla ~d 8uvdpeva . E ~.E u s e b chron. T h e context of this passage would then read bn/poG c l i p dv7or 706 T ~ V T A B XU. jri. is apparent in the repetition of the description of man's creation and in the interruption of the naturalistic explanation of the slaying of Omorlia. Sctioene. however. . LV course of the narrative is confused. l6dura 62 BtXov Xdpav &?pov xnl rapso$dpau KEXEGCL~L 7Gv BtGv 7 j u X E $ C L X ~ ~V@ L X ~ Yl T au L~ o G 7. T h e passage which interrupts the naturalistic explanation. $w&r Gduaptv $@ap?jvac. The tdansposition of the passage suggested by von Gutschmidt necessitates only one emendation of the text. col. An ingenious but simple emendation of the text. ed.see the following . lib. and apparently describes a first creation of man. 'TI~U ~.note. v r ~ $vp. C ~ W Vt'v ad. v .

X~tu. . by Jensen.. to create men and animals. BEl's) head.iori x q h a X j v . 2 0 f.. ~ a lS ~ o ? r X c i m ~ vebr pc~. T h e emendation has been accepted by Budde. a clear and consecutive account of how Uel. xnl .oa~ voepo6r re S ~ V ~ xal L @ p o u j o ~ w r 0c:ar ' njq. note. would read Ta&& Irphmj @yaw 6 woXuih~wp 'AXdfav8por 76" Bliprucli. ioG. cf.j $uiv . p. col. . that man might be formed from his blood. after the creation of heaven and earth. p. p. For Caviari in both passages Stucken would read a h .hii$jung und Chaos. the Creator. j ~ .e. cf. ~ followed by C h e ~ n e has . and more than one scholar has blood for mall'screation. ' S t u c k e i ~ . I 7. 1 9 f. 477 f.i. 29z. ~ emended the text so that it may suggest that the head of Tiamat. cf. p. . Die Biblische Urgeschichle. Schbpjung und Chaos. Gunkel has suggested that in the original legend the blood of Tiamat was used for this purpose . I<osmolngie. Cf. Cheyne. and by Gunkel and Zimmern. not thai of the " Creator" .rov Qebv ri$sXe?u ~ j u 2au. attempted to explain away the beheading of Bel. op. Sc. and. TheemployThis passage from Berossus has given rise to conmrnt of Marduk's siderable discussion. E~zgclopiedrb Biiiiic'~.vOphwour' i o b r dXXovr ecobr 6ul. AstraInyihen der Nebrater. col. and the summary by Eusebius. at the end of the extract. perceived that the land was desolate . note 9. and not that of Bel. by mixing the blood which flowed forth with earth. Bnlylnnier und Aegypter. and how he ordered one of the gods to cut off his (i... was cut off.lu i v 7 1 1 q5Laxew' 61. 947. who adopts Stucken's suggestion. 16 f. cii. Schoene. i. while Zimmern would take the original meaning of the passage to be that the gocl rdopov. 55.LVI INTRODUCTION. p. remarks : " It " stands to reason that the severed head spoken of in connectioii " with the creation of man must he Tiamat's.

TIIE NEW MATERIAL. this fragment is not. " der zu diesem Zwecke geschlachtet wird. strictly speaking. Cunez~orm T t x f s .A. " . LVII beheaded was not BE1. however.' In 1. .. it illustrates the fact that the use of the blood of a god for the creation of man was fully in accordance with Babylonian beliefs. but the other deity whom he T h e employment of addressed. fc2r Asvr. and it follows that the account which he gave of the Babylonian beliefs concerning man's creation does not require to be emended or explained away. part of a creation-legend. 1 4 of his Blalische und ba6ylonische Urgeschichfe. which he pointed out contained a speech by a deity in which he gives orders for another god to be slain that apparently a man may be formed from his blood mixed with clay (cf. has no connection with the first creation of man. 281). 269. pt. . dass urspriinglich " das Blut der Tiimat gemeint sei. xiv. iii of the fragmentary and badly preserved legend Bu. p. p. 5 of the Sixth Tablet. n. sondern das irgend eines Gottes . xiv. p. p. Zimmern remarks: " Somit darf man wol doch nicht . Z. but probably relates to the creation of a man or hero to perform some special exploit. 91-5-9. and as Ea-bani was created by the goddess Aruru in the First Tablet of the Gilgamesh-epic (cf. in the same way as Uddrrshu-namir was created by E a for the rescue of Ishtar from the Underworld. 269 (cf. the text of this passage from Berossus is thus shown to be correct. allerdings auch nicht das Blut " des Schopfergottes selbst. annehmen. 275 f. and not an actual fragment of the Creation Series. 86 f. . 275. 7. . The episode. vi. however. and Mythen. also Jensen's remarks in his Myfhen und Epen. to which Professor Zimmern refers on p. ~ arduk's blood for Marduk states that he will use his own blood for man'scrcation creating man . 91-5-9. . ' I n the Zeits. 282. See below..). p. note). as already stated. I learn from Professor Zimmern and Professor Bezold that it was the tablet Bu." I n making this suggestion Zimmern was influenced by the episode related in col. Although. ..

Jensen has already suggested ' that the god whom Be1 addressed was Ea. and not Ea. Ea's share in man's creation. but it is interesting. formed mankind from his blood. DA). that Marduk. used for " bone.LVIII INTRODUCTION." is doubtless the equivalent of the Hebrew word 'esem. 11. and. T h e word is here met with for the first time. T h e new fragment of the Sixth Tablet does not mention the mixing of the blood with earth. the reading of the ideogram for "bone. G I K . blood of BE1 mixed with earth. . but it is quite possible that this detail was recounted in the subsequent narrative.tor." not havingheen known previously. he will create bone for forming man. 29 and 32.p A ~ . was regarded as man's Crea. 293.n u ( v a r . in addition to using his own blood.p. W e may therefore conclude that it was E a who beheaded Marduk at his request. man was formed from the m d s meation. and it is clear from Tablet VII. ' See Kosmolo~ie. he method of According to Berossus. E a may thus have performed the actual work of making man. On the other hand. and the new fragment of. the Sixth Tablet proves that this suggestion is correct. and tells him the means he will employ. but he acted under Mardult's directions. the Assyrian word here. Berossus makes no mention of bone. in the Babylonian poem Marduk declares that. according to his instructions.to note that k i m t u . In the Sixth Tablet Marduk recounts to E a his intention of forming man.

35 might possibly be Marduk's head (compare also i7z-~ur. the kakhadu in 1.creation of woman in Gen. pl. 198. pt. 24 f." which occurs at the end of the narrative of the. of the inconsistencies noted on p. If the fragment were part of the Sixth Tablet. Though. ii. the creation of animals would follow that of man. it is preferable to exclude the fragment at present from the Creation Series. 1. 396 (cf.-ma in 1.445 R. Texfs. the opening lines of the Sixth Tablet prove that man's creation was regarded as the culmination of Marduk's creative work. and if that of animals followed it must have been recorded as a subsidiary and less important act. until more of the text of the Fifth and Sixth Tablets is recovered. 3. in that case. Cun. ru-juUS-fuda Ti-n[nzat]. concerned the creation of man. was ~ h e c r ~ z t i o n of animals. 23. T h e blood of BE1. according to Berossus. T h e phrase if-Run Pahkada (Ohv. 31 with lu-uk-surin Tahl." which Marduli devised in order to furnish worshippers for the gods.. employed not only in man's creation but in that of animals also. U E U C I rbv &.) cannot belong to the Creation Series. I n view. xiii.' In this connection it may be noted that the expression T& ~ U U & . was probably not based on any description or episode in the Creation story as ' I On p. + . it would be rash to assert that the fragment K. in 1. zoo it is remarked that. which Berossus applies to the men and animals created from the blood of Bel. however. zq). 199 f. and it is possible that this represents the form of the legend as it was preserved upon the Sixth Tablet.THE NEW MATERIAL. 1. VI.. 35) might perhaps refer to the head of Tiamat (cf. which would not be inconsistent with the fragment forming part of the Fifth Tablet as suggested on p.pa $ J ~ ~ E I V . T h e "cunning plan. LIX bone. 5 ) .

but in Appendix I1 ' I have shown by means of a duplicate.LX INTRODUCTION recorded on the Seven Tablets. Thesupposed With reference to the creation of man.364 creation. after creating man. As the gods had previously been summoned to a solemil assembly that they might confer power upon Marduk before he set out to do battle on their behalf. was a fragment of the Creation Series.851. that the suggestion must be given up. This view has been provisioilally adopted by other translators of the poem. it was instructions to m a n a f t e r h i s suggested by George Smith that the tablet I<.851. but the greater part of the text must have' been talien up with other matter. I t may be that Marduli. 33. gave him some instructions with regard to the worship of the gods and the building of shrines in their honour. it may be stated that there would be no room upon the Sixth Tablet of the Creation Series for such a long series of moral precepts as is inscribed upon the tablets K. when he had vanquished Tiamat and had finished his work of See pp. and they afford us a glimpse of the final scene in the Creation story. and contained the instructions given to man after his creation by Marduk. za i & . Apart from other reasons there enumerated. 33. 3. preserved. 3. Th Sixth Tablet ~ h ~ f e concluding i ~ ~lines~ of the ~ ~ ~ ~ are ~ partly in the Creation stoiy.364 and No. but was suggested by the naturalistic interpretation of the legend furnishecl by Berossus himself. so now. No.

.139+93. .07j). part bf the SeventhTablet ofthe Creatibn Series (Brit. No.PLATEVI. gr. Mu?.

which either explain the title or are suggested by it. 1. VII. p 94 f.-ri. 92 f. p. Tabl. . the greater part of which consists of the hymn of praise addressed by the gods to Mardulr as the conqueror of Tiamat and the Creator of the world. p. Tabl. 92 f. Asaru-alim : ""Asaru-a&. W e thus obtain the context or setting of the Seventh. . gG f. o f Maiduk. VII. 19 . VI I.Thefinalscene in the Creation naku. var. VI I. I 6 I .e. Murazag : ""Mu(i. 1. p. him by every title of honour. and each is followed by one or more Assyrian phrases descriptive of Marduk. which Marduk is hailed by them under fifty titles of honour. T h e hymn of the gods takes up lines 1 . 96 f. and consists of a series of addresses in creation Series. Zi-ukkina : "Zi-ukhin-na. Tabl. Tutu : " Tu-tu. VI I. not Semitic. 1.. 33 . p. u"Na-zi-azag-g[a]. Aga-azag : "Aga-azag. u'Mz(i. 9 .p. VII. Tabl. VII. 1.THE NEW MATERIAL. LSIII creation. and last. p.1 2 4 of the T ~ ~ S C V C ~ ~ I . '"'Zi-ukkin. 92 f. a~ 173. I 5 .n a . 92 f. 3 . 1. I .TTa. Zi-azag : '&'Zi-azag. 1. Tabl. var. I ~ A + LI)-azag.a h . they again gathered together in Upshuklti. Asaru-alim-nuna : " ' A s a m . VII. S ~ ~ ) . and proceeded to magnify story. 1. Tablet of the Seventh Tablet. var.n u n . T h e titles are Sumerian. Tabl. Tabl. Of the fifty titles which the hymn contained. 5 . the following list of eleven occur in the first forty-seven lines of the text :The ~ i f t Titlea y Asari: *"Asa~-.e.a zp. . their council-chamber. p. 1. 25 . Tablet of the Creation Series.

Shag-zu : '"'Sag-sw. . VI I. 13. 1.519). ] : "Pa$-[. Tabl.761) . 13.5 19). p. Zi-si : "Zi-si. V I I ( K .d u r ..durmab : '*'Lugad . . occur the following ten titles of Marduli.761). . 1. V I I (I<. p. Pap-[ . 1."'GiL[ 1. 8. Sul--1cur: "SuJ-Kur. p.337) and from the commentary K. 104 f. p. ] : 'b'LzgaL-a6-[ ..5 19)ancl K. Lugal-dul(or du)-azaga : '"'LwgaC-d81Z-azagsa. 8. Tabl. 1 0 2 f. 1 0 2 f. Tabl.761 and K. 23 .519 (and its duplicate K.1. VI I. loo f. VI I (K. 1 0 2 f. Mulil : "'Mu-ZiZ.XIV INTRODUCTION. p. pp. In the gap in the text of the Seventh Tablet.761). 4. VII. . V I I (K. Zulummu : ""Zu-Z~~7z-nzzl. col. 13. p. 1. Tabl. between 11. Tabl. . 13. . 1 0 2 f. 1 0 2 f. . Rev. . Tabl. 1. 43 . p.761) . Tabl. col. Lugal-ab[ . ] : "A-gi[d. 166. 106f. Tabl. Rev.406 :Agi[l .. Adu-nuna : ""A-du-rwn-na. Mummu : "'MzL-urn-mu. VII (K. V I I ( K . V I I (K. p. .. Tabl. 165. which are talcen from the fragments K. 13. 13. . Gishlcul : "'GiS-kwd.406.761) . 35 . 13. . ~ o o f . p. . . 8 . VII (K. . TheFiftyTitIes of Murduli. 102f. 163. . 4. VII (K. 98 f. 13. 47 and 105. var. p. pp. roqf. 8. 4. Tabl. . ii.761). 1.406.. 4 I . ii. V I I (K.761). . . . 13. and K. p. Tabl. 1.vzab. 8. Lugal . p. 102f. I . Tabl. TTa..

ii. bZCmntati). 6. also EN KUR-ICUR (i. Gugu : "'Gu-gu. . K. 23 . 1. 2. ii. Tabl. var. which were probably among those occurring in the missing portion of the text . occurring in the concluding portion TheFiftyTltles o f Marduli. p. K. col. 1 9 .SiiA AN. 123. a parallel text to the Seventh Tablet. col. 108f. VI I . 1. 2.' and from No.Tablet furnish twenty-five out of the fifty names of Marduk. From the list of the titles of Marduk preserved on K. K . 2. [""INe-6i-ri. p. Tabl.107. p. '"'BB mEtZti. E a : ""E-a. 109.e. p.p. 168.107. of the text of the Seventh Tablet. ii. 173. From the above lists it will be seen that the recovered portions of the text of the Seventh. Tabl. Tabl. ii. 178. 1. VI I . cf. 1. col.THE RTEJ?' MATERIAL. LXV Four other titles. I 07. ff. 24 . p. var. col. 1. these are :Lugal-en-ankia : "LugaZ-en-an-hi-a. var. cf. I 73. Bel-m?itiiti : be-eZ mZtZti. Mumu : ""Mu-mu. 171 ' See pp. See pp.107 + K. 110f. 22 . 2. p. VII. 1. 54. Nu-an-&-a. 2 . VII. Vanslla : &a. Dutu : "'Du-tu.228. 173. 120. . 1. K.' seven other names may be obtained. 11of. p. I 16.107. E 175 . p. 1. p.086. alsoS'"ganiii. 173. I l o f. A. are :Nibiru : 'b'Ni-6i-~u.

also occurred as one of his fifty titles in the body of the text. which is applied to him in the Epilogue to the Seventh Tablet (I.' By these titles of honour the gods are represented as conferring supreme power upon Mardulc. Marduk's father. 1. The composite The story of the Creation. in the form in which natuve of the Creationseries. and in slipport of this view it may be noted that the colophon to the commentary R. ~01. rzg.. r r z ) . Obv. K. Shag-gar(?): Sag-gsar. 14 . En-bilulu : ' E n . At the conclusion of these addresses there to the Creation Series. p. it is not impossible that the title Biz-ilani. It is unlikely that the name Marduk itself was included as one of the fifty titles.No. 54. in which the study of the poem is commended to mankind. Dudu : u''Du-du. " Fifty.]. see p.228. (see p. Obv. makes mention of "fifty-one names" of Marduk. 169.." by which he is finally addressed. 2..LXVI INTRODUCTION. which may be most easily'explained by supposing that the scribe reckoned in the name Marduk as an additional title. of the Seventh Tablet. confer their own names and power upon him. when the elder Be1 and Ea. 173. p. is of a distinctly ' I n view of the fact that the Semitic name BZZ-maliTLioccurs as one of Marduk's titles. 366. .228. See below. it has come down to us upon tablets of the seventh and later centuries before Christ. in itself sums up and symbolizes his fifty Theepilogue titles. ii. 178. etc. 1 1 6 ff.. follows an epilogue of eighteen lines. TheFiftyTitles of Marduk. 169).107. Marduk's name of Hanshi. 25 . 13. 177. 1. No. and prosperity is promised to those that rejoice in Marduk and keep his works in remembrance. p. and the climax is reached in 11. 54. p.

Component parts of the ( 2 ) T h e Legend of E a and Apsi . is confined to the first twenty-one lines of the First Tablet . whom Marduli conquered. That t!6:z2ted with Marduk. Thus the description of Tiamat and her monster-brood. Myth. it is natural that more prominence should be given to episodes in which Marduk is the hero than is assigned to other portions of the narrative in which he plays no part. among whom Marduk does not figure. is repeated no less than four times. (3) T h e Dragon. these elements should have been incorporated at all in the Babylonian version of the Creation story may be explained by the fact that they serve to enhance the position of prominence subsequently attained by ' See above. (4) The actual account of Creation . and bears traces of a long process of editing and modification at the hands of the Babylonian priests.crcuion Series. xli f. On the other hand. and ( 5 ) T h e Hymn to Marduk under his fifty titles. Five principal strands may be traced which have been combined to form the poem .of Marduk as the champion of the gods and the Creator of the world.COMPOSITION OF THE POEM. p. these may be described as ( I ) T h e Birth of the gods . . and not more than twenty lines are given to the Elementsin account of the subjugation of Apsii by Ea.' and the preparations of Marduli for battle and his actual fight with the dragon take up the greater part of the Fourth Tablet. Since the poem in its present form is a glorification . LXVII composite character. the birth of the older gods.

~ Moreover. In this version - ' See below. T h e conquest of the dragon was ascribed by the Babylonian priests to their local god. T h e central episode of the poem is the fight between Marduk and Tiamat. But Jensen's identification of the deity as Bel was due to a mistake of Delitzsch. and in the poem the death of Tiamat is made a necessary preliminary to the creation of the world. Jensen makes Bel the slayer of the dragon in this legend (cf. and there is evidence to Drove that this legend existed in other forms than that under which it occurs in the Creation Series. 116 ff. I. not before creation. .LXVIII INTRODUCTION. p. Marduli alone is the hero of the poem. p. n. On a fragment of a tablet from Ashur . Mythen und Epen. however. from which it might be argued that Marduk is the hero in both versions of the story. pp. see below. whom he was unable to withstand. Marduk. The Dragon-Myth. the fight is there described as taking place. who published an inaccurate copy of the traces of the deity's name upon the tablet. was necessarily included in order to make it clear how Marduli was appointed their champion . 46). From the latter half of the Second Tablet onwards. and the account of Ea's success against Apsii served to accentuate the terrible nature of Tiamat. but at a time when men existed and cities had been built. part of a copy of a legend' which describes the conquest of a dragon by some deity other than Mard~k.bani -pal's library we possess. 120. Thus the description of the birth of the older gods and of the opposition they excited among the forces of disorder.

In one of these. many of the great cities of Babylonia possessed local versions of the legend in each of which the city-god figured as the hero. pp. the god of Cuthah.) was at one time believed to represent another local verslon of the Creation story. in which Nergal. p. and there is no doubt that this version of the story represents the belief most generally held during the reigns of the later Assyrian and Babylonian kings. fragments of other legends in which the creation of the world is not connected with the death of a dragon. 140 f. note r . the dragon.. This fragmentary tablet serves to prove that the Dragon-Myth existed in more than one form in Babylonian mythology. Marduk in this ' The so-called "CuthaeanLegend of the Creation" (cf. and it was to deliver the land from the monster that one of the gods went out and slew him. LXIX men and gods are described as equally terrified at the dragon's appearance. pp. however. But it has been pointed out by Zimmern that the legend concerns the deeds of an Old-Babylonian king of Cuthah. was supposed to take the place of Marduk.COMPOSITION OF THE POEM. W e possess. see below. I 30 ff.' the great Babylonian cities and temples are described as coming into existence in consequence of a movement in the waters which alone existed before the creation of the world. which is written both in Sumerian and Babylonian. and is not a Creation legend. and it is not improbable that.' In the Creation Series the creation of the world variant accounts 01 the is narrated as the result of Marduk's conquest of creatton. . 14off. a See below.

which are referred to in the preceding paragraphs. but Mardulc does not figure as the Creator. 1 2 2 f. not only is the story of Creation uncorlnected with the Dragon-Myth. Her method of creating Ea-bani hears some resemblance to that employed in the creation of man according to the Sumerian and Babylonian version above referred t o . ~ z f. ii. breaking o f a piece of clay. I n addition to the five principal strands which have been described above as forming the frameworls of the Creation Series. according to this version also he is described as creating animals and vegetation. See below. I t q 8 . by Elsewhere this goddess figures in the rBle of creatress.). In one of these "the gods" generally are referred to as having created the heavens and the earth and the cattle and beasts of the field . p. ' ' .' while in another the creation of the Moon and the Sun is ascribed to Anu. for from the First Tablet of the Gilgamesh-epic. she first washed her hands. we learn that she was credited with the creation of both Gilgamesh and Ea-bani. and then. it will be clear that the priests of Babylon made use of independent legends in the composition of their great poem of Creation 4 . i t accounts of the creation. Bel. she cast it upon the ground and thus created Ea-bani (cf. p. 308. Myfhen und Epen.' he created man by laying a reed upon the face of the waters and forming dust which he poured out beside it . In other legends which have come down to us. pp. 11. Jensen. together with the goddess Aruru.. for.LXX INTRODUCTION. col. and E a 3 From the variant accounts of the story of Creation and of the Dragon-Myth. o See below. version also figures as the Creator.

As a fit ending to the great poem they incorporated the hymn to Marduli. 175 ff. ~ well as by fragments of parallel.e. LXXI assigning to Marduli the conquest of the Dragon' and the creation of the world they justified his claim to the chief place among the gods. consisting of addresses to him under his fifty titles. e.COMPOSITION OF THE POEM.).. I t may be here noted that the poem contains no direct description of Tiamat.g. I-124. Thus the association of the god Kingu with Tiamat is probably due to the incorporation of a separate legend with the Dragon-Myth. as . 1 1 . I t is true that in one of the new fragments of the poem Tiamat is referred to as sinnijatu. "woman" or "female " (cf. I Z Z ) . IV. R. VII. ' . p. as well as several phrases in the poem itself (cf. Tabl. not as a dragon. This portion of the poem is proved by the Assyrian h ~ fifty commentary. 366. 1. texts to have been an independent composition which had at one time no connection with the series Ensma eL2. however. The hymn to Mviduk under s tltler. it is possible to find traces of other less important traditions which have been woven into the structure of the poem. pp. 11. i. 97 ff. See below. 8 Tahl. may he cited against this suggestion. which completes the Seventh Tablet of the series. who at the end of the Creation have assembled together in Upshukkinaku . but as a woman. 169. and it has been suggested that in it she was conceived. Tabl. 11. See below. T h e evidence from sculpture and from cylinder-seals. hut the context of this passage proves that the phrase is employed with reference to her sex and not to her form. and to it is added the epilogue of eighteen lines. In the poem the hymn is placed in the mouth of the gods. but not duplicate. e t ~ .

but Marduk. the god of Babylon. after an examination of the various indirect sources of evidence we possess with regard to the age of Babylonian legends in general. Of the actual tablets inscribed with portions of the text of the Creation Series we possess none which dates from an earlier period than the seventh century B. T h e legends in the form in which we possess them are not intended to glorify Ashur. The date of t h e Creation legends. we may . it is necessary to distinguish clearly between the date at which the legends assumed the form in which they have come down to us upon the Seven Tablets of the series Enulna eZiS. is still a matter for conjecture.C. with some degree of probability. and it is clear that the scribes of Ashurbani-pal merely made copies for their master of older tablets of Babylonian origin. the national god of Assyria. but it is possible to offer a conjecture. With regard to the internal evidence of date furnished by the Creation legends themselves. and the date which may be assigned to the legends themselves before they were incorporated in the poem. In discussing the question as to the date of the Creation legends. T h e tablets of this date were made for the library of Ashur-bani-pal a t Nitleveh. Internal evidence of date. and of the Creation legends in particular. T o what earlier date we may assign the actual composition of the poem and its arrangement upon the Seven Tablets. but it is obvious that the poem was not composed in Assyria a t this time.LXXII INTRODUCTION.

DATE O F CREATION LEGENDS. Nimroud Gallery. were handed down independently of one another. and that in course of time variations crept in. 28 and zg.' T h e temple was built by Ashurnasir-pal. which was found sculptured upon two limestone slabs in the temple of Ninib at Nimrnd. though derived probably from common originals. with the result that two or more forms of the same story were developed along different lines. and the considerable differences which can be traced in the resultant forms of the same legend may be cited as evidence in favour of assigning an early date to the original tradition from which they were derived. Evidence as to the existence of the Creation legends Evidence from ~ulpturc and at least as early as the ninth century B. may be s from cylinderdeduced from the representations of the fight between '*'' Marduli and the dragon Tiamat. and across the actual sculpture was inscribed the text of a dedication to Ninib by this king.C. 860. Nos. LXXIII note that the variant forms of the Dragon-Myth and of the account of the Creation. who reigned from B. . During this period we may suppose that the same story was related in different cities in different ways.C. 884 to B.C. T h e process must have been gradual. to which reference has already been made. presuppose many centuries of tradition during which the legends. T h e slab therefore furnishes direct proof of the existence of the legend more than two hundred years before the ' T h e slabs are preserved in the British Museum.

. although the majority of such seals probably date from the later Assyrian and Persian periods. is preserved in the British Museum. or laver. we are enabled to trace back the existence of the Creation legends to still earlier periods. and is numbered K.' a Babylonian king who reigned not later than the seventeenth century B. inscriptions which record the setting up of statues and the making of temple furniture. ' An Assyrian copy of this inscription. termed in the inscription a tiimtu. we find descriptions of the figures of a dragon and of other monsters which he set up in the temple E-sagil at Babylon . Agum also set up in the temple beside the dragon a great basin. the varied treatment of the scene which they present points to the existence of variant forms of the legend. 11.c. pl.149. the text is published in V R. and so indirectly furnishes evidence of the early origin of the legend itself. col. iv. 33. the fight between Marduk and Tiamat is frequently found engraved upon cylinder-seals.LXXIV INTRODUCTION. 1. and in this passage we may trace an unmistakable reference to the legend of Tiamat and her monster-brood. Moreover. 1 3 . Cf. col. formation of Ashur-bani-pal's library. a Cf. 3 3 ."4 From the name of the laver. Evldencefro~n From an examination of the Babylonian historical hlstollcal Inscnptiuns. 4. or "sea. COI.. Cf. and from its position beside the figure of the dragon. For instance. iii. iii. 5 0 ff. which was made for the library of Ashur-bani-pal. 1. and. in a text of Agum.

King of Ur about 2500 (cf. Two separate fragments of this legend vere found. 1. ii. 3. the one Copier of containing the story of Nergal and Ereshliigal. NO. Among the tablets found at Tell el-Amarna. iii. The three classes of evidence briefly summarized above tend to show that the most important elements in the Creation legends were not of late origin. in historical inscriptions of still earlier periods we find allusions to similar vessels termed a @ ." ' the presence of which in the temples is probably to be traced to the existence of the same traditions.C.the. of which one is in the British Museum and the other. Iso0. col. I t remains to consider to what date we may assign the actual weaving together of these legends into the poem termed by the Babylonians and Assyrians Enuma eZii". " deeps " or " oceans. PI.). De Sarzec. Although. but must be traced back in some form or other to remote periods. . i.. I . were fragments of copies of two Babylonian legends. and Apsu. we do not ~ ~ i d early copies of possess any early copies of the text of the Creation . xii. made up of four B. a still earlier king of Shirpurla (cf.DATE OF CREATION LEGEKDS. LXXV we may conclude that it was symbolical of the abyss Evidencefrom historical of water personified in the Creation legends by Tiamat inscriptions. I ) . or even earlier.. legends :Series. as has already been remarked. pl. and may well date from the first half of the third millennium B.c.' andle~"dsabout B.C.e. and by Ur-Nini. No. Dicouverfes en Chnldie. ' Such . - ~ ~ ~ ~ "deeps" were set up by Bur-Sin. which date from the fifteenth century B. 5 f. Moreover. this is not the case with other Babylonian legends.c. I R.

B. rqa f. Der Thontafelfund uon El-Amama. while of the legend of Adapa an actual fragment. though not a duplicate. 164f. The Ell el-Amarna Tahlefs. See below. about B. see Jensen. Zimmern in Gunkel's Schbpfung und Chaos. 98 ff. is in Berlin. while upon one of them are traces of a new version smaller fragments...A. pp. pp. 420 ff.. ~ ~ M . 88-10-13. see Winckler and Abel. 234. 166 a and 6 . B. and pl. a K. p. pp. 9 4 ff. 8. p. Thus one of the recovered fragments is in part a duplicate of the so-called " Cuthaean Legend of Creation " .LXXVI INTRODUCTION. see Jensen. pp.. Harper. . and by Winckler and Abel. 2100. also Knudtzon. n. 128 ff. and 2 3 9 ) . in style and general arrangement. two others contain phrases found upon the legend of E a and Atar-basis. published by Strong. Mythen und Epen. Mythen und Epen. pp. . pp. 274 f. 146 f. legends about B . see E. Myfhen und Epen. but extends even to identity of language.C. p. the other inscribed with a part of the legend of Adapa and the South Wind.' Both these compositions.% Fragments of legends have also been recently found in Babylonia which date from the end of the period ( z ) c o ~ ~ ~ of s o ~ the First Dynasty of Babylon. Knudtzon. P. 74ff. and cf. closely resemble the legends known from late Assyrian copies. exists in the library of Ashur-bani-pal. 69). op. and the resemblance which these documents bear to certain legends previously known from Assyrian copies only is not only of a general nature. iv. Their texts are published by Budge and Bezold.S. and Jensen. (Nos. For translations. c .214. 237. Beitrage zur Asyr.A. 4. p. r7 (Bu.. T. I 30 ff.. B. 420 ff... p. at. xvi. iv. . cf. pp. 236.A.' For the text. For a translation of the fragments. ii.

.

antkrieure ri Hammurabi ").' and probably also the new fragment of the Etana-myth. col. legends were in existence. 7). . L'6criture en est archai'que et. Copie~ of legends before BC. 18 ff. Unlike them. Father Scheil has published the text in late Assyrian characters in the Recueil dz trauaux.e. 1902. as opposed to Sumerian. viii of No.521. in the iMiLteilungtn der Vorderasiatischen GescL~schaft. 87. - and to the same period is to be assigned the fragment of a legend which was published a few weeks ago by Dr. . the name of Gilgamesh being written " " G I ~ . Though fragmentary the episodes described or referred to in the texts are of considerable interest. the lines vary considerably in length. sans aucun doute " possible. I intend elsewhere to publish translations of the fragments. and the damming of the Tigris with which the text of No. 1.828. pp. and in the archaic forms of the characters. the lines of its text do not appear to be separated by horizontal lines ruled upon the clay. par face. T h e fragment here published refers to episodes in the Gilgamesh-epic. it is clear that the Gilgamesh fragment. resembles the three fragments in the British Museum. 93. trois ou quatre " colonnes . I . perhaps the most striking being the reference to the birth of Ishum in col.535 concludes.LXXVIII INTRODUCTION. for they show that early Semitic. we may conclude that it dates from the same period as the three tablets in the British Museum described above.. photographic reproductions published by Dr. ' E2it altba~fouikhes Fragment des Gilgamosepos. xkiii.~ From ~ . however. Meissner. and he does not give a photograph of the tablet. i. i z 8 ' ~ ~ S .has been omitted by the scribe in No. From his description ("C'ktait une " belle grande tablette de terre cnite. i. Meissner. 87. in the nature of the clay employed.' These five fragments are of peculiar interest. -. and were carefully preserved and studied in other cities of Mesopotamia carefully written (it may he noted that a na. avec.~ the ~ ~ . and the metre is not indicated by the arrangement of the text. published last year by Father Scheil.

while the ending is. 130 ff. xv. as well as in the names of Icingu. Cf. 266). modifying and augmenting them to suit their own legends and beliefs. however.. Kosrnologie. p. Jensen. with respect to the recovery of the ancient religious literature of the Sumerians. pp. LXXIX than Babylon. The Sumerian version of the story of the Creation by Marduk and Aruru (see below. as from internal evidence it may well be a later and artificial composition on Sumerian lines.DATE OF CREATION LEGENDS. lxxv. T h e evidence furnished by these recently discovered tablets with regard to the date of Babylonian legends in general may be applied to the date of the Creation legends. !i (cf. pt. That we may expect. the remarkable series of early Sumerian religious texts published in Cun. is implied. clear that the Semitic inhabitants of Mesopotamia at a very early period produced their own versions of the compositions which they borrowed. Gaga. and at a period before the rise of that city to a position of importance under the kings of the First Dynasty. too. and as the hymn refers to incidents in the Creation legends. etc. p.) cannot with certainty be cited as evidence of its Sun~erian origin. employed as it constantly is in the Creation Series with the force of a preposition. may probably be traced to the Sumerian ku. later Ju. also the Sumerian influence exhibited by the names of the older pairs of deities Labmu and Labam". one day to find the original Surnerian versions of the Creation legends is not unreasonable . and with the stories of the creation of the world and See above.' it is of the creation legends. plates 7-30. the Sumerian origin of these. Texts. T h e Assyrian commentaries to the Seventh Tablet. moreover. may be regarded as an earnest of what we may look for in the future. prove the existence of a Sumerian version of this composition. . The connection of Marduk with the Dragon-Myth. While the origin of much of the Creation sumerian origin of much legends may be traced to Sumerian sources. Anshar and Kishar..

kings of the First Dynasty we may therefore expect to find copies of the Creation legends corresponding closely with the text of the series Enuma elis". as we know it from late Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian copies. and probably distorted. The political influence which the Babylonians exerted over neighbouring nations during long periods of their history was considerable. 125 (ed. Iiopp. may with considerable probability be assigned to Probabledate the subsequent period during which Babylon gradually of the t o of attained to the position of the principal city in MesoMarduk with the Creation ~otamia. On tablets inscribed during the reigns of legends. who quotes from the Greek translation of Philo Byblius . was composed at a period not later than B. Babylonian Creation lonian elements may be traced in the Phoenician legends. Praep.C. cap. see Eusebius. form in which the latter has come down to us renders uncertain any comparison of details. . cosmogony has long been admitted. but. in ~ contact. i. en. took place Probabledate at a later period . but the imperfect.LXXX INTRODUCTION.' Some of the beliefs concerning the ' For the account of the Phoenician cosmogony according to Sanchuniathon. be this as it may.. I t is possible that the division of the poem into seven sections.. g f. and it is not surprising that their beliefs concerning the origin of the universe should have been partially adopted by the That BabyI ~ R ~ races ~ with ~ ~ whom ~ ~ they ~ ~came I . we may ::%orition of conclude with a considerable degree of confidence that the poem Enumadii: the bulk of the poem. inscribed upon separate tablets. man. 2000. the accounts of Eudemus and Machus are described by Damascius.

RelQion und MythoZng<e der alten Aegypfer.' or is to be explained as the result of later Babylonian influence from without.ukas. roo ff. . 4Q :- p.plischen Z<ulfuul. in some of their general features. whatever explanation be adopted. cit. op. acconling t o which the god Shu separated heaven and earth and upheld the one above the other. see Brugsch. Though the Babylonian and Egyptian cosmogonies. Whether this resemblance was due to the proto-Semitic strain which probably existed in the ancient Egyptian race. that the most striking examples of the influence of the Babylonian Creation legends are to be found. History ofEgypt.. however. '39 ff. and for a convenient summary of the principal systems. F . i. which Hommel attempts in his Ba6ylonirche Ursp~ungder 8gj.. Cf.eco the account of the Creation and the narrative in Genesis creation Iegenris and i. a Other Egyptian beliefs. vol. it is clear that the conception of chaos as a watery mass out of which came forth successive generations of primeval gods is common to both races. may be compared t o t h e Babylonian conception of t h e making of heaven and earth by t h e separation of the two halves of Tiamat's body. i. is yet uncertain. LXXXI creation of the world which were current among the Egyptians hear a more striking resemblance to the corresponding legends of Babylonia. the detailed romparisons of the names of deities. resemble one another. Points of T h e close relation existing between the Babylonian r ~ i c m b l l n c c hati%. 4a has been recognized from the time of the GC". I ".I N F L U E N C E O F CREATION LEGENDS. see Lukas. pp. are rather fanciful.ii. But. 39 f f . etc. pp. 47 ff. Die Grundbegrzfe in den i~ososmogoniinder alien ViiNle~.' It is in Hebrew literature. Budge. F o r summaries and comparisons of these cosmogonies. I . 385). pp. see 1. PP. For detailed descriptions o f t h e Egyptian cosmogonies.

= A parallelism may still be found. which was incited by Apsii and not Tiamat. p.' and the old and new points of resemblance between them may here be briefly discussed. in the original form of the Babylonian myth. was sue. translated "the deep" in Gen. xxxix. act of creation is that of light (Gen. the monster of the deep personifying chaos and confusion. xxvi f.5 ) and it has been suggested that a parallel possibly existed in the Babylonian account.LXXXII INTRODUCTION. In the details of the Creation there is also a close resemblance between (1)Thecreation the two accounts. is the equivalent of the Babylonian Tiamat. See above. however. p. I . See above. i. in that the creation of light may have been the cause of the revolt of Tiamat. not to the creation of light. i. according to which the conqueror of the dragon was undoubtedly a solar deity. and below. xxxix. See above. p. 2. descnpt~on of chaos. lo. first discovery of the former.3 Moreover. In the Hebrew narrative the first of light. According to each account the (1) The. xxxix. but to his hatred of the way of the gods which produced order in place of chaos. n. as has been pointed out above. From the new fragments of the poem we now know that the rebellion of the forces of disorder. n. z. existence of a watery chaos preceded the creation of the universe . p. p. 3 .4 day and night are vaguely conceived in the poem as already in existence at the ' See above. and the Hebrew word teham.

as well as the occurrence upon S. i.amat iap-li-h' respectively. 2. however. i. so that the belief in the existence of light before the creation of the heavenly bodies is a common feature of the Hebrew and the Babylonian account. the River of the Underworld which was believed to exist in the depths of the earth (cf. which are the exact equivalents of the waters above and under the firmament. that is.HEBREW PARALLELS. 0 1 3 (cf.' ' Babylonian belief the upper waters of Tiamat formed the heavenly ocean above the covering of heaven. and were believed to mingle with his around and beneath the earth. is that of a firmament which divided the waters that were under the firmament from the waters that were above the firmament (Gen." may be cited in support of this suggestion.013 we find mention of a Ti-amat e-Zi-ti and a Ti-nmat +-&ti. which kept her upper waters in place. an Upper Tiamat (or Ocean) and a Lower Tiamat (or Ocean). p. ' See below. 6-8). p. LXXXIII time of Apsii's revolt. note. 197) of the plirases $amZ(e) ru-ku-u-li and Uu-hur pal-ka-if. on the fragment S. . "the Mother Hubur. p. 2 . ' According to 196 f. Jensen. Moreover. Myihen. corresponding to Ti'amat L-li-fi and Ti. It is possible that they were vaguely identified with those of A p s ~ . 307). and from one-half of her he formed a covering or dome for heaven. T h e second act of creation in the Hebrew narrative (3)Thecreation of a firmament. I n the Babylonian poem the body of Tiamat is divided by Marduli. xlvi. but it is not clear what became of her lower waters. a firmament. see also p.e. The fact that Tiamat bore the title Umrnu-Ejubur. that perhaps all or part of them were identified with Hnbur. I t may be suggested.

p. 109.d of vegetation." That the creation of vegetation by Marduk was also recorded in the poem may be concluded from the opening lines of the Seventh Tablet. " Since he created the heaven and fashioned the firm earth" .13.761 (restored from the co~nmentary K.' Berossus expressly states that Be1 formed the earth out of one half of Omorlta's body. 9 . i. I 2.406). 1 1 . 4. (4)The creation o. .854. K..299) states. definitely ascribes to Marduk the title "Creator of the earth. which are inscribed on the new fragment K. it is probable that these acts of creation were related on the Fifth Tablet of the series. 13. in three passages in the Seventh Tablet the creation of the earth by Marduk is referred to : 1. lor. The third and fourth acts of creation. 1.. Ste below. 8.. 2. 103. Moreover. I I 5 reads. " He named the four quarters (of the world) " .. p. See below. Although no portion of the Babylonian poem has yet been recoveredwhich contains the corresponding account. p. and another new fragment.. and (with restorations from the commentary S. are those of the earth and of vegetation.. as narrated in Gen.830 (restored from the commentary K. and as his summary of the Babylonian Creation story is proved to be correct wherever it can be controlled.) ascribe to him the titles " Bestower of ' See above.. p. the new fragment K. it is legitimate to assume that he is correct in this detail also.LXXXIV INTRODUCTION. See below. etc.

also. 14. 93 See below." " Founder of sowing. LXXXV planting.HEBREW PARALLELS. On the Seventh Tablet. the twelve months were to be regulated by the stars . and to be for signs. so according to the Babylonian poem the night was entrusted to the Moon-god. p. and for days. p. 78 ff. In the Babylonian poem also the stars were created and the year was ordained at the same time ." As according to the Hebrew account two great lights were created in the firmament of heaven. and for seasons. find an exceedingly close bodies. and years. in 1. p. he shepherded all the gods like sheep !" See above. pp. read. lights were created in thefirmament of heaven to divide the day from the night." and 1. See below. 109.= I n the Hebrew account. 1. i. and below. I I I f. See below." and add that he "caused the green herb to spring up. and the Moon-god was appointed " to determine the days. the creation of heaven and the heavenly bodies is referred t o . and the Moon-god's relations to the Sun-god are described in detail.~ g ) we . 16 Marduk is stated "to have established for the gods the bright heavens. 95. the light to rule the day and the lesser to rule the night. " For the stars of heaven he upheld the paths. parallel in the opening lines of the Fifth Tablet of the series." ' T o the fifth act of creation. that of the heavenly (5)Theereation of the heavenly bodies (Gen. p. ' ." "Creator of grain and plants.

(6)Thecreation of animals. See below. p. after that of man.e. But since Berossus states that animals were created at the same time as man. we may compare the which. which records the creation of nu&+. the creation of creatures of the sea and winged fowl. for the creation of the creatures of the sea in Genesis. I zz f." proceeds to classify them as the cattle and beasts of the field. TO the sixth and seventh acts of creation. and the creatures of the city. ~ the creation of "living creatures" by "the gods." And for the creation of beasts of the earth and cattle. for the portion of the text which refers to the creation of animals is still wanting. " dolphins (?). and below.. although this episode is still wanting in the poem. we find references on other Assyrian Creation fragments to the creation of beasts. and animals shared in the blood of Bd. 4 1 . lix. 198. p. the two ' See above.' But. as a subsidiary and less important episode. i. Thus.T. 3445 + R. after referring generally to tablet D. p. the Babylonian poem as yet offers no parallel. i. it is clear that their creation was narrated. 20-zs). p. 396.LXXXVI INTRODUCTION. lix. and of beasts and cattle and creeping things (Gen. I. . it is probable that their creation was recorded in a missing portion either of the Fifth or of the Sixth Tablet. If the account was on the lines suggested by Berossus. n. we may compare the fragmentary text K. See above.

I ) . which were probably again referred to in the following section of the text. No. 26-31). It may be also noted that. according to Babylonian belief. the use of the plural in the phrase " Let us make man" in Gen. which is $ . . and may be compared to the Creation legend of Marduk and Aruru which is employed as an introduction to an incantation to be recited in honour of the temple E-zida (see below. p.629. See also below. LXXXVII classes referring respectively to wild and domesticated animals. 26. T h e account given of the creation of the beasts is merely incidental. k y t l a n recorded as the eighth and last act of creation in the Hebrew account (Gen.%nd it may here be added that the employment by Marduk. pp. the Creator. ' The portion of the text on which this reference to the creation of beasts is inscribed forms an introduction to what is probably an incantation.' I t has already been pointed out that the Babylonian account closely follows the version of the story handed down to us from Berossus. of his own blood in the creation of man may perhaps be compared to the Hebrew account of the creation of man in the image and after the likeness of E l ~ h i m . p. 86 ff. 13of. at length finds its parallel in the Babylonian poem upon the new fragment of the Sixth Tablet. pp.. ~ Moreover. the great gods (cf. f .' T h e account of the creation of man.HEBREW PARALLELS. liv if. See below. See above. may be compared with the Babylonian narrative which relates that Marduk imparted his purpose of forming man to his father Ea. n. 92. one white and one black. xciii. and is introduced to indicate the period of the creation by Nin-igi-azag of two small creatures. i. the plural of Elohim) were always pictured in human form. i.

note 3 . p. 33. after their creation. and below.= This expedient is referred to in the Seventh ' See above.' (8) The A parallel to the charge which.. Elohim gave to man and woman creation. 3.364. birds.. . No. p.851. 88 f. according to the insfr~~tio to "~ m a n a f t e r h i s Hebrew account.LXXXVIII INTRODUCTION. and p. not as an end and aim in itself. but is merely a tablet of moral precepts. liii f. and vegetation is possible. which was supposed to contain a list of the duties of man as delivered to him after his creation by Marduk. It is not improbable. notes I ' See above. whom he probably afterwards instructed to carry out the actual work of man's creation. but it must be pointed out that the Babylonian version of man's creation is related from the point of view of the gods. that a missing portion of the Sixth Tablet did contain a short series of instructions by Marduk to man. 85. however. so that its suggested resemblance to the Hebrew narrative must be given up. T h e new Babylonian duplicate of this text. but merely as an expedient to satisfy the discontented gods.364 is not part of the Creation Series. That to these instructions to worship the gods was added the gift of dominion over beasts. p. Although his creation forms the culmination of Marduk's work. has hitherto been believed to exist on the tablet K. and 3. not from that of man. 3. it was conceived. Iviii. proves that K. since man was created with the special object of supplying the gods with worshippers and building shrines in their honour.

~ 9 9 )we superiority of man over animals. It is possible. ~ have a reference to the commentary K. K. in the phrase " For their forgiveness (i. 15 ff." and other passages in the Seventh Tablet tend to show that Mardulr's mercy and goodness are extolled in his relations. loo f. not to mankind. manover exalted charge of Elohim in which H e placed the rest of creation under man's dominion. i.' The above considerations render it unlikely that the ( ~ I T I ) ~ domitlion of Babylonian poem contained an exact parallel to the creation. LXXXIX Tablet. 7 of the Sixth Tablet be correct. See below. . however. 12. if my suggested restoration of the last word in 1.' In one passage' man's creation is referred to. zg. .. 286. 3 1 f.4" we may ... 7 f. p. 8 . g ff. in the phrase " mankind [he created]. Moreover. hlarduk's) deeds endure. L. the forgiveness of the gods) did he create mankind. p. so that it may read " I will create man who shall inhabit [the earth]. that upon the new fragment of the Seventh Tablet.HEBREW PARALLELS. which read. [and upon] him understanding .I" - See especially..830 (restored from the .. 11. may they never be forgotten in the mouth of mankind whom his hands have made ! " See below. and 27 f. "May his (i. compare it to Gen. we may [he bestowed (?) . but to the gods. the acconnt of Berossus is in favour of this restoration.e. z j . 1. but it is in connection with the charge that he forget not the deeds of his Creator. and if this be so. 8 7 .e.

but Marduk did not employ his word in any of his acts of creation which are at present known to us. compare it to Gen. xciv. given to the word of the Creator in the Hebrew account may have found its parallel in the creation by a word in the Babylonian poem. while in the Babylonian poem the heavenly bodies are created immediately after the formation of the firmament.^ order o f Creation. T h e only occasion on which he did employ his word to destroy and to create is in the Fourth Tablet. . is referred to below. p. he tested his power by making a garment disappear and then appear again at the word of his mouth. It is true that the word of Marduk had magical power and could destroy and create alike. 5 of the Sixth Tablet. and replenish the earth. The order of the separate acts of creation is also not (XI) TI. and then proceeded to carry it out by hand. in the Hebrew account their creation is postponed until after the earth and vegetation have been made. for. 28a. The parallelism between the two accounts under this heading is not very close.XC INTRODUCTION. H e first conceived a cunning device.' ('. It is ~ossible that the creation of the earth and plants has been displaced by the writer to whom the present form of the Hebrew account is due. 11. furnished by 1. at the invitation of the gods. and that the T h e new parallel to Gen. ii. p. a See below. and multiply.2 when. in which man is commanded to be fruitful. 60 f. i. 19-26. quite the same in the two accounts. z j .)Theword A suggestion has been made that the prominence of the Creator.

and in the culminating act of creation being that of man. therefore." Moreover. there are several striking points of resemblance to the Babylonian poem. In the one the writer's intention is to give the original authority for the observance of the Sabbath.HEBREW PARALLELS. XCI order of creation was precisely the same in the original forms of the two narratives. however. upon which the narrative Seven Tablets of Crzatlon. not the same which led to the arrangement of the Babylonian poem upon Seven Tablets. in the other there appears to have been no special reason for this arrangement of the poem beyond the mystical nature of the number "seven. in the dividing of the waters of the primeval flood by means of a firmament also before the creation of the heavenly bodies . The reasons for the employment of the Seven Days in the Hebrew account are. is somewhat superficial. acts of creation are recorded on all of the first six Days in the Hebrew narrative.' The resemblance. These may be seen in the existence of light before the creation of the heavenly bodies . to the influence of the Seven Tablets of Creation. But even according to the present arrangement of the Hebrew account. while in the Babylonian poem the creation only begins at the end of the Fourth Tablet. of which we now know that the great Creation Series was composed. a parallel between the Seventh Day on . however. in Genesis is stretched. but ' There is. It would be tempting to trace the framework of the (Days 12) The Seven and the Seven Days of Creation.

i . . the text of which was at this time absolutely fixed and its arrangement upon Seven Tablets invariable.ii. But this is in perfect accordance with the borrowing of that very story by t h e Hebrews many centuries before. Whether the Sabbath was of Babylonian origin (as seems probable) or not. t o t h e previous existence of ancient Hebrew versions of Babylonian legends may be traced much of the impetus given to the revival of mythology among the exiled Jews. pp. therefore. 138 ff. and the Sevenlh Tablet which records t h e hymns of praise sung by the gods to Mardulr after his work of creation was ended. The supposition. that the writer who was responsible for the final form of Gen. was familiar with the Babylonian legend of Creation in the form in which it has come down to us. That the late revival of mythology among the Jews was partly due to their actual study of the Babylonian legends at this period is sufficiently proved by the minute points of resemblance between the accounts of the Deluge in Genesis and in the poem of Gilgamesh. 4a.XCII INTRODUCTION. it is clear that the writer of the narrative in Genesis was keenly interested in its propagation and its due observance. T h e fact that the Jews of theExile were probably familiar with the later forms of Babylonian legends explains some of the close resemblances in detail between the Babylonian and Hebrew versions of the same story. then. Now in Exilic and post-Exilic times the account of the Creation most prevalent in Babylonia was that in the poem E n u m a edir.' It is probable. The Seven Days and the Seven Tablets of Creation. is perhaps not too which Elohim rested from all H i s work. ' See my Ba6ylonian Religion nndMylhology. indeed. it is possible that the employment of the number "seven" in the two accounts was not fortuitous.

~ 6 9 . n. lvii. Thus. I . the use of the Creator's blood in the one account being paralleled by the employment of His breath in the other for the purpose of giving life to the dust or earth. . lxx. but its use in the creation of men is fully in accordance with Babylonian beliefs. thus it was used in Ea-bani's creation by Arurq2 and it is related to have been mixed with divine blood for a similar purpose in the fragmentary legend Bu. Clay is also related to have been employed in the creation of special men and heroes . according to the second Babylonian account of the Creation. 46-7. n. ~ ToF the account of the creation of woman in Gen. XCIII fanciful. we find a new parallel in 1.lzian account of the Creation which follows the first ink:. ii. pointe of Further resemblances to the Babylonian Creation resemblance legends may be traced in the second Hebrewgb".' Marduk formed man by pouring out dust beside a reed which he had set upon the face of the waters. See above. formed from the dust of the ground. Creation. 5 of the ' See below. Earth is not mentioned in the recovered portion of the Sixth Tablet. p. p.HEBREW PARALLELS. 130ff. 91-5-9. See above. 18 ff.":k of tile According to this version man was account Gen. that the connection of the Sabbath with the story of Creation was suggested by the mystical number of the Tablets upon which the Babylonian poem was inscribed. ii. pp.Fg. which may be compared to the mixing of Bel's blood with earth according to the account of Berossus. I.

XCIV

INTRODUCTION.

Paradiseand the River of creation.

'

Sixth Tablet of the Creation Series, in the use of the word igimtu, bone," corresponding to the Hebrew '@!ern which occurs in the phrase "bone of my bones" in Gen. ii, 23. In addition to the Babylonian colouring of much of the story of Paradise we may now add a new parallel from the Babylonian address to a mythical River of Creation, inscribed on S. 1704 and the NeoBabylonian Tablet 82 - 9 - 18, 5311.l This short composition is addressed to a River to whom the creation of all things is ascribed,%and with this river we may compare the mythical river of Paradise which watered the garden, and on leaving it was divided into four branches. That the Hebrew River of Paradise is Babylonian in character is clear ; and the origin of the Babylonian River of Creation is also to be found in the Euphrates, from whose waters southern Babylonia derived its great f e r t i l i t ~ . ~ The
1 2 8 f. With the Babylonian River of Creation, suggested by the Euphrates, we may compare the Egyptian beliefs concerning H i p or Hipi, the god of the Nile, who became identified with most of the great primeval Creation gods and was declared to he the Creator of all things. Considering the importance of the Nile for Egypt, it is easy to understand how he came to attain this position. Brugsch sums up his account of this deity in the words : " So ist der Nilgott im letzten Grunde der geheimnissvolle Urheher " aller Wohlthaten, welche dievon ihm befruchtete agyptische Erde " den Gottern und Menschen zu hieten vermag, er ist 'der starke " Schopfer von allem ' " ; see Relkion und Myihologie der alien Aegypter, p. 641. It is possihle that this River, though suggested by the

' See below, p.

DATES OF BABYLONIAN INFLUENCE.

XCV

life-giving stream of Paradise is met with elsewhere in the Old Testament, as, for instance, in Ezekiel xlvii, and it is probable that we may trace its influence in the Apocalypse.' I t is unnecessary here to discuss in detail the p r o b a ~ e d a t e s of Rnbylonlrn evidence to prove that the Hebrew narratives of the lnAuence on Hebrew Creation were ultimately derived from Babylonia, and myt~lo~ogy. were not inherited independently by the Babylonians and Hebrews from a common Semitic ancestor.' For the local Babylonian colouring of the stories, and the great age to which their existence can be traced, extending back to the time of the Sumerian inhabitants are conclusive evidence against the of Mes~potamia,~ second alternative. On the other hand, it is equally unnecessary to cite the well-known arguments to prove
Euphrates, is to be identified with Hudur, the River of the Underworld, to whom an incantation in the terms of the one under discussion might well have been addressed. A connection between Tiamat and the river Fubur has been suggested above (cf. p. Ixxxiii, n. z), and, should this prove to be correct, we might see in the phrase banat(at) ha-la-nia, applied to the River, a parallel to pa-ti-ka-a/ ka-la-ma, the description of Ummu-Hubur (Tiamat) in Tablet I, 1. I r 3 aad the parallel passages. ' The connection which Gunkel and Zimmern would trace between the River of Paradise and the River of Water of Life in the Apocalypse on the one side and the " water of life," mentioned in the legend of Adapa, on the other, cannot he regarded as proved. The resemblance in the expressions may well be fortuitous, since there are few other points of resemblance between the narratives in which the expressions occur. On these subjects, see my Bad. Rel. and Myth., pp. 108 ff. See above, pp. lxxv and lxxix.

XCVI

INTRODUCTION.

Probable dates of Babylonian
Influenceon

Hebrew

the existence among the Hebrews of Creation legends similar to those of Babylonia for centuries before the Exile. T h e allusions to variant Hebrew forms of the Babylonian Dragon-Myth in Amos ix, 3, Isaiah li, 9, Psalm Ixxiv, 13 f., and lxxxix, 9 f., and Job xxvi, I 2 f., and ix, 13, may be cited as sufficient proof of the early period at which the borrowing from Babylonian sources must have taken place ; .and the striking differences between the Biblical and the linown Babyloniall versions of the legends prove that the Exilic and post-Exilic Jews must have found ready to their hand ancient Hebrew versions of the stories, and that the changes they introduced must in the main have been confined to details of arrangement and to omissions necessitated by their own more spiritual conceptions and beliefs. T h e discovery of the Tell el-Amarna tablets proved conclusively that Babylonian influence extended throughout Egypt and Western Asia in the fifteenth century B.c., and the existence of legends among the letters demonstrated the fact that Babylonian niythology exerted an influence coextensive with the range of her political ties and interests. W e may therefore conjecture that Babylonian myths had become naturalized in Palestine before the conquest of that country by the Israelites. Many such Palestinian versions of Babylonian myths the Israelites no doubt absorbed; while during the subsequent period of the Hebrew liings Assyria and Babylonia exerted a direct influence upon them. It is clear, therefore, that at the time of their

AUTIIORITLES FOR TEXT.

SCVII

exile the captive Jews did not find in Babylonian mythology an entirely new and unfamiliar subject, but recognized in it a series of kindred beliefs, differing much from their own in spiritual conceptions, hut presenting a startling resemblance oil many material points. Now that the principal problems with regard to thc T I I ~forty-nine tablets rlld contents, date, and influence of the Creation Serics, ~ ; l ~ ~ p ~ lnicrlbcil ,,~\.ith t b c tcsf of Llle Enwma eZiz, have been dealt with, it remains to crevtio,, describe in some detail the forty-nine fragments andseriCs. tablets from which the text, transliterated and translated in the following pages, has been made up. After each registration-number is given a refere~lceto the published copy of the text in Cz~~zeijornc T e x t s from BabyZouian TabZets, etc., itr the B ~ i t i s h Mz~sez~nz, pt. xiii, or in Vol. I I of this work, or in Appendices I and I I of this volume ; a brief description of each tablet is added,, together with references to ally previous publication of the text. After the enumeration of the known copies of each tablet, a list is given of the authorities for the separate lines of thc tablet, in order to enable the reader to verify any passage in the-text with as little delay as possible. The following twelve tablets a11d fragments are c o p i e s o f t i > e Firif 'Tablet of inscribed with portions of the text of the First Tablet of the series :1. K. 5 , 4 1 9 ~ : Cunezform Texts, pt. xiii ( ~ g o ~pl. ) , I. Obverse : 11. I - 16 ; Reverse : catch-line and colophon.
Tr

n ~ s

XCVIII

INTRODUCTION

Copies ol the First the Creation Series.

Upper part of an Assyrian tablet, 3+ in. by 1% in. For earlier publications of the text, see George Smith, T S . B . A . , vol. iv, p . 363 f., pl. i ; Fox Talbot, T.S.B.A., vol. v, pp. 428 ff. ; Rlenant, Manuel de la langue Assyrienne, p. 378 f. ; Delitzscti, Assynjche Lrsestiicke, 1st ed., p. 40, 2nd ed., p. 78, 3rd ed., p. 93 ; Lyoo, Assynhn Manual, p. 62; and my First Sleps in Assyrian, p. I 2 2 f.

2. No. 93,015 (82-7-14, 402) : Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pls. I and 3. Obverse: 11. I - 16 ; Reverse : 11. 124--142 and colophon.
Upper part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet, 26 in. by 2? in. For an earlier publication of the text, see Pinches, Bad. Or. Rec., vol. iv, p. 26f. T h e fragment is probably part of the same tablet as that t o which No. l o belonged.

3. No. 45,528 + 46,614 : Vol. 11, pls. i-vi. Obverse : 11. I -48 ; Reverse : 11. I I I - 142, catch-line, and colophon.
Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet, formed from two rragments, which I have joined; zain. by skin. This text has not been previously published.

4. N o . 3 j , 1 3 4 : V01.11,pl.vii. no reverse.
Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet, has not been previously publislied.

0bverse:ll.
1%

11-21;

in. by z in.

This text

5. No. 36,726: Val. 11, pl. viii. Obverse : 11. 28-33. Neo-Babylonian " praclice.tahletn ; the text, which forms
an extract, measures previously published.
2.g

in. by

I$

in.

This text has not been
2.

6. 81-7-27, 80: Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 11. 31-56 ; Reverse : 11. I 18-142.

Obverse:

Part of a n Assyrian tablet, 2% in. by 3 in. This text, which was referred to by Pinches in the Bab. Or. Rec., vol. iv, p. 33, was used by Zimmern for his translation in Gunkel's SchbpJung

AUTIIORITIES FOR TABLET I.

XCIX

und Chaos, p. 402 f. ; it was given in transliteration by Delitzsch,

copies
Scries.

Weltsch8pfungsepos, p. z g f., and by Jensen, Mythen u~zd@en, pp. z ff.

~~:i~~aP~,"~'Jf

7. K. 3,938 : Czm. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 3. Obverse : 11. 33-42 ; Reverse: 11. 128-142.
Part of an Assyrian tablet, I in. by i t i n . This fragment was used by George Smith, Chnldean Account of Genesis, p. 9 3 f., and by subsequent translators ; the text was given in transliteration by Delitzsch, Weltsch'ipfungsepos,p. 27.

8. K. 7,87 1 : Vol. I, Appendix I I, pp. I 83 ff. Obverse : 11. 33-47 ; no reverse.
Part of an Assyrian tablet, I + in. by may belong to the same tablet as No. been previously published.
I$
11.

in. T h e fragment This text has not

9. No. 36,688 : Vol. 11, pl. vii. Obverse : 11. 38-44.
Part of a Neo-Babylonian " practice-tablet" ; the text, which forms an abstract, measures 13in. by bin. This text has not been previously published.

10. No. 46,803 : Val. 11, pls. ix-xi. Obverse, Reverse : 11. 83-103.

11.

16-57;

Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet, z in. by z in. The fragment is probably part of the same tablet AS :hat to -.vh:cl; NG. z belonged. This text has not been previously published.

11. K. 4,488 : Vol. I, Appendix 11, pp. 185 ff. Obverse : 11. 50-63 ; no reverse.
Part of an Assyrian tablet, I $ in. by I + in. ; see above, No. 8. This text has not been previously published.

12. 82-9-18, 6,879: Vol. 11, pls. xii and xiii. obverse ; Reverse : 11. 93-1 18.
Part o f a Neo-Babylonian tablet, ipin. by zsin. has not been previously published.

No

This text

C

INTRODUCTIOh'.

Authoritiesfor the linen of the First Tablet.

T h e authorities for the lines of the First Tablet are as follows :-

TABLET I. : Nos. I , 2, and 3. 11. 1-10 11. 11-16 : Nos. I , 2 , 3 , a n d 4 . 11. 17-2 I : NOS. 3 and 4. 11. 22-27 : NO. 3. 11. 28-30 : Nos. 3 and 5. 11. 31-32 : Nos. 3, 5 , and 6. : Nos. 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8. 1. 33 11. 34-37 : NOS. 3, 6, 7, and 8. 11. 38-42 : Nos. 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9. : Nos. 3, 6, and 8. 1. 43 : Nos. 3, 6, 8, and 9. 1. 44 : Nos. 3, 6, and 8. 1. 45 11. 46-47 : Nos. 3, 6, 8, and 10. : Nos. 3, 6, and 10. 1. 43 : Nos. 6 and 10. I. A? 11. 59-56 : Nos. 6, 10, and 1 I . :I. 57-63 : Nos. 10 and I 1. 11 64-67 : No. 10. 11. 68-82 : Wanting. 11. 83-92 : N o 10. 11. 93-103 : Nos. 10 and 12. 11. 104-1 10 : No. 12. 11. 111-117 : NOS.3 and 12. : Nos. 3, 6, and 1 2 . 1. 118 11. 119-123 : Nos. 3 and 6. 11. 124-127 : NOS.2, 3, and 6. 11. 128-142 : NOS. 2, 3, 6, and 7.

Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. which was identified by Pinches. text has not been previously published. CI T h e following seven tablets and fragments are Second copies of the Tablet inscribed with portions of the text of the Second Tablet g. K. p. xiv . This text. Texts. Upper part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. No obverse . has not been previously pnblished. (104)-(138). K. Reverse : probably between 11. 8 f. Reverse : 11. and colophon. 14-29 . gin. been previously published. This 14.632 + 93. This tablet was known to GeorgeSmith. by z in. A. Reverse : 11. (69)-(75) . 187 ff. 3. No. I o f.creation of the series :13. ( I I I)-(140) catch-line. pp. its text was published by S. Acc. No. was given in transliteration by Delitzsch. 3Bin. 11.. 10. Part of an Assyrian tablet.048 : Vol. by z i i n . 32-58 .396 : Czm. pt. I + in. formed from two fragments which I have joined . No. by qf in. pl. Myfhen und Epen. 11. 92. 40. 15. Obverse : 11 I . (76)-(85). in. pl. Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. o f Gm. p. ( I 0 ~ ) . Texts. 11.AUTIIORITIES FOR TABLET 1 1 . by 3) in. 178 : Cun. xxii -xxiv. pl. by in. pt.( 1 ~ 2 ) . 17. Reverse : 11. 5. pls. pl. Obverse : 11. see Chald.832 : Cun. 30.xxi.iin. Miscellaneous Texts. by r# in.g. xiii. Weltsch6pfungsepos. Obverse : 11.008 : Vol. 18. 6.559 : Vol. This text 16. 38. xiii. I 1-29 . I. ( I 14)-(I3 I). and by Jensen. 9 2 . pt.. xiii. App. Texts. 79-7-8. This text has not been previously published. 4. Smith. Reverse : 11. pls. p. 4.85 and 104. Obverse : Part of an Assyrian tablet. Obverse : 11. Part of an Assyrian tablet.. Reverse : 11. This text has not . 11. z9in.

and 19. 13 and 19. 11. N o obverse . Authorities for thrlinesofthe Second Tablet. ( I 3 I)-(140). *in. 292 : Cun.( I ) : Nos. between 11. 32-40 : Nos. and 16. 6. 11. I 5. 1. 14. (69)-(85) : No. and 15. was given in transliteration by Delitzsch. 14. 1 ( I . Lower part of an Assyrian tablet. 13. and 16. Texts.( I ) : NOS. 13. 18. and 16. 1. 14. 1 . (131) : Nos. (132) : NOS. K. 13. ( I ) : Nos. 13. 13. 16. 1 . I . 11. 1 0 . and 16. ( I 1 I ) I ) : Nos. xiii. 14 and 16. Wcltschb~fungsepos. ( 1 1 ) . I j. 17. 11. 16. 16. 3 1 . 14. p. 1-10 : NO. pl. . which was known to George Smith. 16. 19. 41-58 : No. Mythen und Epen. 13. ( 1 8 ) . (86) and (103) : No. 11. 1. (130) : Nos. I j. 1. and 19. 13. 13 and 14. 14-29 : Nos.( 1 6 ) : NOS. 30-3 1 : NO. T h e authorities for the lines of the Second Tablet are as follows :- 11. Reverse : 11. and 16. 59-(68) : Wanting. 13. 15. and 19. and by Jensen. 16. 11. 1. p. 13.CII INTRODUCTION. 13. 1j. The text of this tablet. 11-13 : Nos. (139)-(140) : NOS. 11. pt. 13. ( 1 2 7 ) : NOS. 1. (104) : No. 14. 13 and 16. by z)in. 11.

by 8$. bin. but. 52-61 . 7-9.316 [NO. 2+ in. 6. Fragment from the end of Obv." inscribed with 2 in. by 3 in. 124ff. pls.403. 62-76. 1 2 . they have not been stuck together. Texts. r o and I 1. xiii. Smith. P!feZtschbp/un. pt. A copy of the text of 81-9-18. by 3gin. Tablet :20. . pls. 3b f. is given in Gun. Reverse : 11. or beginning of Rev. and my First Steps z'n Asyyian. T h e three fragments of this tablet.arepos. 131 : Can. pp. 11. since then I have joined to it the fragment 82-9-18. 93. by 18in. text . 21. T h e text was .316. 1. see Chald. Part of a Neo-Babylonian " practice-tablet. 3. z+in. Reverse: 11. pls. which have been recovered. Reverse : 11.7 4 296 + R. Texts. a series of five-line extracts from the. 1-5. and by Jensen. 82-9-18. see S. Obverse: 11. 75-86. : 11. 1. M~srellaneous Texts. 9 2 f. and the text is therefore repeated in Vol. I + & 22. The text of K.. which was identified by Pinches. This text has not been previously published. CIII T h e following nine tablets and fragments arecopi~softhe 'Third Tvblct inscribed with portions of the text of the Third of t h e creation Senrr.473 + 7 9 . For earlier publications of the text. K. pt. xiii. pl. 615 : Can. pls.524 : Can. 11.4291 : Vo1. 3. 23. 61. Gen. 1-85 . This text.403+ 6. K. 78-105. 13 . 124-128. Parts of an Assyrian tablet. 86-138.AUTHORITIES FOR TABLET 111. pt. pt.473 had been already recognized by George Smith. join. pl. as they are much warped by fire. 8. 47-77 . Obverse : 11. A. No.017 [88-4-19. Part of an Assyrian tablet. Texts.i11. 5-15. mas given in transliteration by Delitzsch. xiii. Texts. Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. Arc. xiii. pp.p. p . Obverse : 11. Myihen und Epen. xxv-xxviii..

Part of an Assyrian tablet. pl. was given in transliteration by Delitzsch.285 : Vo1. . by 3$in. 25. 69-87.950. Reverse : 11. 2 %in. 24. p.868 : Vol. xiii. xiii. Weltschiipfti~r. Duplicate of 11. by I + in. xiii. and the text is therefore repeated in Vol. Obverse 11. pt. Or. pl. Copies of the Third of the Creation Series. 11. 38-55. I Z . 11. 38-55 and 96-1 1 3 . XXX-xxxiii. by ]+in. by z+in. and was given in transliteralion by Delitzsch. REC.950+ 83-1-18. pt. 82-9-18.CIV INTRODUCTION. No. since then I have joined to it the fragment 82-9-18. Obverse : 11. 69-76 . 82-9-18. referred to by Pinches in the Bab. Part of an Assyrian tablet. 8. This text has not 26. variants are noted in the text under 11. Duplicate of 11. 111. 3 in.iejos. z . 11. Reverse : 11. by 29in. 11. variants are noted in the text under 11. p. 77-85. iv. 38. pt. Texts.448 +83-1-18. 42. measures zsin. is given in Cun. xiii. 6. A copy of the text of 83-1-18. Weltsciidpfc~~i~sc$os. Texts. 5. 11. This text has not been previously published. is given in Cun. which was identified by Llezold. pls.650: Cun.868. 27. 64-72. pl. pt. Texts. 11. 46-68 . A copy of the text of 83-1-18. 941. This text bas not becn previously published. been previously published. This text has not been previously published. I 2.. since then I have joinccl to it the fragment 82-9-18. and the text is therefore repeated in Vol. the text forms an extract measuring z9in. K. pl. Part of a Neo-Babylonian "practice-tablet". z i i n . the text.o. K. Obverse : 28. 1. 2. 3'. P. 6. Texts. 1. Cniaiogue. r 16. vol. Neo-Babylonian 'Lpractice-tablet". xxxiv. 6. 5. 11. 30. 19-26 and 77-84 . 19-26.575 : Cun. which forms an extract.116: Vol. xxix.448. : Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. This text. 9. 1 2 . pl.

20. 11. 21. 2 0 and 24. and 28. and 28. 22. 1. 6 9 . 26. are as follows :- NO. and 26. 96-105 : Nos. 20. 5 2 . 1. 21. 20. 56-63 : Nos. 20.1 2 8 : NOS. 2 I . 85 : Nos. 73-74 : NOS. 21. 2 0 . 23. 1. 2 5 . 75-76 : Nos. 23. and 26. 11. 2 0 and 22. 1 1 4 . 21.AUTHORITIES FOR TABLET 111. 21. 22. and 28. 1 2 9 . 22. : NOS. 20. 20. 46 : Nos. 20. 20.1 2 3 : NO. 25. 21. 27. 1 2 4 .2 6 . 11. 4 7 . 26. 1'4 11. : NOS. 2 0 and 22.5 5 : NOS. 64-68 : Nos. 20. 11. 2 0 and 21. and 26. 20.1 3 8 : NO. 2 0 and 25. 22. and 26. and 2 6 . and 28. 21. 26. 20. 2 7 . 16-18 11. CV for The authorities for the lines of the Third Tablet Authorities tlie lilies orthe Third Tablet. 11. 11. 25. 11. 1. 2 6 . 22. 11.5 1 : NOS. 86 : Nos. 11. 5-1 j 11. 23. 2 1 . 2 0 and 25. 21. 21. 20. 88-95 : Nos. : 11.7 2 : Nos. 11. 11. 20. 11. 20. 2 9 . 11. 26. 26. 11. 21. 87 : Nos. and 26.-77-84 : Nos. : No. 22. 20. 20. and 25. 11. 24. 20.3 7 : NO. 38-45 : Nos. 23. 11. and 27. 106-1 13 : Nos. and 28.

x. xiii. This text has not been previously published. xiii. 11.. by z+in. . No. Assyrische Lesestiiche. I in.A. iv. 83 : Cun. No. by . xiii.Bin. 84-1 19. xiii. pt. 33. 3. see Budge. 1-44. 137 ff. by 38in. 19. Reverse : 11.A. R. pp. 3. 86.7371 : Can. Upper part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. 103-107. pls. K. and of IC. 36-83 . Reverse : 11.S. . which was identified by Pinches. "01." inscribed with the text divided into sections of five lines . Copies of the Yourth Tablet of the Creation Series. 35-49 . pl. Mythen und Epen. by 5:in. Texts. 3+in. xiii. 3:2in. 34. 3. 41 Pi. No.. publication of the text of K. Reverse : 11. 30. For an earlier publication of the text. Obverse : 11. T h e following six tablets and fragments are inscribed with portions of the text of the Fourth Tablet :29. Texts. pl. Texts. Texts. Obverse: Part of an Assyrian tablet. pp. T. WeZls~hb$~ungsepos.437 + R. 79-74>25" Cnn. pt. T h e text.. 3.B. pls. I 16-146. K. I 17-129. 20. 11. pl. Obverse: Part of a Neo-Babylonian " practice-tablet. Reverse: 11. 32. Obverse : Part of an Assyrian tablet.016 [82-9-18.051 : Cun. pp. 93. 3 in. pp. 11. zz ff. 2 % in. vol. see above. see George Smith. 2.B.CVI INTRODUCTION. For an earlier Part of an Assyrian tablet. Reverse : 11. pls. p. 97 ff. 5 . 85-94. 5 and 6 . 14-15. 20. Restorations and variants were taken from this tablet by George Smith for his edition of K. 641. 3. 93-1 19. 1-6. Texts. xiii. pt.437+ R. pl. pt.437. 363f. 21. 42-54 . pls. by 4k in. No obverse .. pt. 641 : C U ~Texts. P. p. Reverse : 11. see Delitzsch.S.437 . 30. was used in transliteration by Delitzsch. This fragment probably belongs to the same tablet as No. 31. 16-19. pt. and by Jensen. 34. Obverse: 11. 74-92 .. 93. and my First Sfeps in Assyrian. 4 2 0 ~ : Czn.

This fragment probably belongs to the same tablet as No. Delitzsch. p. 95-102 : NOS. and 33. 2 2 . 45. 11. 50-54 : NOS. T h e text. K. and 32. 1 1 1 . The following five tablets and fragments are inscribed ~ c .B. 1. 1-26 . 11.i~ ‘iith Tablet the of the Creatioo with portions of the text of the Fifth Tablet : Series. 30. 30. T. 11. 11. 3rd ed. 30. 29 and 31. and my F i r s t Stc$s in Assyrian. pt. 103-107 : Nos. iv. 29 and 34. 30. 11. 9+. and 31. 30 and 33. 36-41 : Nos. 42-44 : NOS. Upper part of an Assyrian tablet. and 32. pl. 29. Reverse : catch-line. by rg. which was identified by Pinches.A.S. . 33. and 34. 29.1 1 : NOS.. and 33. 11. p.588 : Cun. 1 5 8 ff. Weltsch'b$fungs@os. 74-84 : Nos.in. 85-94 : NOS. 120-129 : NOS. 30 and 33. The authorities for the lines of the Fourth Tablet ~"thoriti~~ the lines of the for Fourth Tablet. 29. 1. 3. 30 and 33. Texts. 3+ in. vol. 11. 31. 55-73 : NO. 30. CVII Part of an Assyrian tablet. 116 : Nos. 363 f. For earlier publications of the text. z . see George Smith. 45-49 : NOS. pp. 11. 1-34 : NO. and 33. 31. : Nos. 11. 30. was given in transliteration by Delitzsch. 29. 31. p. 11. 11. 2 : in. 29. 30. Assynjche Lesesiiickc. 35.. 31. 35 11. by zk in. are as follows :TABLET IV. Obverse : 11.AUTHORITIES FOR TABLET IV. 29.. xiii. 32. 30 and 32.567 + 8. pl. 1 1 . 130-146 : NO. 30. 108-1 15 : Nos.

Appendix 11. 23. 1-5 11. pp. Fifth Tublet of the Creation 11. p. and 38. : Nos. copies the 36. by gin. I. and in the other copies of that tablet mentioned above . 35.641 : Vol.449~2 : Cun. 23-26 : Nos. 36. Weitsch~~fungsepos. z?in. and colophon. - Part of an Assyrian tablet. 35 and 38. Appendix 11. 35.526 : Cz~n. : No. ]kin. K. Reverse : 11. T h e authorities for the lines of the Fifth Tablet are as follows :- TABLET V.774 : Vol. and '38. 37. .Tezis. o f Gen. was given in transliteration by Delitzsch. ~ 123. T h e text was used by George Smith for his edition of No. 35. Autharitiesfor the lines of the Fi"h Tablet. 13. 20-22 11. catch-line. 3. Obverse : Part of an Assyrian tablet. I k in. 35. Acc. Part of an Assyrian tablet. no reverse. 14 2 2 . 8. p. Reverse : 11. . % t i n . 14-18 1. Obverse : 11. Chald. pa 50. 11. K. 35 and 36. 32. 38. xiii. by ?Bin. Series. (66)-(74) .. 6-13 11. xiii. Texts. 19 1 1 . This text has 39. (75)-(87). 37.by j#in.pt. 48 f. (138)-(140). PI.CVIII INTRODUCTION. (128) -(140). it was given in transliteration by Delitzsch. 3 5 . : Nos. gqf. : Nos. I. and 37.. by z i in. which was first identified and translated by George Smith. 192 ff. p. 1-18 . WeZischb~fungsepos. I 1. This text bas not been previously published. K. 190 ff. 11. 36. pp. K. 6-19 . Reverse : 11. : Nos. and the reverse by Jensen. Obverse : 11. Obverse : Upper part of an Assyrian tablet. not been previously published. pt. 37. This text. Myihen und Zpen.

A. xxxv and xxxvi.S. T h e following fragment is inscribed with a portion Slxth copy of the Tablet of t h e Creailon of the text of the Sixth Tablet :Seller. 40. 2. Reverse uninscribed. 43.2 I . 95 f.. z+in. . pls.073 : Vol. ~ ~ . No. and Delitzsch. j and 4..854: Vol. if in. I. xiii. it has not previously been published. This text has not been previously published. 15-45 . pt. 105-137 2 j. 38.( I ) : Nos. 39.et inscribed with portions of the text of the Seventh g : . 1-18 . 91.522 : Cun. ~ r ~ ~ t i o n Tablet :41. 8. Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. 3rd ed. This text is made up of two fragments which I have joined . Obverse : 11. p. Tezts. Part of an Assyrian tablet. z+ in. 363 f.p. Reverse : 11. 11. T. Part of a Neo-Babylonian tablet. K . Obverse : 11. by zt in. The following nine tablets and fragments are g. 159. This text 42. z+in. 36 and 38. vol. 3-40 . iv. by has not been previously published.629: Vol. 106-141. p. 11.. Upper part of an Assyrian tablet. catchline. xxxviii -xlv. see George Smith. 11 ( I . (66)-(87) : No. 138-146. 1 ( 1 8 ) . No. 1 . p. 27-(65) : Wanting. Reverse : 11.B. 11. K. (88)-(I 27) : Wanting. Assyn'rche Lesestiicke.( I ) : NO.AUTHORITIES FOR TABLETS V AND V1. PIS. 92. by 3 t i n For earlier publications of the text. CIX 11. Reverse : 11. pls. and colophon. 26 and Obverse : 11. 11.135 + 93.. p. Appendix I. Obverse : 11. pls. by +%in. zQin.

ithe Seventh Tablet orthecreation Series. between 11. Obverse : Part of an Assyrian tablet. p1. +in.' I $ in. Part of an Assyrian tablet. jr7 and 105. p.506 : Vol. xlvi-xlviii. Reverse : 11. I. 4. pt. has not been previously published. This text. published in I1 R. I 3. 47 and 105. by %in. This text has 48.406. 11. p. copies .. Appendix I. which is a duplicate of I<. I. pls. Appendix I. r + in. 12. 11.267 : Cun. Obverse or Reverse : between 11. 46. Part of an Assyrian tablet. 8.522 . K. Reverse : 11. 47 and 105.337 : Vol. z t i n . 45. Duplicate of No. End of Obverse and beginning of Reverse : between 11. 18in. 44. in. which probably dates from the period of the Arsacidae. Part of an Assyrian tablet. 48 . 9. 1 6 4 End of Obverse and beginning of Reverse: between 11. Part of an Assyrian tablet. 165. K. I. 13. ~ o j . 28.761 : Vol. 40-47 . 163. 109-138. 3 1 (see below. by 4+in. I. 8. by not been previously published. + I learn from Professor Zimmern that he also has identified this fragment as part of the Seventh Tablet by its correspondence with the commentary K. 43. by not been previously published. This text has 49. Restorations and variants were taken from this tablet by George Smith for his edition of I<.1 4 2 .830 : Vo1. j f in.in. see above.8. 166. xiii. I . This text. by I in. cxviii). ' . 47. K. No. No. 47 and 105. K. p. Appendix I. 35. Appendix I. 14-36. p.CX INTRODUCTION.519 : Vol. p.519. Texts. has not been previously published. by 2 in. pl. This text has not been previously published. 11. Obverse : Part of aNeo-Babylonian tablet. K.

11. 41. and 49. 11. 11. Tenis. 1.AUTHORITIES FOR TABLET VII. 46-47 : N o 45. 14 : Nos. 44. 43. 42. 1. 41-45 : Nos. 106-108 : Nos. CXI The authorities for the lines of the Seventh Tablet Authoritierfor tile lillei of the are as follows :Seventh Tablet. 11. and 45. 1 . 42. pl. and 44. 11. which states that this copy of the Second Tablet was made from of ~ ~ ~ ~ ' . and 44. 42. 43. and they are beautifully written in the Assyrian character upon tablets of fine clay. 6).42 and 43. T h e older class of tablets were made for the library of Ashur . belong tlie tablets. 42. 44. between 11. and 45. 11. 47 and 105 : Nos. 109-137 : Nos. 48. 43. 19-36 : Nos. I42 : NO. TABLET VII.1 1 : NOS. 138 : Nos. 1 . Cun. 1. 43 and 44. 1. 47.42 alld 44. and 44. 42. 41 and 42. 42. 43 and 45. 1-2 : NO. The above forty-nine tablets and fragments. 41. 43. 11. 11. 3-13 : NOS.' T h e That the copies were not always made from Babylonian tablcts is proved by the colophon of K. 11. 41. inscribed ~ with portions of the text of the Creation Series. xiii. 15-18 : Nos. 37-39 : NOS. 40 : Nos. and 44. 46. to two distinct periods. pt. 42. 105 : Nos. 43. 1. 292 (cf. and 45.bani -pal at Nineveh. 44.

K. a copy of the Second Tablet which was niade for a certain Nahi-abti-iddina. ii. "for the preservation of his life. 23) .854 (see below. and were made at different periods for private individuals. Upon some tablets Ashur-bani-pal's label was scratched after the tablet had been baked. are without colophons. rgq).526 (cf. 2.ors. xxxvii). xiii. appears to have owned a complete set of the Seven Creation Tablets. Other Assyrian copies. I n his transliteration of this colophon Delitzsch has made an odd blunder.CXII INTRODUCTION. mhich is described as the property of Nahi-mcshetik-urri. xiii. pl. tablets. 40. and I<. vol. is clearly 6z~.016. pl. and No.629. though giving the catch-line to the next tablet. No. in the twenty-seventh year of Darius. either for their own use. pt.' or that they might be deposited in the te~nples as votive offerings2 Some of these Babylonian copies an Assyrian archetype (gab-n' '"""'AA. 46. nescriptionor Neo-Babylonian the tablets. where the first word of the second line of the colophon.614 (vol. he has not recognized the common phrase ana d n i a nnp&itL'*-s'u. the copy of the last tablet. vol. I<. Texfs. ii." which occurs at the end of line 3 of the colophon. 1 5 ) . 92. pl. which puzzled Delitzsch. Texts. pl. Cun. pl. (cf. e. pl.567 I<. g ) . the son of Na'id-Marduk. .g. 3.528+ 46. pt. 45. for we possess fragments of the First and of the Sixth Tablet in the series which belonged to him (cf. xiii. xiii. K. Texfs. deposited by the smith Na'id-Marduk as a votive offering in the temple E-zida. and is said to have been copied from an original at Babylon on the ninth day of Ipyar.iurX'). 8. which was written by the scribe Nabu-btilishu. pl. A certain Nabu-balitsn-ikbi. according to its colophon (cf. 93. pt. are. 8. on the other hand. vi). pls. p. No. Texts. was. pl. the reverse of which is blank. they vary considerably in size and shape. was probably also without a colophon.588 (Czin. pt.803. 22). and No. xxi). etc. Texts.g. ' Thus the fine copy of the Fourth Tablet. ii. e. ii.473. No. a worshipper of Marduli and Sarpanitu... 93. a copy of the First Tablet. and has taken it as a proper name + . less carefully written . Czin. No. j . ixff. ' Cf. Cun.zi. Cun. as a rule.3.559 (vol.

pls. 2 I . carelessly made tablets. 3. +I). xiii. pt. ("01. 45. 3. and the frontispiece to Vol.g. and 92..~ One characteristic which applies to all the tablets. ii. xiii. others. pt. are naturally rather rough productioi~s.803 (No. pl. T h e " practice-tablets" fall into two classes.015 (No. C t e. ri-e. pt. iv.567 (Cun. cf. however.92 (Cun. Texts. vi and vii. ~ ~ ~of the tublecs. and 42. 7. I 3. 22). consist of small. [dupjlu ZIX.015 (Cun. l o ) . ~ Assyrian or Babylonian. ~ ~ p ~ ~ i ~ t i ~ Weltschbp?fi~ngsepos. duppu IVKAm'w"E-nu-nzn e-li. on No. pt. Trxts. 46. duppu E-nu-ma e-Zi. and vi. which were written out by students upon "practice-tablets. p. U(see H . xiii. iii.. vi). pl. 93. ii.18. Photographic reproductions of the reverse of No. 29 are given in the Guide to the Bnblojzian and As~yrian Antryuz'iies in the Rritish Museum. Cf. Nos. a transliteration which turns the sentence into nonsense. 93.g.Z I ~ ~ . I n one class the tablets are wholly taken up with portions of tile text of the Creation Series. Nos. 29. 3 ) . ' See pls.MEE-nu-ma e-li: on K. the nates dupju ZxANE-nu-ma e.3 T h e extracts from the text.DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLETS. pl.lZ on No. 2 1 and the obverse of No. Ttxts. e. Texts. Nos. etc.016 (Cun. all of which were probably written by the same scribe.' and the characters and words upon them are carefully written and spaced . which possess colophons. 11. " T I N . and dnj-pi VKA*f. xiii.528. z ) . 82-9. 6 ) . whether the poem is c r o ~ d e d . the number of the Tablet in the Series is carefully given. which follows a note as to the number of lines in the text upon No. 93. 15) . pl." no doubt in order to give them practice in writing and at the same time to enable them to learn the text by heart.629 (No. pl. 40).'" E-nu-ma e-Zi: on I<. which is written out upon them in sec~ionsof five verses separated by horizontal lines .. CXIII are fine specimens of their class. on to which On all the tablets.

448 83-1-18. the metre is indicated by the division of thc 1.868 (No. the tablets are long and narrow in shape. which were in use in the Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods.688 (No.361 (No. 36.and82-9-18. The forms of the text of the poem.' As a result.5. 6.inwhich two lines of the text areoccasionally written on one line of the tablet when they are separated from each other by a division-mark. zz) and 93. with the exception of one or two phrases. Nos.051 (No. It is true that on the Babylonian tablets the words are. as a rule.gjo + 83-1-18. all of which the pupil has written out for practice. 1. whether Assyrian or h'eo-Babylonian. 8z-9-18.403 6. 27)." At the time of Ashur-bani-pal the text had already been definitely fixed. . are identical. but this is a general characteristic of Babylonian copies of historical and literary texts.CXIV INTRODUCTION. upon several of the more carefully written tablets. cf. and. 32). T h e second class are the more carelessly written of the two. and are handled far more conveniently than broader tablets inscribed with two or more columns of writing on each side. This is simply due to want of space. Moreover. but each line of the poem is written across the tablet from edg-e to edge. which necessitated the crowding of the text. + + ' T h e only apparent exceptions to this rule occur on some of the Neo-Babylonian tablets. 36. q ) . 2.116 (No. 5). and it is incorrect to spealc of an Assyrian and a Babylonian "recension. z4). is that the text is never written in columns. TheAssyrian and NeoBabylonian forms of the tent. I n the other class short extracts from the text are inscribed upon tablets containing other matter. written more syllabically.726 (No. the words of each line remained unchanged from that time forward.

Three copies 16. But both the Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian copies represent the same " recension" of the text. (Nos. 28).ts text ea. 15).= are probably the descendants of a common Babylonian original. 3. 14. 8. as has already been indicated. 21. (Nos. (Nos. however. 17. z and 10 are probably parts of the same tablet. Nor. I I Four copies (Nos. lxxii ff. onian copies of the Seven Nos. The following table will serve to show the number of Assyrian and NeoBabylonian copies of each of the Seven Tablets under which the forty-nine separate fragments of the text may be arranged :- I Four copies (Nos. tablets " $. . 19). 26).&sponding to 11. pp. that No. Two copies 2 0 . 18. 12). I I ) . I11 Four copies (Nos. 23 is Dart of a CODY of Tahl. 11. Three " prac(NOS. 9).FORMS OF TEXT.?Eby4lld 1 0 . 18 and 19 are probably not parts of the same tablet. p. 13-24. Four copies Two "practice. and. CXV halves of each verse.the ~ ~number b showing l e of I . 8 and 11 are ~robably parts of the. . 13. cxxii. 5 .-it is possible. Nos.' an arrangement which is not met with on any of the Assyrian tablets. tice-tablets " ' S e e below. 7. 23 and 25 are probablv not Darts of the same tablet . 23. 25. 2. S e e above. Nos. ~'~hlets.".same tablet. 6. 4. .

Two copies copies (Nos. 473 48. 43. or five. 38. 41 and 46. 45 is a oart of the same tablet *. 45. These were compiled by the Assyrian scribes in order to explain that composition. 41. Nos. it is possible that No. 35. 41 and 46 are grobably parts of the'same tablet. (NO. 37. 35 and 39 are possibly parts of the same tablet. 32). Nos. 30. (Nos. NEO-BAH. (NO. IV V Four. copies (Nos. Nos.44). 29). 49). bly parts of the same tablet. Table TADLET. 34). and Nos.NOS. 42. 36.CXVI INTRODUCTION. NEO-BAB. VII Four. Assyrian Commentaries to the Seventh Tablet. In the arrangement and interpretation of the text of the Seventh Tablet we receive considerable assistance from some fragments of Assyrian commentaries which have come down to us. T h e contents of these docaments. A and ~ ~ Three ~ copies ~ ~ ~One~copy One "practiceNeo-Babylonian copier (Nos. the number of . tablet " of theseven Tablets. 31. 33. 39). EXTRACTS. or five. and their relation to the text of the Seventh . TBXT. and they are of the greatest value for the study of the text. ASSYRIAN TEXT. 46. 31 and 34 are proba. 47 and 49 s e probably parts of another tablet . VI One copy (Nor 40).

are described in detail in Appendix I. See above. It is noteworthy that the list is generally arranged in the order in which the words occur in the Assyrian text of the Seventh Tablet. or to separate lines. n.ASSYRIAN COMMENTARIES. and the words within each compartment refer either to separate couplets. 1 5 8 . of the Seventh Tablet. and below. T h e text of the commentary is inscribed in a series of double columns . or ideograms.facts with regard to the size of the tablets inscribed with the commentaries.. p. and.the t. the two tablets are duplicates of one another.. Ixxix. and.. or sections. by horizontal lines impressed upon the clay. CXVII Tablet. . as has been pointed out CI-S. in the right half. opposite each word is added its Assyrian equivalent. p. 157 A: I.. T h e most important class of commentary takes .. may here be conveniently given. and to previous publications of portions of them. c of the first form of a bilingual list. elsewhere.' but the following . The colun~nsof the cammentarv are divided into a number of compartments. pp. Of this class of commentary we possess six fragments of two large tablets which were inscribed with five or six double columns of writing on each side. in the left half of each column it gives a list of the Sumerian words.= presupposes the existence of a Sumerian version of part of the text of the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series. having been inscribed with the same ' See below.

the two large tablets. For the text. 288. sec Vol. 1. 163 ff. r r + S. . cf. 3 1 . the top right hand portion of the tablet.416. liv-lv . I 60. it measures +in. 293. The fragment S. T h e following is a description of the six separate fragments. 366+ 80-7-19. 80-7-19. (2) K. p. by 7 in. I 68 f. see Vol.. by z: in. being headed respectively A and I3 :Fragments of ti. T h e fragment is from the left side of the tablet . Vol.CXVIII INTRODUCTION. 11. 21. also App. I. also App. Catalogue. has not been previously published. I. 980 was published in V R. 167 f. 80-7-19. I. 3 . which I have joined to the other two. z. li-liii and lv . The text of S. No. 4. For the text. pls.. 11.efirstc~arrofA. p. (3) 82-3-23. T h e fragment R. fir Assyr. The text has been previously published in I1 R. by +Bin. 162. 1. 11. (I) R. was joined to it by Bezold. 4. pls.406. cf. . cf. 980+ S. 158 ff. qor f. 11. p. pl. I. For the text. T h e fragment is the top left hand portion of the tablet. pls. also App. cf. 2 1 . pl. The third fragment.416. it measures z~ In. see Vol. pp. in. pp. Ivi-lviii . No.. pp. 1. 151. also App. it has not been B. 11 + S. T h e fragment measures previously published. see Commentary. was identified by Zimmern and published in the Zeih. pl.- - - version of the commentary.. ' by bin. 288 + 293. No. I. pl.. For the text. it measures 4:in. to which they belong. liv .608... 366 was published in V R. The fragment is. xii. -. ( I ) S.

r j o f. p. known to be aduplicateof S. . plate lxif. 161. I I. it has not been ~ ~ In addition to the above commentary in the form ~ h and third of a bilingual list. pt. Col. WelfschV$fungsegos. cf. For the text. This fragment measures 3 in.' The third class. 'p. p. we possess single specimens of C I S S S ~ ~ ~ Commentary. by 36in. lix-lx . by previously published. pl. is published in Cun. 11. This fragment measures 1-8in. but its text has not been previously published. pls. 2. see Vol. 396). 2 . xiii. 167 f. and a transliteration and a translation of the text are given in Appendix I. ii of the single fragment K . + ( 3 ) K . For the text. Ix .. CXIX (2) K . 747. by 5+in. 1 5 5 . represented by the obverse of the tablet I<.. T h e text was given in transliteration by Delitzsch.' gives explanations of a number of titles of Marduk. and is represented by the tablet S. which measures ++in. 747. 6. z . Each of these two commentaries furnishes information on various points with regard to ~ ~ ~ ' T h e tablet S.1o7+K. which measures q i n .ASSYRIAN COMMENTARIES. 32.299.. is published in Vol. also A ~ ~ . 11. 980 (see Bezold. 1 0 7 was given in transliteration by Delitzsch. a second and a third class of explanatory text.086. in. The second class contains a running commentary to passages selected from other Tablets of the Creation Series in addition to the Seventh. T h e ' t a h l e t I<. pp. p. several of which occur in the recovered portions of the text of the Seventh Tablet. Texis. by zBin.086. cf. also App. and its connection with the text of the Creation Series is described in Appendix I. 0 5 3 ..z. 6.162 f. I. Catalogue.. U'ei!schii$fungsepos. 8. see Vol. 58f. pl. pp. it has long been S. I I p.107 + K. I . 171 ff.

been made up from the tablets. and. are given in the notes at the foot of the page. in view of the fact that the scribe of No. they do not approach in interest the six fragments of the conunentary of the first class. which is given in the following pages. where the numbering of a line is conjectural.629 has continued the text to the bottom of the lmes. while several passages in the Seventh Tablet have been conjecturally restored from the Assyrian Co~ninentaries just described. 92.CXX INTRODUCTION. In the reconstruction of the text preference has usually been given to the readings found upon the Assyrian tablets. xcvii ff. Great assistatice in the numbering of the lines of detached fragments of the text has been afforded by the fact that upon many of t h e Neo-Babylonian copies every tenth line is marked with a figure " 1 0 " in the lefthand margin . and extracts enumerated on pp. has the Creation Series. T h e lines upon the Second and Fifth Tablets have been conjecturally numbered up to one hundred and forty. NumbeWof . as may be supposed. the interpretation of the Seventh Tablet. both Assyrian and NeoBabylonian. Upon the Sixth Tablet the total number of lines was one hundred and thirty-six or one hundred and forty-six . . in but few instances can the position of a detached fragment be accurately ascerrained by its shape. The T h e transliteration of the text of the Creation recon~truction o f t h e t e x t o f Series. and the variant readings of all duplicates. fragments. but. and. it is placed within parentheses. T h e lines upon each tablet of the Series have been numbered.

CXXI the reverse of the tablet. v. 26 and (66) and between 11. 3. occur in Tablet I. 11.ablcts. . 111. we obtain two gaps. where the text is completely wanting... 142 . VI. Finally. (87) and (128). (140) . 68-82.. being wanting. 86-103.. .. 142 lines. 2 2 to 1.449a. . VII. the g-ap in the text of 9 . 137. 59-(68)' T h e greater part of the text of Tablet V is wanting. between 11. 10.... hut by roughly estimating the position of the fragment K. '""' there are still considerable gaps in the text of several of the Tablets. 187 A: . the total number of lines inscribed upon each of the Seven Tablets of the Series :Tablet I. from 1. T h e only Tablets in which the whole or portions of every line are preserved are the Third and Fourth of the Series. Gaps. 11.. which occurs about in the centre of the text. the rest of the text. the larger number is the lilies ~hcnumberof ulmn the more probable of the two.. Although it is now possible to accurately estimate G.. 146 . ' I n the gap in Tablet 11... see Appendix 11.. 138 . 146 . and in Tablet 11. T h e following is a list of ?. .. IV. pp.RECONSTRUCTION OF TEXT. 11.. Of Tablet VI we possess only the opening and closing lines. 11. may probably be inserted the new fragment K.008 . ..l. the number of lines contained by the Creation Series. (140) .

116 (No.830. 27).403 6.016 (No. 13. been retained in the transliteration of the text. the text generally falls into couplets.316 (No. x. 26)) and 93.. see Zimmern's papers in the Zeits. 45. and also by the fact that the pupils of the scribes were allowed. 47 and 105.285 (NO. 82-9-18. but of five lines each (see above. xi. M. fCr Asgyr.. not of four. viii.. I n accordance with the rules of Babylonian poetry.614 (No. vi. 1. 5. p.A. For the first description of the metre of the poem. 2. i n. 2 % ) and 82-9-18. 382 ff. 4).S. wherever this occurs upon any tablet or duplicate. pp. 5 ff. see Budge..337.. 8. That the metre was not very carefully studied by the Neo-Babylonian scribes is proved by the somewhat faulty division of the verses upon some of the tablets on which the metre is indicated. cf.). 82-9-18. p. pp. 7 ..396 (No. pp. I t may be noted that in addition to the division of the text into couplets. and perhaps told.' and. each of the two verses of a couplet is divided into halves. rzI f f . 86 ff. Upon some the ~Babylonian copies the metre is ~ ~ ~ t of ~ ~ f indicated in writing by the division of the halves of each verse. the division has. the second verse frequently echoing or supplementing the first .CXXII INTRODUCTION. as far as possible. 6. Tablet VII.879 (No. ~ h ~ the ponn. and for later discussions of the metre of Babylonian poetry in general. ' + + + . and xii. D i e Propheten in ihrer ursprl2ngIichen Fom.R. is partly filled up by the fragments KK.528 46.448 83-1-18. and each half-verse may be further subdivided by an accented syllable. P. 12. j). 42. i. I+). to write out portions of the poem in sections. 13. pp.2 This four-fold division of each O n Nos. c x i ~ f. the poem often falls naturally into stanzas of four lines each. 2 9 ) . also the "practice-tablets. I?. between 11. I ff.761.519. also D. 38. pp. vol. . which together give portions of thirty-nine lines. Mueller." Nos. cf.

CXXIII verse will be apparent from the following connected The rnctre of the poem. p. . or rather rhythm. in the centre of each verse is well marked. ii. Z.ARRANGEMENT OF TEXT. each of which contains only one word.A. me' gip2ra I 1 1 / I eZii aamrnatum riit~ Tiamat iunu Z 2 kkuva 11 I/ Zfi na6G Suma I/ zaru 11 muaZZidat 11 iritenii 11 susZ / I / I I iarnamu Z i zakgrat ?un gimriiun ihikama Z i Jee'i It will be seen that the second verse of each couplet balances the first. Aps2ma mummu 5 f.. may appear rather short for scansion. and the caesura. x. in which the subdivisions of the verses are marked in accordance with the system of the Babylonian scribes as found upon the tablet Sp. or division. but the rhythm is retained by dwelling on the first part of the word and treating the suffix almost as an independent word. transliteration of the first half-dozen lines of the poem. 265a' :I f. can be detected without difficulty from the syllabic transliteration which is given in the following pages. The second half of verse 3 and the first half of verse 5. 17 f. ' Published by Zimrnern. enuma iapZii 3 f. It is unnecessary to transliterate more of the text of the poem in this manner. as the simple metre.

.

fa$-Zi~i?'.jz8.nu 8. ' No.m a 4 rif-tu-u ru 4. '@ No. 45. j.015.a ~ la la fu-$n-u la ie 7. qg.rat un mu-a/-Zi-da-at Qi7n-ri-iu-un Z-te-nz. No.h u .m a . mu-u-fu-nu.jz8 +q6. JU-pa-'. For the principles on which the text has been made up. 93.Z~S" . ' No.m a p ~ .528.m a .015 reads ApsC(u).sz8.t u iirini 9. 93.7na 3 la 3.01Sr mi*'-Ju-un.528.-' i . 93. 2. I. NO. gi-par-ra la ku-su-ru.. etc. 45.015. e-li-(f.j a . 45. " Conjectural restoration. . see the Introduction.419~.Ku .015. No. e .ma ' -' ma-na-ma [{z-ma]" xuK .. it is probable that not more than two signs are wanting on K.015..amat s. Iu-um la zu-uk-hu-ru.m a . ' No.& i . ' No. 93. etc. etc.mZ*'S'unu8 6.r i [ b ] l3 ? [ a . m u u m .614. 93.m i ] l4 ' No. mu-un-ma-al-li-da-a/(see the Glossary). a No.u .. 93. {u m a - .u-mu. e-nu-ma fa$ e .liS' 0. 93. NO.m u Ti .C4e $even C a e f e f ~of' f4e gigforp of Creafion.015. etc. omits ma. gi-pa-ra la la hi-c-ju-YU zl~ini*'~ - - fu - . No.rn1O f i . iltini.&7?2 .'+5.7% la fu xa - nu-bu-u fa-?nu-mu xak . A p s 2 i . 5. i6-6a-nu-u-ma'2 Ri .

T h e first sign of the word in No. 1. "in the midst of heaven. or "heaven.I. Tabl.amZmu (cf. Tiamat. j 2 8 . And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name. And no field was formed. 6. When in the height heaven was not named. 3. no marsh was to be seen . who begat them. IV. the restoration of the second half of the line as ki-ri[6] . 4 5 .[a-ma-mi].. 93. suggest rib. 138. T h e existence of &Zmdmu.. :a-ma ma u-!a-al-lil). 5 2 8 . it is therefore clear that the . And the primeval Apsu.015 and 4 5 .14 mais omitted by Nos. etc. Then were created the gods in the midst l3 of [heaven]. The traces of the character upon No. 7. And none bore a name.Their waters were mingled together. 4 5 ." is therefore possible. When of the gods none had been called into being. 2. 9." so early in the Creation-story is not inconsistent with Marduk's subsequent acts of creation. is probably t a . la IS . After slaying Tiamat his first act was to use half of her body as a covering for the . and no destinies [were ordained]" . the mother of them both. etc. 4.am~mu was vaguely conceived as already in existence. 8. etc. And chaos. 5. 5 2 8 .

Jar ""A . "together. . 45.. An . u-ur-n'-ku. No. 93. . 1-uI8 US . No. u r . . .hu 7 ~i7~29' 14. Nos. . adz. . . .4 CREATION SERIES." No. .. .[ . No. .Lid13 . 93. . . adi. .ma" [ . etc. . in the translation I have taken the word as the Pret.528. etc. 5. No. . u-ri-ki. '"'Nu-di7e-mud s'a a&"-iu 18. etc. K. etc.]. . .528.n u &a-sis 19. . If the reading e-l[i]-fu-[nu ] he correct. which is not written with the long final vowel. T h e end of the line should possibly he restored as [mlz-&a-ri. . u-us-ri. 45. 45. 13. . 45.. . . . . 1 a . . . . . . . 1 [ . . . and 93. . Nos. .. ] [ . . rather than as thc prep. 35.134 insert the copula u. and 35. . . No. .[a]-n[i]-nu l6 2 1 .015 reads a-di-i.528.[ . . I t is preferable to take the word as the plur. TABLET I.pal-kaI4 u z . but it is possible that the word is not complete. 45. 1 [ [ ... .134. I ] lzu" [ . . .015. . . ] . . from asir. . 1 ztt-[ .n u @ a-piL'0-J'u-nu I 5 . the second half of the line possibly refers to the precedence in rank taken by AnSar and KiSar over Lahmu and Labamu." or "at one time. la i-ii . . . 1%-ba-nu-ma.419creads u[r1. Iial. This suggestion is based on the fact that it is AnEar. u A 17. ] e(?) . etc. . 12~7n'~ 16.015 insert the copula u. in-uin-du.528. " ' A . of the subs.528. and that it is AnSar who subsequently directs the movements of the gods.$i8 [ .n u m . u-tir-ri-Ku. and not Lahmu. a ' . . to whom E a appeals on hearing of the revolt of Tiamat. . .g~-US-fur ma-a-di-is" zo. . . . . . ]I5 [ . .

and 3 5 . ... . as suggested in the translation. ' 34. . 1 2 I . . . . jal-ku. Ages increased. . 5 2 8 . whom his fathers [his] begettersls [ . ] 18. then there came forth [ . . No." cf. . in view of the important part he plays in the First and Second Tablets. 13. I l5 1 9 . " No.' 1. and 3 5 . . . . 5 2 8 . 9 3 . . 17. IL T i e traces upon No. and. 1 3 4 and 4 5 . etc. . . 5 2 8 . . . . " the grcat gods. . "'A-nu-urn. refer eo hirn. 1 3 4 . . . 3 5 . T h e traces which follow upon Is T h e word may possibly be restored a-lfd-[di-ju]. . 4 5 . . . 15. . 1 3 4 prove that the traces of this sign on K. . .01 j. And the god Anu [ . . '* u is evidently the final syllable of a second verb. [ . etc. 1 8 evidently contains a description 06 Nudimmud (Ea). . 1. 1. ha-sis is probably a participle. 3 5 . l6 This restoration is in accordance with the traces upon Nos. 3 5 . 1 3 4 . 5 2 8 . Nos. 5 2 8 . . l5 L. are not clear. I I .4196 and No. it is not improbable that 11. 4 5 . No. . 3 5 . [ . Nudimmud. 1 2 0 . Then AnSar and KiSar were created. 1 3 4 read '"'A-num. . and over them [ .. . 1. H e had no rival [ . . Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being [ . 5. .18 the great gods (?)1. . . . . [in-nzit-d]z-u[ . . 12. ] 14. . z g ) was contained in the sccond half of the line. . . 1 16. 4 5 . 1. etc. . 4 5 . H e was exceeding strong [ . ~ are ~ s those o f p c not b i . . .THE BIRTH OF THE GODS. Anu. suggest the reading lo [da-nil-nu. . etc. . their son. etc. 5 lo. 93. . . (Thus) were established and [were . " No. AnSar and Anu [ . . . Long were the days. . . . T h e subject of both verbs (possibly some such phrase as il2ni 7?r6iiLi. Abounding in all wisdom. . . 1 9 and zo also. . . . . . [ .." I I Nos.

da . . .nu &.ir Apszi [ .i u Apszi aa ri iiiirzi ra. Z a nu . thus concludes the account of the creation of the gods. One sign is wanting at the beginning of the word. etc. . . I . ..bit.s'u . L. .nu ./iu 2 4 25. "storms"). For the meaning of Su~animumu.g a .. L . ] . . I think the signs are clearly &-fa.and not ii.t i .e . . . i .nu(-)[t]i7 i .ri . . .Z n zg.bi. I.ii.nza k u . but it is consistent with the traces upon No. T h e word is peculiarly applicable to Tiamat.u d . . 2 . . the restoration [sukl-kal-li-yz~-un would be possible. u Ti-anzaf [Su]-ba-am-7nu-77z[a]-a[tlp [ .u suggest du.[ ~ . a-ma-ti inz-taZ-Li-ku aS-Sz7n il2lzi [vzn . .k u .6 CREATION S E I ~ I E S . 27 28. p.1 @-bat aZ. 45. 640) :a u-nze (i. . T h e traces of the character after .ma . is . I1 R.528.ia 32.su .cf. T h e signs should possibly he divided as i-na Su-'-a. . . Mu-uin-mu9 suk-kaZ-Z~l0 71221 . 1 . . 1 8 . . -1 . u . but kal is possible. fu-&a.e.n-mu-mu (not !u-ganz-mu-mu as H-W-B.aZ . pl.tib . and in 1. . 2 2 the narrative returns to Apsu and Tiamat. 27%-has-sa-am-m[ai]p5-Se-taG-~ZL-un [ .hat .ulz] L' - ' This restoration is not certain. . .7izcs . 26. z r .[mnntl'j sak . i-na Su-'-a-rua S . . col. . il.sz ma M u . if the reading were li. T h e traces seem to me to be those of z).6a ka . iv.t z ~ z 30. . This restoration is not quite certain. . . the traces of the two signs with which it concludes suggest the reading -ma-ai. a/-ka~n-ma ~i-ri-iS1 Ti-nnzatl2 l i ni [il . [ .i k ] l 3 33.fi .~ I L 34.TABLET I 23.nlln .n m .m i T i .m u g sz~k-kaZ-La-fu i-auk-hay-& la - - 3 L. . and it gives good sense. .ii . .

. '' Come. . 81-7-q. They consulted on a plan with regard to the gods [their son^]. 80. T h e end of the line should perhaps be restored as i ni-[il-Zik n i . " 0 Mummu. 80. . the begetter of the great gods.~ m . Ta-a-ma-tz: Ie The restoration of this and the follow in^ line is conjectur. . . . . . [ . . . No. .726. 80.m ~ . 2 5 . in any case the line must have run over upon the edge of the tablet No. I 1 I ' The sign upon No. No. Then Apsfi.726. ] . 27.726. bud-me. .h e text is taken from a practice-tablet.726. 29. . l3 Conjectural restoration. . " NO.'^ 35. They were troubled and [ . ] 26. . Ta-a-me-fi. 34.726. 80. . .726 may be a carelessly written ti. 1 28. 24. 36. l4 81-7-27.il. 'O No. . . The reading of ta as' for ga me is also possible.i . . and their deeds [ . riS. Apsii opened his mouth [and spake]. .-7-27. we can hardly read TIL-TIL (cf. . . 36. 36. . . . . 23.. . unto Tiamat let us [go] l3 ! " 33.n i l . S o they went and before Tiamat they lay down. " 8. She smote. thou minister that rejoicest my spirit. . But T[iamat and Apsti] ' were (still) in confusion[ . suk-kal-lu . 1 . s ~ ~ )T. 32. 81-7-27. ]. 36. . . . and several of the characters upon it are roughly made. 36. NO. 1. . . his minister.22. 30. Cried unto Mummu. and said unto him : 31. Their way was evil . Indisorder(?) [ . sukkallzl. 36. u L M ~ . And Tiamat roared4[ . A p s i was not diminished in might [ . Briinnow. .

. Tablet IV. a-na [Tli-amjat] el-Zi-tu-ma i . i i s omitted by 81-7-27. 80. cf. ' O For this restoration. . 89..Sa] 41. ku-lu.ah] 38.ku] 47.t a .a(. . 87. Ku-u-lu "2-fa-Kin-ma i-i . 36.i [ p .turn]' .Zal [ni . 1. 1.. . . 50. 80. . [iu-up]-{u-ha-ku. - . i . ] u'o Z a ma-gi-ru" nzi .nil ' [Se . - ma . 1 al-hat-su-n[u [la jal.8 CREATION SERIES. TABLET I.pu us'] l3 45.is . 4 5 . a K. see 11.inz-[ . ] 43. ~ ~ 8 etc.[tala . 80.di a-na [Apszi i-zak-har]l a n i .z u . 3.688. . . For this restoration.s i e . there are traces of the character which follows lu . loo. [i]-$u-nZ-ma""Mu-nrz-mu Apszi '"'6 48. Zu-US-&aZ-Zib-ma al-hat-su-nu Z u 40. T i . 36. ti.Z a .ru-sa-at-ma i ni-[is-ZaZ ni-i-nilL4 - . 1 44. T h e end of the line obviously contained some parallel phrase to la Ju-up-Ju-ha-ak .ma . this has been restored from 1. .i nu fa n 46. No.ainat an . .m a g i l . 39. 125. 96.z . Z i mut t a n it .za[h . . and Tablet 111. 1 37.mi . 1 . " . 3. and roz.938 and 81-7-27. ur-[Y]U Z a iu-up-A-ha-ah a mu S i . K. . Cf. .938 reads [el-zis-m[a]. it does not seem to be US. [ .ni .hay a .ta i . .[ Z i . . . [a]Z-hat-su-IZU Z u iu~u.[ .a ni . - - . ] mar-si-is" ug-[ ] e-[ . Tablet IV. On No. . 81-7-27.u z . 1. [ m i ] na . [ . .l i . - . .Zih Mu-[unz-mu (?)I ' This line is conjecturally restored.ta . .fza 4 z .

by night [I cannot lie down (in p e a ~ e ) ] . 42. . 40. . 43. and p. " What then shall we [do] IS ? 46. La Conjecturally restored. T h e restoration Mu-[um-mu] is not certain. 9 36. 45. Mummu answered. 1. he addressed [the word] ' : 37. And unto Tiamat. 1. . 38. . . . 1.TI1E PLOT AGAINST THE GODS. 1. .i. 80 the name is written with the determinative. . ] grievously [ . . .ra. etc.. and let us [lie down (again) in peace]b4 " 47. Ap-[ . 44. . her sons]. . and gave counsel unto Apsii. 46. " Let there be lamentation. " Let their way be made difficult. ]their way [ .528. as in 1. cf. . 80 suggest the copula u before l a . another possible restoration is a . 8. descriptive of Mummu's counsel. 47 on 81-7-27. . " But I will destroy their way. 48. ." '3 T h e line is conjecturally restored. note 7. [She . For the restoration. the glistening one. When Tiamat [heard]& these words. " By day I cannot rest.. " No. and let us lie down (again in peace). l6 T h e traces upon 81-7-27. I will [ . 1. She uttered a curse. 1. . . . and unto [Apsii she spake]'' : 4 j. . ] and'' hostile (to the gods) was the counsel Mu[mmu gave] la : . . " '0 . She raged and cried aloud [ .e.n u [ i h i m61E~"a]. " [ . [ . the first word of the line was probably another adj. 40.803." 41. "She uttered a curse against [the gods. ~ 39.

5 0 [UY-?]is' L u S[u]p-fu-ha-at mu . 80 is certain. . . . and the precatives are to he taken as in the z m. as Jensen suggests. [eli L i f ? 6 .[ ] ] bir-ha-a-Aiil [i]-niz-J'a-+z~~ fa-a-s"u .[at] 52. see the Introduction. but is hardly probable. s. not the 3 f. U S . . 55." not "liire the night". -u]S7-[ . but the sign is possibly ' . . and the expression cannot therefore he cited as proving that it was the creation of light which caused the revolt of Apsi~. moreover.803. . I n the folloiving line ihc reading of s'[u]p-{u-Ea-at upon 81-7-27. For a further discussion of this point and of the suggested reading of in2 ma a$-ru-nim-ma in 1. .f i ] 3 i k .ir 1-Lu us'. I f e . it is probably not ma. . 6u ' This passage is very broken.711i .10 CkEATION SERIES.nlr .[ 58. proves that mziil-Sit is to be rendered " b y night. . . . TABLET I. . .. .n i . . .e . .tan . . . . . [jiz Liml3-ni-e-ti ik-pu-du a-nu ilani5 m[a]6-ri-e-sVu 5 3 [ . . . 80 is either e or un. hu . T h e parallelism of this passage with I. and the preceding word must he read as al-ka-s[u].i i S lu .d u 6u-[ulh-ri-Sziil-nu 56. . . l o g .al -L a . T h e last sign of the line preserved by 81-7-27. . s. . . 46.l[u ] . .Su . to read aZ-ha-(a] is consistent with the traces upon the tablet.ku - ~71219 . .nu - 7zi .r i . it is to he identified with the e of No. [ . . [ 57. 54. . . Sa . . 38.p u . ] i-te-div hi.

3. ' . 8. . 50. .. Cf. . col. but none of it has been preserved. . I1 His knees [became weak(?)]. . [ . .1 'O Conjectural restoration. . ] they sat in [sorrow] " " . 4b. 53 and 54 of the text. mi. . 57. cf. 5 I. 486. . 52. but thou shalt destroy [it] .49. 53. T h e traces on No." Apsu [hearkened unto] him and his countenance grew bright. p. 1. [Since] he (i. 1. the sign [uls' may therefore belong to the second half of I. 46.803. ] their [ . 1. . . [Because of the evil]' which their first-born had planned. 58. 59 formed the first half of 1. they gave way beneath him. " Then by day shalt thou have rest. . ] they [ . . ' col.803. a. Lamentation [ . .803 and 93. contains 11.803 suggest the reading [ilZni]"'. . . by night shalt thou lie down (in peace). 59. 1.056. 6. ] he was afraid [ . 53. 54. 56. . [ Come. T h e scribe of Nos. No. Tablet 1 1 . . 55. . a verb nu-fa-ku forms a group with nadC and makiitu.803. 80 reads u(?)-na-af-5a[b I11 I<.. Obv. . This seems to be the reading of No. . 1 they altered(?).015 has written several couplets of the text in single lines on his tablet. [ . . [ . . 46. 46. 46. I I of the Obverse of No. also H-W-B.e. . . .803. . " I . . thelr way is strong. . No. . . and the division-mark is not preserved. 46. Mummu) planned evil against the gods his sons. . i b (last three lines). 81-7-27.

u l . . there are traces of only two signs. ] i . . . . . . . . . . [ [ [ [ [ [ . . . . . 49 f. . and from the context of these passages it is clear that the word describes an act or state capable of inspiring terror. . . . . [ 89. . and a following group as " ditto " (i. . . TABLET I. . . . . . .m . . . . [ 85. 66. . . . 8 1 (rite-ku-z‘i: Ti-a-ma-fi). 1. . [ 91. . . I "" '4 . Obv. 36. nzu - tir i ] . If we may connect this me ilr~-u with tire meku in the passages quoted above. . . . and Tablet IV. .du . [ .]tiis not quite certain . 1. m i l . [ . as well as Tiamat. .a KA (i. . I. . . growling. me-ki-{u). . . . . .e. T h e word meku occurs again in Tablet 11. .] 83. . . .. .a ] m . . K]i ]-tee. we may perhaps assign to it some such meaning as "muttering. . . I ] kzl-u-ru . .e. .[ 85. . . Mumrnu. .'' I t is probable that Apsii. il-ku S u ( ? ) . . . . . [ 87. . .12 CREATION SERIES. .[li]11 .s'a~u l mzlt . 63. . . . .a . . . . . .t ~ ~ . . . . pzl or Jinnr~).li . . la . . ma:m [Lines 68-82 are wanting.r i . el-lum ] . . . . . were conceived as monsters and not endowed with human forms. explains the group [II]A-SAL as me-ku-u . 61. . snarling. . . . r ] a 84. . . . . . . 66 ({a "'Ki~-gzr . ] 67. 65. [ 86. No. . ] Ku-tal-la [ . . .turn - ' T h e reading [6]a-[j. . . 1-ga-am-~ua9 i-dal-la&'O ""Ti-amnt . pl.rfa-a-fu u~ Sa Kit-tu Kit-[ . and Icingu. .. . 62. ] ] da . . I . . . me-ku-u) ba amiii. . . 3. [ go. . . I 1 R. [ . 64.7ZullZ . .

. . I. " I t is possible that the verb in Tablet IV.. Obv. . . I3 60.803. ] h e . . . are so broken that the reading of the signs which are preserved is not certain. .E A LEARNS THE PLOT. [ . 46. but the a is not certain. . Obv. No. .Io . . an avenlger. ] misery [Lines 68-82 are wanting. . . .803. Obv. . . ] . ] for ever. . Then Ea. .. ] . ~ 61 62. [ [ . 6 5 66. 6 3 64. . . . I t is probable that No. I" . . . . . . .[ . 66 and 67 of the text. No. . 11. . . . . .I1 . . . . 1. . . . contained 11. . . Rev. . . 89. . LI. . .. ] the evil. . . ' Conjectural restoration . l3 ] . .803. contained 11. . . 12. 85. . 15. 87 and 88 of the text. . ] 84. . I . should be transliterated l'dul-ZU-&L. .' went up and he beheld their m ~ t t e r i n g . . 46. [ go. . . . 62 ff. . . 46. I . . the reading of gi is not certain. .r. . . . 99. . . . . [ . . . . . 46. . [ .' . 5. . . . . .and connected with the verb in the present passage and with fa-du-ul-I[i]in 1. 'O Tiamat is possibly the subject of the verb.. . . 1. . [ 87. . . [ . . . . ] the god Anu. contained 11. . . l8 . . . . . . .] 8 3 . . . .803. . . who linoweth all that [is]. r . 63 and 64. ] [ 67. . . . . No. r . . . [ 86. . 64 and 65 of the text. his pure incantation . . "swamp " . [ [ 91. 1. I" . . . . Perhaps read a-ga-am-ma. . . . . . . . contained 11. . . . . . 61 and 62 of the text. ] and9 he shall confound Tiamat. . 14.[ 88. . . [ .

]I0 ] i n -i -l ni . 97 and 98 of the text. . contains 11. 11. .in which case . .i . Elsewhere on the tablet. . . . . ] i n i . . 6. . . ] 96.14 CKEATION SERIES. 1. ] 9 4 . . . .803 also reads $a. [ 100. Obv. . 46. . .6 u 2 fa3 pu I tu7n uZ ni-:a. preceded by traces of another sign. ] 97. [ . . . . 14. .. 92.. was Iiingu. I t is possible that I. 1z7). ." it may be inferred that the speaker of 11. . ] . ] a-na za-hi-hzb f i ~ . . l 4 . sequently promoted Kingu to lead her forces " because he had given her support" (cf. . [. ] lZ a-[mla-turn i el-[lu] a du - - WZ . . . 98 begins with the words u '"'Mu-urn-mu. . .803.[ ~ z z ] .] . perhaps ma. [ . .u (or ku) would form the last sign of line 97. to obtain with him the slothful peace From the fact that Tiamat subwhich she desires (11. . ].i .aZ-lnl n i . 11. [ tur-?a iz-zah-hay1 1-ha-hi i-na-ru-nza &a. by encourages Tiamat to take vengeance for them (1.). . IOI. No. . . . [ 104. 1" . Rev.803. No.z ~ h -. .[nil 8 . . the scribe has not omitted the division-signs when writing two lines of the text together. . cf. . .i is" us". . . TABLET I.is . . 1.. . however. 93 ff. I O ~ )and. . [ . ] [/1]~-[~1]~n-n?u-m9 e-nu-fu-u-[.] [ . .x i Ap-suu bar-6a-[ . . . 46. . . 97 and 98).i [ [ 102. . . 93. . ] 98. 1. tu-us'-[ . [ 105. . he . a 8z-9-18. . . .879. continuing the struggle. [ . . I t is safer to assume that no part of 1. [ . and addressed him as her "chosen spouse. 1-Su u ""Mu-urn-mu 99. ] gz-mil-la-&nu fir-ri-[ . . T h e speaker refers to the evil fate which has overtaken Apsfi and Mummn in their revolt against the gods (cf. [ . .i . . . ' T h e speech that follows is evidently addressed to Tiamat. I[i] .803. . [ 103. 9 and ro. .h i . 46. No. .a zh-ha-mu-u ina su-[ . . .la2 z i . 1-hi-ma 95. . . . .. . . . . . [ . . - - . . loo ff. . . . . 46. .. W n e sign is wanting at the end of the line. 98 has been preserved b y No. . .

. . . . 1. cf. . or [ib-du-ma Ti-amat a-nu]. ] he [weepeth] and sitteth in tribulation(?). I t is possible that the speech does not end with I. 97. . 1 0 2 . ] of fear. Tiamat replies in I. . . . 1 . " [ . " [ . [ . . ] thou shalt take vengeance for them. . 82-9-18. ] thy [ . " [ . 106 may be restored in some such way a s "[The leadership of the gods unto me] shalt thou entrust. T h e former interpretation seems to me preferable. " [ . " [ . ina ma-a-[ . ] he hath conquered and 94. . '"8zg-r8. 104. . as suggested in the translation. [And Tiamat hearkened unto]" the word of the bright god. they will smite (?) [ . . T h e word should probably be restored as tzi. " [ . ." and for a-[mla-turn in 1. . 6. . . . . 96. note I I .879. (and said) : - 82-9-18. 1. . Is 92. . in that case I. ] let us lie down (in peace). '05 we should perhaps read a-[bla-turn. " [ . ] ! " 105. i-na-tu-u-[ 1. . 106. 95. T h e first half of the line may possibly he restored as [zs-me-ma Ti-amat]. . .ri[z'].] and Mummu. .THE FATE OF A P S ~ A N D MUMMU. . " [ . as it assigns a line to Tiamat in which she assents to Kingu's proposals. . . . but continues to 1. . ] . 7 99. ] . 104. . I. 6. and with I. ] we shall not lie down (in peace). . . ] unto the tempest shalt thou [ . IOI. 1. . (113). . 106. 107 the narrative begins the description of Tiamat's preparations for battle. and p. T h e first two signs of the word are not quite certain. . . According to this interpretation the speech of the god (Icingu) ends with 1. . or tir-ri-[ma]. . " [ . . 104. . . ' Cf. . . . 1. who were taken captive. . . . . . 103. . ] Apsii is laid waste (?).879 gives a variant reading for the second half of the line: uI(-)ta-TU-mi(-)na[ . 6. 100. " [ . 89. . .4 98. " [ . . i n l . 1. . thou didst . . . . he spake: ' 93. 13. Tablet 11. ] let us lie down (in peace). . [ .879 gives a variant reading for the second half of the line : la e-di. . .

TABLET I. 1.-ma] ..zar .&a r ] a na .-ma] [me-lam-m]e ui-dai-ia-a i . "4. which precludes the translation "she made them even as . A title of Tiamat.Z i . I 12.i u . [zi-zu Kap.bu-bu Za. [a-mi]?-Su-nu Sar. Lines 109-142have been restored from Tahlet 111.tu . I 18.ba ba [I]iS &[a? .m i im] 120. cf. [xu]-mur-&-nuZiS-ta&&i-dam-ma la i-ni-'-u [i-rat-su-un] - - - ' We may perhaps restore the end of the line as i xi-$u-uS [{a-a. 11.Sa u [im . 109. 86. I n the parallel passages the majority of the duplicates read eli.t i .u su-L[a-a-ti] - "3.k a .du L a sa-hi-pu] ?nu [ua . Tahlet IV. T h e word may possibly be restored as 6a-ni-[af].s'il] - I 19.mu - Hu - 6u]r4 p a .baiz . not ili.i f 5 [urn tas' . [us'unzgaLl2*q nu-ad-ru-turn pu-uGha-[a]-tiu-SaZ-[hi.ma] I I I.16 CREATION SERIES..ma] i-du-us' Ti-anzat ti-bi-[u-nil3 110. [im-ma-a$-ru . .a t ha-l[a-ma] si~ma/ja[*~] at-ta-['-i] [US-rad-di kalh-hu la ma&-ru it-t[a-l]nd i i ] n ni L a " 5 .nim . [im-tu hi-ma] da-mu zu-mur-[fu-nu]US-nza-a[-[&] I I 7.ma I - pa-d[u-u] IG. tam . 13-52. [zak .u [U7n .n u .[ab-bu] [uizken-na Sit-&u-nu]-ma i .

" I have made the honour of the Iring to be exalted. 31. [Whoever beheld] them. I 15." or possibly. "his terror overcame him" . ] the gods in the midst of [ . . I 16. they devised mischief without resting] night and [day]. 45. I I I . "4. gods. . [With poison instead of] blood she filled [their] bodies. I I 2. fuming and raging ..-:il. . i-12) u-ma. . . Their bodies reared up and none could withstand [their attack].. ] 108. Ohv. ~ I I 9. I 18. 1.TIAMAT PREPARES FOR BATTLE. " h e was overcome by terror. . B. I 10.t i k r n ' e-lis' (so B . [With splendour] she decked them. terror overcame him. C. of the two I think it preferable to assign a passive meaning to Ii-ih-bar-mi-im and to take 3ar-ba-62'-i: as an adverb. etc. " [ . 1 1 .' 109. and C. [They joined their forces] and made war. Fierce [monster-vipers] she clothed with terror.~ who formed all things." No. 1. . [Sharp of] tooth.528. [Made in addition] weapons invincible. Z . I 13. I7 106. Obv. "7. [she made them] of lofty s t a t ~ r e . . ] for the gods did she create. ] shalt thou entrust ! let us wage [war] ! "' 107. 60% [67]. . she spawned monster-serpents. Say-ba-bi-i: li-ik-&Lay-nzzlini]. [ . [They prepared for battle].. /a-nad a a . . pl. [Ummu-fjub~lr. [They banded themselves together and] at the side of Tiamat [they] advanced . and merciless of fang ." The same variety of reading occurs in a parallel expression in I V R . ." 1 2 0 . [They were furious. [ .

pl.]a.a ~ z ~ ~ ~ ~ n .015.. 45. both here and in the parallel passages.528. [us'-aiz-m]a. 45.' . "raging bound " .4a zi] 128. 45.18 CREATION SERIES.~ ~ .. ki-ma. col. 93. 'O That is. 93. . NO.~ a . 45.528. etc.~ u t ~ ~ a / i .n i ~ n ~ . 6. 1 2 3 [u-m]eda-ab-ru-te%nnn-mdu 124. eleven kinds of monsters. ctc.r i ' 5 p a . fum. 2 9 . 45. CUR]-RE is explained as kal-6u fe-gu-u. No.528.528.a-h.. 26. or [US-zi-. e!-ri-e-fi No.i ~ . [nu]-ailskakku ti-i. etc. etc.-bu-tz~'g te-bu-[u] a na . TABLET I. 1. [nu-S]i/rak-hu la pa-du-u u hu - [sa . since the plural is used in a ' No.. 1.015.[ ~ ~ t p ~ / i ~ i ] 1 ' 130. BI (or GUD. Restored from Tablet 11. [alp-pu-na.tu] - etc. I n I1 R. but not ku)[ . i. No.l i . it is probable that the words which occur in the singular are used collectively. 1. a . I n the list of monsters created by Tiamat. inserts u.[an. No.- [ f a .rik . the reading of the ideogram is not certain. No.. .aJ'-hi~~'~"Kin-gn ina 6i-ri-Su-nu fa-a-![u u!-rab-6t-2] 129. ~-Sa.528. .ku] ' - la a d i ru .

. it is clear that Tiamat created more than one of each. l6 Nos. bu-uk-ri-Su-nu. 45.. without fear of [the fight]. j z 8 .528. the case of many of the classes. 4 j . 93. etc. l 3 Nos. 45. No. and 93. Among the gods who were her1' sons. 1 2 5 . 93. ." 127. . urn-ma-nu mu-'-ir-ru-tupu-u[b-ri]. 81-7-27.^ and scorpion-men. and 93. 3.1 2 4 . And mighty [tempests].. 80 reads di-ku-u. 1 2 3 .528.or j . 93.015. the sons of Apsii and Tiamat. [And hurricanes]. K .015. and [rams] . I 30. to lead [the host]. i. etc. and the (monster) [Lal?amu]. [she made] eleven (monsters). etc. " No. 1 2 6 . 128. to advance to the attack.528. She exalted Kingu. etc. T o march before the forces. 1 2 9 . nu-&. 45. " No. . p a . 45. " No. 45. 93. and fish-men. etc. No. in their midst [she raised] him [to power]. mahri. etc. etc.. " t o summon to the atlack.. 121.938. huge of stature. -k]u-[ . 45. After this fashion.01j. T o give the battle-signal.' and dragons. . l4 No. -ku-tu.528. te-is-6u-turn. I N No. [ ...528. [iZdni]Sd. No. [They bore] cruel weapons.n i .[She set] up vipers. I.e. na-{e. [mla-ah-ra. #a. inasmuch as he had given [her support]." . No. and raging hound^.ol j . [none] could resist thetn ..015. Her commands [were mighty].528. 1 2 2 .

il2nz'.0'5..528.ha I 38. lu-u.528. 3..bi . 93. 45. 93.a r n . 131. 3.. f a . 45.rr .e.015.ma . No. NO.a . a-dl'.. 93. 6 ~ .528. No.&id-ma ka . etc.m . 93. i u .n i l m . 93.[m is' . ' No. etc. ku-ut.015.h ~ ina $u/zui5 ilzni*'" . NO.Su3 u-ie-Si-ba-a5-Su i~za[bar-rz] 133.015. nddi No.. 93.938. etc. K.015.528. i. 45. etc.s"as./ i n . 45.a Z[i-Run si-it pi-i-ha] 140 inn iL&zi [ma-r]i-e-s"u18 si' .(us'. 45.528.015 reads ICW. rub {ik-hat-tu-fu. 45. No. etc. i i e [ n i ] . K. Z u Su-ur-6a-/a-e &a-'-a-n: " Restored from Tablet 111.t i . fa-am-ha-a-tn. id-driz-ma.mu] No. i-[nalpu-bur. 104.a b s"ih . ' No. id-din-[$]urn-ma .k a .938. z) . T h e Anunnaki are possibly the subject of the sentence.t z i ~ 132. ad-di4 t a . NO.u d t a r n . TABLET I.528. . "'No.. ka-tu-[u]:-fu.No. ha-ta l4 hibit-ha L a in-nin-na.20 CREATION SERIES. etc. 1.t ~ ~ .

015. 93. 1 3 6 " May they magnify thy name over all [of them . and [the word of thy mouth shall be establishcd]. 21 131. l8 NO. etc. . on [his] breast she laid them. [Decreed] the fate among the gods his sons. ix-na-nu. to control the fight. 93.. the Anunnalri]. She gave him the Tablets of Destiny. T o direct the battle. pi-i-Ru-nu. etc. . Now Kingu.528. '' The scribe of No. No. NO. ina is omitted by Nos. ..528. " . " Whoso is exalted in the battIe. a-nu ilzf~i" rnZr2*'?ucl. 135.. 45. 93. (saying) : 138. i-raL-Eu.015. Unto him she entrusted .015. (saying) : 133.0r5.arg. .a n .[ d a . r[a]..015 has written ma for i u hy niistake. l4 No. 80 and No. "'BIL-GI. ha-a{ . 45. and 93. " T h y command shall not be without avail." '' Nos. etc. in [costly raiment] she made him sit. thou my chosen spouse. 80. 81-7-27. 134. (thus) exalted. 140. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power. 45. z2' 81-7-27. etc." 'l 137. let him [display (his) might] ! " - l3 No. 80. and 93.528. 93. '"'GG-B~R. NO.g u . "for the gods his sons.n u .i n .015. " T h e dominion over all the gods [have I entrusted unto him]. having received [the power of Anu].528. y K i ] . 142. " I have uttered thy spell. 132. '' 81-7-27. gj. " Let the opening of your mouth [quench] the Fire-god . (saying) : 141. " Be thou exalted.528. i f i .K I N G U LEADS THE REBEL HOST." 139.45. 1. 45.

la .bi a .d ~Sa ] at-tu-nu tab-nu-a i .tiin 6 [mar-si]-is" us".z r .tar . [is'.bi[t] .a6 . For this restoration cf.7na' - - - . T h e sign is possibly ta.a .turn pi ti .hat [pa]-ub-ru&tS-ku-na-at-ma ag . [ur-ha-& aaS. Conjectural restoration. Tablet I. [GmP*' u ] .r i ] . [ a .tum Su .Sn 3.g i .m u g i .7na uz .hu 7. [ana tn-ur gi-mil] 3-li Apszi n .Su Su .likl-7ua ma&. [il.& .bu i . -111s"~ hi-i i:-mi-da a-7za ""E-a 2)-ta-Sara I.z Tz-anznt 4.Sa al .bi .ri-ainat I I. [Zzm .a .ma]"'"E . .ma Sa-hu-um-mi-2 ztS. 6 T h e rendering of this line is a little uncertain. ik-pu-dn u-Sa-an-na-a a-na fa-a-Su [um-ma Ti]a-anzata-Lit-ti-a-ni i .d i g.ma . [ .r i .da a .i r .Z a . "How she had collected her [forces] unto Ea was divulged. 1. u .ru' a .& l o - T h e beginning of I.Su 8.T i .i$ Su z. T h e beginning may perhaps be restored as [pu-ufi-ru-ujd.is' An-& a .m i . and the line translated. [rnir~z-?nu]-u .e .a n .ta .kab .614.ma . in that case a passive meaning must be assigned to 7)-tn-Sar. .kn .u us'.~ Z I L.2172 14. r has been restored from the catch-line on Tablet I.ra .[is]-&u-~-~i~ill~ il'rilzi .Z i .fu A n -Say 10.a a .ti ik] 8.rz .iS 13. 5 . preserved by No.d i .i r .z i .nu ." .n i .r i .me . 103.528 f 46.a -t i 12.:ray a-na iZ&zi x i ip .&a.za . 45.

[All that] Tiamat had plotted he repeated unto him. " All the gods have turned to her. 14. 1 2 . 9.396. 38. they go at her side. "addressing Anhr. 13. al-krr. . . . full of wrath. 38. 10. 'O No. [To avenge] Apsii. [He went] and standing before7 Aniar. unto E a he repaired. Tiamat planned evil. . H e was [grievous]ly afflicted and he sat in sorrow. the line may then be translated. 8.and for the object of i!-mi-da we may perhaps restore [narkabtuli. 3.396. 7. 1 had yoked his [chariot]. [Saying. 4. "Tilamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us. " [With] those. . and his anger was appeased. [The days] went by. 5i-if. possibly. Or. ] unto E a divulged. And to [the place ofJ AnSar his father he took [his way]. "But when [ . E a [hearkened to] this thing. whom ye created." Lines I 1-19 have been restored from Tablet 111. the god .Tiamat made weighty1 her handiwork. I. ' . 73-81. . [EvilIZshe wrought against the gods her children. the father who begat him. 1 1 .' 5. " With all her force she rag-eth. and 6. For zp-ta-Far we may also read ip-fa-hir." It may be noted that not very much is missing from the beginning of the line. Lines 5-10 have been conjecturally restored. But how she had collected her [forces. 2. 11. No.

etc.daS. No. " 0 .nu 3hu .. us"-radg-di RaR-Ru L a ma&-ru1° it-ta-lad " 21.. ' No.pa-fi-)a at. at-fa-'-am.ET 11. 38. etc. NO. 38. 38. lo No.ma 19.632 93. ' No.048. tc-6i-u-nu.i s * urn . us" ta u 'nza nnz l2 al - - ln l4 ufnmgalZ~*' na-ad-rzl-tipu-ul ka-a-ti ' 5 .396. etc.632.396. 38.hu .24 15.si' .632. [Z1z]-ma-as-ru-ni~n-ma i-dn-us" l'i-amat te . 38. zak-tu-ma Sin-nu Zapa-du-u at - zz. 38. etc. 92. [Ulnz-rnzr-gu-bur. 38. TABI.396. 38.vza . im-tu Ri-ma da-am13 zu-vzur-Sn-nu 23. da-nu .u r 7 2 0 .632. 38. ma-ha?: No. NOS.6% .632. No. NO. NO.. da-mi. 92.Iu . mu.fa?'.396 and 92. me-La?~?-muus'.396.6u . [ U ] m.Zi .nu . ~irrnaQZ*'. 'I No.632. ulzken .s'ul - his" .. ~ir-ma6 .. la No. 92.7?za 24. 92. a. + .I.396. etc.nil 17.ma i s-ban-nu-u pa-ti-i4-&at8 su-la-a-turn 6 ha-la-mu sir.. No. 92. CREATION SERIES. ra-ad..396. No.396.396. ri. [nu]-s'u-u tam-ha-ra3 nu-zar-bu-6u la-ad-6u4 18. No. etc. at-fa-'-u-urn. ti. a -a i .632. 91. hi.396.u .zl l 6 38.

" With splendour she hath decked them.6jz.. i-ni-'-u. p. 17.-fi-il. " 16. For the phrase i-Zi-i.urn-fa. she hath made them of lofty stature. and merciless of fang.632. '8 So No.396 and 92.396. 25. " They have joined their forces and are making war.. etc.632. They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance . Nos. 27. fuming and raging . etc. who formed all things.. 23. 38.614. 26.. 38. she bath spawned monster-serpents. " Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror.528 46. {irru. " '0 . NO. 16 f. See above. " With poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies. and the (monster) Lahamu. and No.396. note 5 .'" " Whoever beholdeth them is overcome by terror. 92. 92. No. [GAIL-BUR nn-ad-ru-lum pu-ul-fia-a-lum. 38. 1 7 . Hath made in addition weapons invincible. 20.396 and 92. dam. reads u7?z-ta-as'Si-il. 19. see above. " Sharp of tooth. I 8. 22. p. 38. 92. they devise mischief without resting night and day. 45. " She hath set up vipers.632.IS." " Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.632. ya-at.s"ZJ". etc. + " . '* No. " Ummu-Hubur. 2 1.632. No. " They are furious. gz. la. i-ni-'-inz. and dragons. 24. urn-iai-ti-i~( = umlaSiiZ). 20 NO. 38. Nos. " They prepare for battle.396.

u]d7 la .r i . u-. nu-6-e huh-hu ti-i:-bu-turn te-bu-u a-na-an-trim" 37. fr: .tu .ra fi .i a la ma . No.r i 39. 4. T A B L E T 11./za . tu.i u m ~ $ u . u CREATION SERIES. [uS]~ra6-6i.hu-nu-& pu-uij-ru 34.nza 32.ra ra .83z. ap-pu-nu-ma wV-ttn esV-rit hi-ma &L-a-ti24. K.i r .832. K. 4.r u ~ 36.a6 s'ik . p.t d . 4.hat .na .$u&rz'.in-a..z~ .u / z . gab . a 18.a m .26 28. [iu .bar . 4.-ha ""Kin-pc ina bi-ri-Su-nu Sa-a-Su uf-ra6-6i-i~"3 35. [ad-di ta-a]-ka i-na pu-bur iLaniP1 u-far-bi-ka ' For this ideogram see above.gal - la uR - BE"' u akrab 2 - avzzLu 31. 38. note 3. a-li-hu-utma&-mpa-nium-nza-num ~ ~ .Sa te . i-nn iLEni" 6u-uk-ri-fa Suut iS. . [ip-bid-m]a ha-tu-ui-Su u-$e-fi-ha-ai-Si i-na " K T .832. I<.832.tuvz 38. I<.i i 33.396 prefixes the determinative "'.r u .

" U n t o him [hath she entrusted]. 34. 41. [ . 35. ' I 29. 30. in their midst she hath raised him to power. " They bear cruel weapons. 39. have been restored from Tablet 111. . " ' [The dominion over all] the gods have I entrusted [unto thee].8 jz.EA CARRIES THE TIDINGS TO ANSAR. 11. '' Among the gods who are her sons. 38. ' I<. 36. and scorpionmen. I' ' Lines 37-48 99-1 10. And hurricanes and raging hounds. " [To direct]' the battle. 37. hath she made eleven (monsters). without fear of the fight. huge of stature. " T o give the battle-signal. Her commands are mighty. 32. to control the fight. . in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power. " ' [Be thou exalted]. " And mighty tempests. 41-52 and I<. inasmuch as he hath given her support. ina. I-iuu-Li. " T o march before the forces. thou [my chosen spouse]. and fish-men and rams . 40. 27 28. . " She hath exalted Kingu .832. in costly raiment she hath made him sit. " After this fashion. to lead the host. (saying) : " ' [I have uttered] thy [spell]. none can resist them . 33. 4. to advance to the attack.4. 31.

. .ni - i&. .?/zn . . . .s"a ra ZiS.s"u 5 5 .iz $i . I . . [ M u .ha . [nii'id ina kit . which explains ""E-nu-uk-hi as "'A-nun-na-[hi]. .? . 1. roq.s u .[ it . xi. a s . . 1-uh-hi1 44.~ Z L I $[Gilt Z pii-ha 45. . . .u?rz - 21zu uI2 t u .su . . March. [ 51. [in-nu-nu K r g s'u-ui'-&u]-u li-pu-a "'A-nz~-ti 46. the list of gods. [an 47.b i ." .7na .& u .a g . TABLET 11. 54 [ . . "01. ) z [ iZiini -a ] nu] ii . .p a t . .ta Apse ta .ti .B. 2.S.28 C R E A T I O N S E R I E S .na ra5 - I n the parallel passage. . .pu . .s " u us"-tajZ-&-ah 5 3 . 1-21 . ] La n a . .Ku Zz .g i . . [Zz-ir-tab-bu-u zik-ru-ha eli haliiu-nu . . [ . K. . No.m a .[ 5z.100 (published by Beaold. 1. .7izn .ra6 . . . . . This is in favour of Jensen's suggestion that the present passage should be restored as '"'E-nu]uh-hi. ] . cf. Conjectural restoration. I 889). [ha-ta hibit-ha L a in-ni~z.t a r . <a] . .ha 48.A. 93. P.b a t 4 h a .u n .& f a . . . " he smote his loins. 42.na-a] l i . Tablet 111.fiz "" GibiZ is".. col.t u ( a.r i ] nza . For the first half of the line Delitzsch suggests the restoration siinju linhastna. iv. . .i at .017 reads at the end of the line '"'A-nun-na-hi. .ib - 50. 8.

" [ . ] . having received the power of Anu. therefore. 1. 55. " [Mummu and] ' Apsii thou hast mitten. and not as the Pres. . 48. her sons]. . that in the present passage fa-nu-ra is to be taken as the Pret. . h i s m i n d w a s n o t a t p e a c e . " ' [May they magnify thy name over all of them . . [When An5ar heard how Tiamatl2 was mightily in revolt. (saying) : 44. " [She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny. . [ . . (saying) : 47. and. . . From 11. 54. " Decreed the fate [for the gods. . 60). . In accordance with this conclusion is the fact that it was the god E a who first discovered the and Tiamat (see Tablet I. . . I t is clear. 1. .' 45. " [ . . . . His [ . . " ' [Whoso is exalted in the battle]. 93 ff. he bit his lips. 46. .^ The reading bat is certain. on his breast she] laid them. . . as AnSar is addressing Ea. [ . . ta-nu-ra I take as the Pret. I. and the [word] of thy mouth shall be established. " [Now Kingu. not the Pres. of the First Tablet it may be inferred that ApsI3 was conquered before Tiamat made her preparations for battle. 50. " '[Thy command shall not be without avail]. 51. . . ] battle. . .42. it may be concluded that E a was the conqueror of Apsi~. . . (thus) exalted]. " ' Let [the opening of your mouth] quench the Fire-god . . conspiracy of Apsi~ . 5 2 . he made a bitter lamentation : 53. . . . . . ..'I 43. ] thou . let him display (his) might ! ' " 49.

56.s'u . . . . .d i (74) [ f a &-&-a e-mu]-ka-a-fu fa iua-&av te-bu-iu (75) [al.n i (71) [ .tar . as'-ki ""Kin]. . . ] . . .mat .lne . . .] (69) [ .f a .f i r hurl-ra-an-fa-ma u-ru-u&-ia UJ". . . [Tiamat u .i u A n .ma zik .ma] L a s"e . .ma . . ' . .ma nut .te . .nu . T h e numbers of the lines. .fi1n .3 O CREATION SERIES. .el . .ma .n i at . . .ri a6i .ra . are enclosed within parentheses. Before the determinative the sign AN is visible. TABLET 1 1 .ta a . . . . when conjectural. "where ? " T h e beginning of the line is conjecturally restored.ham] .me .la (70) [ .&r (80) [us'.ha (78) [a . . . 1-si (72) ['"LAn-s"ar anal ma-ri-s'u [a-ma-tu i]-zak-kar (73) [ .i Lz) -pa -as'.[Su] kar .&a (79) [is' .tis' T i . ] z i i.anzat i .di ' I think there is no doubt a-Zi should be take. ] . l 4 ka6-ta-ins" Zi6-6u-us" lip-pu-nSv (77) [{urn . . as the adv. .n ka .[ . . . . .ziz . .t ] u . . a]n . . .ta (76) [ . .g u a - f?za-&ar-& [A gap of allout ten lines occx~rs here.??za ii . .ma .za at . The reading of Nudimmud at the end of the line is certain. . .

. . . .= he beheld the muttering' of Tiamat. . . [ . Tablet IV. . . that ~ her heart may be merciful. . " [But Tiamat hath exalted Kinlgu. . N[u]di[mmud] ' [ A gap of al~outten lines occurs here. .] (69)3 [ . . (78) " Our [word] shalt thou speak unto her. . . . . . ] deliberation 58. . For this restoration. . ." (79) [He heard the] word of his father Anjar (80) And [he directed] his path to her. . (75) " [Go] and stand before Tiamat. cf. the . towards her he took the way.6. [ . . . . 65. . . . [ . . I (71)[ . . . . . should Tiamat not listen to Anu. . as suggested in the translation. ] .5. . note z. I. that she may be pacified. 1 2 . T h e sense of the couplet seems to be that. T h e first part of the line probably contained some such phrase as Zi8-pa-ab-s'ir. . . . p. (77) " [But if] she will not hearlien unto thy word. . (76) " [That] her spirit [may be a p p e a ~ e d ] . . . and where1 is one who can oppose her ? " 57. of ] the gods. . . I . . . ' See above. . I (72) [Aniar unto] his son addressed [the word] : (73) " [ . . . . (74) " [Whose] strength [is great] and whose onslaught cannot be withstood. my mighty hero. . . . . . . . (81) Anu [drew nigh]. . 1 (70) [ . she might perhaps respect the authority of AnSar. .

.n a a . ] .h i .832. (106) [ . . . . .[dn] .. . ] a . . . K. . mu .Sn i b .Ra wza .ta ma - .bi . . . . . T h e last word of the line may possibly be restored as n . .nap . . . . ./U a . .zak . . . . .ti .ris . This restoration is not certain.i z ma-/1a-ri-is"'0 An-Jar ( I I 5) i-mu+-fn-~naAn-far lib-ba-fu fn-nh-ha-a-ti im-/a I' (113) ' This line has been restored from Tablet 111. .f [ u ] .[ . '"hat her heart may be merciful. . . TABLET 11. . . . cf.? n a 6e-/urn a . . (109) [ . I. .kar .d z ~ . . . . .e . . . . ] bar . . 5 3 .t a . . 7 1 .&av.n z a . (82) CREATION SERIES. . . i ] .t u r n a .a pi . . . ." T h e phrase. .m a i t . . implies that he shows mercy on the gods by ' .a ma . . . ( I 10) at . .pi . .fu W i h . . I .' . (105) [ . .ri VZM . . .tir] g i . . . . in which case the line would form part of a speech of Marduk to AnHar. . [nZ i .a ar .] (104) [ . . . me. . . . . . . . 4. . .h i .z i .ia [A gnp of about twenty lines occurs here. . .Rii" (83) [ (84) [ (85) [ . .fa] 1 i .37 . 1. ] .7uiL . . . e]/i . .Snr . . . (108) [ . . . . ] i-ta-7?zi4-fn .Su . ] abi . . . .li . "who maketh broad his heart".f u (114) i t . . (107) [ . lib-6u-us' li$-pu-u. .[ n a . Literally. as applied to Marduk. .k u ] . . .f u A12 . .n . . .

] upon me [A gap of about twenty lines occurs here. ( I I S ) AnSar beheld him and his heart was filled with joy. ( I 12) " [ . pl. . and Nos. . .832. a No. . ti-hi-ma. . . . . ] AnSar (84) [ .559 and 92. . . .] (104)[ . ] (105) [ . . NO. . . and he turned back. . 4. . . 4. This seems to me preferable to my previous translation. ] he spake unto him : (85) " [ . . . lo K. who maketh merciful his heart. . 1 an avenger [ . . etc. ] thy father ( I 10) " Thou art my son. consenting to become their avenger. . . part xiii. . [ 1-uk. hi?.632. . .559 and 92. . . etc. note). 40. . . 40. . . . . .. ] to the battle shalt thou draw nigh. . . . . ( II I ) " [ . ." ("3) And the lord rejoiced at the word of his father. . . . j 59. . . . . " Nos. ni-ib-ha. 40. ] he that shall behold thee shall have peace. . . . 4 o r j j 9 . . lu-u6-6n-faiv-fi. Texts. 4. Cun. . K. . . ] vajliant] (107) [ .832. . " who malreth valiant his heart " (cf. . K. . . . . . (83) [ . . . . ] (106) [ . .632. . .(82) [But he could not withstand her]. .. 4. . . . . . ( I 14) And he drew nigh and stood before Angar. . . . ] he spake unto him : (log) " [ . 4.832. 1 in the place of his decision (108) [ . K. . 4.832. . . . . . ni-i-hi. .

40.l i ] h . Jap-tu-uk.832. ' I t is clear that at this point Blardok ceases to speak.a d ] Ti-amat u .Li- ill3 ta-hab-ha-as u fu at-ta (125) (126) [ .u l . ]I2 -nu -u hi.559. 40. R.Li-zL'3 at.f a .. 40.ji-fn.&-ti4 s h .ma ai-u zik-ri L u .a17z - .a p .~ a .559 and 9 2 . No. . and that Angar's answer begins with the following line. 40.tn [ h i . 38. 6 3 2 . see Tablet IV. Conjectural restoration.Fa-up. 4.la Lib-hi-ha (120) [Zu . the traces o f the second sign in the line on No.u k " ( I IS) L u .a nza-la ta-/in-za-fu lib-bi-ka' (121) u-s"e-{i-ha8 (123) (124) [ .Lih .i s " ta-Lab-ha-as ' Nos.34 CREATION SERIES.G9. 3-6. . " O f what man has his battle caused thee to go a .396 may he those o f bi or Say. etc.u $ i -d i Ti-amat ur-1. . .b i I 3 la iuk-tu-mat lu .a ? l z . No. (117) [ a . hi-fa-ad ]I2 nu .s"n . . .u-&is" - u Ju . 6 3 2 . Eap-Luk. 11.t u . Literally.559 and 9 2 .di . SU.i n . Coniectural restoration: for a somewhat similar change o f one " word when a couplet is repeated. "0s. TABLET 11.u l .Inn -a ilza .

40. that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart.'~ (126) " [The neck] of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot. 35 16) H e kissed him on the lips and his fear departed from him. ." ( 1 2 3 ) " [ . (118) " Let me go.559. in which case hi-di and s'u-li-il must be taken as substantives. . rej~iceandbeglad.i n . ina kailki. " K. as the subject. lil. ] ." ' (121) " What man is it. ( 1 2 0 ) " [Let me] go.832.x i . (125) " [ . (I forth!' No. let not the word of thy lips be ( 1 1 9 ) " [0 overcome. 'O iu-ar-ka I take as the Pres. and fa-ha-za-Iu as the object. 40. that I may accotnplish all that is in thy heart. according to this reading it is possible to take zik-n. . la It is possible that the first word of the line should he restored [li-i6-6al-nu-u.3 let not the word of thy lips be overcome. . of the verb. "let there he joy and gladness. '' (124) " T h e neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot. .832.559 reads u-ie-$ma .M A K D U K CONSENTS TO FIGHT TIAMAT. ] . is arnlecl and attaclieth thee." l 3 I<. . Kal. 4. . . who is a woman. [a ~ i . from Eru. . ] Tiamat. followed by the direct accusative. rejoice and be glad.b a t . No. 4. who hath brought thee forth to battle ? ( 1 2 2 ) " [ . ("7) " [O my father].

ru .e . 1. Iftaal from nuke. ] kz ut-tak-ha4 Su-te-e-ri-r-ha-nis" - .A .396.Li . . inu fe-e-kz: I(: 4.832. S. 38.2%.832. as suggested in the translation.ma ana .a . [gi-mlir: .n u 6 a . pron.with (or without) the z m.ma (130) [ .+na pn-n&-~a Su-te-ra i-ba-a Sim-ti1% - - (138) +-Sn ppia hi-ma ha-tz~-nu-~na'~ si'-nza t a ' V u .i (128) [ E . ' K. . NO.tav .7 Su .m a t a .ha ha] ur .krt ha . TABLET 11.u p ." ( I 29) [UY . { [ a .36 ( I 27) CREATION SERIES.6 i .uk-na.832.mat ilZnilo mhilti*' ( I 34) s"ni?z ma .s V i . (131)[i&-d]u-7n[a bje-l11m a . ah-Su. . .h ( I 32) [el-Zi-i. 92. lib-ba-Sn-u-nza a-na a-bi-& 7-zak-har ( I 33) be lu7n iZanis Si .632.n a t e . ' K. el-li. n8 .559.u gign . ' K.a r n a l t S n ..di .tir gimiZ.baZ. 4.r i vzu dn . .832.z & i .i m No.k i .hu nzrt .i n .nu [?nu].nn (135) a-ham-me Ti-amat-ma" CL . No.7.h a 2 el-Zu3 .832 seems to have read [inla. 4. 40. . suffix:if the former. 4. [ilZ!~i]*'. or Pres. [ .un (136). ut-tak-kn is possibly Pres. the beginning of the line !nay perhaps be restored as [da-mi-ha]. 4. . Pie1 from rnpu. ' I<.2.i ] r .

40.559.559. ( 1 3 0 ) " For [thy blood shall not be poured out. ( 1 3 9 ) " May whatsoever I do remain unaltered. Destiny of the great gods. mi-inz. (iqo) " May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail. I-sh-ru Su-te-li-6a-' 16n~-lum. l5 No. 4 0 . (128) " Pacify [Tiamalt with thy pure incantation.559.559. 5 5 9 . 1. . in-ni-na~a. 4 0 . 1 3 6 reads: [ . ka-a-iu-nu-ma. 5 5 9 . -s']u-ukki. 4 c . . 4 . 1 3 7 reads: 1 . 'qK. "0. ( 1 3 6 ) " Appoint an assembly. No." " V n No." (?)I 40. ( 1 3 4 ) " If I. 292. 40.4 thou shalt return again. l4 No. " No. [T]i-amai-am-ma. 'Wnr"'. 5 5 9 . who knoweth all wisdom. " .( 1 2 7 ) " 0 my [son]. . 8 3 2 and No. your avenger." ( 1 3 1 ) T h e lord rejoiced at the word of his father. 5 5 9 . ( I zg) " Speedily set out upon thy way. ![a$!. (138) " With my word in place of you will I decree fate. 5 5 9 . make my fate pre-eminent. turn. 4 0 . . 40. 1.~-nil-kam mit-&a-~i-i: ha-di-ii ti-d-d[a]-ma. " [ A p p o i n t a n asjsembly.'' ( 1 3 7 ) " In UpSukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together. ' a In No. ( 1 3 5 ) " Conquer Tiamat and give you life. ( 1 3 2 ) His heart exulted. l6 NO. and unto his father he spalre : ( 1 3 3 ) " 0 Lord of the gods. 4 0 . make my fate preeminent and proclaim it. ' O K. dimal*.

3.6it . J3 ] ti-z:-bu-ru te-li-' {u-bi-ha a7za n~&-?*i-Ra~ ku . a Lines 2-4 are conjecturally restored. 31. t h e similar line spoken by Apsb when addressing Mummu i n Tablet I. . 14. . i. cf. this reading gives better sense." 82-9-18.me .ga suh . .[a-na""Marduk 7n~]'0-tir-rt~i-miI-Ii-J'~-7zu'~ Zi-s"i-7fzu s"iv~-ta'~ [a .na 9.s"a77~. .hall 2 . .i 6 ka .e.ma :3 I z. . .ga bud . 40. 3.na . .an Z i h]u . 3. etc. [""Ga .Zih] 'O '"'Ga . A ~ -far p a .nu i .I ..559. . . the duplicate is merely a practice-tablet containing extracts from the text.in 4. .ul i .n 10. I have retained the reading of I<. .7na z.403 + 6. see I<.ziz . .a .ti .Su . . [ 6. [a-na '"'Ga-ga ~uk-haZ-Zi]~-i'u a ~ n ~ a .ru . [~lzim-mu-u] l%-zah-ha-r~~-ha sir-un-nu-a ana l 4 fa-a-in-nu I I. As. which Gaga is directed t o bring from Labmu and Lahamu. for the restoration of 1.ti . 1. . and suggests the restoration [te-1?1 lib-62-ia]. " [The purpose of my heart] thou canst u~~derstand. 2 9 2 and No.316 reads ma-ah-n-lh. . as it is possible t o refer t h e phrase to a n answer t o t h e summons.[l]u7 l .473.Zum 7nu . Jensen compares 1.t u i-zak-ha?.e. [as". I.$ u .i. ''thou shalt bring before me" . [ . however. [a-na ""La&-mu u ""La-&]a2-muka-a-ta lu-uf-$ur-ira 5. - ' T h e first two words in the line are restored from t h e catch-line i n Tablet 11 .

' let them mix wine.316. a-nu. . 10." their avenger. ' Lines 8 and 9 are restored from 11. . 3. 133 and 1 3 4 . . " [Make ready for a feast]. .4 7." 82-9-18.e. hu-ru-un-nu. (and say) : I. etc. 4 0 3 6 . a 82-9-18. ' I [ . . Gnz-turn. . . . 8. " [ . ~u-~d-rni-. 81-9-18. 1.316. 3 1 6 . '' 82-9-18.Fu-nu i-21-&-ma. 1 . 'I K. 3 1 6 . " [Go. all of them. y e n s e n suggests the restoration [li-2-li-ku-u-ni iZ]8ninr. . his [mini~ter].' and [Unto Gaga].316.403 + 6. 'O Conjecturally restored. ] thou canst attain.403 6 . " [Unto Labmu and Lahlamu will I send thee. 3 1 6 . 1. repeat unto them. " [ . 4.' at a banquet let them sit. stand before them. " [Let them eat bread]. . 9. la 82-9-18. 1 .AnSar opened his mouth. reads Su-fn-nu. " [That for Marduk].. " [And all that] lo I tell thee. 6. + + + . " [0 Gaga. i. ] thou shalt cause to be brought before thee.]l0 Gaga. . . let] the gods. In-uf-6n. 5. I I . 4 0 3 6 . [gla-ah. they may decree the fate. gimiZli-fu-nu. " let the gods come. . 82-9-18. I z.437. 1. thou minis]ter2 that rejoicest my spirit.~ spalie the word : 3.403 + 6. . 1. 2.403 + 6. .

6.950. 74. " 82-9-18.rna :in . I2 82-9-..nu .ta .a s .u at . TABLET 111.h i .950.d am-tu hi-ma da-?r/iz0 zu-mur-fu-7zu z~S-nza-al-L[i]~~ 1. 82-9-18.ru ?it .. 1. im-mu.316. Urn . ' Restored from 1.n u .?at Is ha .Su . 6.h]u6 .' .868.[i] Is a pa . [ .z.8.gis" Lab . ledi-u-ni. 1. 23. [ t e .ma a5 .a i .ni'8 L z d .t i a-lit-ta-ni4 i-zip-ra-aiz-nu-Si" [urn-ma Ti-a]nzat3 [ p u .9ja. 6. 26.r a . US-rad-di ha-ah-hi la ma&-n' it-ta-lad sivriza&P["I ' 7 2s.d a . 82-9-18. 7 + + . ' 82-9-18. 6.a n . i.316.403 6..t u .mu .h a 16.[nza]I" 24.403 + 6.u& .&u .at .tu . 73.ru . 13.. etc. ] L i f . 9 2 . etc.a . za& . Restored from 1.9 .h r ] ' 14. a .@/L. 72. etc.Siln . i-du-&~. [a-ab-bu. elc.la . [ A n . 6.. Restored from I.f a a / . 6.un 1 8 . ' 82-9-18.ti .ma ilani g i . ma-ru-hu-nu u-nza-'-i-ra-an-?zi Z L . i-xi-iy-ra-an-na-a-li.rnir .f a .burl4 pa .r i l l 2 libhi-& 1 5.d i ?a a t .950 83-1-18.1 8 . 'O 82-9-18.n u t a b .bat 17.950. 1.n ii a . etc. is . ~ I U . Restored from 1.950.40 CIlEATION SERIES.

82. reads turn.' your son. " Restored from 1.950. etc. 83 . '' With those. etc. 6. 2V2-9-18. 14. " [ H e saith that Tia]mat3 our mother hath conceived a hatred for us.950. " [Angar]. <' They prepare for battle. 26. " [The purpose] of his heart he hath made known unto me. " They have joined their forces and are making war. " They are furious. " Ummu-uubur. etc. 6.. 23. da-me.950. '"estored from 1.. l5 82-9-18. 6. 24. 16. 80 . 2 5 .. l3 . she hath spawned monster-serpents.. 1 7 . hath sent me. and at the side of Tiamat they advance . 82-9-18. reads mu. Lines 26-32 have been restored from 11. they devise mischief without resting night and day. 82-9-18. 19. 82-9-18. " Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang. who formed all things. 2 0 . " With poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies. etc.950. 6.. 6. " [With all]' her force she rageth. whom ye created. etc. etc. 18. ti-in-na.950. " Hath made in addition weapons invincible. " They are banded together. bu-ur. 6. Restored from 1. etc. " All the gods have turned to her. 84-90. 2 1 . 1 5 . 81 . 6.13.950. pa-at 82-9-18.950. 82-9-18. " ~estored from 1... 2 2 . reads an-la-'-a[nz]. full of wrath. they g o at her side. fuming and raging .

a .'luI3 34.a6 s"ik . note 3 29.i Z a a-di-ru ta-&[a-zi] 36..d i .gal ba .a b .u d ] tam . 27. 16 f. 18.&a .t u ti-[bu-u a-iza-a~z-tzr] 41.[Sill1 .Su BE z/ '"'La . [nu-a].u-utpuhri] 40.b u .[ m i - i~?z] 30.as" kakk?" la pa .6a .tu . i-na iZaizi .m i d a .7ne 6 1 us"-das".6 . . us" . p. Restored from Tablet 11.42 CREATION SERIES.lam .r i m . Scc above. bu-uk-ri-Sa Su-ut is"-kun .ha .t i nzin-amZZn u ku-sa-rib-[.Si [pu-ah-ri] 39. na .Sa .Y Z L . TAliLET 1 1 1 .taz. [ f u .as' .mu ln?n R ~ i -rruS .t i ] ' See above.Zis" u-SaZ-biS-[ma] unz . [a]-Zi-hut ma&-ri pa-an um-~na-ni [mn-ir-~. note 5.[ha . ap$u-un-na-7na eS-tin eS-ri-tzrm Kima Su-a-tu US-tab-[Si] 37.a 29. I. me puZ-&a-a-ti e .zie 3 2 u . ZU-MUY-Su-nu LiS-tab-Ei-dam-ma Z a i-pzi-'-a i-rat-su-[un] 31. p. uSningaZZ~~' nu-ad-ru-u-ti 28.6a ZisW-Ear .mi? - nu Sar . % . k a k k ~ * ' V i .[lizi] &a6 - - n nn/iZ[u] 33.

39. [to lead the host]. 36. and dragons. 29. " Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attacli. ' I 4 J Lines 3 4 . " Among the gods who are her sons.?a-]a. hath she made eleven (monsters).q ~ have been rcstorcd from 11. " She hath exalted Kingu .1 0 3 K. 40. With splendour she hath declted them. '' And hurricanes. or [na-&]e. [To] give the battle-signal. and rams . 41. [nn-.vipers she hath clothed with " 28. 34.6ja. " [To direct] the battle. terror overcometh him. . 32. 6. none can resist them . 30. " Fierce monster . " Whoever beholdeth them. 38. without fear of the fight. inasmuch as he hat11 given her [support]. 35. 37. " She hath set up vipers. to advance [to the attack]. " T o march before the forces. " They bear merciless weapons. huge of stature. she hat11 made them of lofty stature. And mighty tempests. " Her commands are mighty. " After this fashion. in their midst she hath raised [him] to power.27. to co~ltrolthe [fight]. 31. llakkr~. and fish-men. terror. and scorpionmen. 33. and the (monster) Lahamu. and raging hounds. 9 2 .

I.285 .fa si' . ha-ta kiiiit-ka la in-nin-nu-a Li-kulz +it pi-i-[ha] ' 49. in-nu-nu '"'I<in-gu {'A US-&u-u li-ku-u 50 - ["'A-nu-ti]8 an Zp ildrii 5 I.285 readspi-i-Su." i. 42. . TAHLE'T 111. according to this reading. 52. K.ih .t[z .Ru . ha-'4.-- CREATION SEKIES. note 7). .i6 '7 K . Restored from 1. [ma]-li-ku-ut iLdni gi-7izir-[Su-nu ka-tuk-ka 45. p'm-rat-su-nu.ta pi . l'iamat addresses her followers in the second half of the line.i .z85 reads e-nr~-ti.mi.t u i .44 . rule. lu. Restored from Tablet 1 1 . b." a .ina &a. 45 . TK.] l1 Li .650. 42. 1.fur-6a . or we may suppose that in this line Tiamat addresses her followers and not Kingu (cf.650.bi.izi . No.f i ~ u-ie-Si-ba-US-[Su ina puhur ildni inu kar-ri] 43.du . ka-id-4[u]. p.?>za . K.[u at. " lordship.la .. 6. So No. 6.ha] uS-i~~al-Li] 44.ha nd'id inalUKit-lnn-rilG 9x4-ag-fa-ri lis' mb . "the word o f his mouth shall be established. ' Restored from Tablet 11.650. 44 docs not form part of Tiamat's speech.a . 6.Ra [u . '"'A-?zun-fzn-hi]' 48.r i 3 e . 6.650. I<.u ] . [ad. 52 f.ta] 46. I.n u 1 $ 'ii'Gibi114 is" . [Lu . 4 4 : No.6i.fu l2 mdu2*' . 104: the Annnnalri are possibly the subject of the sentence (see below.650 reads i-ra-a[f-su].+z.d ] i ta . note 8 ) .s'au.e. .' .. -~~ -~ -. li-ir-tab-bu-u ziR-ru-ka eli Kali-Sz~-iz[u .- 42 [z$-+id]-ma 44 .

kzf-mu-ra : 82-9-18. 93.403. her sons. 82-9-18. [thou] my chosen spouse. '"na is omitted by I<.017. No. fi-ma-/?: Restored from Tablet 11.017. etc. 46 .' " Now Kingu. 3.' " She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny. 93.6jo. 6. 42. 45. K. [ip-!]a. "GIS-BAR. K. " ' [Be] thou exalted. (saying) : " ' [I have] uttered thy spell. dominion over all the gods [have I " ' [The] entrusted unto thee]. and the word of [thy] ' mouth shall be established. 6. 6. . 50. on his breast she laid them. " K. 6. 46.0~7. 42.403 6. . ~ " Decreed the fate for the gods..650 and No. 93. in the assembly of the gods [I have raised thee to power]. " 'Whoso is exalted in the battle.285. 93. pi-ku-un. 47.285 reads ut-ti-u. o r US-fi-!am. 1.650 probably reads hit (not {if)-nu-lsc.017. '' + . pi-i-ku-nrr . 6. 'O * K. 6. IS No. etc. . 42. having received [the power of A ~ U ] .Si-ma-in. (saying): " ' Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god l4 . 52. 48. kit-mu-ru. No. Ii-9-n-ah-hi-2%. 1. in costly raiment] she hath made him sit. 49.316.42.017. " ' May they magnify thy name over all of [them .650. (thus) exalted. 1. ""BIL-GI . the Anunnalti]. min-?-{a . 43. 51. ma-ri-e-!a.473. No. 93. (saying) : " ' Thy command shall not be without avail. 44..017. I<. let him display (his) might ! ' " 93.650. K. No. and No. No.650 and No.285. Unto him [hath she entrusted .

TABLET I I I . Ti-amnt-am-ma. 42.mud i . as"-pur . 1. etc.403. 93.ra ar .017. etc. 82-9-18. lZ No.. 93.403.-~ - 53.28j.017. 1. li-ib.tu . 82-9-18. 1. Z a ut-CUR-kar mim 23 .403.mu . 82-9-18..nu .. ha-ar.nin . No. 82-9-18.dur . 1.017.urn I uZ i .dim . 82-9-18. etc. i-li-'-i: No.403.285.403. " 0 . 93.285. 93. ' O 82-9-18.Z u 6 iZ&i ? n a . and No.a 7na-/l~7. elc.~-.' . "'Nu ..bar ?a# . 1.tuvx a i in .na . 1. etc. Tam-tam-ma.r u . ma-ruk-ku-un. 42.Zi.& i f 5 5 5 .6an ..ti .46 CREATION SERIES. 42.72u . 42. and No.403.n se .650. etc.R u . No.nza "'A .403. 1.i r "'iMarduk n 6 . n'-z3. ai i . No. ' .017.u n ' 56. i[s'A-nt~m.285. etc. ma-ha-riS8 Ti-nnzntg Zib1o-6a-iu a . and 82-9-18. etc.m ub-La 62.. 1.a 54.ma i . 42.285. 82-9-18. Ti-a-ma-ti. ' No. ' . 42.k a l . i-du-ur-ma. mu-iir-ri.u a ..285. 6. No.403. i-Li-'-im ..in2" K. ip-Su pi-ia ki-ma ha-tu-nu-?nuz1 Ti-nza-tu Zzf-&n-ma 63.zf a-nu-ku 64. adkal.

1.285. " ' May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail. No. (saying) : 58. 42.448 + 83-r-18. your avenger. 56.403. 'N 442. 62. " Nudimmud was afraid and turned back. 42. 57. therefore.. but he could not withstand her .403. " N o . 61. " . ar-&i-if.285. ~ - No. " ' In Up5ukkinaliu seat yourselves joyfully together . 2%-ur. ie. 42.42. ham. etc. 55. " I sent Anu. ka-a-tu-un.403.017. " 'Appoint an assembly. " Hasten. " ' If I. make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.ku.017.017.. 82-9-18. di-ii.285 and 82-9-18.' 65. " But Marduli hath set out. l5 " N o . " ' May whatsoever I do remain unaltered. 1.403. ra.285. 93.fuk-nu-ma. 93. 47 5 3 . 82-9-18. your son . " ' Conquer Tiamat and give you life. z . r r6.403. 1. 59. 60. 54. etc.285. 23 82-9-1 8. mi-zlz. la No.. r. 42.i"-ma-tun1lu-Si-lin. '' 82-9-18. ha-a-iu-[nu-ma]..etc. etc. No. 1. mi-ii-ha-n-[is'].403. " 26 82-9-18.. etc. " ' With my word in place of you will 1 decree fate. and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow. the director of the gods. No.. " T o set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted (him). ia-as'-ha-ma. 63. etc. 20 N O . l6 82-9-18. 93. 1. 64..A X ~ A K ' SI N S T K U C T I O N S TO GAGA.285. etc. 5. 82-9-18.403. 1.lap-ti-i. " H e opened his mouth and spake unto me.

.

.. 42. 82-9-18. " With all her force she rageth. a1 ka.575. hath sent me. 1.017. 69. I<. " 8%-q-18. g then he stood up and spalte unto them. 1. ' 2 No.285. 77. 1. 74. 1.. and No. etc.285.403..403.575.8 70. " 82-9-18. " With those. your son.1 8 5. 42. i-zi-ir-ra-an-na-ti. " All the gods have turned to her.a-a.575. u-. YU.017.524 and I<. 8.. 42.28j.285. iz-zi-ir-rcan-na-a-ti. " They are banded together and at the sicle of Tiamat they advance . etc. 24 NO. 1. etc. i-di~-.017.403. 1. No. mi->.zQg. NO. 75. " 82-9-18. Gaga went. 76. [it-r]i-it libhi-&. 8. 73. " That he may go and fight your strong enemy ! " 67. whom ye created. 1. etc. " H e saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us.z. he took his way and 68.403. they go at her side.-hi?-an-xi. and No.. 42. 8. etc.448. Ti-amnf. u-nu-'-ira-an-[nil. 1..285. Ta-a-mu-ti. etc. " AnSar.403. full of wrath. '' No. rzid.403.GAGA GOES TO LAIJMU A N D LAIJAMU. H e humbled himself .nown unto me. l 3 8%-9-18. '' NO. and he kissed the ground at their feet. his fathers. '"2-9-18. etc. 8. H e made obeisance. &'-if. 82-9-18. 8i-i. 93. 42. 93.288. No. and No. le 6 i n i .. *" 82-9-18. thc gods.403. 7 2 " T h e purpose of his heart he hath made 1. 42. qz. Humbly before Labmu and Lahamu. 93. 49 66.403. (saying) : 71. 23 I<. la-ah. and 8 . i-da-a-fa.

zrn-hi-m-nu.ta . No. fin-at. Uvz .u 80.la .hu . No. lo No.u n i . No. sir-mnb. 93. 5.@u . us*. rn.in n i la pa . 4 ~ ~ 2 8 [i-ba]fz-nu-nza. 93.iIZ da-a-.Fa.1zi'3 zir-lizur.017. xu-mir-Su-nu18 lif-tah-&i-dai7z-l?za la i-xi-'-% irat-su-us f14 .m u .017. NO. 42.' .ri3 nn .du .285.a l . 8. .z?zi .nu .6n li .017. ' I<.~ z n .017.575 and No. No. 79. TABLET 111. 42. unken-. " No.i& . 93.za 5 tanz .017. zak . ~~zu-.rad .za7? .d i .6zr Sit-hu-nu-71ra i .z85 reads in-nf-'-i~iz. 93.m a Sq.285. q3. la-a6-611. W o . No.iilz 88. fin-mu. a scribal error for at-ta-'-irn.285.hzr . 17ZU.f u . W o . 42.285 and No.01i.mnh-i.m i r - s'nr .l i ' ~ - 87. 42.-s'u-zzz1" u ~ .u Qsu La6 .6ur pa 82. turn.ti' 81. ' No. na .t85.maq hahhz*J la flznb-ri 'o it-tn-lad sinizaha"" 83.ha .185.pz-ta hiiiza . 93.t u .nu 42. i.50 CREATION SEIIIES.a . a .&ar . szi. qz. qz. kiikku la ma-liar. NO.ha .ban .ti - hat8 Ka - Z a .

she hath spawned monster-serpents. 88. " She hath set up vipers. " And hurricanes. im-fu ki-ma da-711i. and raging hounds. " Their bodies rear up and none call withstand their attack. 93. who formed all things. 85. 82. terror overcometh him. 42. note 3. pul-ba-fa. 42. 83. fuming and raging . " K.524. they devise mischief without resting. of fang. *' No. 93. No.017. la. 80. " Hath made in addition weapons invincible. No. No. s1 They are furious. " Fierce monster-vipers she hat11 clothed with terror. "'SIR-RU~"'. 8.night and day. 93. 79.GAL*^ U R . l3 l4 . p. No.017.017.285. " They have joined their forces and are making war. and the (monster) Lahamu. e-lis".GAGA'S MESSAGE. " Sharp of tooth and n~erciless 84. see above. p. and scorpionmen. zu-mur-iu-nu. " Whoever beholdeth them.017. 42. "' With poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies. see above.5~4. " With splendour she hath decked them.R E * ~ . 1 6 f." 87. [u]m-fall-ti-il. Ls No.. 81. 18. 20 NO. note 5. " They prepare for battle. " Ummu-Hubur. for the ideogram UR-BE. 89. . UD. 93. and dragons. she hat11 made them of lofty stature. 86. ' q X.285.285 seems to have had a variant reading. " 78. go.

017 reads ~ ~ [ e r a s u r e ] . I.Y I I tn .-ru-ut puhl-i 98. na . NO. I n t h e parallel passage in 1.017.6%.' 97.ri 7 99. kali)- .0r7. b . 93.&ar Si . No.&a .1 < 1 .0'7. nn-Je-e k a k k r ~ . 93.ax" KakKi"o ti-c-bu-tu te . ina.017. na .tu ra . a-Zi-ku-ut mab-ri"a-an urn-ma-izi 7izu-i?.ti tam .ud loo. a-ii-iiz~i ma-liar.tus'.an . 93. 93. I<. No.ma ka . TABLET . 29.u a . 93. 93. I 9 2 .r 94.ka . u-fa-as'-hi '"'Kin-fu ina bi-rz-iu-nz~?a-a-in US-rn6-hi-iJ.e. 6 ~ o reads KAK (i. gab .nn .tu .kid .zi 93. ' No.izn . NO. No. 1". Su . No.bn .Ju u-s'e-Si-bn-a.ax" k ~ k h 2 " ~la pa-di-i la a .52 CI~EATION SERIES.017: kak-Ru. ma-li-kut il&i ~iliz-vat-su-nu pa-tuk-ha US-mnl-Zi ' Restored from Tablet 11.Sa te .7na if-ti12 es'-]-it hi-7izn s'u-a-tn nf-tab-Si 96.a6 i i h . 46. up-pu-un-nu-inn -I -a la 1 7 z a . ip . njpu-7zn-111u.017.-fu inn kar-ri 102.di . 93.

98. in costly raiment she hath made him sit. 47. (saying) : 91. and [rams] . The Anunnaki are possibly the subject of the sentence. Line 105 has been restored from 1. 96. thou my chosen spouse. " T o direct the battle. " She hath exalted Kingu . hat11 she made eleven (monsters). . " T o give the battle-signal. . 53 And mighty tempests. " T o march before the forces. and fish . huge of stature. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power. " Among the gods who are her sons. " ' I have uttered thy spell. the Anunna[ki]. 102. 93. to advance to the attack. '' Unto him hath she entrusted . " ' May they magnify thy name over all of them . . to lead the host. to control the fight. loo. " ' T h e dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee. inasmuch as he hath given her support. 92. I n the present line on No. in their midst she hath raised him to power. 93. on [his] breast [she laid them]. 94. " H e r commands are mighty. without fear of the fight. . . 1. " {n-n[u . " She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny. 97.men.GAGA'S MESSAGE. " They bear merciless weapons. none can resist them . (saying) : 101. 99.017 there are traces of kali-&-nu followed by traces of two signs and by the word ""A-nun-nu-[ki]which ends the line. . 95.' 105. " After this fashion. 104. 1 0 3 " ' Be thou exalted.

ma .bi.anzat l'i[6-6a-s'u a .ru .ku . ma . la nt-tak-har mim-m[u]-n a-ban-nu-u [a-lza-ku] I zz. 11. 106.t i ] I 19.katn .ra a-na u6 .54 CREATION SERIES.p u - I [ di-pw-u I 10. nri'id i~za kit-mu-ru 7~za-ag-S[a-ri [is'.&a .nr[n u .!u . ip-fu pi-i-Su [i-tu-ma-a I 16.ni7z .ti .48-jo and Tablet 11.ma i .tur [ai in] . Snk-nu-a-ma pu-u/z-rn S[u .ma '"'A-nu-unz u2 i-[Zi-' .ti . in-na-nu ""Kin-.a 7nn -bar .ia] Lines 106-108 have been restored from 11. [a]i i .i r ""Marduk ab . ha-ta &ibit-ka Z a in-nin-[na-a li-knn +it pi-i-ha]' '"'A-lzu-ti] 107.kad .bar [in$ . .[iu .d i .un] I 14.7ne T i . ' .mud e . i-na Up-Sn-ukkin-na-hi mi[t-ha-rir* &a-dis" tnS-bn-vzn] 120.n izin . TABLET 111.6 a l .ib] I I I.kii"] I I 3. 2)-!n pi-in ki-nza k[a-ti6-nu-ma s'i-ma-tu Zu-Silrz-vza] 121. as'-par.ku .ma I 17.ris' Ti .dur . k n .ba .diin .[Zu i]ZZ[7zi mu .fa] I 12.?a6 .nziZ. Sum .tir g i . 44-46.uw] I 18. a-7za-ku [ntu .7za .anzat . ""Nu .m ar .la] ia-a-ti] 115.Z L I ~ ] a .la.a se .ra i .

122. I 12. " ' I n Upiulikinaku [seat yourselves joyfully together] . " I sent Anu. 108. " T o set out against Tiamat [his heart hath prompted (him)]. " ' With my word in place of [you will I decree fate]. " Nudimmud was afraid and [turned bacli]. [and the word of thy mouth shall be established]. " 'Appoint an assembly. the director of the [gods. but he could not [withstand her] . . " [Decreed the fate] for the gods.' ' 107. her sons. I I 5. " - ' Lines 109-1 24 have been rcstored lrom 11. I 18.(thus) exalted. [make my fate preeminent and proclaim it]. I 14. your son] . [your avenger]. [having received the power of Anu]. " ' May whatsoever [I] do remain unaltered.' 106. I 20. " But Marduk hath set out. (saying) : 109. I 10. " ' Let the opening of your mouth [quench12 the Fire-god . 119. " ' May the word of [my lips] never be changed nor made of no avail. " ' If I. 5 1-66. " H e opened his mouth [and spake unto me]. I I 7.' Thy command shall not be without avail. " Now Kit~gu. 1 2 1 . 113. (saying) : I 16. " ' Whoso is exalted in the battle. [let him display] (his) might ! ' I I I. " ' Conquer Tiamai and [give you life].

i d - du - Sum - ma 2. ma-&a-ri-is' ab-bi-e-ju 3. at - ta - ma ha6 - ta - ta 4. Si-mat-ha L a fa-na-an 5. " u M a ~ d ~ ~ ha6 k - ta - ta
I.

'

pa - rah ru - bz~- til~r' a-na liza-Zi-ku-tzn~ iy-me" i - lza iL&zi ra - 6u - tuln se - &-a?- ka ""A - izzun i - na iieizi ra - bu - tunz

se - kar - ka '"'A - num 6. fi-mat-ka L a fa-nu-art 7. is"-& u - m i - i m - m a la i n - n i x - n u - a k i - B i t - k a
8. s'u-us'-&-u-u u s'u-us'-pu-Lu s'i-i l u - u g n - a t - k a 9. L hi-nu-at si-it pi-i-ka L a sa-m-ar se-hay-ha
10.ma-am-ma-an

i-na i h n i

i - tuk - ha

la

it - ti - i4

I I.
I 2.

za - na - nu - tunz i r -Sat a - far sa - gi - Su - nu at - ta - ma ni-id-din-ka a t

pa - yak i h n i - ma Lu-u Ku-nu as"- YU - uk - ka mu - tir - ru g i - ?nil- Z i - n i k i f - ?at kaZ gi7n - r i - e - t i lu - u Sa -ga - tn a-?nut-ka

13. 14.
I 5.

'*"Marduk

ti-Sam-tna i-na pu-bur3

T h e catch-line on the Third Tablet, preserved by I<.3,473, etc., reads ru-bu-u-fi. T h e lines which follow contain the words addressed by the gods to Marduk, alter he had taken his seat in their presence.

They prepared for him a lordly chamber, 2. Before his fathers as prince he tooli his place.' 3. " Thou art chiefest among the great gods, 4. " Thy fate is unequalled, thy word is Ailu ! 5. " 0 Marduk, thou art chiefest among the great gods, 6. " Thy fate is unequalled, thy word is Anu ! 7. "Henceforth not without avail shall be thy command, 8. " In thy power shall it be to exalt and to abase. 9. " Established shall be the word of thy mouth, irresistible shall be thy command ; 10." None among the gods shall transgress thy boundary. I I . " Abundance, the desire of the shrines of the gods, 1 2 . " Shall be established in thy sanctuary, even though they lack (offerings). I 3. " 0 Marduk, thou art our avenger ! 14. " W e give thee sovereignty over the whole world. 15. " Sit thou down in night,^ be exalted in thy command. 16. " Thy weapon shall never lose its power, it shall crush thy foe.
I.
,

This is preferable to the rendering "talre thy seat in the assembly (of the gods)"; for the other gods tiad an equal right to sit in the assembly.

60

CREATION SERIES, TABLET IV.

17. be - Zum Sa tak - lu - ha

na -pi?- ta - i u g i - mil- ma nap Sat - su

18. u ilu {a livz-ni-e-ti i-Eu-zu tu - 6%- uk

-

19. us"- z i - zu - 7na i - nn bi-ri-Su-nu lu ba - s ' u ii" ten 20. a-nu '"'Mavduh bu-uk-ri-&-nu 1 % nu iz zak ru 21. Si mat - K a be - Zuin Lu-u nzab-ra-at ilani-ma

-

-

-

-

-

23. $ Sa ji - i - Ka Zi ' a 24. tu - uv h i - bi - Sum 7na Z u ba

-

-

- -

- bit Z u - ba - S 7 4 - Sn li - is" - liln
bit Z u

25.

i k - 6 i - m a i-na p i - i - i u

' - a

-

-

ba

-

Su

26.

i - tu - uv ik - bi - "urn - ma lu - ba

-

Su it

- tab

- ni
uu

27. hi - ma si - it pi - i - Su i-mu-ru
28.

iZ&i

ab-bi-e-szl Say

ih -

du

-

ZL

ik

- vu
pu

-

6 2 1 'is'Ma~a'nk ma

-

zg. u

- us -

si -

- s'zl
L a

*" /za;[a

'*"ktrss&u pala(a)1

30. id-di-nu-&

Kah-ku

ma-a&-m da-'-i-6% za-ai-ri

a Lih ma s"a T i - amat nap-fa-tu-us" pu-vu-'-mas 32. {a-a-ru da-mi-& a-nu pu - u z - 7,a -turn L i - biz- Z u ni
31.

-

-

-

T h e translation o f p a l 2 as "ring" is provisional; the pale was certainly a symbol of power.

THE GODS CONFER POWER O N MARDUIC.

61

0 lord, spare 'the life of him that putteth his trust in thee, 18. " But as for the god who began the rebellion, pour out his life." 19. Then set they in their midst a garment, 20. And unto Marduk their first-born they spake : 21. " May thy fate, 0 lord, be supreme among the gods, 2 2 . " T o destroy and to create ; speak thou the word, and (thy command) shall be fulfilled. 23. " Command now and let the garment vanish ; 24. " And speali the word agxin and let the garment reappear ! " 25. Then he spake with his mouth, and the garment vanished ; 26. Again he commanded it, and the garment reappeared. 27. When the gods, his fathers, beheld (the fulfilment of) his word, 28. They rejoiced, and they did homage (unto him, saying), " Marduk is king! " 29. They bestowed upon him the sceptre, and the throne, and the ring,' 30. They give him an invincible weapon, which overwhelmeth the foe. 31. " Go, and cut off the life of Tiamat,' 32. " And let the wind carry her blood into secret places."
17.
"

Lines 3 1 and 3 2 contain the final address o l the gods to Mardult before he armed for the fight.

62

CREATION SERIES, TABLET I V

35. ib - si'm - 7na

*"$mWta

kak

- ha - &L

u

-

36. muL-mu[-Zuml &-tar-hi-bn u - kin - fu ha nu 37. is" S i - ma *"7ni!ta4 i t f z - n a - i u u - k - h i - i a 3 8. ' " ha{la u "'"""i{-$a-turn 5 i - du - us' - fu f i-Z u-u Z G

-

- nt ad

di

kZil-bis' 2 - a t l ~ a t " 41. i - p u - U S - 7na sa - p a - ra fn1-~IZU-u

39. is" kun bi - i r - +u 7 i - 7za pa n i - Su 40. nab-Zu 8 mus"- ta/Z - 7ni9-!u zu - ~ U T fu r~m-fa-aZ-la lo

-

42. ir-bit-ti fa-a-ri12 u!-te-i:-hi-ta ana L a a-{i-e ~ ~ z ~ ~ P z - I I z ~ - & ' ~

44. i-du-us' sa-)n-ral4 z~f-talc-ri-ba ' 5 hi-it-ii abi-fu ' 0 '"'A-ni7n
4 j. ib-ni im-&uZ-Za ;Era lim-nn '7 me-/la-ala a-s'n77z-s'?~-trim

I<. 3,437, etc.. ;i. T h e scribe of No. 93,016 does not make a clear distinction between the signs 4a and ma, and it is possible that the word is ma-at-nu; its meaning is not certain. K. 3,437, etc., mi!-[a. "I(. 3,437, etc., omits the delerminative. K. 3,437, etc., i-lul. K. 3,437, etc., and 79-7-8, " 5 1 , NUM-GIR, i.e. 621.81~. R. 3,437, etc., and 79-7-8, 2 5 1 , In. lo I<. 3.437, ctc., u77z-inl-li. I<. 3,437, etc., me. No. 93,016, ki[r]-6ril-ifTam-fi?n. No. 93 ,o I 6, lili//inz(/ii~z) &Z~.ip'.

' I<. 3,437, etc., omits lum.

"

34. 41. Me made a net to enclose the inward parts of Tiamat.q3. The bow and the quiver he hung at his side. 93.051. ' W o . [a. and the whirlwind. and the hurricane. 38. in his right hand hegrasped (it). After uf-tak-n-6a.b]211[u] " No. 93. No. H e set the lightning in front of him. No. .MARDUK ARMS FOR BATTLE.051 reads a-na[ . and the wind which had no equal . VIIdi-inz. With burning flame he filled his body. The South wind and the North wind and the East wind and the West wind 44. " NO. . They caused him to set out on a path of prosperity and success. 93. o r 6 . 42. H e created the evil wind. and the sevenfold wind." and not as the name of a separate wind. he chose his weapon. 46. H e raised theclub. 36. l3 'j .051. mi-im-me-&. No. 93. And the fourfold wind. 45. 63 33. 43. ID No. For IM-NU-DI-A. The four winds he stationed so that nothing of her might escape . . 39. the gift of his father Anu. 37. 40. "the evil wind.051. i. 93. " No. for the list only comprises seven winds (cf. . H e made ready the bow. 93.osr reads IN-DI-A-NU-DI~LA]. 35. 9 3 . H e brought near to the net. ric.-hul-la.e.. 1." and the tempest.016. Sa-ar Iim-nu. H e slung a spear upon him and fastencd it .og1. 47). This phrase must be taken as a n explanation of zn. 1. After the gods his fathers had decreed for the lord his fate. f~fe-ht~-u.

{a-a. y3. NO.t u u z 56.k z ~ .zr.051.051.05 I .iu. TABLET IV.. 93.a < . "0. 93.051. reads u-mu.ZI$ ma - No.051. .d [ i ] ~ ' pul-&-ti [/la]. . SWN..437. c g l . " No.051.051. .h a [ t ] z ~ . Su-me-la u [im-na 57. . ir-ka-ab. " NO. Marduk is represented driving the storm a s his chariot. i-du-t~S-lu i-la-ul. 6u. . [Air-hi-i].SZL ~a6ii(n) 6 n'8 50. etc.ZILI?~ a . film. q j .6u . . 1 ~ . 93.ojr reads [ . only one sign is wanting lly from the beginning of the line.64 CREATION SERIES. ?" narhabkz u . 1-gi-. ]-a . 93.mu' la ma&- ga-lit-fa9i7*-/m6' 0 55.u n .ri.05I. . and this reading is supported by the duplicate No. 93.051. l 3 No. drawn by fiery steeds. 93. " a storm. NO. I n No. and this is c o ~ i j e c t ~ ~ r arestored I a . 93. . e ] i ~ . . ' K . .051. nl=ki-. finA-kn-:u ra-fin-a-am. 93. No. ?za-a/z-L[r@-ii-Yu. ' No. 49.ba - Rakha . No. 93. . ] . kc.051. 93. No. ] . ZVna-a. l2 No. .ti i-pat t [ u . 93. . 3.OjI. [ . 93.-ma-du. " a construction".a n m ." not {ihzlz. is'-s'i vza be . .

His garment was [ . [l]a-arm]-d[u]. "casting down.ferocious. T o disturb the inward parts of Tiamat. .05 I . H e harnessed and yolced unto it four horses. 54. . 56. 57." '" No. [ . " No. . . the storm ' unequalled for terror. T h e n the lord raised the thunderbolt.. ~d mounted the chariot. . 93. Left and [right . . kam2ra. T h e new duplicate disproves the restorations which have previously been suggested. Jensen. ].437. 3. '' Delitzsch suggests the restoration. gives traces of i. 53.051. [rnalZ rG]ti. . . D e s t r u ~ t i v e . . turn. . '~ overwhelming.051. .mighty in battle. "full of slaver. !u. . 50. their suggested restorations differ accordingly. . . " galloping " . 1. they were flecked with foam . 48. ]I6 were their teeth. They were skilled in [ . . . the seven of them . 5 . . 93. 49.'' they had been trained to trample underfoot. he was clothed with terror. [ . . Delitzsch suggests t h e restoration lascma. pace . 93." lo K. and by Jensen as referring t o t h e horses .47. as I u in the transliteration. l5 NO.. Lines 55 and 56 are talien by Delitzsch as referring to MarduL. . 55. . 1. etc. H e sent forth the winds which he had created. his mighty weapon. 5 I . they followed after him. . and swift of 52.

a g u .u .66 CREATION S E R I E S .n a n .S u 63. see above. "he verb is possibly not to be taken from nalilu. .Sir ." If.ti i . 1 .m i .u . .l u ~ n &ah-lu-us' T i .a -?no.n a f a $ .S il51zi u~ i-tul-lu-iu 64.lam .f [ i ] fa l u l . but should perhaps be transliterated 2-duZ-ZU-&L. r 3 .[ p n a ] .p i .a ilani z .& i . It is possible that more than two signs are wanting. .a . it-&i-ma he .us". . There is just room upon the tablet for this restoration.i m .Su i f kun 61.f u i .te . note I I .i-na Sap-ti[ . Jensen reads fanz-mi-lin tn-m[i]-i. . u .m e . .?u i . however. .ma [bar-m-an-& n]7.ir r [ a ].? a .knl . 7ne .Su sah .t i l o .l a . T A B L E T ITr. fa and i are parts of the same word it is certain that at least two signs are wanting between them. i . as'.nzi . p. . us".ris" Ti-a7~zai [fa ag] % g a t pa -uu-us".m i . In the broken portion of the line thcre is not room for more than three signs.i & / a & . [ild-di-[ .SZL ' .-&a-S1~u-Jar-di-nza 60. ilriui a62 . 65.h a / s a y .t a [ .{ z ~-l lu . 18 Ti-amat ZLZ t . i . 58.hay .Su .i 4 t a .z ! .t [ z ~ l ] .hi-Sad-sn 72.I ' a plant of magical power.lu 62.r i 71.l z ~ . 1' .Su 59.

377). And towards the [ragling Tiamat he set his face. -4s (Marduk) gazed. Lit. . she turned not her neclc. 70. 67.. 6j. . lo Lit. Zul-la-a is probably Perm. The first sign in the line seems to be id. 1. 61.. note z. And the gods. "that were full" . <'she held fast rebellion. 60. But Tiamat [ . he toolc his way. p. With overpowering brightness his head WJS crowned. . . her 5pouse. Beheld their leader's [ . 66. not more than one sign is wanting before it. H e perceived the muttering6 of Kingu. the gods beheld him. he gazed upon the inward parts of Tiamat. O n his lips he held [ . . H-W-B. And the lord drew nigh. 63. 71. 64. 72. who marched by his side. 69. . . the gods bellelcl him. [ . l 4 he grasped in his hand. sign is am or bar. . . 68. T h e n they beheldS him. 59. his helpers.' See above. 1. . 1 2 . . 62.. (Kingu) was troubled in his gait. Pie1 from lala (cf. 67 58. and their sight was troubled. T h e n he set out. His will was destroyed and his motions ceased. p." ' The .MAI<DUI< SETS OUT. T h e gods his fathers beheld him. With lips that failed not "he uttered rebellious words : lo I. there is not mare than one sign wanting.

. . the meaning of Tiamat's taunt is not quite clear. '"'ZCin-g]u8 a ./iu . ] .[ 83. Li7n-n]i-e-ti . [as"]. .bu . Ti]4-amaL Sa 2-nzi-lu hi-a-am iS-pur-Si 78. .a : " " A n . . . Probably restore [at-&ma ral-lin-a-ti. . cf.[ 80. ' Possibly restore [u-bi-lu lib]-fin-hi-ma.e . . . ma be .ruk . . .ka 75. .t i 1 o . . .t [ i " h i ] . TABLET IV.r u . . [ 84. . [ . .r i 7 r i .[ .6a hakka - . [Ln ?]a-an-da-at um-mat-hi L u pit-ku-su Su-nu knkkaP'-ki One sign is wanting at the beginning of the line. Possibly restore [a-na Ti]-amat.d a .1% rahi(a) . [ i s " Si] 76. As the beginning of I.' . [ - . .e . 7 3 is wanting. . i L ] Z f ~ i ' ~a62(e)-a t e . . [ 8z. ] ah#-{%-nu i .s". .u a p a . 73. . ] ' Sa be .ru .[ .[ 79. . . . . . 1-1% a .nu as" .luin a . . 1-s"n--n t a . [ . 37.n u .usv-Su .m .Zuz*m iL&zi ti-6%-ka 74.ru Su . .' .68 CREATION SERIES. ] . 1-ta-[ .un ip . Conjectural restoration .z i . .n a h a . ]"-a-hi-ma di-Ki a-na-an-[ti] .maL' L~-inut-ta-/Lz'~tuk-ti~z-ni 85. . and there are traces of three signs after La. [ 81. . 1.

l 3 I<. Then the lord [raised] the thunderbolt. even as Anu. [And againstI4 Tiamat. ] thou hatest [ .i n . cf. . . their fathers [ . 76. " [Thou hast exalted Kinglu to be [thy] spouse. " And thy [heart hath prompted]' thee to call to battle. " k n d [against]' the . 78. in thy place are they ! " 75. ] him. and the parallel passages in Tablets 11 and 1 1 1 . . ha-a-<u. " [Thou hast . . 74. 82. . . 83. Tablet I . . 5 . he should issue decrees. " [ . . let thy weapons be girded on ! 86.-ki . 1. I<. " [ThouI5 art become great. 1. thou hast exalted thyself on high. ] their [ . _ 1. let us join battle ! " 1 ""Z<in-Q]u. 128 and 135. fa-air-n'. . . j4 . . 5. K. " [ . . 4 z o c . . 80. 5 . 79. ' K. . 5 . 85. . .gods my fathers thou hast contrived thy wicked plan. . . "'A-[ . " [ . .+ZOC. thus he sent (the word) : 77. who was raging. " [ . 9 3 . 69 73. 81. fe-ei-[ . 4 2 0 ~ . . " Stand ! I and thou. o s I. . .MARDUIC REPROACHES TIAMAT. " From their places have they gathered. 4 z o c gives traces of ti. " Let then thy host be equipped. '' Probably restore [a-nu illani. that.4ZOC. li. ] thou hast followed after evil. S. ' Possibly restore [tu-Sa-a. . NO. 84. 1 thy coming as lord of the gods. his mighty weapon. 11. 1.

anzat Sit .051.te .ru . No.t i ' V k r # * ' kar .fa u . 1.fa .&a u . 93.ojr.a .ta 90.nu . ip-te . nu. 93. is .ma pi .bi .a .ma Ti .tawz sap ti-frr '4 99. No.Sis"6 ma . ' No.f ~ ' ~ 98. 93.ci .as'.bu a6hab ilkni*' ""Ma7~tuk 94.p i . ii-ri.[Sa] 91.Z i .wza pn .da .me{ kit . NO.si .n i S i p .sn kir .te . TABLET IV.ra ir*.nin .en .712n 100.i . ma4 &u . 0 5 ~ ri-i!.e-nre-e-s'u. it-l-u-1.i a .algzat an .6n '" ~p ' No.amat it .m i 3 89./if7 it .05 1.ma T i .Sa 88. [li-i].a . 93. 93. i7z .05 1 ...tisV2 i .ba .f a 1 u {a an n i 4 ?e .93.mi .m s .n i . i& .102.suh ?nu2.na fe .fa T i .ta i . T i .ha .r i .t a . tn-a-!u. ?uv .051. im-hnl-Za us".' .bat .2~ I~-IJ~-LI-S~L.r I.na / a . inn .amat a .7nul . ?a .n i .Sal .rit5 e .mu .fa i . .:a .&ax Zib .m a n .? z a 7 n . [fi-q.70 CREATION SERIES.nza . me.051. in .Zi< Z i 6 .o.Z a ha .051.t a i t . 93. i .a . 93. ' No. No.ii 97. 9 3 .ba a-7za la ha . 87.te .ti6 .Sa /IS-pal-k i 101.6u ta .ru .d i t a .t z .aZ. " 0 .ti . iz .[ S a I Y - 93.zu . NO.d7~.

98. 90. T o the fight they came on. Then advanced Tiamat and Marduk. 71 When Tiamat heard these words. 93.TI-IE DEATH OF TIAMAT. 5.051. su.i?-'-a-lu . The lord spread out his net and caught her. ~ . + z o cme. . and her mouth she opened wide. H e severed her inward parts. ~ . he pierced (her) heart. -?]a-a-lu. kak-ki-JIL. to the battle they drew nigh. T h e terrible winds filled her belly. {a. H e overcame her and cut off her life . And her courage was talien from her. . 94. 99. She recited an incantation. + z o ch . loo. " '.051. s. She was like one possessed. the counsellor of the gods . 97. while as yet she had not shut her lips. [ . H e drove it1 the evil wind. 96. m. c. . 93. " " l3 K. 95.4Zoc. 103. 91. No. And the evil wind that was behind (him) he let loose in her face. . She trembled and shook to her very foundations. I O I .qzoc. u-. ~ z ola. " No. K. ~ . As Tiamat opened her mouth to its full extent. Tiamat uttered wild. I i 5. 102. 89. she pronounced her spell. K. she lost her reason. And the gods of the battle cried out for their weapons. 92.4206. 93. K. 88. '=K. piercing cries. 87. H e seized the spear and burst her belly. .

US-bu.nn u .b u r . "standing in the /. [el .na .1.nu . di-. 4 2 0 0 ~ and 79-7-8.i n 107 u ilzni r i .24 k i .s"a a .u is-sa$-b~z z .su . n nab-ni-ti Suizcnt pul-&a-ti i-. al-hat-SU-11%.hzS H 5.and ma-lu-u. TABLET IV. I t is possible that the first word is a verb in t h e Permansive. they were filled with lamentation. a I<. I<. we cannot therefore read [as]-Rup.i p r i . .d u . parallel t o na-du.+zoc.fa-lan-. we may perhaps read [in]-du.rit .d i .sir .s"u .hu i-za-za2 i . 5. ~ . 5.tu T i . 5 . s ~ .a-nu Z ~ F la-lam-luS.72 CREATION SERIES.and translate t h e line.n i 106 R i .Sa I I I.wza kahke*'. ." ' K. 104.amat a -22 pa .Z i . T h e sign begins with a single horizontal wedge. iz-xi-za.bir r 1 2 .~ n a ha-ma-?is' us"-6u I 14. X. ~ z o c z~-~11/1-hi-ra . Se .a1 zd-da-a eZi-Sa 105 u l .Su .ti .suk .l.i-ra p u .ten a es"-rit -n -a ha .p a .&b .s h up-tar-7.4ZOOC.su is".Zu .r i S n a .

There a& traces of at least three signs betwccn ka and the last sign but one in the line.437. They took to flight to save their lives . 112. who marched at h e r [ . 105. Her might was broken. But they were surrounded. etc. .L A L . the leader. the line begins: T E . i. their strength [he . I I I. And on the eleven creatures which she had filled with the power of striking terror. H e brought affliction. In the net they were caught and in the snare they sat down.THE ROUT OF TIIE REBEL IlOST. 5. H e took them captive. 3. they were held in bondage. the sign which follows ti is $[a]. I I 7.016 . and turned back. of the world they filled with cries of grief. The [ . Upon the troop of devils. So I<. who marched by her side. And the gods her helpers. 106. or $ [ a ] . 1. 113.h 1 6 . her host was scattered. which is [nli. Trembled. They received punishment from him. . Them and their opposition he trampled under his feet. . ] . 93. lo I think there is no doubt that the sign is us. 107 H e cast down her body and stood upon it. . ] . 73 104. . I 10. he broke their weapons . When he had slain Tiarnat. fa12?gL. 114. 108. 116. ' I n No. and were afraid. . in K. 93. 115.e.420~. .016. so that they could not escape. No. it-fa-ad-d[i]. 109. I 18. $ [ a ] . or [ i l r ..

u 1 z rzo.' dug u .7rzu .hi .u& 124. a i . u " " I f i n .bu .&a .liil Rm.' i2 I a .r i . si-ri-isr" Ti-airrat rzg.l u ~ n s'a Ti-n-n~a-tunz'~ i-3-sa pa-di-i zd . 1. 83." . T h e sign is clearly written and is {u. .f a -pu .ma 130.tu .us'Qt . ~ . . zk-nzi-fu-ma it-ti "'Dug-ga(-)e . l a si-m[al.us .nut .ua-a-[ . TABLET IV. a ir-tab-bu-u' ina [ e 2 .74 CKEATION SERIES. I nzut ta . rrg.. . 83.is" be . T h e beginning of the sign e is preserved by I<. iy-tadu-u. ik .p a r .2.l i ] .u s'a ik-mu-u i .g u .& . not la as Uelilzsch and Jensen transliterate i t .bu7 I25. t h e end of the line may perhaps be restolcd a s J'ir-a-[A] rin-ni-Iu.u Su-ri-hiiz ir-nit-ti An-s'ar e l izn-ki-ru "a-li-iS u f -s i . q z o c .tz~ .t i 71zu.u& .ra ar . i-na mz-(i-fu la 131. ' Rm. ]in-nz-su rzz. z. ' .7zu a-na pu-uz-rat usv-t a . ." .a .z i ~ - - 26.ma usv-la-at da-~ni-?a ta . ni-is-mat ""Nu-dinz-7nlrd ik-s'u-du "' Mal-dz~k kar-du 127. e-li i i Ka-m~-tunz'~si-bit-ta-fu u-dan-nilz-nza 128. i-na hi-sib-bi ik-nu-K~IIZ-nzazl.

. And had made the arrogant foe even like . he returned. 2 . 1 2 9 . i/2ni kc-nu-u-ti. 1 2 6 . I . 83. eli nu-ki-ri. 75 19. z . ' Km. and they rejoiccd and were glad . mul. * " R m . whom he had conquered.la-du. T L . 2 . 83. [ T ] i . 83. 1 2 2 . z. 87.MARDUIC R E T U R N S T O TIAMAT. 1 2 7 . 2.u [ a u l ] 4 . Over the captive gods he strengthened his durance. l 3 Rm. . H e conquered.i~z-nGe-iu. 1 3 2 . 1 2 8 . H e took from him the Tablets of Dcstiny that were not rightly his. Now after the hero Mardulc had conquered and cast down his enemies. and with the god Dug-ga he counted him. Rm.u . Rm. And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places. 2 . H e sealed them with a seal and in his own breast he laid them. who had been exalted over them. 1 2 3 . And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts. /. His fathers beheld.~ ~ .I I L G . 1 3 1 . 81. 8. ir-tui. Moreover. 1 2 4 . llm. 2. 1 2 0 . Rw. 1 2 j .. z.. 1 2 1 . 62: '"m. 83. And unto Tiamat. 133. Icingu. 3 0 And with his merciless club he smashed her skull.'probably read [a-d]~. z. H e cut through the channels of her blood. 83. And had attained the purpose of Nudimmud. Rm. 83. And had fully established Aniar's triumph over the enemy. .

Snv . uJ-tarn-hi-ir mi-ih-?at apsZ Su .U S -Su u hi .bi .zu i-ban-nu-a nih . '"'A-num '"'6i2 u '"'E-a - apsi bi .ti - 137.b i .n S u .: a .6 n v .-.Sa .uli~iz.n u .Inn . . &me'(e) i .Mil2 139.in E .e .it 140.a-vu u . Sir hzl .ma . 3.76 I CREATION SERIES. Sn ib .i v 141.e Sul-uza-nu u-{a-hi-iu Sn-nu a-na Sa-n-Su 135i-nz-u/i-ma b e . i/i-pi-Ti-uza ki-ma nu-nu mas"-di-e a-nic Si~zn-Su 138.ra 146.Si L a 145.as .cn . m e .la . im-Ju-u&-ma be. and assigns to Bu-pu the meaning " IrunB.L a E . asv-va .Sar ." See above..di .a 2-ku-nain-ma Sa .la tam . es"-gal .uz~rd 143.a . mi-iS-lu-%.fizz uza-&a-zi-Su-u7z ZLS-vanz-nia - T h e meaning of ku-pu is uncertain : Jensen takes Jir as a determinative.l n ~ n Sa-lam-tn-us' i .i ~ .nu .lum Sa 144.t i u r n .' .nu .1 n .al .tu .u fa .t n . & . body. note 14. TABLET IV 34.r i I 36.t u ~ ~ i-hi-?anz-?/fn z 142.p u l u za . p. es"-gal. iS-du-udpav-hn ma-as-.J a la S n .bat '"'Nu .?iza u .a .

136. For the reason of this change in the use of the word opsa. see the Introduction. . he surveyed the regions (thereof). 146. 138. a mansion like unto it. Me caused Anu. 145.b r a . 137. in contrast with its personal meaning in the First Tablet. Presents and gifts they brought unto him. . H e fixed a bolt. H e split her up like a flat fish into two halves . T h e mansion E-iara which he created as heaven. 142. gazing upon her dead body. . And the lord measured the structure of the Deep. And over against the Deep he set the dwelling of Nudimmud. and E a in their districts to inhabit.' 139. While he divided the flesh of the . 77 134. 135. Then the lord rested. One half of her he stablished as a covering for heaven.THE STABLISHING OF THE I~IEAVENS. And he founded E . And bade them not to let her waters come forth. B d . 140. H e passed through the heavens. 144. he stationed a watchman. 141.1 and devised a cunning plan. 143. .

a ..a u .Sil .na 10.Lal.la . preserved by No. kaRkab6ni*' taIu .t u fd . .[i . is'.fnz fa fatti uj-.71za 8.L 7.2.na . a .iz 3. X I ( ar&*' kakhabdni" 111 "'"~"" us" .a-ti .[klin it . a u i91z .t z .Li k i .ru u d .i . //la= .2 2 us*-s i .. or constellations.as . u-ad-di-~u7~z-ma Su-ak-~zat nzu-fi a-na ud-n'zl-u u-nze The catch-line on the Fourth Tablet.a d .za .SI.7 z i la e .iza s"u . 9. ip . sz .u-7.u 7ua ./?re . 1 zr-.a 21 .~zn L a 13.ma abuLl#i*' ina si .dan .s i . u . 93. is given in .~iza .an ".x i .r/~ .z a .iz 5.ir 4. e -pisV an .d i sirtta 9 1 .?zu 2~171za .az " " B ~ L u ""E .016. A list of the seven ZumaSi-stars. reads: u-6a-a!-Sim ma an-sa-aa an iXni ra bi-u-Lxm.Su .ie .

. That none might err or go astray. H e opened great gates on both sides. . 1 2 . H e made strong the bolt on the left and on the right. 9. as the stars of the Z ~ c l i a c . 3. 2 . "his meaning is conjecturally assigned t o fiabitiu. ~ he fixed. 4. H e ordained the year and into sections he divided it . . see further. 13. ] the days of the year [ . H e set the station of Bel and E a along with him. 1. 53-56 . . 14. 47 ff. T h e stars. . to cletermine the days .(i. Jensen. their images. 10. No. 57. Every month without ceasing with the crown he covered(?) him. In the midst thereof he fixed the zenith . Marduk) made the stations for the great gods . pl. For the twelve months he fixed three stars. After he had [ . 111R. I I . the night he entrusted to him. PP. 11. ] images. (saying) : I. 5. a being of the night.He. 6. Kosn2ologie. Jupiter. H e appointed him.e. 6. H e founded the station of Nibir3 to determine their bounds . 7.e. T h e Moon-god he caused to shine forth. 8.

. Jcnsen reads z(<)n(?)-nzz. . . 8. 1 6 0 ) . . .p a . 3.ga -n [?unz . . . . 1-zz z z .{ z ~ ] . from naliii . . . ..n a rPs' nrbi-nzn n n . [ 24.while the duplicate I<. .567 I<. . K. ./a in-u sVu-fn7iz-/2u-7~zt me?-/[i . . i . George Smith's reading !a-ma-mu. p. [ U I T Z ] ~ fi1ni XIV-tu V(IrAN a .n n ] 7 i z a . which he does not translate. . TABLET V.Fi-u~gz~ bn-'-i u-ru-z~jt-fa di-na 23. Jensen takes it as the Infinitive from nn6iLtu with an Imperative meaning. ] ]-. gives little sense. . . . T h e reading ann ud-iEu zi V I $. flu-fa$-ri-ba-nzn di-na 26.80 CREATION SEI<IES. 8.& [ i . + . 15. .] Z u ?u-tam-kn-rat ""SiznznSI /u 5.nu 18. T h e reading of VZu-miis certain.. .-mi. [ .a . ]u-mu (see also First Sfeps in Assynbn. . . . . . . . [inn umi .526 reads [ .588 reads VZ [ ]-mi. ] in-a-ti ' na-6a-a-fais possibly the Perm.[ ." which has been followed by Zimmern and Delitzsch. i . " t o determine heaven..1-~za-[. .t i 17.

16. [ . . ] thee. the phrase is appropriately followed in I. . 18. ] . < ' t o determine the days" . . " [ . " Thou comrnandestl the horns to determine six days. . . Possibly read iliu. One sign is wanting. 2 5 . 1 thou shalt cause to . .' 17. 1 thou shalt cause to draw nigh. . . . . When the Sun-god on the foundation of heaven [ . . . . . . " [And on the . . " [ . " [ . and thou shalt judge the right. [ . Perhaps read arh'i. and thou shalt make his [ . ] to destroy 26. 17 by the statement of the Moon-god's duty on the seventh day. . . 20. . . . 19. . moreover. 81 15. " On the fourteenth day thou shalt stand opposite." agrees well with 1. . . ] " 23. 1 3 . and the Sun-god shall . 1. . . I' " t o determine six days. when thou shinest upon the land. ] to traverse her way. 6 . " A t the beginning of the month. unto the path of the Sun-god shalt thou cause to draw nigh. " And on the seventh day to [divide] the crown. . thehalf [ . . . ]me. . . 2 1 . 2 2 . 1. " T h e [ . 24. " [ . where Marduk is described as appointing the Moon-god a-nu ud-du-u u-me. day] thou shalt stand opposite. .MARDUI<'SCHAKGE TO THE MOON-GOD. .

.sag . (68) i f . . . . R Z it-ta-SiR ~a ""&Sti lu Si-i ki .[ . . ( 7 1 ) 7nan . I . . . .[ . . . . [?UIJI~" .za . . . 1 (75) sa-pa-?*a s"a i-te-ip-pu-3u ii-nu-ru ila7zipi [a&*'-Su] (78) if. . . . .fa] ] (81)i{-<u a-rik (82) ?ai-. ] . . . ] I f K. . . . 3. . . . ?urn-?a . .a .449ni and prohably form part of the Fifth Tablet. the position of the fragment may he roughly ascertained from the fact that the end of the obverse and the beginning of the reverse are preserved. . . . .tu [ .ma [ . 1 . . . . . . . (74) i7n . . . . . T h e first line preserved was probably not earlier. . (73) ilani" ik . . (69) ina E . . . ji . . though it may have been some lines later. 3 . [ 1 (79) '1" haSta (80) i77z -. (72) iZ~ni*' rabatz*' [ . . . . . .giZ [ (70) Run . . than the 66th line of the text. . . . I . . TABLET V. . . . .77za bi - '"' A . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 .az ""[ . . I . . . . . .bur . . (67) zar . .ba . . . . . . .na [ . . . . . . .82 CREATION' SERIES. . .'] (66) u . 1 .num ina $lr$ur ihi1iip' [ . . . 1 . . . .u if-ie-nu-urn-ma ?aCn-nzi [ Taftu z'na faiamyd) [ . . . . .am ] . . . . 4 4 9 ~ forms part of the Fifth Tablet. . .6% [ . [The following twenty41vo liner are taken froin I<. . .

. . . . . .MARDUIC'S I(OW I N HEAVEN. . . .I. . . Delitzsch suggests the reading cpiissa. . . . . (68) (69) (70) (71) (72) (73) (74) [ From [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] (66). ] In E-sagil [ . . . (saying). " It is [ . IVR. . 24. 1. . .. . . . . . ] The station of [ . ] H e took and [ . .. . . (82) And its third name shall be the Bow-star.. . (81) " ' Long-wood' shall be one name. . . (78) Then Anu raised [the . . . . [The following twenty-two lines are taken from I<.445~3. Obv. .'] 83 . 1 2 . . ] T o establish [ . . (75) T h e gods [his fathers] beheld the net which he had made. (79) H e kissed the bow. . . ] The great gods [ . . 1. . .. " (80) And thus he named the names of the bow. . . . . . . . pl. . and the second name [shall be . (76) They beheld the bow and how [its work] was accomplished. . . ] T h e gods [ . . ] in the assembly of the gods. . and probahly form part of the Fifth Tablet. . . . 3. [ . 1 1 " I! For the a The traces upon the tablet are possibly those of z). . (77) They praised the worli which he had done I [. . in heaven [shall it . . (saying). ] (67). . . restoration cf. . .

?a [ . . ] .x u . . .z ~. . .641gives portions of 11. . .li . 1 . .526. . I US-[ . .[ i]lZlzi . . . . . .71za g i . . . . The reverse of K.u] ] shm~(e)~ [ . . . .a . .n]u L u 4% . there is not room on the tablet for the restoration "'[El-a. . . .d ] i . I . . . . . . . .s u . . . .7na (84) u l . . . . . see Appendix 1 1 . . ] . 8. i . . ] . . . .' I (128) [ (129) [ (130) [ (131) [ (132) [ (133) [ (134) [ (135)[ (136)[ (137) [ (138) [ (139) [ (140) [ . . .64r and from the reverse of I<. . . ] .[ .is . .[ . .bal .a . . 1] u . . . 14-22. ] .hi12 . the greater part of the traces are taken from the reverse of K.n . . .[ . . . . . . . . . . .72% 7~zeI-lam-7ne mi-[ ] L a u u m-[ . . . .ti [ .k [ y ~ . . ] ] m a . . 11. ] n i . . .s"u . 11. ] [ . . . .i[$ .ti 72% . . .la -rx hussd Si . .641. . . . . . . . . ] . . . YU . 1 . 11. . The obverse of K. . . . . . .ti Sa [ . .526 gives traces of the last three lines of the text. (83) u .8nb . . .7ua . ] i ~ i a s"aiamP[(e) . I . . . . . 1 . . . . . . TABLET V. . . ] (87) [ .84 CREATION SERIES. . . . .g a l .r n . . . . . . . a T h e reading SarnZte) is probable. . ] nu. 8. .1 2 2 ~.[ . 1 ] ] [The following traces of the last thirteen lines of the Fifth Tablet are taken from the reverse of K. . . . . .i . . -b]a-Su e .Su . . . ] ni it - [ . .[ .bu[ . . . . . for the text. . . . ] .z . . . . . .f n (86) [ (8 5) [id .

]not [ . . 1 . p. ]" . . . . . . . ' ] (128) " [ (129) " [ (130)"[ (131) " [ (132) " [ ( I 33) . . . . . ] " [ . ]" :3 [ (134) [ (135) (136) (13j ) (138) (139) (140) " " " . . . . . . . . ] our [ . . . . . . I" . . . . . . . . .. . . (8j)[ . . [ . . . (84) Now after the fate of [ . . . . . . . yet there were no shrines built in honour of the gods. . 1 1 . . . . . ] " [ . ] in heaven [ . . . . and there were no worshippers devoted to their service.. . ] may [ . . . 1" . . . . your ] son [ . . . . . . 5 2 6 . ] the heavens [ . . .641and from the reverse of I<. 1 . . . . . ]we[ . ] their [ ]him[ ] them [ ]him[ ]them [ . . ] he hath caused to live [ . ] .. . . . (85) [ H e set] a throne [ . 88. . . . . [ . . . 8 . . . . . . . . ] splendour [ . . . (86) [ . . . . ] hath he [ .. . I" . I [The following traces of the last thirteen lines of the Fifth Tshlet are taken from the reverse of I<. 1 " [ . " " " I n the speech that follows it may be conjectured that the gods complained that. . . . . . . a5 (83) Then he fixed a station for it [ . . I!" . 1 " [ . . . . . . . . . . notc I . . . 1" . .. 11. 1 the gods spalte. .THE COMPLAINT OF T I I E GODS. although Marduk had endowed the heavens with splendour and had caused plants to live upon the earth. ] [ . . . . see below.

that. .ub . T h e beginning of the sign i is visible. 3. 136. suffix. . .u . "' 2. the traces upon-I<. . etc. I t is possible that the final vowel of da-mi is not the i of the I sing. [ . and this agrees with the " . .567. Conjectural restoration. la .b a n . For this restoration.641 reads [i]na suggest the reading ina ie-[nzli-[e-Yu] de-me-[ a .Ray] 4.a [nik-la-a-tila 3. K . 11.ri-im-[tu]ms Z u-[ 6. Conjectural restoration.. ] a . however. in that case the phrase should be translated "Blood will I take.n u . ] .mn amFla(a) . [ i p ] .S u a . BE1 first formed mankind from his own blood mixed with earth. .sib [ . 1. Marduk zzk - ri iZEni ilza Se - mi - fa 1 [~b]~-bl ai l b-ba-Sn i .ni .znk . 1. preserved by K. da-mi7 lu-uk-rur-ma i:-.i . . One sign only is missing at the beginning of the line. ZW-US-ziz-ma anz?Za(a) ln a 7.~ z a *"E-a [i . .& ~ p i . cf. 8 . [fa] iza lib-bi-iu US-ta-gnu-u i-nam-din [ana fa-a-SZL]" 5 . ] 'O @ . pron. 5 2 6 ." I n view of the fact. suffix and translate da-mi as " my blood!' Berossus does not state that BBI used his own hone for forming man.I . Tablet IV. it appears to me preferable to take the i as the pron. according to Berossus. The end of the line has been restored from the catch-line of Tablet V.

~ 6.I. 4. in the phrase 'esern m?'b. " My blood ' will I take and bone h i l l I [fasl~ion]. Mardulr states his purpose of forming man from his own blood.' His heart prompted him and he devised [a cunning plan].1o absence of thepronominal suffix from i?-si-irn-[tulm. that man may . H e opened his mouth and unto E a [he spake].3 3. and from bone which he will create. as suggested in the translation. According to my rendering of the line. I think there can be no doubt that is-$i-rjn-[tu]mcorresponds to the Hebrew ' e ~ e r n . 2. as suggested in the translation. . 1. lo The last word of the line may perhaps be restored as ir:ilLjiz. the Introduction. T h e verb may perhaps be restored as lu-[ub-nil. see further. form 'd~dmbth is also found. 7. When Marduli heard the word of the gods. it may be noted that. [ . 'iigimim." which is employed in Gcn. 23. T h e traces of the last sign of the word appear to be those of turn. in addition to the plnr." I n connection with the feminine form of the word 4-scim-[tulrn.6rnui. . ii. " I will create man who shall inhabit [the earth]. . "bone of my bones. the fem. ."bone. [That whichI5 he had conceived in his heart he imparted [unto him] : 5. " I will make man.

TABLET VI." rather than to rcnder the passage as ' .t u .e." a I t is probable that the end of the line contained some expression parallel to al-ha-kn-ti.~ i z a a-~ n n /illz-xiz lu-u [ . that the gods may have worshippers. l f . 29 of the Seventh Tablet.. I t seems to me preferable to assign to the Pie1 of [kaiiZlu] its usual meaning " t o oppress. and as for them let [their] shrines [be built]. Zg-u e n ....] 10. his enemies.~ Su J -Z nU u Zu-u pa-$a [' . the text goes on a-nu pa-di-iu-nu i6-nu-u a-me-lu-fu. "Let the service of the gods be established.d i ~ d u l Zu L Z ~ ~ I . " F o r their forgiveness did he create mankind. after referring to Marduk's mercy upon the gods.88 CREATION SERIES.t e . 8.] T h e word is probably papahu: literally the line reads. i. There is clearly a reference to this in 1.. where.6 ~ ." I t is interesting to note the reason that is here implied for the creation of mankind.~ i S * Iu k z 1 6 .

by the creation of man. . " Together shall they be o p p r e s ~ e d . . . . ] thegods [ . . . .[ . [ . I t is possible that in his speech that follows Ea dissuades hlarduk from carrying out the second part of his proposal. . . [ 19. .That the service of the gods may be established. . . . . ' The word is conjecturally restored. . ] and the gods [ . . ] . [ 20. . andthegods[ . . . . " I have [related]. . . . [ . . 21.. 1 of the gods I have [changed] 13. . . . " [ . . ] the [ . . ." Possibly [n]a. ] . . ] . ] . . . ] . [ . I S . . and that [their] shrines ' [may be built]. [ . . [ 16. . ] . . . . ] 14. will establish the worship of the gods. . . I . " But I will alter the ways of the gods. [ . Vossibly. I . and &I are probably not to be taken as the single character Jb. and I will change [their paths] . ] . SaZ. . . . . . ] ] the Anunnalri [ ." I I . . [ . and they [ . . andone .and ~ unto evil shall [they . I. . . . 15. . . 9. shall be deJstroyed7 and men will I 8. . T h e signs read as ut. [ . ] . . . . [ .[. . . . ] ] . 10. . The signs at the beginning of the line are not very clear. but at the same time will punish the gods for their complaints. 17. . . . . And E a answered him and spalie the word : I 2. . .- " T h e sense seems to b e that Together shall they he honoured!' Marduk.

.go CREATION S E R I E S .851 has no connection with . 3 . which read as follows.[ .] ' . . [The rest of the text is wanting with the exception of the last few lines of the tablet.[ . {a ma-ru &a?-ra-du mu-ti? [gi-mil-Lz-Su. ] I i d .) has been thought to belong to the Creation Series. i . Texts. 3 . . . which gives a duplicate text to K. 3 6 4 [Cun. . see the Introduction. 2 9 f. part xiii.n u u l . . . 3 . 33. I1 is published the text of a Neo-Babylonian tablet.[ 145. and in Appendix I1 I have given reasons for believing that the text inscribed upon K. u-s'i-bu-ma ina pu/iri-Su-nu . it would have formed part of the Sixth Tablet.a d . T h e tablet K.n a Up-?u-&kin-na-kn us". . On plates lxivff.la .u [ 144. . and to contain the instructions given by Marduk to man after his creation. n i . .n u s'a x u . ] 142.n i . pl. for a further discussion of this subject. ] ] i-nam-6%-[ ' I t is probable that the missing portion of the text corresponded closely with the account of the creation of man and animals given by Berossns. of Vol. 3 6 4 and No. No.851.. T A B L E T VI. .l u . Had this been so. . 33. ] 143. 3 6 4 . .i . . . ]-mu .

THE LAST ASSEMBLY OF THE GODS.
[The rest of the text is wanting' with the exception of the last few liner of the tablet, which read as follows.]

9I

138. [ . . . . . . . . . . . . I 139.[. . . . . . . . ] . [ . . . . 140. When [ . . . . . ] . [ . . . . ] 141. They rejoiced [ . ] . [ . . . 1 142. In Upiuklcinnaku they set [their dwelling]. 143. Of the heroic son, their avenger, [they cried] : 144. " We, whom he succoured, . . [ . . . ] ! " 145. They seated themselves and in the assembly they named [him . . . . 1 1 146. They all [cried aloud they exalted [him . . . 1.'

I . [

I

(?)I,

the Creation Series, but is part of a long composition containing moral precepts. Another fragment which it has been suggested belongs to one of the later tablets of the Creation Series is K. 3,445 R. 396 (Cun. Texts, part xiii, pl. zq f. ; cf. also its duplicate K. 14,949.pl. 24) ; but there are strong reasons against the identification of the text as a fragment of the series Enuma eliJ, though it may well be part of a parallel version of the Creation story (see further, Appendix 11). T h e address of the gods to Marduk forms the subject of the Seventh Tablet of the series.

+

I.

' A a -

&-rib

m i - i t [

?nu-kin

iz-ra-ti] 2

2.

b a - n u - u Se-am u h i - e m u - i [ e - : i w r - h i - t i I 3

3. "" Asaru-alim fa ina bit mil-hi hub-t[u a-tar nziZ-hi14

4. iZi?zi

u - tak

- &u

-

u

a

- d [ i ~.

. .

. 1%

5. '"'Asaru-alim-nun-na ka-ru-6u nu-ur [a-bi a-lz-di-S~~]"

7. Su-u-ma
8.Sa

xa-nin-s'u-nu

mu-ud-du-u

[

. . . .
. . . .

1
]

Sw-Ku-us-su

.$egaZZu8 u s - f a g [

92,629 (catch-line), me-n'[;- . . 1. The end of the line has been restored from the commentary S. I I S. 980, Obv., col, i, 11. 4 and 5 ; see Appendix I. Restored from S. 1 1 , etc., Obv., col. i, 11. 9 and l o ; see Appendix I. Restored from S. I I , etc., Obv., col. i, 11. I j and 16, which gives the words at-ru and mil-Ru as occurring at the end of the line ; the restoration at-ru mil-ki-b, "whose counsel is mighty," is also possible. T h e end of the line may perhaps be restored from the

' No.

+

~

I.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

0 Asari, " Bestower of planting," "[Founder of sowing]," " Creator of grain and plants," "who caused [the green herb to spring up] ! " 0 Asaru-alim, "who is revered in the house of counsel," "[who aboundeth in counsel]," * T h e gods paid homage, fear [tooli hold upon them] ! 0 Asaru-alim-nuna, "the mighty one," " the Light of [the father who begat him],'? " Who directeth the decrees of Anu, Bel, [and

E,

7. H e was their patron, he ordained [their . . . . ] ; 8. He, whose provision is abundance, goeth forth [ . . . . I! 9. Tutu [is]I0 " H e who created them anew ; "
commentary S. 1 1 , etc., in some such way as a-d[ir i-$u-us-sunu-ti] ; see Appendix I. The restoration is taken from the astrological fragment, No. 32.574, Obv., I. 3 ; see Appendix 111. Conjectural restoration. No. 91,139 93,073, hzgaZZa(la). a NO. 91,139, etc., u - U S - ~ [ i ] . lo Restored from the commentary R. 366+80-7-19, 288+293; Obv., 11. 1-4 (see Appendix I). T h e title Tutu is there explained as ba-a-nu, "creator," while its two component parts (TU TU) occur in the Sumerian version of the line as the eqnivalents of ba-nu~u and e-di-Su.

I .

I"?

.

'

+

+

94
I .

CREATION SERIES, TABLET VII.

ill
lib

sa-gi-Sn-nu-ma 1 ni

Su-nu

ZZL-n [pa-a:-&nil

I I.

-

-

ma3

?$tz

ilZni

li

-

[nu

-

ku]

14. ,%a-am-man ina ilriniSg fu-a-fulo /a u71z-[vzaS-Ja.ln]
15.

'"' Tu-tu
u

""Zi-nitkin-na 1' an '3

nu&?-ti ilZni

am-ma-ni [i/Zni]l a ;amj(e) el

16. Sa

- Kin - nu

17. al-Rat-su-nn i:-ba-tn-ma"
18. a i
im-ma-& i-nu16

u-ad-dn-u [

.

.
.

- lz~- [ti]
. . IL5

a-pa-ti'?

$-Je-ta-[Su

..

.

1:s

etc., sag-gi-b-nu-ma. Lines 1 0 - 1 2 have been conjecturally restored from the commentary R. 366, etc., Obv., 11. 5-18 (see Appendix I ) ; the sentences I take as conditionals. For another occurrence of the verb sagzl (I. lo), see Tablet IV, I. 12. No. 91,139, etc., [li-i]6-[nli-ma. No. 91,139. etc., dip-ti. No. 91, r39, etc., [alg-gi-is'. No. 91,139, etc., iu-u. No. 91,139, etc., i-napu-bur. I t is probable that another precative came at the end of the line, and if this was so the verb was given in 1. 24 of the Obv. of the commentary R. 366, etc. I n No. 91,139, etc., not very much is wanting at the end of the line. No. 91,13q, etc., ma-am-ma-an i-na iliini. NO. 91,139, etc., fa-a-lu.

' No. 91,139,

THE HOMAGE OF THE GODS TO MARDUIC.

95

lo. Should their wants be pure, then are they [satisfied] ; ' I I. Should he make an incantation, then are the gods [appeased] ; 1 2 . Should they attack him in anger, he withstandeth [their onslaught] ! 13. Let him therefore be exalted, and in the assembly of the gods [let him . . . . ] ; 14. None among the gods can [rival him] ! 15. Tutu is Zi-ulikina, "the Life of the host [of the gods]," 16. Who established for the gods the bright heavens. 17. H e set them on their way, and ordained [their path ; 18. Never shall his [ . . . . ] deeds be forgotten among men.

(?)I

No. 35,506, "'Zi-ukkin. The end of the line is conjecturally restored from I<. z,1o7+ K. 6,086, Ohv., col. ii, I. 29 (see pl. Ixii), which explains the title 'is' ZI-UKKIN as nap-Ja:alnap-har ilEui#'. l3 No. 35,506 and K. 8,522, a-nu. " '0 . 35,506. 2:P-ba-tu-u. '"ome such word as ur-&-&-nu should possibly he restored at the end of the line ; for a fragment of the commentary to the line, see Appendix I. " K. 8,522, inn. " K. 8,522 and No. 35,506, a-pu~u-ti. According to S. I r S. 980, Ohv., col. ii, 1. 7, a word hu-u[l- . . ] occurred at the end of the line, hut this is not certain, as the commentary evidently gives a variant reading for the beginning of the line (see Appendix I ) ; Jensen's suggested ~estoration is disproved by No. 35,506 (see pl. xlvi).
"
la

.

+

g6

CREATION SERIES, TABLET VII.

20.

iZ

sh-a-ri

(a-a-hi

68-el

la!-me-e

7~

7i~a-~~a-ri~

2 7 . Sa

an 22

iZdni

k a - m u - tis3 i v - !n

-u

la - a i -

YU 24

28. a$-fa-na en-du25 U-?a-as-xi-ku 26 eli ildniP2T nn-hi-vi-x"u9s

T h e text of the commentary read mu-kin, i.e. "the Fonndcr of Purification " ; for other variant readings in the line, see Appcndix I. T h e text of 11. zo and Z I corresponds to that of the commentary. u is omitted by Nos. 91,139 93,073 and 35,506. . No. 9 I, I 39, etc., &egnlla(la). NO. 91, I 39, etc., [mi-i]n~-ma-n[i]. Nos. 35,506 and 91,139, etc., i-si. ' No. 91,139, etc., ma-a-di-e. NO. 91,139. etc., [p]u-uY-/Eu [daln-nu ; No. 35,506 reads [pu-u]s'-ka and omits the adjective. No. 35,506, ni-$i-ni. 'O Nos. 35,506 and 91,139, etc., .bar-s'u. " NO. 35,506, li-it-fa-'-id. NO. 91.I39, etc., Zi-id-lu-lu; No. 35,506, li-id-[ . . . I3 K. 8,522, here and in 11. 33, 41, and 43, reads i h a (i.e. ~ ~

'

'

+

. 1.

~

T H E TITLES OF MARIIUIC.

97

19. Tutu
20.

2 I.

22.

23. 24.
25.

26.
27.

28.

as Zi-azag thirdly they named, "the Bringer ' of Purification," " The God of the Favouring Breeze," " the Lord of Hearing and Mercy," " T h e Creator of Fulness and Abundance," " t h e Founder of Plenteousness," " W h o increaseth all that is small." " I n sore8 distress we felt his favouring breeze," Let them say, let them pay reverence, let them bow in humility before him ! Tutu as Aga-azag may manlcind fourthly magnify! " T h e Lord of the Pure Incantation," " the Quickener of the Dead," " Who had mercy upon the captive gods," " Who removed the yoke from upon the gods his enemies,"

T u f u ) , which is written in small characters on the edge of the tablet. No. 35,506, i-nu. '' Nos. 35,506 and 91,139, n'-di-i. '@ No. 91,139, etc., $a. " No..g1,139, etc., ti. No. 91,139, etc., 6Zl. " No. 91,139, etc., s'$-ti; No. 35,506, [;]i-ip-ii. Nos. 35,506 and 91,139, etc., el-li-fi. No. 35,506, Z[i-it]. az an is omitted by No. 91,139, etc. No. 91,139, etc., f u ; No. 35,506, furn. ." No. 91,139, etc., ri. '' No. 35,506, di. " No. g r , 39, ~ etc., ha. '' Nos. 35,506 and 91,139, etc., e-li ilzni. NO. 91,139. etc., Ea.

"

35. No. . 91. L]ib'8-6i-iu-un 38.. "' Tu-tu 34. . 1. m u . 1 3 9 .J " U ai inz.506. 40.134.506..nzs"Q L a m a . .t u .506 and 91.139.506 and 91.n a .kau . "'.506 and 91.a a . Ea-arm. etc.i 39. NO. 35. . a-me-lu-ut-ium. 9 1 . I ' See above.l: ~ U L ~ .etc. Nos.u i t . .. .i a . TABLET VII.m e 3 . 35. Sh "'MU-azag inas &anSi(Si) "a-a s'u elL71 l o pa-Si-na " Lit -tad-6al ina Sipti-s'u l 3 eZZitign(ti7n)l4 is-su-&u en-gab Z i w .. .k n . " the black-headed ones.ti u K[i .506. " No. p.S n 37. I .u s.~ u . ." NO.t i ' ~ 35. a-me-lu-ti.m a 33. mu-kin pu&vil' s'a iiani [ . .a r . .i i v k i t . etc. 6u-ul. m u .J I u . 1 . i-nu. .139..98 - CREATION SERIES.139. 8 8 . . &&$a-[d]u.506. . . No. etc. 35. 35. Literally. 91. 35.. etc. ha-an-du . .139.Z U .712n . . No. $[a]-a-&-nn.. No.m a .u ' ~ a v . v i .gi .[ .. . Nos.ti nu .-- 29. L i . a .% ~ .? U 6 a .[~. s'a sn ..n u . 9 1 . note ' ' 'O I. mi.b a r . 35.. [ i l . .. etc. 1 3 9 .n n pa-di-s'u-nu' i n a-me-lu-tu2 30. Nos. . el-1%.fag-zu mu-di-e Lid-di ilrini*' Sa i .t i .n u .etc. .f u 31. No.sb .

.. .. .. " "-1.139. 1-Zi-ti. .* . 5 0 6 . " 30.THE TITLES OF MARDUIC." " T h e Merciful One.. xi-i. NO." ." "[ ." " [ . .." -" " " Founder of the assembly of the gods. .:"". the scribe has omitted the r u b y mistake.506. No."""" " I " " I " " I 1"" I!" I. . 40. " Who rebellion and [ . 39. his " Pure Incantation " may their mouth proclaim. . l3 . ' No. with whom it is to bestow life ! " May his deeds endure.139.. el-lj-[ .. :-" :'". " No.. " Z"'"" wit11 him ! " ." No. .. etc. [ . . '' Jensen suggests the restoration [ m u . .pu." "[who . 32. 34. s'$-ti-L~.. 35... 37. 91...c)dsSSS " who seeth through the innernmy gar&! ! ': . .e. 91.139. No."" " . r! .$ 1 . 1.. . fu. i. "". ~ j getc.: . ' " T h e evil-doer he hath not c 2 a s ~ tto ~ g o fofth. .. .: :* . .139. . . ] la their heart! " " Subduer of the disobedient. etc. 99 29.. " Who through his Pure Incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones ! " " . etc. 31. ... . . bit.139.uk [ru]. etc. . 91. 3 5 . 33. ] . etc. 91. " . fifthly. . "[who gladdened] their heart. 38. . *'. may they never be forgotten I n the mouth of mankind7 whom his hands have made ! Tutu as Mu-azag. . 35. .l i ..-. ib-ru[ . " No.-&!& t~. who linoweth the heart tcf. . g i . la For their forgiveness ' did he create manlrind. . . 91. " Director of Righteousness. ] ! " . 36. . Sag-zu. No.

. .te] . lxii and Appendix I). .1 0 0 CREATION SERIES. mur . 3 1 the title Sub-liur is explained as mu-baf-lu-uai-bi. " ' [ T u .tu fis"3 . and.hur 44. T h e end of this line may perhaps he restored from R. . . but the reading si$ is possible. 9.p i .Su .. . O n K.tu] ""Sz'h . m[u ... 2 5 and 33. ] [The following lines are taken from the fragment K. .. .i .~ but their position in the text is uncertain. ] 43. 2. 1 45. ] 1-lu [ .uh . [ na .[ . I think. . 1' ai .] b?.107..I ] i ~ [ .di . 41.[sap]./l]ar rag . ] lis'-[ . col. .his" ""Zi-si mu-SatL-[ fu . ] 4 6 .bi] . col. [ . .pj?.a . . .a-bu-ti. is Sat rather than &.107.830. ?nu .i& [hilp . they contain the synonymous expressions nzu-bal-lu-u . though the following lines give explanations of other titles. 1. as nu-si-@. 1. but the reading of K. "who destroyed the mighty!' This does not appear to agree with 11. . TABLET VII. m u Jal- . . 12. etc.267 is clear. . .nu [ .g [ i . . etc.t u ] 42. .k%& .. "'"[Tu. .."" " " saZ-?uat [ka@adi ib-ni-ma] T h e reading of K.267. ii. 30 (see pl. ii. . 47.Li [nap . T h e sign following nu is broken.m .si[/l - m .ball . 2. 9. .

." I. . ay[ . .830. " Who put their plans to confusion. I [ . " the [ .299. 46. .] m . . . . . T h e traces of the sign on K. I [ .THE TITLES O F MARDUIC. . I ! " " 43. . . I [ . . . . Its the fragment of the commentary K. . lxii and Appendix I). 3-6 . [ . . ] distant [ . . mankind [he created]. " T h e line has been conjecturally restored from the commentary K. . . . . . . I exact position in the gap between 11. [ . . " Who destroyed all the wicked. . .] I.830 belongs to a copy of the Seventh Tablet is proved by the correspondence of its first two lines with x ) . . . see Appendix I. . . . ] let them [ . . I01 41. r2." 44. . 42. . I I . . 12. . . .' l8 [And upon] him understanding [ . 11. T h e first part of the line has been restored from the commentary K. . . ." [He named the four quarters (of the world)]. . . Rev. . Rev.299. That the fragment K. . . 45. . . 47 and 105 is not certain. 8. . I ! 47. 1 nap-bar ai-6i nu-si-i/i rag-gi and nu-si-ih nap-har rag-g1' (see pl. (see pl. . . ] .. Tutu as Sub-liur. thirdly. I [The following lines are taken from tlie fragment I<. . I . Tutu as Zi-si.299. .267 are those of kip. Rev. . I . . . . " Who put an end to anger. [ . . . . see Appendix I." "[who . . . 11. ] Tiamat [ . . not a.' "the [Destroyer of the foe]. . . . ." "[ . . [ . 1. 9. . ." " [ . 8. .~but their position in the tent is uncertain. [ . 8.. . [ . . 7-9 . .

[ . . . . . . . 1 Sa Gza [ .I02 CREATION SERIES. . . . . . . . .Zzl Sam~(e) [ . . . . . din mil . . sixth. '[ . . . [ na . . . . a large spacc being '"'Mu . . ] ( 1 0 )a . . . . I ' That the fragment K. . . . . . A . ] irzinz-nz[a . .406. . . TABLET VII [The following lines are taken from the fragment I<. . . seventh.urn . . . . . . . 13. I . . . . .nu . . . . .. . . 1 .bu [ . Rev. . ] s " a ana du . . . . however. . T h e arrangement of the text. .a[?z . ( 1 0 ) ~ * ~. . . ' " Z u . . . . 1 di*Gis'.KuI Z z t . . and ninth lines with the commentary I<. ] .mu ba . . . . . 4. . . . .[ l. . . . . . . . .u [+itim(tzia) ' . liv f. . . .[ . .(la . . . . . . . . i (pls. . .nn . ] . . As the sixth line preserved by the fragment is the first line of the reverse of the tablet. . . . 1 ""Pap . . 13. 1 "'[ . . . fifth. . . .. . . . col. . . . . . . a i-nu [ . .mu ad . . . . . . . . .ni . m b . . .[ . and see Appendix 1). . .[ . . . 1 . . I" -Mu . 6~ . . eighth. .761 belongs to a copy of the Seventh Tablet is proved by the correspondence of its fourth.761. . it may be concluded that its place is about in the middle of the text. .[ .a6 ./u?n .di .R i u . . . .'1 . I" . upon different copies of the same tablet varies considerably. . . . . . .bit iLZniP' [ . . . 1 . 1 ""LlkgnZ . .

. " " Who for [ . see Appendix I. . . 4. . ] i n " Mulil. "Whoin[ . .. . . 4. . . see Appendix I. . . . ]!" Mummu. 8. . . . . . . . . . Restored from the commentary K. I sometimes left blank at the end of the reverse. . I . 13. . . . 1 3 . . . . . 6 The commentary K. . . roq f.TIIE TITLES OF MARDUII. . . . . . . . . " T h e Creator of [the earth . . [ ." For the commentary to this line. a I n the margin of the fragment I<. . . . I. . I . GiSkul. . . . begins at a different point. . . . . . . the heavens [ . . . . . ] ! Lugal-ab-[ . . col. Rev. . . . . . . . . . 12 " T h e Giver of counsel and of whatsoever [ . . . . . . . thus the reverse of the copy of the Seventh Tablet. . ] ! " Agijl . . .76r." I! I 2 I!" [ . . . . . " the Creator [of . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . of which K. . . . . . . i. . . . . . . " W h o in [ .qo6 presupposes a variant reading for this line. . .). 103 [The following lines are taken from the fragment K. let [ . " (10) " Who brought the gods to naught [ . . . . .'l [ (IO)~[ " . . I ! " Zulummu . . . .519 is a fragment (see p. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 1. I!" Pap-[ . . . .406. 7 6 1 every tenth line is indicated by the figure " lo. . . . I T h e mighty one [ .

[ 1 nap-har 6e-li a-?a-rzo! nap-har be-12. . . . ii.519 and K. . . col. 8. Rev.086 (see pl. i. .104 CREATION SERIES. .ti - &L ' That the fragments I<. compare the With the phrase [ . col.761. 8. . parts of which are preserved on one side of K. explanations of a title of Marduk given by K. . . 13. . . . . 8. .519 and its duplicate I<. . 7x8 .har be-l<~n. . . 13.406 gives the last three columns of the obverse of the tablet. . T h e three columns of the commentary. n]ap. 6..337. if this is so.ru . ii. 4. the Chief of all lords.bar he .406 presupposes a variant reading for . .761. a conjectural numbering of the lines of the text has not been attempted. .76r. I. + . . . . . .. lxi and Appendix I). . . . 13. 4. 4. are probably cols. ii (pl.ti Y/L - ~ Z L .a18 inn ina Su . as it is possible that I<. ~z]<rp [ . ] tiuz [ .). .406.& a ] . and iii of the reverse of the tablet.u7 .406.Sa .a e-7izu-ka-Su4 [Lugal-dur-ma& Sar in]ar"[k]as i l z r ~ i p 'be-el dur-ma-hi6 Sa [. This is clear from the fact that col. 5 .l i ~ n [ .bu - . . 4.?] [ . . . i of the reverse of K. S a . 4. 2. . h ] i . 13. " [The 1 of all lords. it follows that the lines on I<.337 follow those on K. .519 and I<.107 K. I<. .' . . . I 3. ." T h e commentary I<.406 gives the coinirrcntary to the earlier lines preserved by the preceding fragment. 13. . Obv. . 1 this portion of the tent was not separated by much from that preserved by K.hat ilaizi*' S ~ Y Y -U-u ti 7na S w . But. . . .i [""A-du-nulz-nu18 ma-lik ""'E-a ba-an ilini" a62"-fz~ a a - a ] taL - Zak . . . livf.337 belong to two copies of the Seventh Tablet is proved by their correspondence with the commentary K.diS . TABLET VII [The following lines are taken from the fragment I<. . .

nothing appears to be missing at the beginning of either." [ . 16. .107. col. 11. .337... also K . . Conjectural restoration.THE TITLES OF MARDUIC. ii. .. 23 ff.337.406. 2.406. With the phrase given in the text. 20. Rev. see Appendix I. ' This line and the one that follows it are rather shorter than usual. ." " the Lord of rulers.761. 1." ' " Who is exalted in a royal habitation. hut. he-lum Ja e-mu. . I . . " the King]' of the band of the gods. (see Appendix I) . "The Lord whose might is supreme." For the restoration of the beginning of the line from the commentary K. 13.~ '' the Counsellor of Ea. 13. Appendix I. . ii. 13." unless it is to be taken as a proper name. I"$ [The following lines are taken from the fragment IC.519 and its duplicate I<. . @ . etc. 8. 4. . col..107. cf. T h e word d u r m u ~ uwas employed as a Babylonian priestly title. [ . ." who created the gods his fathers.&-a-Iu Sa-ha-a. " the Chief (?) of] all lords. cf. for the title ""A-du-nun-nu. compare the explanation of a title of Mardnk on K.' this portion of the tent war not separated by much from that preserved by K.406 (see Appendix 11). supreme] is his might ! [Lugal-durmab. 4. etc.'] L . 2. Unto the path of whose majesty this line . This line and the two which follow it are restored from the commentary K.. . 11. 1. I t may he noted that the arrangement of the four lines that follow differs on the duplicate K. Rev. according to the commentary I<. 8 ff. which is repeated ten lines lower down." ' " [Who] a among the gods is gloriously supreme ! " [Adu-n~na].4. I t may here he rendered by some such general phrase as " ruler. .

] sh . xlii f. . .bat . ii. . col.7na [ [ [ . . . .Su -r]u kakhaba { [ a i-ua Ja-me-e Su-@u-u] 108. . 3-6 (see pl.. . . . . .. . .a . .Zit . 91. . . . ." that is. . Rev. Ju] .106 CREATION SERIES. . No. . ma-a s'n Kir-his"' Ti-amat i-tibs-hi-[ru la aa-i-&~]" ' See pls. 35. .su el . T h e end of the line has been restored from S. XI. ..literally "the beginning -the future. lii and Appendix I). l[a - a u] - mas' - s'a - L u ilu u ai - urn . . "the beginning and future of mankind.139. .e.522. . [ 106.139. . [hi-i]t. both at its creation and during its subsequei~t existence. ' I their beginning and future. i. T h e expression r2$u-sic-arkat. . r6u-arkiitu-Su-nu. [ .506. I t is possible that Su-nu is the pronominal suffix afid should be attached to the preceding word. ] h[a (?) . . I I . . .] a -b i .073. y1. . TABLET VII. etc. . etc. 11.. . rib-arhiit is written RUN-SAG-GI on NOS. . ] Dul - azag - ta - r(u - Szc .'] 10s." may be taken as implying Marduli's complete control over the world. and I<. ." . 91.h a ta-ha-zi [The numbering of the followi~~g liner is based on Llle uarginzll numbers upon No. 8. ]-bar la &as-su "'"~u/=a~-du/-az~g-ga [ . . etc.139+ 93.

NO. May ' h e hold the Beginning and the Future. . of the battle ! 1. .% 107.139 appears to read f-/i[i (or { i ) . the star. . [ . . [ . 11. ] .139. 91. [ . . .' they pay homage unto him. . '. The end of the line is restored from the commentaries S. and K. . . 91. mankind. . col. . . 1 1 .139 t 93.053.. 91. . .. which [shineth in the 'heavens]..073. . No. ] ] . . .'] IOS. Rev. 19-21. . The meaning assigned to palusu in the translation is conjectural. the .[ 106. 1. ] their [ . and Appendix I). 3-5 (cf. I [ . i-na KLr-hi. ] of those without ulLderstanding is Lugal-dul-azaga ! [ . . . [The numbering of the following lines is based on the marginal numbers upon No. ] supreme is his might! [ . . I. ii.e. 107 [No] god can ever attain ! [ . .THE TITLES OF MARDUIC. it is also possible that nothing is wanting. ] him. . lii and lix. . . in] Dul-azag he made it ltnown. 11. Rev. Possil)!~restore pal-su-[u] or pal-su-[ni] . ] pure is his dwelling! [ ." I. . . 1. ii. col. etc. 2. . pls. ] in the midst of Tiamat. . " H e who forced his way through the midst of Tiamat [without resting]. . ..

q (second half of the line). a-hi-is. [ . From the traces upon the tablet it would seem .506. 91. 35. la No. that at the end of 1.506. ii-+-'-a. log and I 10 of the text. No.139.. TABLET VII. 109 the scribe has written his si of dlv~slon three times. Cf. 2. p]Ne-6i-n'.. 91. Kakkndu. Tablet V. '" NO. K... No.108 CREATION SERIES. No.506.139. ki-ma. 9... . and K. etc. NO. etc. Appendix I). m i For li-ki-il-lu the commentaries S . 91.139. etc.053 (see Appendix I) give the variant reading lihin. 11. etc. etc. 1..139. 6 .506. 91.139. No. xu. 35. " h e ordained their paths!' Nos. i.. 3 5. ZU-U. -m]i a ' 61 ' .... an additional line of the text was inserted between 11. .506 and 91. Zi-ik-mi. etc.267 and Nos. Rev. 6 No. etc. 35. 1. I t is possible that in No. I' T h e commentaries presuppose a variant text for the end of the line (cf. 91. 35.139. 35.139.506 and 91. it is also possible that the second half of the line was left blank. .e.

THE HOMAGE OF MANKIND TO MARDUIC. . etc. 366. etc. 109 109. l .139.-m. etc. 91.506 and 91. ii-is-si-e-ma. al-!urn. . 7 f.~ 35. ~ etc. u-mu.x i ." No. n'-is'. 9. I<.i. 91. 9. nanu-[pi. ~ . No. n i . 91.267. may it hold sway lg for ever ! I 15.-fa-!a] . n. 114. which gives the equations AN = a." is evidently to be taken in this passage as synonymous in meaning with napi!tu. also read napiftu. etc. 'the Seizer of the Midst' ! I 10. No. etc. No..267. NOS.-fa-lu. nu. nasirlu..506. col. T h e commentary R.t i . NO.. 91. That alru. 91. [li-r]i-ik.n i ." in 12 K. " Let his name be Nibiru.139." lS I 13. 9. "may it endure. . "treasure. No. 366. etc. 91. ii.... [zj-flik.267. (see pl.139.139. ip-ti-&u. 91. " No.. 1.139. I I 1. etc. (see above.. 1..506.aFa-mu-u.139. explains danninu as referring to the earth by the equations KU = dun .24 Nos. . this passage refers to heaven is proved by the commentary R. . " H e shepherded all" the gods like sheep! I 1 2 . nu-pi. " For the stars of heaven he upheld ' the paths.139. 1.. K.506.n i and dun . I I... etc.nu = i~~iIim(1im).139. " No. m.. 35. No. fa-as'. etc. . Rev. r a . he troubled and ended her life. and a:-ru = . lit. . 35. lo NO. 91. when the days grow old. etc. No. 3 f. etc. I. Ivii). .506 and q 39. In the future of mankind. etc.e. No. " H e conquered Tiamat. lit.139. 91. 35. zz).139..506. etc. 35. " No.. lu. May this be heard without ceasing. li-is-si-e-[ . Since he created the realm (of heaven) 22 and fashioned the firm earth. 35.. l3 I . the text of the commentary S. a-$a]. " place.

etc.139.r i .506 and 91... etc.506 and 91. Lines 118-123 are omitted by I<.ri ./zu ziil . ' Nos.139. gave a variant and fuller reading for the second half of thc line.ha2 te .% i-i-&-en.267.t i . hanSriAAN14 &7n~*'-s"z15 iw-bu-u n-?'a-ti-YU' 6 aL-kat-sz~~~ - 35.506.i n ha-Zi-S'L-nzr li-biZ-7na10 lit'% tab . TABLET VII.139. NO. 91. I 16 and I I j corresponds to that followed by the commentary R. in consequence of zzk-n' occurring at the beginning of I..?u 0 u . etc. " '0 . 9.a Zu-z~ :u~?z-fu i .~ n a " " E . a6-bi-[el-tu. it-fa-an-gi. etc. 366. "0s.r z ~ 120.m a i n . 118. 91. zi-kir-lu.506 and 91. '"'BZl rnzfifi.m e . i s " . Nos. 35. 7?za .a s'a a6ep2.a . nu.139.u -sir 19.ma6 I "'E .139.. etc. 35.139. i8-me-e-ma. 123. 91.t i . ina zik-ri.139.. etc. etc. 91.. No.&r .s i . etc. 91. possibly by mistake. : u . 35.u h i . 366.u 1 2 2 . giln . etc. etc.z u 7 . a-6%.r i 123ina zih-ri @an&iAAN13 ikini rabilti I 24. The text of the commentary R. No..139.ia" s"u . li-6i-el-ma. T h e text of 11. ' . No.h i p a r . No. (see Appendix I)..I10 CREATION SERIES..a ha-bit-fa-. I 17 and also of 1.

. they made his path pre-eminent.139. 1-&a. 35. . [ma]-ah.. etc. " All my commands shall he make known! " 1 2 3 . '' H e whose name his fathers have made glorious. [ .a n . etc. 124.139. etc.~ 118. ] . 91. " No.. and let the first man proclaim them . [ . 35.. 20 I. Let them20 be held in remembrance. Su-mi-e-Su." the father BE1 hat11 called his name. l6 K. 91.. la No..etc. By the name of "Fifty " did the great gods 1 2 4 .139. his name shall be E a ! I 2 I . l4 K. 117. (This) title. III T h e Lord of the World.139. I t is probable that 11. 366. te-yi-e-ti-ia. No.THE FIFTY TITLES OF MARDUIC. H a .267.506 and 91. 91. " T h e binding of all my decrees shall he control..ti^. l3 " No. NO.I 39. . and the explanatory text S. Did E a hear. 125-142 were added as an epilogue at the time when the composition was incorporated in the Creation Series (see Appendix I).267." I 16. 91. in its original form. . [Zi-221-sa-ah-fu. it may he concluded that the Seventh Tablet.. etc. u-In.. 747.506 and 91. and his spirit was rejoiced.etc.139. NOS. " ' 0s. 9. which all the Spirits of Heaven pro~laimed..etc. . " 125. (and he said) : ' I 19. li-it. 91.. " Shall be even as I.b a . Proclaim his fifty names.a . 1 2 2 . 120. the names of Mardok. 9. ended at I.139. etc. " From the commentary R.e.

etc. K. .267.nza a . .bn3 m a . .267 probably read a6u.506 and 91.. .a t a .f a . etc. . i h . NO.m ' 7 hi-fad-su'8 134.I12 CREATION SERIES. 1.139.g1. 9 I .na '"'b'?Z iu-u ihui Zn" ""Marduh Sal-ma12 130.[ . 9. nu-kid. .'-s"a-a" 131.. 35. ' No. TABLET VII. .Z i m . " K..139. ' K . lu-u. etc.a I 29. 35. li-lil-[dil-ef-fa-a. !a-al-ma.vza 133. 9. 91. . .h i .~ a .. a-6a...139. No.506.t a r . Ii-[ 35. u ~ n d ~ ~ . Nos. h i .. etc.506. m a t . a . insert the copula u. 35. etc. etc. nu-hi-du. I-.. . 35.n i . ~ iit .m u . 127.p i . 91.. etc.267 and No. ina sa-ba-si-Su uz-za-Su u l i-ma&-&a?-& ilu ma-am-manL9 ' Nos.m a 1 6 u l u . etc.267.a t ' ~ hi-bitL4-su 132.267.J u .139. us-ni-iu.139.[.. NO.139.. ma-ri-i!. 91. . Nos. 9.ri4 li-$at-fa-a Zi-&-&i-iz$ uz-nn-s"u-uu8 --ia'rz'i6 z nu-ki-di7 li . 9.267 and No.ig .s u lid-dz. l i . K.506 and 91.a n . . 1.s"u la 71s"-te-pi-ill5 ilu a i .139. 9. 1. . K. No.u r n .t n a t . NO.n u . . mi-if-Ea-n:J ii-lin-tal-Ru. 91.506 and 91. K.etc. I<. . etc.s u la e .m a 128. . 91.gi . [ l ] a ig-[ . .r39.[ 1. lu-iu-&i. mZri. 9.267.139. 139. 9. No.i ..

ha-[ . " K. No. [ . 8. 91. 133.139. 35.n [ s . ctc. I<. [lz'l-id-6a-Su. No. K. 'TO.506. 128. . etc. .]a-pa-&. 8 . no god can withstand his indignation.126. I' K. 91. 132. 35. the Lord of the gods. . 35. No. 1. his command is unaltered . 8. a man rejoice in Marduk. di-if. . His word standeth fast. That he may cause his land to be fruitful.267.267. . 9.r39. No. .139. etc. 9.267. T h e utterance of his mouth hath no god ever annulled. broad2' is his compassion .139. "firmly established (?) is his compassion. I<. [?. 9. [ u ] . . 130. 134. 'I Il. -m]u-u. Let the wise and the understanding consider them together ! 127. 9. 1-nu-ta.139. 91. 35.." la So K.. Wide is his heart. SO NOS. uI-ie-pi-el-l[zr].f a r . u-la-7-i. ka-ra-aha . 9. l3 " '0 . hi&&[ . Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son .506.522 reads ha[?]. NO. Let .su] . and that he himself may have prosperity ! 131.522 gives the variant reading &'-id. etc. 91. . man-[ . H e gazed in his anger. 1...506 and 9r.506. 135. K. . 1. [ .267.267 . he turned not his neck .267. 9. Let them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherd ! I 29. When he is wroth. . . . etc.

. . . . 9. 137. . 91. etc. 8. for the text of the Seventh Tablet given in the preceding pages.i [ n ] te-[ - .522. have not been ' So K. IC. - -u id-bu-bu ]-Ran a-na pa . .nu ui. . . TABLET VII. . Marduh 1 2 1 2 1 iL#ni [ 1.ti ma& 138 [ I 39.139. Several other fragments. . which from their contents and style of writing may possibly belong to copies of the text. . .267 and No. . ] tnr [ ]-at " " . It may here be noted that. .lr4 CREATION SERIES. . ta[h].lillz . ] ] [ . . . . only those fragments have been used which are proved by the commentaries to contain missing portions of the text.i-[ This is probably the last line of the tablet. . ..

. 142. ." a close parallel to " t h e waters which were ahove the firmament" and "the waters which were under the firmament" of Gen. . ] they took and [ . I. . [ . . . . . to f. 140. . . . T h e text of one such fragment (S. . . . . T h e sinner and evil-doer in his presence [ . . . . . 2. . ] of Marduk may the gods [ . . . 1! included. .013) is of peculiar interest and is given in Appendix I1 . . [ . [ . . [ .136. . his ] name [ 141. . 1. i. 139. . . . 137. I. . . . . . They received instruction. . 7 . they spalie before him. . . . I. [May] they [ . . it refers to Ti-amat e-li-tiand Ti-amat f'p-li-ti. . in 1. see the Introduction. . . . I!' . ] u n t o [ . 138. " T h e Ocean (Tiamat) which is ahove" and " T h e Ocean (Tiamat) which is beneath. .

@nofljer @ereion of tlje BSragon:@zflj+' OH".<a . . p. . and by Jensen in Schrader'sKeiZins./zn nhini" ni?'?" d [ a . .Of&r Gccounfcz of f6e @icziort of Creation. a T h e form of the name here used is T<im/u.. 1 . Delitzsch.ina u [ . tam .. "the Sea.na ih . .te .nn u1 [ . ." T h e kaspu is the space that can be covered in two hours travelling. 7 ""Bd iizn Sam?(e) i . 1.[ - . . .. . z. 2 8 2 . 6. . .t i . see Cunez. . ] 5 .7 r n ul' i .?u I h a s . pp.[ .. . .s a 6 . . . though it gives a variant form of the principal incident in the history of creation according to the version I?nnnza elis'. but took place after men had been created and cities had been built. qqff. I . . Strictly speaking.I ' For the text. .a izr. .?~" e . i.siv [ . see further the Introduction. 1 . 282 the fight with the dragon did not precede the creation of the world. q17ff. 8.e. . . of the reverse to the effect that after the dragon had been slain his blood flowed for more than three years. . Rm. part xiii. These general dimensions of the size of the dragon are in accordance with the statement made in 1. a .: translations have been given by Zimmern in Gunkel's Schb'pfung und Chaos. - - . . pl. 4 a-7za r i i i z . . about six or seven miles. . pp.li .nza ~iru [ .p u 711%-mh-. for a previous publication.form Texts.unz .an . Assyniches WOrfer6uih. .j [ u . man iiu urn . vi. . .kiL . T h e . ] . 8 f. i-ta . 1 . .t u .n z n . 390 f.Si . 3. 3 3 f..s i ' . . . I n the tablet Rm. BdZ. cf. in da . . . the text is not a creation legend. h a s . 1 1 I :' .

8. 5. . OBV. 4. Who was the dragon [ . . one liaspu this l~eigl~t].e. This difliculty can be got over by restoring . . . ." 1' second measurement in the line is taken by Zimmern to refer to the dragon's breadth. 6. as Jensen points out. 1 ! Be1 in heaven hath formed [ . 1.. 1. . Without going into the question of the probable length of the Babylonian cubit. . @nofqer @eraion of fqe Brcson:@tttj. . . . . rearing his head on high. . if its mouth only measures so many feet. it is obvious that the dragon's breadth can hardly have been given as so many miles.1. some ten feet or more across. . 1 1 do not explain. . i. . . this is not consistent with the measurement of the mouth given in the following line. but render still more anomaloos. T h e cities sighed. 3. 2. . .ri~zififu in place of the suggested rz~$r*ssu at the end of I. . Fifty kaspu in his length. his coils might well have been believed to extend for three hundred or three hundred and fifty miles. Even Zimmern's readings of bo GAR in 1. . .' 1 1 I. 7. and the raising of his head in the air to a height of six or seven miles would not be inconsistent with the measurement of his mouth as six cubits. [they . 8. . . 9. . . . 1 0 and 65 GAR in 1. For their grief there was none to take [them by the hand]. Men uttered lamentation. the & GAR in I. but. . . l i a m a t was the dragon [ . We then have a consistent picture of the dragon as a long thin snake. men [ . For their lamentation there was none [to help]. .

and 11. . ] u-Se-&-hi xi-im-bat-su i-[ 14. . 2 . . I GAR O T H E R ACCOUNTS OF CREATION pi-i-S"U l i .s"u u r . . . Lines 17-19 are the appeal of the gods to the Moon-god . . . 1 z ~ .118 9 & 10. .us" [ ?id]-i 23.x i . . u Sayrid . ta e - pu .ru . . .013. . .b [ a 22. . ilEni s'a iarna(e) Ra .? a d .nu [ 15. For this value of the sign sug.a . . . No. ] [ .d a . vi. p. vi. . . . the preceding note.t ar a .2 . 1 [ ] iiza ?aiz?(e) ildnifld Ra-an-s"u ana pdn Sa ""Sin i7za uliuni . . . Zimmern takes the upright wedge as part of the number. . 3 6 5 Jensen. .~ . 1 . 11. .[ a d lr. p.BibL. . u . I i-[ . 3. . . 1 u [ .[ 16. ? + l a . cf.a .a s " . Briinnow.li . . . . give Tisku's answer to the Moon-god. K ' See Jensen. . ] . . . . ] [ . 364 . a s ' u . ~ ] Zfeilins. . .anal 13. cf. . z j ff.n a mipi IX amrnatu i . 1 ] i-di-e-ma s'a Lab-bi [ . [The rest of the Obverse and the upper part of the Reverse of the tablet is ~ a n l i n g .Su .ma . su .p a . . 20-22 contain the address of the Moon-god to T i j h u .r i 1 2 . and e i l i r t s . B i b L . . u . ul . .t i I G A R GAR fa V GAR i. . fas'ju-ra-aiz-ni be-el dhl-fiu-ut4 zq. . .

2 2 . . . " GO. ] . . . 1. . the dragon had other creatures to help her in the fight. . 10. . . " And become king [over . 2 I . according to this version also. . . . . 0 lord. 119 g. . ] . . 14. . .THE SIZE OF THE DRAGON. . .]. 15. The border of the Moon-god's robe they hasti[ly grasped] : 17. . 1. . . . I I . H e baiseth his tail on high [ . . . . 1 a bird . I n water nine cubits deep he draggeth [ . 1 2 . . " But I know not the [ . " And deliver the broad land [from . . . . . twelve cubits [his . . 24. n'-$u-ut. 1. In heaven the gods bowed themselves down before [the Moon-god . . z g and 26 the following traces are preserved : ( 2 5 ) [ . . . . . . . . . . delhziti. 16. . ] oznb -?[a - . ] ? " 2 0 . . . . . . . " Who will go and [slay] the dragon. T i i l ~ u[slay] . Six cubits is his mouth. . 19. 1. 1.~ the dragon. ]!" 23. " And become king [over . (26) [ . 1. 1 the raging (creatures) * of the river. . 1 . may perhaps be explained by supposing that. 1. . . . ] of the Dragon ! " [The rest of the Obverse and the upper part of the Revcrse of the tablet are ~ a n t i n g . Twelve cubits is the circuit of his [ears . Wf 11. . . . .' 18. All the gods of heaven [ . ~ ] Jensen. ." T h e plural. For the space of' sixty cubits he [ . . [to . . . 13. which he renders as "'moisture. " Thou hast sent me. " And deliver the broad land [from . e ~ a p ~ [ . . . .

u-Sa-(2s"-&it ur-pn pni-&a-n [ 6. I. . . . 1 . in both the versions of the story. As a matter of fact. a Jensen suggests the restoration u[ . IlI f ~ ~ n c i t i * Il ~l u7. as he states. [ . . . This would prove that the slayer of the dragon was B d . . .kanz . . ] [ . i. . . pt. 2 and 4. a day and [ . . ./lapt fi7lzu I za . . .su . . .hi K"" [ 8. . "for three years. the only other restoration possible would he " ' I [ I f a r ] . Kza-nu-uR-hza nn-pif-ti-s"u i7za pa-ni-fza 7.7nn in6 . . . for. and it is not possible to conclude from the text who is the hero of this version. .. pl. . Tzts. .I20 O T H E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION.. ] 5. they represent the sign AN and not the conflate sign AN EN (cf. or Marduk.which he deduces from the traces upon the tablet as published by Delitzsch . 34). . hours]. . . 1 [ . . and this is rendered unlikely by the masculine form of the imperatives in 11. I" . RE". Cun. . . . three months. . . is . ' Jensen suggests the restoration '&'B[U]. . KAS-PU]. . xiii. . ] pa-a-Su i-pu-uf-?%a a-nu '""[ . the traces are incorrectly given by Delitzsch . ." The trace of the + .e. .

T h e blood of the dragon flowed [ . Cun. [And . ] opened his mouth and [spake] unto the god' [ . "day and night." or possibly. .e. as Zimmern in his translation suggests. . " T h e seal of thy life [shalt thou set] before thy 2. . . . and storm [and tempest]! 3. and storm [and tempest]. I. TxLs. one day and [one night] ' 9. . .THE SLAYING OF TIIE DRAGON. and the end of the line may be restored as umu IKAN u [ m Z u ZIKAN] . . H e [set] the seal of his life before his face.e. . . . j .. For three years and three months. face. 4. . . T h e lower part of the tablet is taken up with the common colophon found upon tablets from ABnr-bani-pal's palace. " Thou shalt grasp it." Line 9 is the last line of the text. very probable reading. ." 5. . xiii. nzGSu. ] . 3 next character after u is the single diagonal wedge (cf. 121 REV. pl. pt. 8. 6. . according to Jensen's restoration this sign can "twenty hours. and thou shalt [slay] the dragon. . i. 34) . and [he slew] the dragon. " Stir up cloud. 1: ." a not only be the number " 10." i. . T h e diagonal wedge is more probably the beginning of the sign MI. this may be rendered "one day and one night. X US-PU. H e grasped it. . . . . . . . H e stirred up cloud. .

pl. . ] ] Su i-na pu-u$-ri Kim-ti-ia S[e- . [ 8. and describes the creation of two small creatures by Nin-igi-azag. u[l]-tn5 [ .. 76f. . . qr . D.. . which George Smith suggested might be part of the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series. cf. bu-ul g r i [zc-ma-a]m@riu nawz-ma.-Se-e [ . The Chaldean Account o f Genesis. gi-mir nab-ni-ti [ . p. Zimmern in Gunlrel's Schbpfung und Chaos.' I. This fragment. Bibl. does not belong to that series. and for previous translations. for a previous publication. . it contains the introduction or opening lines of a text. ] 5 . Assyrische Lesestzi'ike. . p. . ] 7. . and Jensen in Schrader's ICeiIz'ns. .T. see Cuneiform Texts. .. l2 4. . ] a-na fik-nu-at nu-pis"-ti [ ... jq. . . [ .-ti . . . . 34 f. $ reference to t4e Creafion of tqe C a t t f e anb t4e east^ of t4e jfiefb. . . . part xiii. 3rd ed. qz f. $u-zc]~-rinaam-ma. p.. ..I22 OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION. e-nu-ma i h n i " i-na pu-uh-ri-Su-nu ib-nu-zc [ . vi. 11. 1 ' For the text. see George Smith. Delitzsch.

. . After5 [they had . . . [And had . . Possibly restoreir{iti. and the creatures [of the city]. 1. 11 4." T h e reference to the creation of cattle and beasts of the field is merely incidental . . . . . And had created the heavens. [And between the beasts16 of the field and the creatures of the city had divided [ . Probably restore aii ibna at the end of the line. 123 11. . .5. see further the Introduction. and had formed [the earth] . 6. . 1. ] all creatures. it occurs in the long opening sentence and indicates the period at which the two small creatures were made. p.l I. . 1 1 5 ) . 1. . And had brought living creatures into being I . and the beasts of the field. @ reference fo flje Creafion of f4e Ccfffe anb flje @east6 of flje siefb. Possibly restore kullatu at the end of the line. And [had fashionedI4 the cattle of the field. 7. " T h e lord of clear vision. . . ] unto the living creatures [ . ." 3. of c r e a t i o ~ 8. . 1. ." 2 . . T h e reading u[l]-tu is certain from the traces on the tablet. . .OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION. the whole [~ . which in the whole of myfamily[ . When the gods in their assembly had made [the world] . Probably restore the beginning of the line as nna biil. . 108. 1. [And had . . Jensen suggests dun-ni-nu (cf. . 1.

.005. . . 14 [ . ] [The rest of the wanting. @ I. It is probable. T h e tablet is one of the so-called "practice-tablets. ii. therefore. ." or students' exercises. .] 111. * T h e text is taken from the obverse of the tablet 82-7-14. read [ . .L I L . 4.[E . ('[ . I3-$i i-n[anztext is .Iz4 O T l I E R ACCOUNTS O F ClIEATION. .NA DINGIII E N- ICI . at the end of the line Jensen suggests the reading nab-nzl-su-un. a Restore inn at the beginning of the line. 8-14) very similar to the Su~nerianextract which precedes it. . reference to t4e Creafion of tlje m o o n anb f4e ( D I N G I ~ I ) EN. pi]-si i-n[am 6i3. that the second section of the text also dealt with the two small creatures whose creation is described in the first paragraph. 1 . . ." . . . xlix. . . . which is published in vol.NEI6 Possibly restore the verb as jib-nil-i-ma: Jensen suggests the restoration [i-te-Zi]-2-ma and adds ib-nu-a at the end of the line. an extract from a Babylonian composition (11. pl. ] he calleth the white one by name [ . and on the lower part I. T h e traces of the character before ~iare those of pa or d . however.LA (DINGIR) uo5 AN . we cannot. and contains on the obverse an extract from a Sumerian composition (11.7 ) .

[a]-n[i]-Le]. [ . " corresponding to ir~tama. _ I I4." . . and that the scribe has written them out for comparison. one white [and one black . . . That both the Sumerian and Babylonian extracts are to be taken as single sentences. . and not broken up into separate phrases. 1" . 1. It is clear that the extracts formed the opening lines of the compositions to which they belonged. ] . ] [ . . Here the scrihe equates LID with e-nu-ma. ] . though they appear to have been taken from a somewhat similar Babylonian text. ] the goddess Gula . two small creatures [ . . . however. which may he rendered "version!' Lines 8-14 are not.OTIIER ACCOUNTS O F CREATION. . . . 1 5 . [Then did] Nin-igi-azag [fashion]' 10. . . is proved by the note in 1. . Enlil.LA^. [ . 12. [ .'' The end of the line should possibly be restored as D I N c m [GAL-GAL. . I I. 1-7. . .' When ' the gods W n a . . one white and one black [ . . but the traces suggest the word . . and Enki of the tablet a number of grammatical notes arranged in three columns and referring to the extracts given above. 8 is hroken. . a literal translation of 11. . . '. [Among] all the beasts he made [their form]' glorious [ . . 13.[ . . @ reference fo f4e Creation of t4e Woon anb f4e fjun. . . the great gods. I25 9. . I.] 111. . . T h e first word of 1. adding notes on some of the expressions which occur. . 1 [The rest ol the t e x t is wanting. and to e-nu-ma adds the grammatical note is'-tu Su-fa-mu-zr mal-ma-ld. .

10.NE U -TU .302)~ N. signifies the brightness of the New Moon.T U 6 7. M A .U N . ina li66i 626 n ~ i . NO. 3.374. Briinnow.N A ITU MU . The group MA-TU occurs in the Cylinder Inscription of Tiglathpileser I. and.525. therefore. 4. ( 4. 1. . + .ZU . 6.G I .UD . from the occurrence of the parallel expression {a-ku-u nam-r. in the expression :a-fiu-u MA-Tu. 6. 3 o 4 j r ~ ~ a ? Z . 1. MA -TU U-SIR (DINGIR) E N. Br.u-ITI~ 6.DU 13. and at the end of the line he adds the explanation R U = e-di-Iu. a-nze-lut-turn "'.$amas's I 4.U N . ' Cf.I 26 OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION.. No. SAG AN AN-ICI-A M U . MA-TU is rendered namn'm. applied to Sin .BAR - RA TA . "brightness..~ 3 SA-A -NE - AN-NA NA IM-PA-UD-DU IGI .-n'on the obelisk of Shalmaneser 11. i.G I . No.N E .E[$] SIR-SIR-DA4 - UD-DA 5." In 1. and in the present passage may be translated "renewal!' The group SIR-SIK = dana (Br. 17 of the text the scribe furnishes the new equation MA-TU="'~EB-KI-RU.s i l i-nzu-ru hi-nis' uf-fa-?m-u ' 0 hi-rib s'nnzZ(e) u ir?iiim(tiwz) ' Cf. MA-TU. 5. co!.

(And) to the hands of the great gods entrusted 12. note 4. [Version]. through their sure counsel 10. which is badly preserved (see vol. ' See above. T h e New Moon did Ana cause to appear.860). T h e creation of the day and the renewal of the month which they might behold. (And) mankind beheld the Sun-god8 in the gate of his going forth. 9. . T h e reappearance of the moon. as ITU occurs in the second half of 1. See above. but. 7. although in the preceding line the renewal of the month is referred to. in 1. 4. Fixed the bounds of heaven and earth. 3. No. I I . 125. Br. Through their sure counsel' and by their great commands ' Ordained the renewal of the Moon-god.. p. 14. Be1 and Ea. 7. The great gods. 4. is inscribed with some grammatical and astrological notes. 9. 5. In the midst of heaven he beheld it come forth.426. it is preferable to take U-SIR as referring to the moon itself (cf. 127 2. 6.4 and the creation of the month.' When Anu.CREATION OF THE MOON AND S U N . L). Cf. note 5 . T h e reverse of the tablet. NO. 8. pl. It is interesting to note that in the Semitic version the creation of the sun is substituted for that of the moon. In the midst of heaven and earth they duly created (him).. ii. Br. 18 the scribe equates u-SIR with ar-$a.327). p. 4. note 3. And ordained the oracle of heaven and earth.l0 and napabu (No. See above. 13. 1 2 5 .

7 0 4 read dun2-ka ina libhi-ki2"E-a {ur a$-si-i d-nu-[a].abziti*' 3.ti10 la 7F/U - 5.ku .? I Z Z ~ Y YU .N I I I Z uz . &a kir-hi-ha " " E a (AN-IIAT) {ar a$si d-nu-a Ju-bat-su . 3 1 1 (cf.t i ta . ' 82-9-18. 5 . durn-ki.6 n t . 5.s u ] ~ . 5 . d [ i ].[ku]' 6. A translation of the former tablet has been given by Sayce.din .hu - ~IU] . <$tu at . 2-4 in the text is taken from 82-9-18. 1 . T h e text forms the opening words of an incantation and is taken from the reverse of S.a u "'MardwR8 G -ru .ni te . it is possible that the line in S. 82-9-18. ha-na~a-t[um].u6 This mystical river of creation was evidently suggested by the Euphrates. 1 . for a comparison of similar conceptions of a river of creation both in Egyptian and in Hebrew mythology. inu .LIJ& .Z[a dmiz - nzu] e .Si is'.vu . on the waters of which the fertility of Babylonia so largely depended. Appendix 11). 5. ina 4.ti2 n8ru bannt(at) ka iLaui" .nik . " ' E . . at-ta. see the Introduction.bar ka . 7 0 4 .ka5 libbi-hi '"'E-a s'ar a$-si-i ib-na~[a < ~ .n i . 5. 82-9-18.9 i . 3 1 1 .128 O T H E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION. I. the division of 11.ti ~ziEru pi'.31 I .?iia 8.t i 9 9. 82-9-18.7 z i at . 3 1 1 .t [ i ] 7.e .kiuz . 82-9-18.t i $81 .bu .I .zn na . Hi6bert Lectures. with restorations and variant readings from the obverse of 82-9-18.k i 7.Se . 2.ma n i/z .e . ina a-hi-ka. 5 .a .311.311. i . Z L ~ . p.ki4 [if .hi . a .nu . 5 . nEru rabiti(ti) n i i ~ ~ zsir ~ . 403. 3 1 I .<a .

SAR) is'-m-ku im-ma. 8. "daylight." for i-&-/urn. to the river ceases with 1.31 1. thou art supreme ! 0 River. the King of the Deep. 9. 2. I 29 I. It may he noted that the duplicate in 1. 3 1 1 omits 1. and terror Have E a and Marduk presented unto thee ! Thou judgest the cause of mankind! 0 River. Thc invocation . "fire.OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION. 3. the lines which lollow on each tablet containing the personal petitions of the suppliant (cf. 5-7 read as follows: ( 5 ) i&~-uR-ki~ im-ma uz-zu na-mur-turn pu-luh-turn ( 6 ) a-6u-6u la mah-ri ha-a-{u im-di-Ka (7) [ p l i . They set pros6erity upon thy banks.8. 5. ~ T h e deluge they sent not before thou wert ! ' Fire. created his d ~ e l l i n g . 11. 0.LU . 4. thou art righteous ! lo Upon 82-9-r8.' Within thee Ea. who didst create all things." and for I. 7 gives the interesting variant reading " A t thy word did Ea and Mardult bestow the daylight. 5 . 5. ASAR ' 82-9-r. 6. . Appendix 11). '"882-9-18.k i " ' E a ( A N . 7. ASAR. SAR. thou art mighty! 0 River. and splendour. and from this point onwards it seems probable that the tablets ceased to be duplicates." A N . 9. When the great gods dug thee out. 5 reads im-ma.thou River. ]-nu fe-xi-{tee-turn fa-dm-nu nf-fa. BAT) u "'Mcrduk (AN. . 5 . LU. 3 1 1 reads [ . and wrath. g .

Zimmern in Gunkel's SchbPfung und Chaos. vol. part xiii.ni 3. and Jensen in Schrader's 1E'eLIins.ruk ul e .ban . 38 ff. xxiii (new series). pp.p u .E .R.u ul e -pa . I . 393 ff.] NUN(I<I) N U DIM R"dE~idU ul ba .LIL(ICI) E-ICUR-RA NU E-kur DIM Ni-ip-pu-ru ul e .p u . pls.u NU UZ a .us" NU .A.pi^ .[u. and for previous translations.at NU DIM e DIM - pu . G I eZ-lim bit iZ#niP1 ina as'-ri el-linz uZ e-pu-us" NU E ka . E N 2 E AZAG-GA E D l N G I R .si CIS i . T h e variant legend of the creation is contained on the portion of the ohvcrse of the tablet which has been preserved.I<U iza -a( .I30 O T H E R ACCOUNTS OF CREATION. UNUG(KI) N U RU U . EN .DAM NU na7u .' OBV.048)...S. p. see Cuneifom Texts.su . but it docs not form the principal subject of the composition.U DIM u l ba . Bi6Z. see Pinches.at 4.N E I<I MIN N U MU-UN-RU bit* 2.us" A aZn Z ul ul ba Sa - ni kin 5. 1. URU NU alu ul e . J.u s ' ba-7zi DIM (id 7. vi.us" 8. &notRer Qerciion of f4e Creation of fqe Worfb 0~ @tarbu&.da .?nnsVs'u .izi up .t i URU GI!~ . . v. jsff. it . ABZU NU RU E-AN-NAN U E .na . MUR SUB RU li-bit-ti u l 7za . 419 f. .nu .u RU MU-UN-[GAR] - 6. (82-5zz.~i NU DIM ul NU ba .n i For the text. pp. l3 biiu NU 7 d .MIN uL .

No house had been erected. No reed had sprung up. No city had been made." the \%. the great temple of Naba at Borsippa. No brick had been laid. The Deep had not been created.OTHER ACCOUNTS O F CREATION. E-ana had not been built . "incantation. 4.e. . 3. I3I Onv. the house of the gods. is merely an elaborate introduction to an incantation which was intended to be recited in honour of E-zida. no tree had been created. Nippur had not been made. i. in the holy place had not yet been made . no building had been set up . I.ordplaced at the beginning of most religious and magical compositions intended for recitation. T h e reverse of the tablet contains the concluding lines of the incantation. 8. &jtu. 2. Erech had not been created. 7. Eridu had not been built . 5. a EN. T h e holy house. For a further discussion of the legend on the obverse. no city had been built . 6. see the Introduction. E-kur had not been built . no creature had been created.

t i a .a .RA .G E [u] SAG i .i-riS iln-bu-n I-NE-NA A 17.s'e ICUIC .ifl 16.s'u a'"Eridu e .SAR ina pa . [URU] .r i i b .bi .d z ~ L .6 i aria S 2 1 - Su .7zun .AU ..N U N .I L .p i .p u .B.SUE .A NUN(III)] Bh.N E '"'A .pu .it .RA .N A . .u - .&a?' I I. [E-SAG-ILIASAG DUL-AZAG-GA ABZU E-E-NE (DINGIR) LUGAL- MU-NI-IN-RI-A E-MIN ?a ina hi-rib a$-si-i ~ " ~ u ~ a I .U L e .an A .RU E .1fla NAM A .us" E .III A me .4 RAD -A tavt .am N I .UA nap .s i ~ uL ip . [NIGIN] hit i l r i n i ' V u .pu .~za. DINGIIC-RI-E-NE N ti-ES-A-MA is"-pu-uk NE-IN-DUR-I~U- III-DUR SAG-IIUG-GA ilcini iiza &-bat tu .Lum 1 0 .? z i .bat .132 9.M I N ha .DIR NA~~MI-IN-DUB e .NA UIIP ma 12. [(DINGIR) A ] . [U . SAFJAR a .GI-DIR NAM-MI-NI- IN-ICESUA "'MarduK 18.G E .Z u Z BA URU-BI 13A-AN-RU 15. E O T I I E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION.E .ris" e .ta .SAG .B I .ila Sz~k.G E ma .[us'] E . [(DINGIR)] GI-21-MA .? ~ z ai t .n i - 13.tuvz m .rib tanz .e ir-ku-us .u6 Lib .k i AZAG-GA wit -&a.26s" KI-DUR ~AG-DUG-GA GE-E-NE-MU- MAH-A MI-NI-IN-SA-A a/% el-Lunt fu-bat tu-ub lib-hi-s"u-nu .tint .nu fa k i . AZAG DINGIR-XI-E-NE III-DUIC-BI NU DIM hitu el .tu A ..n z i 19.ICUR .RU E-SAG-IL-LA HA-DIM ina u m i . [KA-~INGI~I-RA](I<I) L ila7".LA SU .A B .BA .a z air-g'-nz1~-u g-ga 14.ma .

Rlarduk.THE CREATION OF DRY LAND. ' Or. 16. the house of the gods. and E-sagil was built. A t that time there was a movement in thc sea . the 10. I33 9. Of the holy house. He formed. 14. habitation had not been made. 19. 17. I I. . the dwelling of their hearts' desire. 12.nnalii. ' I. T h e holy city. 18. and E-sagil was finished. dust and poured it out beside the reed. That he might cause the gods to dwell in the habitation of their hearts' desire. T h e city of Babylan was built. Mardulr laid a reed upon the face of the waters. they proclaimed supreme.. 13. All lands were sea. 15. Then was Eridu made.e. the Anu. Lugal-du-azaga. where in the midst of the Deep the god Lugal-dul-azaga' dwelleth . h e 2 created at one time . T h e gods. E-sagil.

G I PA - RIM NE .N E .N A M a . -n]a GI5 . (ID) IDIGNA MIN 21 (ID) MIN RURANUNU ME-DIM ICI GAR-RA-DIM i 6 .. .NI .z l n NAM 24.RA 7na .[IN -GAR] a .ma ] CUD-LID-KA GE SURIM .I N .ti .ta . . [ s2 - riiiz i6 .izi SUG up .S% ib . 29. ib . . ./a is". . . .iv a . BIR A .uir . .SAR zi .p u .R U .urn .A Sum Si .u i u ur RIG EUIN - NA BA . (DINGIR) "" MIN 22.DUG MI .na - .R U ICUL do.TER ra tz~ G~S u TER - BI - NA - NAM hi - s"a - tu - ma 3 1 .ZI .N A BA 2 3 ..bi BA-DIM 2 5 .p a i z n .a .? n o .'34 O T H E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION.h i .62s" iin . MU .I N .e . [{CUR . DINGIR . 2 I . LU AMAS-A lit-tu pu-zrr-Sa me-ru la-a&-rupu-had-sa i~n-mir su-pu-ri . .TA N E .N A . ] . r . .m a iiza as"-ri i s ' .it 27.IG EDIN .SA -A tic . - Ri . .RU bu-ul ?Fri Ss'i Rzn iza-pi!-ti ina si . [ . ] ZAG A-AB-BA-GE [ .r i ib . .nu - .me . .RU .n i -AN~U GAR .la .p a . .n i . ] .L u ti it .ta . .AIL . . . GI-BE GI-$3-RUSUG GIs-GI GIs-TER-GID-GE US-s"u di-it-ta a#-pa-ri ha-nu-a u h i .k u .ta .N E .ta ..Su 26. . ] be-Zum '":Mardztk ina pa-at tam-ti% inin-/a-a u-nzal-li [ [ 32.I ~ U ] I <.tu?n 28.ri GIS - GI .

. Plantations and forests . 27. ' The Sumerian version reads "together with the god. 23. 25. the reed.THE CREATION OF MANKIND. T h e wild cow and her young. 31. and the swaillps . 22. the lamb of the fold . him. ] a swamp. . 13s 20. and the forest he created.. 28. 26. the wild calf. T h e lands. . 30. 21. the rush of the marsh." . H e formed mankind. T h e grass.. T h e goddess Aruru together with him' created the seed of mankind. 29.T h e IordMarduk laid in a dam by the side of the sea. H e created the Tigris and the Euphrates. . T h e he-goat and the mountain-goat . Their names he declared in goodly fashion. and he set them in their place . . 24. he made a marsh. the ewe and her young. T h e green herb of the field he created. [He . 32. T h e beasts of the field and living creatures in the field he formed. the marshes.

.] - - 3. [UNUG(KI) BA . .p u .u s " E .RU .us" E .G E BA .U .R U E .D[IM] [U . .bit .1 3 ~ O T H E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION.~ J B ] [MUR [ Z i .p u .u zS.TUIC us" . . .ban .ta . .[ [ 36.nil 40.2 ) . BA . (DINGIR) '" MIN NIN-A-FA-KUD-DU DU nzar .pu RU] URU i6 UN - . .pu . a .d i ] ] na I<I - A BA - DIM ina GIs US .u i ] Su [The rest of the Obverse and the beginning of the Reverse of the tablet are wanting.I<UR . .tu MU . GAL]-AN-zu III-GAL DINGII<-1~1-[E-NI-GE] 4. : .pu US noin .tu id .R A .ta 37 LE [bitu BA - e .ta . [URU MU .A N . MU .Si UN - 35.ta .MIN zb .han 39 [EN. . [ .r u e .us" aZu I<I .ti (DINGIR) EN-ICI-GA-GE ' .t ] a .IIU] E .ni DIM ib .A N . . swk-kaZ-la-ka ji-i-YU '"Pap-sukaZ ir-Su ma-Zik ihni*' 5. . .LIL(I<I) BA .kuv ib .u ] i 38. .ta AN - ni .U N -DIM] A .mas" MU-UN-GAR-[RA] .all . . .ta .N]A BA .ruk e .D I M [ H i .DAM [ o h e .r i ib BA .RU .

. [ . I 37 33. . trees he created . . ] he made in their place. 39. 3 j. . [Houses he made]. E-anla he built. .] REV. May Nin-aha-kudu.T H E CREATION O F CITIES. . [Nippur he made]. . buildings he set up . ] the decree [ . 5. . [The rest of the Obverse and the beginning of the Reverse of the tablet are wanting. . [Reeds he formled. . creatures he created. E-lrur he built . the daughter of Ea. Thy exalted minister is Papsulral. . [Bricks he laid]. . 38. [Erech he made. 40. . . ] he brought into existence. . I 3 f. . . [ . . the wise counsellor of the gods. . 36. cities he built . . [Cities he made]. 34. I. [ . 37.

ha H U . I n Assyrian the line would read kima Sama ZiZiZ kima iysiii Zi6ib kima ki~ibJam? iimmir.ti lib .A B .GA i .GA (DINGIR) ASAR.GA [ICI .ZI KI .Z u AN . 6.G I M H E ] . .hi .DUG .138 O T H E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION.tak .ta AN .LU .su .SAR AN .RA . .hi E L .~a7u lib .zb .NlG-NA-[ . MU .AZAG .turn nu . .ub par 13.a .GIM H E ' ' T h e scribe has not written out the rest of the verb.ICI .EN 14.E N .tum ?ir .Z i .L n uZ . ina MIN-e el-Za Sa a$-si-i a-Say tal-Zak-ti-ha uZ-Zu 10.RA . .E L .ti l i i .E N .ha eL ABZU] ICI NER-DU-NA-ZU 8.nu MIN 7.MU .DA .bi ub .n u u "'1s'tar at .[LA] ] VU-MU-RA-AB-EL-LA ina nik .LA15 .ka ana n .a . as indicated in the translation. E .L A SAG .A N . it is probable that he intended it to be read as be-[e~-ZaE-Zab-~a].MIN Sub .NA (DINGIR) .SAR .bi "'A . E IS.ma U-UL-DU-A-SU K I DUR ME SU-FA-RA-AN-DU-DU [.UUR - MAE1 NINNI . . M E .ha Zi - YU .a] .GIM H E . WE-GAL SAG-zu ana ?A-BA-RA-AN-TU-TU nu .L A B .i . .GE MIN-e LUGAL ina '"'Marduk fay Kit-fat SamZ(e) u i~$ciflz(tim) KUR-RA-GE I I.&us" 12.z u ma . DUIC-A-GUB-BA [EL-LA U-MU-UN-NA-AZAG g. GI-BIL-LA ina .6i .

may it [be glorious]' like the heart of heaven. I39 6. 18 gives the catch-line to the next tablet. . . . 15. 16. 7. the king of the hosts of heaven and earth. ] be firmly established ! gives the title of the prayer as and 1. Line . which [nay perhaps be restored as Y@iu 'zMz6" [Mar-gid-da] pmdu fa-ma-mi. . thou glorious dwelling. thou art dear unto the hearts of Anu and Ishtar ! 12. [ . May the abundance of the land enter into thee. By the incantation of Marduli. And may she cleanse thee with cleansing fire ! 8 f. With a cup of pure water from the Deep shalt thou purify thy way ! 10. . thou waggon of the heavens ! " INIM-INIM-MA I n Assyrian Zizziz. I I. May (Ezida) shine lilie the heavens. [And may . 17 1 GA-GA-NE-GE. I.ADDRESS TO E-ZIDA. may it be bright like the earth. 0 [Margida]. 0 E-zida. And may thy decree be accomplished for ever! f. . Purify thee with the pure censer.

pp. but this reference does not justify their identification with the monster brood of the Creation Series . 4. i. [The upper half of the column is wanting. di ." It was thought that the text was put in the mouth of the god Nergal. . 39-+I). . . and it was assumed that Nergal took the place of Marduk in accordance with local tradition at Cuthah. 4 1 8 ~and its duplicate K. 5. 1 . ] 2.] [a. ] . .SZL puru. . . that the speaker is not the god Nergal.rszZ [ .460 (see Cunez@om Texts. . . I. . utukku pir'u . however. who was supposed t u be waging war against the brood of Tiamat." COLUXNI.. . ina nari3 uZ Salir u Z ezzb-au-7na4 paf-ri u pu-U-ti5 ' T h e text is taken from the tablet K. 5 . I n The Chnldean Account o f Genrsis. . VI. but an old Babylonian king. . part xiii. I n the description of the monsters in col. Tiamat i s said to have suckled them.en . 1 . pls. who recounts how the gods delivered him and his land from hordes of monsters. T h e legend was for some years known as " t h e Cuthaean legend of the Creation. r o z ff.140 OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION. . . 8. .. I t is clear. . . . bzL ME-CAN [ 3. it is more probable that Tiamat is ~ a l l e dtheir foster-mother in order to indicate their terrible nature. George Smith gave .S[u .Su ekimmu pir'u . C4e " Cut~deangeqenb of fqe Credtion.

5 .. though he describes it as a "Legend of Creation. For later translations see Sayce. p. Zeils. . H e was lord of the height and of the depths. O n a tablet nought was written. His judgment was the decision [of . . pl. see S. I 3. . . see Winckler.OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION. he was lord of the Anunnaki [ . . 1. [ . had talien (men) captive. the land was in confusion. . . ] . 141 [The upper half of the column is wanting I. Z. S - . . . Misceilancous Texts. 1 . the spectre was his offspring [ . vol. 6 f. For earlier publications of the text of K. and vol. Cf.ii. 6 4 0 K . Records of the Past. 1. fi'r Assyr. . xii. Zimmern. vi. 5. 319 K . pp. Zimmern.^ In mine own person a translation of the legend. and Jensen. . 109 ff. 3 2 3 . Keilins. 6. . . Bibl. Le. 5.A.. A people who drinlc turbid water. and of the text of K.." he correctly recognized the general character of its contents. a T h e first six lines which are preserved are taken from I<. A. 64 . . 8. had triumphed over them. . so that n o business was transacted and no records were kept.. xii. Sammlung uon Z<ez%chrififezten. and. pp. a " " ' nari. nought was left (to rite). Whose sense is perverted.418. 5.bqo. Smith. . pp. . 7. and had committed slaughter. pl.. and drink not pure water. pp. . H e w a s l o r d o f . 149ff. i (new series). 1% 2. xi. 4.. zgoff. [ . T h e fiend was his offspring. 70 f.

~a .~ iu ~ reading is not certain .sur . ]-Z u Z S I L. MU is possible.nu .fa .[ u.i n nu 'Me [Sar] .Zi Zi a&-&-nu rabzi(u) a-Zihihpa-ni-iu-nu"Me-.nu . fa. i.l u .tu - - nu .s'u . Sa .-ti-6u-ma5 i .Ju .t e .ma .6a .pu urn . 5.rab . .nu 'Be . i+r. VIZ s'arrani" ( n i ) 17.7 z i .nza . Sum . " city.Z ." T h e phrase is omitted by I<.640. I<.ti 16.nu .t n T i .n i 13.ban .Z u . at &u . CCCLX.nik .m a - fa - Su - u mi .tu s'u . ina mati' ul u sb . 9.tu .i t .ma - uZ ab ." .ti 14.n ha .nu-an-ga6 Suin-?'u 20 2 I.a .nu u$nnzu . 5.Su .640.du .du "' .u l n . ' The I<. ina hi-ri6 ia&(i) ir zl. in which the line begins with ul. .142 OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION.i .e.[Su .nu a ) u " M e .ru . A n I 9.Je .Su . " f o r a year. Literally. 15.n i abu .si .n u ] Salfu({n) a& . M7A-kN 18.640. taFnNa.tu u .na Sa7. 5.

they multiplied exceedingly. in view of the large numbers which occur in col. brethren. 12. A people who had the bodies of birds of the hollow. was named Memangab . 5. . . hie-[liul-u-ma. men who had the faces of ravens. Seven Icings. 19. Had the great gods created. Anbanini. their mother. their leader. 18. 10. [Their] third brother was named [ . And in the ground the gods created a clwellingplace4 for them. I I . T h e restoration of the pronominal suffix in this and the following lines is conjectural.9. was queen. the scribe has omitted lil* by mistake. was king . 5.640 omits ni. fair and comely. From my land' I went not forth. Tiamat gave them suck. and not 6. 17.640. Their eldest brother. they waxed great. . ii. K. their father. Three hundred and sixty thousand7 in number were their forces. 14. Melili. 21. and I did not give them battle. T h e Lady of gods brought them into the world.000. 16. 1 5 . [Theirla second brother was named Medudu . ' It is probable that 360. qK. 11. ]lul . 20. . 13. should be read.000. I n the midst of the mountain (of the world) they became strong. 1 9 ff.

[ 4. [ V11 n .tr[r .' . [U . . . 6 ff. . . .Sal . [ZL-tuk(?)]-ki [rla-[blz-g~ lim-nu-te [ . .t [ u ]6 S. '"'11-tar ""[ . . . . 11. . . . . 1-si arrat [ .mn .e I . . .] . ] '"Za-ma-ma '"'A-7zu-ni-fu7ir . .[ir] 7 . . who were oppressing the land.I 2.Su u . .. [ .en .m[a] ilmz fl m(izZti"' ro. . . [The upper half of the column3 is wanting. . Zivzutti ~nlitiiti*'~ it-tn-[ . . a .I44 O T H E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION. . . . . This is the last line of the column. T h e king then enquires of the gods whether he should give the enemy battle (cf. .kilt gu&&?]*" eLZQ'ziN 9. ] 3 .u t e . ] I . 1 .). r i .ail] VZZ " ' ' m ' " " puhadu a2 .P[u .du .pu .iiza 5.st mli~?P """" b a ~ j * ~ u . .. ] ] 6. . This rendering is conjectural. . . . . . . . . ' Possibly SAG. T h e missing portion of the column probably contimled the description of the hordes of monsters. n[l] .na pa . .

. 12. Texts. and Jensen.. [I] cried unto the magicians. part xi. .4 6 . [Their] sixth [brother] was named [ . Pursuing after (a man). . . [ . but [ . 8. I set out the lambs for sacrifice [in rows of] seven. ]did I [ . and [ . . . p. 1. 47. and Anunitum. . pl. Idah . . . . . And the gods [commanded me] that I should go. T h e sign is TU.174 (see Thompson. not ~6 (= ul). . 23.TIlE " CUTIIAEAN LEGEND. T h e traces of the third sign upon the tablet are those of hu. . 11. . 1. [The upper half oi the columny is wanting.B. and Zamama. ] . I I . 1 was [cast upon (?)I the lands. ] they gave not (unto me). In [ 5. The beginnings of 11. And [ . . 7. . 6-8 are restored from col. 1%' 9. r]u . 23. K. turned [him] from his 4. . . 4. . [Their seventh brother] was named [ . . . . 22. . iii. [ 2." I45 [Their] fourth brother was named [ . Evil [fiends] and demons purpose.. . . 294). Cun. . and Sama. . vi. . . 3. . . . 24. iii. 2 5 . . . . . [I placed there also] the holy [ . and I directed them. . .. [Their] fifth [brother] was named [ . not lu. 10 . . . 10. . . . . 18-20. . . I that lie in wait [ . ] an evil curse . the warrior. . . Restored from col.] I . dlada. ' T h e ideogram is explained as gu-uk-h[u] in I<. Of IStar. . And I enquired of the great gods. 1.

di4 n - 7na - k 7 ~. 1 3 . 8 f. we may probably read zisi-hu. and a-na-hi (cf. ] ( 2 ) i-nu ?aFa-ni-i I1 .nd .i ' a .e. .~ i ' ". the text of which is published in NeoAssyrian characters by Scheil. and in 1. 8 he read the name of the king Tukulti-hel-nisi .tz ina T h e exclamatory phrase lu-u a-nu-ku-nza may perhaps be best rendered in this way.B. . .) that another version of this portion of the legend is preserved on a fragment of an Old-Babylonian tablet.di3 ma& iattu - sh p a m i l i i ia ~i . . 1-pzi" L i b . .a g . T h e word lu-ud-di evidently refers to a weapon of some kind. 65 f.a I4 ai LlR a772 u7u a+ . ] fa-il-fz4 . in other signs the scribe tends to carry through his horizontal wedges.).[ . ii of the "Cuthaean Legend. I t was pointed out by Zimmern (Z.e. of col." as Zimmern pointed out. the fragment in question forms the third or fourth column of a tablet. . u I 8. xx. .nza 17. ' T h e sign is AT. and a-nu-ar in 1. h ~.i n . . Z ~ I Z . . .F[u]-f[i] Zi-nzu um-ma-ni u-se-scam-ma ( 3 ) lin-fa-ha-a? fa-up-da-a u-ma-nl-Zi {i-ra (4) i-nn {a-al-fi Yu-!i li-mi um-ma-na u-1%-~i-am-ma ( 5 ) e-li s'a fan-na u-wa (i. also Jensen's transliteration and translation of the text in K. 298 ff. and in place of Scheil's IZ-KU-fi [i. a-ka-la.:u ( 1 3 ) Ib-a-Si pali(e) mi-nanz u6-lam ( 1 4 )hi-i lu-u5-fa-as-[?]-ma ( 1 5 j p a . . 317f.BAR . . Recueil de frauaux.~ZLi um-ma-ni l ~ .bi a - nn a Zih - h i . a-ka-p' [or a d ] . not T U R . f2-fu ( ( 1 2 ) [ u ] rZ'a la mu-fa-lirn ni--h:i.146 O T H E R ACCOUNTS OF CREATION.na-ku SU(?)-AN a-na pali-ia rnllnam ub-lam ( I I ) a-nn-ku !a?-rum la nzu-fafa-Zim [ma]. .h i .& .i atZ-RiL [ . According to Scheil.. p. ] ib . lu .ti Z u .ai-u UR-BAR-[ 16.hat ha . . p.ma .Z ~ R h i . . vi. fukuNi(fi)1. .. hut its parallelism with 1.ia - u . disproved the reading. .A. . 2 2 f. l14 - 15.ny . pp. PI)-of-it-ir Su-a-ti (6) i?-fu VZ 'Iu-h' Zi-mi um-ma-ni i-m-ru ( 7 ) im-fa-&as fa-up-da-a ra-62-a ( 8 ) a-nu-kz~ is-si-Eu en-ni-ii ( 9 ) a-ka-la a-na-/ii a-$-us' am-ti-ma (10) urn-ma a.ri . T h e column of text preserved by the fragment reads as follows : ( I ) lin-ta-&-a? fa-ap-da-a u-uZ i-zi[ .

Saying : " By my life ! 14. (4) T h e third time. ." since it describes in the first person the putting to flight and capture of twelve ~ a r r i o r s and . " ( I ) H e fought. 300 f. and ( I S ) causing myself and my warriors to go forth? (r6) T o destroy the plain of Akkad (17) he hath summoned a mighty foe. . . and filled the plain (with their bodies). . ] . But I will go. ( 2 ) T h e second time."' From the summary in 1. as " T h e first time. . A s the first year drew nigh. [ . (lo) saying: 'As for me . . And my weapon of iron will I take!" 18. . " h e fought a defeat").r iAk-ha-di-i (17) emLn'nahra da-an-na id-ki-am-ma (18) [ . 8. since I have put my trust in the [ . Then spake I unto my heart. . powerless. ] my friend ? I 5. . what have I brought upon (upon us) (14) by . 17. . . .582 (see Haupt. . . . . what have I brought upon my realm ? (11) I am a king who hath brought no prosperity unto his country. . and (18) [ . W h o is . . Nimrodepos. cf. K. and had achieved a mighty victory. . . . [ . vi. . (13) As for me and my realm. ." I47 13. . p. I. p. ." Jensen also connects the fragment K. 78) with the " Cuthaean legend. 1. . . . (9) and afflicted. 1-e fa(?)-am-$a-n'-a fi-[?I-gi-a (19) [ . . contains the formula [kli-a-am ah-6i ana lib-bi-i[a] . the last line of the preceding column may probably he restored. ] gu-uk-ha-ni-e ( 2 0 ) [ . 6. ] a sorcerer ? 16. W h o is . sixty thousand warriors I sent forth. (12) and a shepherd who hath brought no prosperity unto his people. . . ] of my heart. .TIlE " CUTIIAEAN LEGEND.. and (3) he fought. . . (zo) [ . . (8) I was desperate. one hundrcd and eighty thousand warriors I sent forth. . and conquered (lit. . . and I lamented. .4 (16) a-nu hu-ul-lu-u+ ~ i . . ] my battle . . (6) After he had slain the three hundred and sixty thousand warriors. ] Ak-ka-di-i sa-pa-nu [ . and (5) I caused them to he mightier than before. . . . (7) and had fought. and conquered. I was cast down and full of woe. . . (19) [ . ] to overwhelm Abkad [ .B. . .. one hundred and twenty thousand warriors I sent forth. . . and left not [one remaining]. .

nza izza Libbi . a-~za-ku-ma - ~za pa . . M+ VIZ. 7.da - . . . en - - ni - i'u us* a .C do." .n ] . ~ z i i6 . .rip1 23.a) zSten(e7z) zo.US-fail .nu . . .sa .u ma .14s O T H E R ACCOUNTS OF Cl<EATION..tu 6a z<- 5 .1. . s"aniturn(turn) hai'adi(di) XC. . M u~~znza~zu u .t i L ' u-S e . .i u pu .r i .ku Snrru mi .Se . 6u pi>zi2 .Lib . I a]-6u-ba Lit. .L a ZIP e L a 7 - fa - ni e -3 . is . . hi-a-am a@-& a-na /d-hi-ia urn-ma Lu-u. .Sn . . [ b z .su . .Li - a .bu a .u 24.la kin a . 25.a -a -i .ma pag 3.Im . [ 8. . M do..if] . 19.h .!i nu-Si mu-u-tu nail2faru a-ru-zrr-tu 4.fu .u bu . z z .ba fu - ni-piL. ZZ J'uSi. ..I - nztiti .nu ul itziva(7. .!u :z. skZu/fum(fum)Sattu ina hafidi(di) L X .a/i] . . [ . .s"7~ .0.na .kan . .: i 6aOu ina Saftu . k i L u .si . . . na-muv-ra-tu bar .[ i .&U 6. . fa-Zunz-mat ni-Si . Li . 21. "added to. Sn tar .

5. the] deluge of old time ! " T h e reading of 51 a s p z n i is not certain. but not one returned alive. " I am a king who hath brought no prosperity unto his country. but not one returned alive. and death. sixty thousand seven hundred warriors I sent out. but not one returned alive. "And [famine]. " [But . 6. 3. . AS the second year drew nigh. . I. " [ . and disease. powerless. . In mine own person will I go forth ! " T h e pride of men. . COLUMN 111. and afflicted. and . . . . . . . 2 2 . . One hundred and twenty thousand warriors I sent out. let] there be a deluge. ninety thousand warriors I sent out." I49 19. " And fear. 1. saying : " By my life ! 24. and terror. Despairing. 4. . and hunger. . . . 20. and misery of every kind " Pursue after their [ . and trembling. . 7. I was full of woe. . And Ispake unto my heart. And a shepherd who hath brought no prosperity unto his people. . What have I brought upon ' my realm ? 25. 8. and night. 2 1 . and I groaned aloud.THE " C U T H A E A N LEGEND. As the third year drew nigh. 23. Ii 2. " But (this thing) will I do.

k i Sa " " E .na pa .p[u . . tall. . . . [ . and.+except for traces of what is probably the laat line of the coli~mn. . . being one line higher on the tablet than the ends of the lines to which they correspond. 5.I 50 O T H E R ACCOUNTS O F CREATION. .tnv .Sal . a I t would seem that one of the gods urged the king to make offerings and supplication at the Feast of the New Year.' . u . . . I bay?" 21 . From 11. [The lower half of the column is wanting. . the beginnings of 11. .] ' T h e fragments of the tablet K. . . it may be inferred that he at last met with success against his enemies. . . .an VZI "'2n"""pu~adu al . iua f e .6a . V I I a .vzuk elZzitip' [ . . . it is clear that the king followed the god's advice ..t ] ~ 20. '"'Za-~ra-77ra "'A-nu-ni-t]um "2"' . . .preserved by I<. ..ma ihni" ~a[6ziiz]*'~ 2 z . . [ .i ] r 18. .bin guhhi*'" el~'[liti]*'~ 21. . . . te . a2 . u Sub-Su-u t a 14 zag . . . iv. r~hGti(ti)Sa[tti . 14ff. a . 5. . . before undertaking his fourth expedition. asAI.418a are not quite correctly put together.te ellzZti*' [ . I z.[vza . . 9ff.muk h r 1 5 .[ .si rndri'" 19. . from the conclusion of col. + U Y . 17.640.l r i l t r .e . Sa ildlzz *' 16. . .a [ .m e . . ni& zag .ri .7/za 13. .

. .g. iv he refers to the record of his history as an encouragement to future princes who may succeed him on the throne. . . but as the god appears to be addressing the king. . 14. n. .5 2 1 . [the . ] . [The lower half of the column is wanting.. . 18. . . . 7. p. . " And to make [ . . . T h e New Year's Feast in the fourth y[ear . . . " Thou didst speak unto me and [ . . I. . . 16. . . Pure omens [ . 1 " T h e gods [ 1 2 . . . . . And [ 24. . [and . and Zamama. . rg. .. . . ' Then the god [ . .' except for traces of what is probably the last line of the column. .6@. . . . 22. . .' And said [ . . With supplication unto Ea.I. The end of the sign ICES is preserved. plur. . and I [directed them]. I set [out] the lambs for sacrifice in rows of seven. ] spake. and Anunitlum. ] : . . 5. I I. . . . a See above. . 17. Of IStar. [ ." [. .. . [ . . . . . . . "ye commanded a n d " . . the warrlior. And I enquired of the great gods. I placed there also the holy . . . . . 10. . since in col.] Possibly the 2nd pers. 145. . . 15. . . . ] 13. 2 3 . ] thou . I cried unto the magicians. Pure offerings for the Feast of the New Year I. . The son [ . I t is clear that in the missing portion of the column the king describes the defeat of his foes.. 1. the rendering in the translation is preferable. . . . v and SamaS. . '1 of the great gods. zo. . 1 25. . . . preserved by K. .

ha z ~ . ] z. iLBni*i [ . dzirBni *' . . COLUMNIV. .niS2" Z a [ .kn a mur an . & i. - - . .a Si .pa& ""NergaZ "b"" e E .i *""'nar& an na .Ka m$gL 14. .ma . . . .lab3 L a ta . 1 7. .da .z i . i s V . i .ra . ] uZ.pal .a I 5.t [ i . .t i . ] 8.k ul [ -p]iZ-{a-nu-ti g. at-ta ina su-un sinniiti-ka Ji-pir 20.Sid .152 OTHER ACCOUNTS O F CREATION. narB - - - - . Sarru dun . ka . . I.ih & u 2 la fe ru 17. .na KufaX' ina i .6ak .ln [ . la ta .tar r 8 . .ur - .lanz .me 16.nza . . . . .n]e ti u . ] . fa P i .[ . . ] 6. . - . . .[nu . . . 13.ma .a 4 .kn Z u n 19. 12. it-t[i . la te si .na . at ta Sarru is's'nkku ru62i lu mamma . .nu .na pa . .

] 2. T h e people did not [ . T h e city of the [foe . or ruler. 13.Behold this memorial tablet.640 omits a. . .640. 14. 12. L . Together with [ . 5. ] . . 2 I. 16. Unto [ . 17. 11. Strengthen thy walls. [ . 5. .COLUMN IV. In the city of Cuthah. . . K. 19. I [ . My hand [ . . . A mighty king [ . I . . nor be feeble. . . . . 20. 10. Thou. . Whom the god shall call to rule over the kingdom. and a record have I written for thee. 6. . . have I deposited it for thee. or anyone whatsoever. ] . ] 5. . . . . g. . . ] there was 7. . . . . . . And hearken unto the words thereof. . . . T h e gods [ 8. or prince. . . ] did not conquer them. Fill thy trenches with water. . ] 4. [ . That city I. .la-a&. in the temple E-shidlam. . Sleep in peace beside thy wife. . . And thou shalt not fear. ] . nor be affrighted. 1 5 . 1 . qK. And thou shalt not despair. . Stablish thyself firmly. 0 king. 3. In the shrine of Nergal. . A tablet concerning these matters have I made for thee. 18.

jur pu . . . a I n this address to future rulers. . . [ .fhn 26.Su 28. . ] . . alpu-ha. that safety is to be found in following the commands of the gods.a .&a buSa [ 24. he recommends his successors upon the throne. .kn iuZ . ." T h e reading of the second sign as ka is not certain. not to take . .e. .ma e ta as . Furthermore. .gar . .ka knspa . "thy cattle. . i. the traces suggest GUD.k ] u . . .t i . .1 .na .i . . . .& i ' u . .t i e-mid - [pa . .. . 1 .sa .u s .k[a a ] .i'u 27. .] ' One sign is wanting at the heginning of the line. .an . r u . . [ . . .ka ha nzakkura . the general moral which the king would draw from his own history appears to be.iin .m a t u b . ] e tz~.ka 1 ' . OTHER ACCOUNTS OF CREATION.r z b . [ . pi .ti . i'e .ut .[ 23. 5 4 22. . . . . - [The lower half of the column is wanting. . . . .nib .ha] u .h a .nu .k a 2 25.

And thy [ . 1. 1. . . see further. [ . .' and thy household stuff. . however.THE " CUTHAEAN LEGEND. . 26. . i. . . and build surrounding walls. . [The lower half of the column is wanting. . 25. 1. 23. 28. . . . thou shalt not draw nigh unto him. ] thy [ . . 140 f. 1. Guard [thy body] and take heed for thy person. p. . is of considerable interest from the evidence which it furnishes with regard to the early date of the dragon-myth. but to shelter themselves behind the walls of the city of Cuthah. I t will be seen from the above translation that the text does not contain a legend of creation (cf. . 27. Fix firmly [the . [ . Bring in thy treasure-chests. . the Introduction. 24. . . . . . and thy silver. [ .] the field against an invading foe. . and thy goods. T h e reference to Tiamat in col. and thy corn. . and thy possessions. ." I55 22. . note I).. thou shalt not go out unto him.

duplicates of one another. with regard to the form and literary development of the Creation Series.107 + K. A t the end of the Appendix some fragments of texts are discussed. A third class. of its contents. The greate. @ssgrian Commenfaries anb @araffef Ze. A second class seems to have contained a kind of running commentary to passages selected not only from the Seventh Tablet. which refers to every line of the Seventh Tablet. and prove that the religious literature of Babylonia included parallel texts composed on very similar lines. is also of considerable value. gives explanations of a number of titles of the god Marduk. which were compiled to explain the whole.tfs fo tlje Sevenftj Ca6fef of f4e Creation 3eriee+ THESeventh Tablet of the Creation Series was a composition which received much attention from the Babylonian and Assyrian scribes. T o the commentary of the first class. the following fragments belong: . and of this class we have a single version inscribed upon fragments of two large tablets. 6. The first and most important class consists of a commentary to each line of the text . the fragment S. or portions. and with the information which they supply concerning the contents and interpretation of the Seventh Tablet. The evidence which the commentaries and the fragments of parallel texts furnish. several of which occur in those portions of the text of the Seventh Tablet which have been recovered.I. represented by K.086. part of this Appendix deals with these commentaries. 747 belongs to this class of explanatory text. and specimens of three classes of commentaries have come down to us. which bear a striking resemblance to the Seventh Tablet. but also from the other tablets of the Creation Series . 2.

and frequently to the separate lines of the Seventh Tablet. 366 80-719. 4. are published in this Appendix near the paragraphs dealing with the portions of the commentary which refer to them. a large one inscribed with five or six double columns of writing on each side. 1-10. R. i (pl. I and 2 of the Seventh Tablet (see the text of I<.. liv) is a smaller fragment of the same tablet.854 in the block on p. I<. The commentary is in the form of a bilingual list. it gives a list of the Sumerian words. into which the columns of the commentary are divided. refer to the separate couplets.ala-ra-KU (3) SAI< : mi-ril-tu (4) A : iz-ra-tu (5) SInu : ha-a-nu (6) R U : ha-nu-u (7) SAR : ie-im (8) SAR : /ru-u ( g ) M A : a-ju-u (10) SAR : ar-ku.) are parts of the same tablet.406 (pl. 2. I think there is little doubt that S. 980. 4. ii had been printed off (see Appendix 11). 159) as '"'Asar-~ifa-a-ri/r mi-?if-t[i mu-kin + + + + ' For references to previous publications of various portions of the commentary.S. 288 + 293 (pls. Ix) are parts of a duplicate commentary to the Seventh Tablet. or ideograms. 82-3-23. see the Introduction. The compartments. and presupposes the existence of a Sumerian version of the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series . which were inscribed with duplicate texts. . 2. 2.299 (pl.' The following paragraphs deal with the sections of the commentary which have been preserved :S. livf. K. li). 8. I and 2 of the text.299 These six fragments are separate portions of two large tablets.oj3 (pl. From this we may restore 11. Obv. 11 + S. col. 151 (pl. The text of five additional fragments of the Seventh Tablet. generally in the order in which the words occur in the Assyrian text. 15 I .416. K.416 (vol. lvi&). and it will be seen that it is often possible to restore the text of the Seventh Tablet from the information which they furnish. 366 80-7. I I + S.19. and K. and lv) and K. li ff.053. The remaining three fragments R. which I came across after the lithographed texts in vol. 980 + S.406. 980 S. lixf. pls. and opposite each word is added its Assyrian equivalent. 8. 11. and K. 11 + S. 1. ii. the commentary to 11.). 82-3-23. read : ( I ) ["'I ASAR-RIfa-rib (2) R U : . or sections. 1. 288 293.

it would be possible to take the signs GAR and RIG in 1. As the verb fa-ra-Ku occurs in 1. 366.. Obv. 1-18(I<.165). I I. read : ( I I ) ' A ' A ~ ( 1 ~ 2 ) SA ~ : hi-i-tu ~ . the commentary to 1.. '59 iz-ra-ti].ASSYRIAN COMMENTARIES. No. col. 2. and ba-nu-u &-am u hi-e mu-s'[e-~i uv-hi-fi]. 1. ?a-ri.and it is preferable to render them in this way also in the commentary.(13) ~ SA ~ :~ ~ mil-hu (14) ALIM : ka6-tu (I 5) SA : at-YU (16)s A : ? ~ z i l . as GAR = har~u (cf. The title "'AsAR-RI is therefore explained as s'a-vik (as in R.962) and RIG = uvkitu (cf. and transliterate the line as ASAR-RI-GAR-RIG .K.h ~ ~ . 11. i. which is perhaps preferable. 3 of the text. col. I 1. I of the Seventh Tablet the signs GAR-RIG are clearly to be rendered [ " ' I b & ' + W *@ +&+rqiE ++ <*m m=*€=Hm='v -m m q Creation Series.. etc. But in 1.854). 11-16. Tablet VII. 5. i. Briinnow. and this would agree with the explanations of the title given in the Seventh Tablet. z of the commentary. the scribe wrote the two opening words of the Semitic version of the text as a heading to the commentary. I. or. Ohv.. "'Tu-TU is explained as ba-a-nu) . I as part of the title. S.. Br. No. . etc. 11.

.

corresponding to 1. or at any rate a variant reading for the second word in the line. Obv. . gives traces of two sectious of the commentary which should correspond to about 1. ] . corresponding to I. pl. No. read : (1) ZI : [ . 1. The text reads ai ivz-nza-Sii-na a-$a-ti $-&-ta-[ . ] : /ieg[alZu].~ Z U (10) . Obv. ] (2) Z I : [ . + II .053. . the commentary thus gives a variant form of the title.. . 11. 2.. p. read : (14) DINGIII : i-Zum (15) TU (so glossed) : &z-a-rz (16) DU (so glossed) : !a-a-6i (19) ZI : 77zn-ga-rn. Obv. Obv. read : (8) '"'do. *' NA-ZI-AZAG-G[A] (9) RU : ~ L I .. zu in 1. 4 may possibly be restored as ~%-7zu. 19 of the text. the commentary to I. correspond to 1. ii. . I I ) . ~ 161 - K. .. pron. . read : (20) ZI : (la-Su-u (21) AZAC : ~i-ivz-ru(22) I i A : K7~-621-ut-te-e (23) Z I : ha-a-n[u](24) [ . cf. . which form two sections upon the tablet. 95. Lines 14-19) corresponding to 1. 18 of the text and read : (2) TA : a[ . 980. Iv). while for mu-KiZ the text of the commentary read mu-Kin (as in I. Obv. . . it is clear therefore from 1. (pl. 1. Lines 20-24. S.053. also K.-(la1%-ma71-nd-du-IL [ .11 S.I I S.ASSYRIAN CORIMEXTARIES.[ u ] I<U : ni-6n-[%] ( I 3) AZAG : te-ZiZ-tl-t. 1. Lines 8-13 (cf. ] (4) TA : i-[7za] (5) UICI~IN: a-$[a-ti] (6)IB : zp-&-[ti] (7) GAB : Ku-%[Z-. 980. ] . I -4 (cf. 2. . joining S. 17 of the text. 1.980. etc. li) + + . . 2 of the commentary may cf. col. . .~??r.1 1 S. 5-10). . 4 is the equivalent of u-ad-du-u. zr of the text. S.. . the 3 m. col. 21 of the text. .. . Br. therefore be restored as ZI : [:a-bn-11~1. (I I ) ZI : Ka-a-7zu (12) ALAG : 'el-Zz~??z The text reads '"'Tzz-tu ""Zi-azag Sal-SiS lin-bu-ZLmu-kiZ te-liZ-ti. 1. for no equivalents occur in the text to 11.416. . suffix (but cf. . 11. I). 1. ii (see pl. and the equivalent of N A in 1. 11. . 11.. ] (4) N A : [ . . . also I<. S. 25 of the text. 3 that the commentary gives a slightly variant text. 2. The text reads aZ-hat-siz-u7z .. and presupposes a longer (or an alternate) form of the line. 23 of the commentary). li. pl. iii (pl. n. The text reads ?1z%-ia6-:i si-im-ri u ku-6%-ut-te-e vzu-kin begaZZi. Obv.053. S. 20 of the text. 2-7 (cf. 2. col. . 1. ] (3) Z U : [ . col. (17) D I N G I R : be-h71z (18) zI : ie-??z?~-% The text reads i Z !a-a-ri <a-a-hi be-eI taS-me-e u 77za-ga-ri. ii. 15).330 . lix). . (9) and ( 1 2 ) . . ] (3) I ~ U : bn[ .

. 1: e-li (8) [ .. it is therefore possible u:?z-muin the commentary refers to Tiamat.~ Z L at-tafi-jibe compared with the phrase M U . but tlic traces of the preceding section do not appear to correspond to 1. is certainly not the title of Mardnk. this fragment should refer to about that portion of the text. Ix) gives traces of the right half of three sections of the commentary. ] : ni(?)-hu-[zr] (4) [ . p. . ] : ?aZ+znt takhaiii (6) [ . L. ni-Si. may perhaps Z . . and iza-&-nu. . The sense of the second half of thc line appears to be that Marduk is the guardian of mankind and gives them nourishment. but the name of Apsu's minister . . . which occurs in the explanatory text S. this may possibly refer to 1. The first line preserved by K. 151 (pl. but Mutnmu. ] :aZ-wrat [ .162 APPENDIX I. The fragment 82-3-23. Rev. 747.299. 3-14 give the right half of the commentary to the first two lines preserved by the fragment K. as suggested in the copy on pl. The first sign in I. 34. . The Reverse. ] . 163). 12. Ummu-Hubur). the second section consists of the following words : z1n1-9r2u. 12.rtinni~ig across the column . .nzz~. 8. According to its position in the commentary. read : (7) [ . . 32 or 1. . 8.Z I ~ ~ir-pi-e-tu ba-am-ma. ] : ha-nu-u. ir-pi-e-tu. gives traces of three sections of the commentary.299 is broken and its reading as n i is not certain .830. . . however. taken in conjunction with ir-pi-e-tz~. explained as r@i>~z~. W e might perhaps restore the first line of the section as ""Mu . . 11. ] : ki6-ra-n-te ( 5 ) [ . iv is possible. . I jo). this may conjecturally be restored as [ih-hikih-rn-a-te] ?a/-nznt [ka@anli i6-ni-ma]. and may perhaps be regarded as a title (cf. . K. ti-'-u-tu. 35 of the text. Obverse (pl. 33 or 1. inn-ZZL-u. ha-ji-$a. g) begins with a title of Marduk . 3 of I<. . wliere it is followed by the comment Mu-urn-mu = rig-vzu. T h c third section (I. 10 (see below.ines 3-6 read : (3) [ .zuiz .830 (see the block on p. 12. Ix. Lines 7-14) from the right half of the commentary to the second line preserved by K. ] : . . The signs urn-mu.830 reads [ . . liv) includes traces of the right half of three sectio~lsof the com~nentary . 1. . .

livf. . . ] : [ . Fragment of the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series (I<. . 13. 164)) read : ( I ) ""GIL: ma-[ . n. . . . . the first part of the line may therefore be restored as [e-Li fa]-a-& te-[e-mu . but as part of the title itself. z. ] : [ . 163 fa-a-fu (9) [ .). I of the commentary the sign A is omitted before GIL. The text reads [ . .761 (see the . . ] : (e-e-mu ( 1 0 ) [ . i (pls. . . . . . . . but the restoration of the second half of the line is not certain. . 17nu ( 1 1 ) [ .406. read : . . Reverse. 4. corresponding to the next line of the text. 1-a-!a tee[ . . . . . ]-an.' col. . in 1. .ASSYRIAN COMMENTARIES. . roq. . ] 1. ]-LzL~~z ( 1 4 )[ . and it is possible that ma-[ . .406 is from the obverse and not from the reverse of the tablet . ] : [ . ] (2) I L : fa-ku-[u] ( 3 ) MA : 12a-sa-[&(?)I ( 4 ) GIL : a-g%-[u]( 5 ) G I L : a-fa-[YZ] ( 6 ) GIL : ?'a/-t[um(?)] (7) s"a~ a-gi-e : fay-ra-[ .830). ] : [Ila-a (12) [ . . . Of the text only the beginning of the title is preserved. . ] : [il-da-u ( 1 3 )[ . . corresponding to the fourth line preserved by the fragment K. 12. . ] in the right half of the line is not to be taken as an explanation of the title. 1. . p. "'A-gz[l . 4. ' It is possible that the text of I<. . block on p. Lines 8-13. see above. ] . . 1. K.

. ] (12) G I N : k[a-a-nu(?)] ( 1 3 ) UINGIR : [i-lzl?lz(?)]. and nclp-&ar-?-u?ii. 27 and zg. . . Of the text only the first word. ii.519 (see the blocks on p." H e is mighty among thc gods his brethren.6 u . evidently presupposes a variant reading for this line. ~~~~ (8) M A : ba-nu-u (9) IM : ir-s[i-tu] (lo) A N : e-[L~L-IL] ( I I ) GIS : mu-[ . Sa-. although MU-UM-nl[u]. . 11. It is clear therefore that they prcsupposc a variant reading for the line. for it does not begin with the title "" Mu .406.u n ~M U . . 1 . m . bu-u. They should correspond to the fourth line preserved by thc fragment K. which may perhaps bc co~ljecturally restored as i-nn i/Eui a-hi-e-fz~~UI.The next line of the text reads "MzI-ulrzmu h . 26-29. . 4. a-&!I. .761). Rev. the commentary.n . Fragment of the Scventh Tnblel of the Creation Scries (I<. e-til-luwz..$a]-ae-mu-&a-iu. 11. 165)~ which reads [ .i.. 14 may be restored from the text as "" ZU-[LUM-MU].a [ n . I<I<VERSL.-OZI-U ~'~-OZI-ZL e-til izap-/za-?. and the title in 1. . has been preserved. occurs in 11. 1-7 give the following words in ~L-YZLthe explanatory half of the column : i-na. 13. . i-Lu771. col. ba-nu-a.. Lines 14-25 correspond to the next two lines of the test. without the determinative. K. BROKEN SURFACE O~rvess~. .164 APPENDIX I. 8.

8. read : (S) [. 13. 8 . 5 1 9 Lines 8-13. Osvnns~. Fragment of thc Seventh Tablct of the Creation Series (K. 166) may be restored as ['"‘Lugs!-dur-ma& Tar ~rzlar-[klas ilini*' be-el &r-?fza-bi. 8. which occurs at the end of the preceding line preserved by K. 8. Fragment of the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series (I<.519).".519 and its duplicate K. 8. 165 great is the lord of all ! " With e-tzZ-!zun and nap-/ialcrz~ may be compared [rzlap-bar be-Liq~z.ASSYRIAN CObInIENTARIES. the commentary to the following line on K. dur-?na-&u. Lines MAG: .I LUGAL-DUR-MAH (9) LUGAL : f a r .r ~ ~ (10) D U R : mar-ha-su ( I I ) DINGIR : i-Lu?iz (12) LUGAL : be-Lullz (13) DUR- R%vEnsx. The text of K.519).337 (see the block on p.519.

8.337). read : ( 2 9 ) RA : & . .406. The text may therefore be restored as [""A-dz~-nu~z-fzn] m a .166 APPENDIX I 14-22.35. iii (pls.SIGISSE . . the Fragment of the Seventh Table1 of the Creation Series (I<. .~ ~ ~UY-bu-u and [ f a ] i~znilini"' nm-'-dir' ~ i . but is probably j-u.h~. ] . the commentary to the following couplet on I<. Lines 23-28. 8.519. The text of the two lines reads i n inn Su-bat J ~ Y Y I L . 8. Duplicate of It.& '"E-a 6n-an ilanifi' nbe"'-. The text of the two lines may therefore be restored as Sa a . Of the first section only the ends of words in the right half of the column remain.Z L . read: (23) "'' A-DU-NUN-NA ( 2 4 ) A-IIU : nzil-4% ( 2 5 ) N U N : "'E-n ( 2 6 ) RU (SO glossed) : ba-nu-u (27) DINGIR : i-Lunz ( 2 8 ) A : a-6u. the commentary to the following line on I<. lv).r u . Rev.519. . liv and lv) givcs traces of four sections of the commentary. Lines 2 9 . 4.519. 13.[ z a ] tnl-&&-ti ru-bu-ti-& and i[n-a u]-maS-Sa-lu ilu ai-urn-mrc. the traces given on pl. 8. The second section reads : (9) [ .S I G I ~ S E Thc sign is much defaced (cf.. K. ] : [ruI1-6%-u(33) N U : la-n ( 3 4 ) R U (?) : [1nn-Sa-1zr(?)I (35) DIN[GIR] : [i-lnnz]. col. read : (14) LU : Sn-n ( I 5 ) I ~ U ( D U R ?) : i-nn (16)DUR : &b-tunr (17) LUGAL : fa7*-~zr ( 1 8 ) MAFI : ru-bu-u (19) K U ( D u n ? ) : a-nn (20) DINGIR : i-Lunz (21) MAF: nza-'-du ( 2 2 ) MA? : si-i-yu. commentary to the following couplet on I<.a (30) R A : a-7zn ( 3 1 ) A-[D]U : a-/ah-tu (34 [ .519.

. I I S. i (pl. Lines 16-19 read : (16) D I N G I I I : i-Zum (17) I G I : ma&-rzl (18) [T]U : e-ri-bu (19) [ . see above. 1.~ I 67 p ~ - -~ ~ (10) U D .u R A : a-!a-hu. Rev. . . 107 of the text. col. The text reads ma-a s'a kiv-bit Ti-a7izat i-fib-hi-[ . 26) : hi?-6u (IS) N E . 1. col. I-?' (2) [ . I-51. Rev. S begins [ ."'. ~ . which contained in the explanatory text. pl. " Let the gods bring their gifts into his presence" . go and loo. col. . L]i-fe-ri-bu @at-m-Su-ulz (see below. 1-6. 106 of the text..D U : iu-p7r-u. read : (1) [ . ii ( I 1 ) I . 980. and its duplicates.R U (possibly ERIM. Rev. cf. which appcar to correspoild to a portion of the text between 11. 2. .7 ~ 1 kai~iznha S[a . p. . . . corresponding to 1. S.053..a-ba-t74 (9) IWN-SAG-GE : ri-e-S' nr-hut (10) AN : ri-e-. col. read: (7) M A : Lu-11 (8) RA : .hdt SZL-72% !a-a-fu IBL-U pal-su [ . I D : e-bi-ru (20) R A : la-a (21) N E : ~za-a-&u. . .. K.I I .. which is perhaps explained as fa-ku-u ziza bitati. 1. 1. 1-SA-A-xu : pa-l'n-su. 747. 980. the second half of the line probably contained a second explanatory phrase. . . . K. lvii). i (pls. read : (13) [ ] MA : 7im-n (14) [ ] M A : 77za-riz (15) M A : Sa-zt (16) R A : i-7Zn (17) IW (so glossed on S. . p. The text reads Lu-u . '. . . . Briinnow. Rev. " W h o is exalted in the temples" . a reference to this line is possibly . . and R. etc. and from the + + + . 108 of the text. . 170) . lii f. 4. . i (pls. corresponding to I. No. .a7. I I S. . Rev.603) : tn7?z-ti??z(19) ( . 366 80-7-19. lix f. 1. 11. .D U : Sa-&u-u (11) RA : i-na (12) E : 6i-i-tu (13) S I G I ~ ~ E - SIGISSE : ik-ri-bu (14) R A : m . ii. .7 7 ~ ~ (15) . . 2. 106f Lines 13-21 (cf. from this it is possible to build up the line as i(ri7zi ma-har-Su li-Se-ri-671@at-ra-fzi-uiz.u (1 1) Itu : ar-hat (12) [ . 6. 1 : [ . ] : hat-ru-ZL . corresponding to 1.. col.L1.). cf. 7-12.ASSYRIAN C O M M E N T A R I E S . the fourth section givcs the first word of the next line as a-di.. 293. so that the eiidbf the line may be conjecturally restored as S[n i-7za Sa-me-e SZL-pu-u].053. The text reads I . Rev. lix for the duplicate commentary. . 1 : [hulk-[h]a-b[u] (3) [ R I A : fa-[a] (4) RA : i-7za (5) A N : Sa-77ze~e ( 6 ) D U . give traces of seven sections of thc commentary. Line 9 appears to give the end of a title of Marduk.).n-6it rjSu. . S..

read : (32) FAN : hi-nza (33) RI : ~i-e-7zu (34) R I : ri-'-u (35) DINGIR : i-luuz (36) IJAR : lib-iii (37) SAG : lib-& (38) SAG : pzr-z~b-ru.2) A : a-bu (13) E N I ~ U R . 293. read : (27) RA : &-a (28) A N : hah-ha-bu (29) AN : &?nP(e) (duplicate <a-nre-e) (30) RA (so glossed) : a-la-Ru (31) RA (so glossed) : ha-a-nu.. ivii). 11-14). I 5-21). 1. read: ( 2 ) I R : sVu-u (3) A X : ai-rzr (4) a:-ru : Sa-~uu-u (5) R U (SOglossed) : ba-nu-u (6) n u : pa-ta-+!r (7) R U : d m ni-ni (8) dan-lzi-nu : ir.o53. corresponding to 1. R.commentary the end of the line may conjecturally be restored as i-ti6-bi-[ru la a-ni-hu]. The text reads fullz-SZL ZLL'"'Ni-hi-ru a-hizu hir-bi-Su. corresponding to 1. 2. 11.. Lines 27-31 ( K .e . %a-$if-ta-Szi) li-si-ik u lik-ri.~ . ~ & . the commentary thus supports the variant reading to the text. . Lines 2-8. I. ~ -the ~ V text Z L -of ZL the ~ commentaries evidently gave a variant reading. The text reads kiliza ~ i . rcad: (39) I R : fi (40) N E . read : (22) N E : ?l!-uS-fu (23) R A : IIL-u(24) N1-31-Ru : Ni-bi-ru ( 2 5 ) 1tA: a-kn-zu (26) Il< (so glossed) : Air-bu. . 6Pl mdtdtij : ~ u m . Lines 22-26 ( K . 11. 114 of the text.I ~ U: W ""EN-LIL (i.e.11. The text reads af-fu a:-~i ib.uli-iri ta-a i l E u i . 112 of the text. and daizaiizl~as refcrring to the earth.. 4 and S of the commentary explain airu as referring to heaven. a reference to this line also possibly occurs in the explanatory text. Lines 9-13. . corresponding to 1.!iti7?z(tim). Lines 39-44. Rev.na-a $-ti-& dun-ni-un . ~-~IZIL-U corresponding to 1. The text reads : Lih-me Ti-a~fzat ni-jis--ta-s'n (var. I 15 of the text.R U (see above) : tam-tin2 (41) I R : ii-[ . p. ii (pl. " h e ordained. 2. 170). 109 of the text. corresponding to 1. Rev. 747.e. I. ] (42) SI : ?'a-$[if-tu] (43) IcIn : su-[a-ku] (44) liIW : [ . read : (9) E N KUR-I<UR (i. I I I of the text. 11. for Li-hi-il-In the commentaries thus give the variant reading Lihi72. 1. 6-10)." . 1 : [ $a]-a-t[i]. I 16 of the text. which reads [ . corresponding to 1. .S ~ ~.053.r a . 10 (see below. S. f'"BiL) . 366 80-7-19. corresponds to the last word of 1. 1. 9 thus explains 6iL mEtAti as " his name. The text reads i ' ahahkabdni" fa-ma-me al-hat-su-nu lz-hi-ii-Lzr ." Lines 32-38 (K.053.m thus for ~ ' ~ I z .f u (10) M A : izr-inu (1 1) MA : na-bu-u (1. z. col. + . I 10 of the text.

.A S S Y X I I ~ N COI\IMKNTAl<IES. . or the elder HFl. 35 is not certain. . and I. " These are not all (?) and [ . . . ctc. . which was added to the cotnposition at the time it was iticorporated as the concluding tablet in the series Enzinzic elif. 120-124 of the composition. . . The text of the line reads be J 7 i ~ d l d t S i Z L ~ L it-ta-hi . corresponding to 1. ] which are in (the composition entitled) ' Asari [ . therefore. but the colophon scems to imply that the commentary was not complete. 117 of the text. . . The text'keads d . . A t this point the scribe of 15. I. . the text of the commentary therefore gave a fuller form for tlie second half of the line. ina oih-g.~ Z L n-bi ""BZZ. Lines 18-23. 1 : k[n-bit-tu] (21) [ ] L I : m-[ . Then follows a colophon of three lines which read : (35) niz-nzl-z6-tu(?)ul hala u [ ."'-fu z~-&r-ri-&u . Marduk's name. . I 19 of the text. ceases to give the commentary in the forin of a bilingual list. Lines 14-17. . . 1 : ' " ' [ E .'" The reading of 1. ] (22) [ ] LI : na-. or else that the fifty (or fifty-one) names of Marduk were not all given in the composition' itself. .nr Igfgi im-bu-u nn-gab-ft~-un. .a ] (20) [ . The second is that in this independent form the composition endcd with 1.T [ ? L . I t is clear.o-[7~-u] (23) [ ] LI : /ii-[ . 125-142 of tlie Seventh Tablet are in the nature of an epilogue.[ ~ i ] . Twb iilnportant facts inay be deduced from the colophoii. corresponding to 1. ] (37) fa inn libhi '"'Asar-ri [ . . ] of the fifty-one names of [ . . . 366. .& ~ ] (27) M A : s i h . - I 6~ i. The first is that the Sevcnth Tablet of the Creation Series is here treatcd as an independent composition which takes its title from its opening line. and in 11. 124 of the tablet. 13 givcs it as the title of Enlil. . . . .. (15) A N : ""Igi. 1. who in the text transfers it to Mardub.ad-nr-u-SZL. . The text of thc line reads if-me-ma "'E-n ha-bit-ta-sir i-te-eiz-gu. 1. 118 of the text. ] (36) fa LI silnzPP' fa [ . that 11. Lines 24-27. .The text of thc line reads iiza-n i n nh2. . . 1 : Se-mu-ZL (19) [ . . . .ui (16) 1 I A : ni-6u r e a d : (14) M A : i (17) UzU : nng-bu.e. .i) . read : (18) [ . 28-34 he writes out the text of the Assyrian version of 11. . corresponding to 1. read : (24) A : ma-[a] (25) A : n-[hu] (26) A : f u r .r i (var. .

t ] i su-JU-u unp-pa-[ . 3 . 1. 5 is in accordaiice with the prornilient part which the god plays in Tablet I. 3 may pcrhaps be compared with tlie equation sux = '"'E-n. Mardulc's last title) and L =""Bd. 1. pt. [ . 3. follolvecl by the explanatory equations L (ie.. Now. in detecting and defeating the plot of Apsu and Tiamat. . and these refer to thc First Tablet and to the Seventh Tablet of the Series respectively. . ii. 12 is tlie last line of S. I. cf. . 1. I 57.406. 1 1 5 of the Seventh Tablet. On the other hand. ' When complete it is probable that the tablet. 6 . 1. xiii.. .406. 747 q u o t e d . followed by the comment .i-e-fu nr-kn-tzd in 1. Tablet V . which reads [ . . 747 formed a part. Obv. . tlie words in 1. and for the verb zrt-tnh-ji-biz-nnz-nzn. Rev. 1. . . possibly refer to 1.-a-~z. 4. corresponds (see above. p. . 11 clearly rcfer to 1. . u]-dniz-7zi-7zn) ir-si-tunz. S. col. col. while the second half of the same line perhaps contains a reference to the line of the Scventh Tablet. 20) . 11. 4. iii. 747. 10.. 747. 25. section z. 747 (see Cutzeifoonn Texts. and the words 7. thus. 162. p. Thus. . . 124 receives additional support from the ' explanatory text S. refers to Tablet I. . it is not unreasonable to suppose that the . 747. 747 appears to deal with tlie Seventh Tablet of the Series . p ) . only fragments of the beginning and of the end of the commentary are prescrved by S. and the mention of E n in 1.-a-ru-u = [ . ] I-iS-tz~-u . 1. as I. Line 1 2 of S. ] dnn-7zi-7zn (or [ . 1. contained a kind of running commcntary to the whole of the Creation Series . . I. rcfers to Tablet I. the reverse of S. 124 of the Scventh Tablet. in the commentary to a line of the Seventh Tablet (see above. p. p. 166) . .zl-SZJ-un. 1. 167) .The supposition t h a t the text of the Seventh Tablet ended originally a t 1. 1. Rev. 16-19? corresponds (see above. given by I<. which reads [ . . pl. " Fifty ") = @a-n7z-fn-a (i. of which S. . .e. . 6 possibly contains a reference to the line of the Seventh Tablet to which the commentary I<.-I See above. . . to which the commentary 82-3-23. 107 of the Seventh Tablet. 1 5 I.

77za ." 157. [ mrantinp.107 K. but is of value for explaini~ig some of the titles of Marduk which occur therein. The second column is subdivided by a perpendicular line . . [ wanting.t i "[The Creator(?)] of all words(?). . . [ wanting.I. . . ." . which has already been referred to. ] of land. of Ialnd. 6. ] : [ . p. . in the left half of the column are inscribed the titles of Marduk. . The tablet K. . . and people." : 6. and in the right half the explanations are set opposite them. city. ' See above. ] : [ . city.2. ] : [ . ] ~tzns'-ki-ti nnn ali u izi-ti "[The . 9." 4. 171 portion of text it explains came a t the end of the cotnposition to which the commentary refers. [ 2. i. ] ??a$-&a~ 6e-Zi a-ia-rid nn$-bar 6e-li "[The . .a . and people. lxif. I n the following transliteration of the text a translation of each Assyrian rendering in the right half of the column is added beneath it :- + TITLE." 3. -n]i ka-la t i . . . . and probably give a nurnber of alternative explanations referring to a single title which was written in the left half of 1.m e . ] : [ .086 (pls. . . . .). ] of drink unto city and people. Lines 9-18 form a single section. ] of all lords. .AN~TION.' is not strictly a commentary to the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series." [ wmlinz. . ] a-li-id '"'Sin u ""Snl~zns' "[The . . . . . ] : [ . 5.~ i ] i 7 z ali 2 n i . . .TITLES OF MARDUK. ] [ . wantins. EX~. .Si . the Chief of all lords. 1-7zi ma-tivz a h u PZZ-Si "[The . "[The . ] Begetter of the Moon and the Sun. . [ wantins.

"[The . .a . . fa.eZ " T h e Lord of Babylon.diS B66ili Kf " The Renewer of Babylon. . "[The ." be . . -n]i ?zap-bar ti-me-a-ti' [The Creator(?)] of all words(?). of healven and earth. .l ." ~~ - ~ ~~~ ~ p ~ - ~ ~ p ' This line gives a slightly variant explanation of the title in 1. ] of the [ . . ] "'B2. . [ [ .z2](e) w irsiLi?n(tim) . . ." . . . ] o f t h e gods.71ee .Si ." b e . [ wanting. "[The be .TITLE. . [ 10. . ." [ . of'heave~l]andearth. wn~~tiug. ] : [ . 7. whose might is supreme." be-/urn [ .Zwne g a . . .l u m Sa e . . .m u . . .i y iZ6ni"' " The Lord. . . . 1." 8." be 18. . .& a . the Blesser of the gods. . ." . the icing of all gods and kings.a " T h e Lord. ." 12. ] i&i* "[The ." BZ6ili 71rz~d. . .f u f a .i L i i ~ u"Ii " T h e Lord. 6. . ] : [ . " .LZL~IZ a . the Benefactor of the gods. . ianz]e(e) u ir:iti7~z(tim) " T h e Lord [ . Sam]e(e) u --itiuz(ti?n) . Ex~~n~n'r~ux. [ . ] of heaven and earth.& . . ." 9. . . 1" Say ha-Za iii u Sarvi "[The . ] of Bcl.

" 21."'lhi6-6~~ ru-u-/I." "'Du DU : 26.zit "Whose Spell is pure.. "' SAG ( - SUD) - zu : mu-di-e Libhi iL7zi.pat ." 22." "'MU AZAC : ?a tu ." -~ . which is written in smaller characters.us" . - AZAG : m u . TITLE. signifies that the end of the line was broken in the original tablet from which the scribe was copying. '"'Du 25.ut ." 23. i/8ni9' " T h e . ' The note i .su' e l . of the gods.la ilBni#' " T h e Creator of all the gods. ""Mu 27.z& .pi .tnh - R h i l iLBnir' " T h e Strengthei~erof the gods. . .N U N .lib " ' 6 d The Counsellor of RE1 and Ea.in?. .~ Z L ez . "'LUGAL-EN-AN-I<I-A : he-el iLi?zin'i ' n Sam2 u i~*~iti Snl. ""Gu - Gu : 71zu ." 28. the Renewer of the gods.TITLES OF 'MARDUJC.DU .2.a 20. i2"T~ - TU : 91~1~-al-Zid ilZnin' ??zf~-ud-di-ii ilini*' " T h e Begetter of the gods.b i PI-$u." 6n ." fa si' . MU : TU : ?nu . ""Mu 24. iLBni*' fa Tam? u i & i 'I The Lord of the gods of heaven and earth.Y I-~IA ilazi*/ " The Leader of the gods. the wide heart (recent break).7zi Rn . ""'H . I73 19. the Icing of the gods of heaven and earth.Zit "Whose Illcantation is pure." ""E .u ef-SzL) "Who knolveth the heart of the gods.NA : l i l n . EXPLANATION.

"Destroyer. "[ .bu .)-ICUR : m. Of the ' I.i& " T h e Remover 1 of the mighty. p. . but the explanations on the right side recall many phrases of the Seventh Tablet.@7. from among which rve may compare those given in 1.p e-fu-u ' mag-gi "[The ." [ Wanting.e. 16 with the 4th and 14th lines of the same fragment. . the Annihilator of all the wicked.ANATION. of the] wicked .) ." 30.do.-u ni . ] ] : na . ." ]-ti In the earlier part of the text the titles which were given on the left side of the column in 11.g i " T h e Remover of all the wicked. r a ] ~ . .ti ~za . *ii'[ ." .) - SI : 31. . roqf). . 8. .bi " T h e Destroyer of the foe. I(-do. EXPI. the Annihilator of the wicked. [ Wanting. . 'ta' SUEJ( . YQ .fat nap .si . I.. . : 35.ik ?zap . [ Wanting.&ar iZEfzis' "The Life of all the gods. of the wickled.519 (see above.z~-baZ-Zz~-z~ nap-jza~ ai-bi na-si-i@ ~ag-gi " T h e Destroyer or all foes.do. ." 33. [ 34. ." [ . ""ZI ( - do. . .si . and that in 1.Zz . ] : f." fa . . . .ag]-gi e-hl-u ?zap-/iav rag-gi "[The . 29. . .) - UICIUN : m~p . ." ." 6al . 1-6 and 8 and 9 are wanting.IWR : ~ I Z U - 32.TITLE. 36. the Remover of the wicked. 1 :[ . [ Xmting. ZI ( .. .. . 5 with the end of the 3rd line preserved by the fragment I<.

21 ~ i t h * ~ ' T u -in t u 1.).Inn? . p. 175 titles given in 11. . ~ o o f ) .. I. . 1. . 1 . or a t any rate referred to the Creation . 8. . e -pi< zi6 . 15 (see above. 11. 94f. ri . 10. 1-6 are the concluding lines of a speech. ] 4. . is-221 [ .6nt .ju i[71z [ - Si . . R. Obv. 30 with io'"Zi-si in 1.ma . .mi . . it follows that 11. Rev.. 157 that fragments exist of compositions very similar in character to the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series. . . . Series. i of the Obverse of K. ] tn . 538 (see the block on p. . . 6. and by its two Assyrian duplicates. 1 . .PARALLEL TEXTS TO TAULET VII. . 538 is a duplicate of No.107 + K. pl.) .sn tur . 2. . gS 6) . p. 8.es" 8.086 (see pl. ] . . lxii) and K. g of the Seventh Tablet (see above. lxi) also contained explanations of the Seventh Tablet. 1 dpszi and I. p. 3. i E - 7. 1.[ . ""[ . 1. p. 11. 41 (see above.228. z)-te-?rz(z i ~ t nin*" J'n 1z(i~E2i[*. 28 with 'b'Jaf-zu in 1. . 98f. 6-15 . 54. 1 5. I t is possible that col. and 1. 33 (see above. 35 (see above. 2. zo with 'b'A-dz~-7z~~?z-7za and its explanation in the 8th line preserved by I<. The Obverse of R.Babyloi~ian tablet. . reads as follows :- . since 1. If this fragment is in the form of narrative. ii. 176). R. 92f) . which does not correspoiicl to any portion of the text preserved by the other two fragments. .[ 7 n ] a "'[ .ma [ . lxiii. 395. . 54. 27 with "'Mz~-aznxin 1. .6 n . 19 ff. I t was stated on p.228. 7 reads . . the text of which is published in vol. . p. roof. 1.[ I"'[ 2 6 . 31 with "'Sub-kur in I. . 1. 395 (see vol. . 29 with *'Zi-z~hkin-7za in 1.t i it . ] .) .519 . 395. . . is". . compare 1. No. and 12. 43 (see above. . . 11. pl. . .ni .b[n '"'B~L'pri 6. Remains of one such composition are preserved by the fragmcnt of a Neo . . . p. 3-5 correspond to No. ] 10. .. ] . . . ] 2.s i ' . .fa . ii. 15 [ Ti (?)]-amat. . .7nn ??zit . 54. R. . 9. .228. 2. . as 1. 4 reads [ .

zzS. which occur on the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series. 37. . 398 contains a part of the same composition. I. 2. 8 reads " H e raised the club [ . I. Moreover. . .228 and R. 2 . which is in part a duplicate of No. 538 (see above). Line 4. . ." BE1 did not answer. and the lines which follo~vwould celebrate incidcnts in the battle with Tiarnat. . for 1. 1. I. I t is therefore probable that the Obverse of R. gq. 538). 54. . ] at the sources of the rivers [ . ." BE1 hearkened and his mouth [ . Duplicate of No. which reads I' H e opened [ . is inscribed with addresses in honour of Marduli undcr some of the titles Fraglllent of n ilarnllei t c x t la the Seventit Tablet of the Creation Series ( R . the Reverse of the fragment. however. . ." Now the phrase ii-fi-ma nzil-!a occurs in Tablet IV of the Creation Series. . . but the context on this fragtnent does not suggest a variant account either of the arming of Marduk for battle or of the actual fight rvith Tiamat." would in that case refer to some act of creation on the part of Marduk. .

tunz a .. 3. . 538 omits the title at the beginning of the line. . .G I D . GI$ .ra . " ' S a g . . ] 2. . ] . 54. . . . . 1. 1 9 . 54.g a r ( ? ) s 6 a . 10. . "'Tu . I t will he noticed that 11. . I 6a . ] ~z.[ti.z i 6 [ .r i . however.[ . So the traces upon No. .228. The tracas of the followinp lines upon R.. 1 5.lu-urn. 8.228. iuwz ilBnipd s"a ma . .e l i 6 .nu . . 4. . 54.228 appear to read.& a . . 395. . 2. I77 O n l y a few traces of characters are preserved o n t h e Reverse of R..atz te . I t appears on the whole more probable. --Q. R. . . . z. . i & a .n u . T h e following is t h e t e x t of No. . . i s .u 4 $2' . [ ] ba [ . 538 :OBV.i ine . in that case the couplets in 11. ni.dis'. 395. 395 and R. ] 9.iZ[dnipi7 . Obv. . . 395. g[u] . .. .tu 11. I. . 11. . Restored from Tablet VII. I . .. 92.D A a . are written as single lines on the fragment R. ] 13. I r . . .bir . 1. . -. . I 4.. . . .pu . ."'"s'a~-zu m u . .i u .[risV-t i 3 .] 8 . 4-17 are written in couplets. . . . . l2 6. [ . . a n d 5 are duplicates of No.t [ u . . the second half of each couplet being set hack a little from the edge of the tablet. . 6 ~ . .us" iz . a n d 12. .[ .6 i . . ] "'Ea i b .. [ . and 1 2 f. R. . .do not corres~ond to the portions of the text preserved by No. . . . 2. 54. . . sr"Asar. 1 Possibly &[a. that they form part of the actual text. .r u . . . R.. but enough is left t o prove t h a t 11.rik [ ..u ie-inz u gu-e [ . rik is' . 1.ri a . 1 7. . I 10. . 8 f. It is just possible that these second lines give explanations of phrases in the lines which precede them.[ . p. l o f. I2 .228 with restorations a n d variants from R. 538 ip. li .PARALLEL TEXTS TO TABLET VII. see above. .u Lib-bi [ . . For I.bur(?) nu' . 3. 538 reads ina Bfi6iliKr[ . 2 . .d i .

na 'I" . . . . 1.tum b[n(?)u ma ar-ha-[ti3 1 9 . I 'I" 3 . . 4 Possibly inaparakkiJ?m~fi~~.r i ( ? ) . 15. . I VIKAN[ . 538.[ zz. .' . . .r i [ . gun?& .228 is. In this and the following line TU flate sign.m a d S u .N A M *14 z%nu '"'A . . i. . . I . ] 5. 54. . 21. ] ] 17. "'Nabzi .[ . z. . . s " ~ inn 20. . . is clear from the occurrence of certain phrases and titles of Marduk found in parts of the text of the Seventh Tablet which have already been identified . Thus. a glance at the above transliteration will suffice to show that it preserves part of a composition which is very similar in character to the Seventh Tablet. they are here arranged in a different order and with a different context. .p a . m i . . .nun "' Ninib . correspond to the -- ' R. ] 6. . . That it does not form a missing portion of the text of that composition. . . 1 . . moreover. .u 1 gnu-Sub-& "'Tutu '"'Marduh ri-e-Si ina BAR [ . . g i .[ . ] [ . .tum [ .178 APPENDIX I. . 6 f. tam . . . . n u . ] 4. 2 + TW is written as a con- . Conjectural restoration. i r .si . ]-ma [ . [ . . ] Fragmentary as the text of No.du . . .2% ib .

ii. 1 bu-nu-u fe-im u klle mu-di!-iu the phrases [ [ . 1. 4 and 5 we have a reference to i!u a d z .. p. . Rev. 12 corresponds to Tab. . 19 is clearly parallel to Tab. . fragment read [ . . cf. . Tab. 1. . . . similar in character to the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series. . ] Director of the decrees of [ . 10 corresponds to Tab. it is clear that the fragment is part of a composition containing addresses to Marduk as lord of Creation. 35: and 1.519. ." It is possible that this fragment also belonged to a composition. . and is there explained as "the Lord who hath renewed his land. col. . ] a-pir a-gi-e 6~Z~~-u-tu [ . ii. . 12. who knoweth the heart [of the gods .. 298 occur . . 1. 1. . .z mu-di-e u lib-d[i .519. V I I preserved by K. I. "Long-bow.PARALLEL TEXTS TO TABLET VII. . p. . with "'&ans"ri in 1. K. 1 "Who weareth the crown of dominion [ . as two other lines of the same Renewer of [ . . 1. 1. 82 t ). . Too little is preserved to show whether in this text. . . . 1 mud-fe-Si-ru a-d[i. 21 corresponds to the line of Tab.4494 which probably forms part of the Fifth Tablet (see above.. g . he was addressed under his Sumerian titles. . . cf. 8 (see above. V I I . . I. 3. which gives the reading a-lah-tu. Creator of grain and plants.233.. . 1" ." . occurs the following couplet :' " ~ u g . . and vol. . 1. 1. . 8 corresponds to Tab.406. pl. ' On an Assyrian fragment of a hymn. 123. Iv). and with 1. and the commentary to this line. . I. 104) . . I t may also be noted that in 11. . I " Sag-zu. VII. 5 is evidently the Sumerian form of the name. 13 may be compared with the second half of the same line . . 8. . . . . . . p. .582. 1. . GIS-GID-DA in 1. VII. . I79 opening line of Tablet V I I . . '' [ . 2 ' . K. . . . "[ . 1. .. as in the Seventh Tablet. . VII. 31 (see above. . V I I . 1. . which is described in the following paragraph. . K. . .. . . 23. 1. ." is found also upon the fragment K. . 8. 5. 1. 2 2 ." the first name given by Anu to Marduk's bow upon K. En-bilulu.1. . . . . 4. . ." and [ . The title of Marduk. . ha]-nu-u le-ni-fit [ . . . . . . 1. which occurs in 1. 166. . " [ . 1. ' I t may here he noted that on the fragment S. 1. 107. 14. ] Creator of mankind [ . 8..

5. ] Marduk. . 5. . [D'NC'R . . . transliteration and translation of the fragment the first couplet preserved is numbered "I. and in the fragment K. The fragment is part of an Assyrian tablet inscribed with a bilingual composition. ] Mardzlk fa tz~ u - - . . ] ! . we may see a confirmation of this supposition. "" . . . . ] MU-BI [ [ .I 80 APPENDIX I. the text of which is given in the accompanying block. I t has already been remarked that the commentaries to the Seventh Tablet presuppose the existence of a Sumerian version of the text." but it should be noted that it does not mark the beginning of the text :I. . . .233). . whose spell [ . . and in each line of the Sumerian text which is preserved Marduk is addressed under a new title. In the following Fragment of a bilingual composition in honour of Mal-iiuL (I<.233. .

.107 K. 1 I! It is possible that the title in 1. 174. . . 33.~ ~[ . . .bnl. ] ~ a r d kwho . . . . Ixii).~ ~ ~ .ti(?) .RILlNGUAL ADDRESS TO MARDUIC. . 5.. ] ~z~'Mavd. . . DfivG1xT~ SAR . . I. . ] s'"MarduK *IS'Mu Marduk. '"'Marduk nn . the giver of [life . . ti. . . . . who [ .u ai . TUTU (1. . . . 2. 1 '"'Rarduk fa znn s " $ .AZAG . ii. . . 31 (see above. .~ . the Destroyer [of the foe . ASARU-ALIM-NUNA 2) occurs in Tab. Marduk. g. . . VII. (3. . 5) in Tab.Su Z i .). . ~1 ~ ~ . . . . [ .. . p. 178 f. . D r N C I X-EBI ~ . lilNG1. ~. . .Q MU-AZAG LU GAB-[. I may be restored as from Tab. 35. VII. . 1 Marduk. . . The restoration of the Assyrian version of 1.S .din na -$[is". 4) in Tab.BI [ . and SUH-KUR in Tab. DlNGIii . by his . + . .~ . 1. ] ! . The title EN-BILULU also occurs in the parallel text to the Seventh Tablet preserved by No. col.. I! DiNGIE 6. I! 3.086. VII. 43.GA . 1. 538 (see above. and vol. . .6i . .LU ""Mardzck Marduli. 1 . . Of the other titles under which Marduk is here addressed. 5 is taken from K. VII. 1. [ .A Z A G . VII. DrNdrx SAG .[ . ] .TU 4. . . . NAM-ISIB-BA-A-NI-I~U GA[R. 181 2. . ] ?nu . p. . . . ] ! 5. pl. .& & ina S A R . 1. . . . Ohv. ii. 54.228 and R. I.zu SUE .[lu . 2. .6. D ' N G J R A s ~ ZI ~ SU-UD-GAL-[ ~ . . SAG-zu (1. . who by his incantation [ .[KUR .~ ~ .

IN this appendix some unpublished fragments of tablets of the Creation Series are given.445 R. which possibly contain portions of the text of the Creation Series. 14.337). and Seventh Tablets of the Creation Series. 12. which I came across after the lithographed plates of vol.' The texts of the remaining five fragments (KK. 7. belonging to copies of the First. 8. . A t the beginning of the present year.488. are given in the following sections which are marked A. which belong to copies of the Seventh Tablet.008. O n eome fragment5 of fqe 9eriee "&numa efieq. and Fifth Tablets. 3. 4. Section F deals with the fragments K.761. while engaged on making a hand-list of the smaller fragments in the various collections from Kuyunjik. 13.182 APPENDIX I1 11.774. 92 ff. Second.519. which probably contain an account of the creation of the world by AnSar.o13). in + ' It may be noted that all of them have been used for the text of the Seventh Tablet as transliterated and translated on pp. 396 and K.704 and 82-9-18. 10. 13. and 13. In section D two small Assyrian fragments (K. Second.854.311. in place of Marduk. 5. z.830.xte refating to fqe @ieforg of Creafion.949. which contains a reference to Ti-amat e-Li-ti and Ti-amat $a$-li-ti.ooob and 79-7-8. I identified ten such fragments as belonging to copies of the First. ii had been printed off. B.871. Finally. zz. and 11. 1.641). In section E the text is given of the fragment (S. In section G the text is given of an address to the River of Creation which occurs in the opening lines of incantations upon the fragments S. 2. and C. are included in Appendix I under the sections dealing with those portions of the commentary which rendered it possible to identify them. The texts of five of these (KK." anb on ~ o m e te. 47) are described. Fifth.

7. 6-9. is shown to be part of a long text containing moral precepts. which has been supposed to contain the instructions given by Marduk to man after his creation. is from the right- Creation Scrics.871). . 33-47 (K.FRAGMENTS OF CREATION SERIES. 3. 11.871. 11.364. ' See above. TABLET I. A. 7. 33-47 AS the first sheet of this volume had been printed off at the time I came across it. pp. the information it supplies as to this imperfectly preserved portion of the text of the First Tablet' may be briefly noted. -The fragment K. hand edge of the obverse of a tablet. TWOFRAGMENTS O F T H E FIRST TABLET OF TIiE CREATIONSERIES. the text of which is given in the accompanying block. and the ends of lines which it preserves correspond to Tablet I. Tablet I. 183 section H the tablet K.

IV. 1. which may be conjecturally restored as Ap[szi pa]-a-iu i-pu-[. ] " . probably reading [ m ~ v ~ ] " .528 46. a-na [T]i-anz[at]el-Zi-tu-ma i-za[h-hara-ma-tum]. . 7. . as the traces it gives of the sign before gat (or kat) are not those of gu. . e f i ) bar-mi-[fa(?)]. 43 K. " [Apsii opened his mouth] and spake unto her" . .. . the suggested restoration of the is confirmed. the fragment reading [ . 37 may now be restored as aZ-hat-sf~-nu e-li-ia. 80 (see Cun. . 38 as mu-& [la ~a2-la-ah] a fa-al-la-ku . i.[ g ] u . . the fragment reading ina fe-mi-e-[fa]. iii) may probably be read uz-[g]u-ga[t] . pl. alone [she . . the end of 1. . . the couplet. the line should run i-zu-nz-ma (var.it condenses into a single line which may probably be restored as [Apszipa-a-fui-pu-ism]-ma izakkar-fi.614 (see vol.~ a t e-[ .e.871 probably gave a variant reading for the verb. . 42 is shown to be incorrect. .871 reads [ . 41 as i-nu [Se-mi-Sa] is confirmed. For the end of 1. the line may thus be partly restored as [ . . "their way [is . ] a-na hay-Si-[ . "Their way will I destroy and cast down" . . 34 it confirms the suggested restoration [ma-ri-e-i'u-un]. . ] is also possible. ] efi 4av-mi[ . The suggested restoration (from Tab. . . ] mar-si-2' ug-[g]u-ga[t] e-diS-Si-[ .871 to be incorrect. the suggested restoration of the end of 1. . 125) of the phrase iZ-ta-si e-li-[ta] in 1. ] . the suggested restoration of the end of 1. The restoration of the line as [ . pl. part xiii. ] mar-si-is'~ g .e.u z . 111. the + It may here be noted that the principal traces of this line upon the obverse of 81-7-27. ] . ] Z may now be restored as lu-iizp-pi-i/i. i.2 The suggested restoration of the end of 1. . 40 as [ni-i-nil is confirmed. . .33 the new fragment supports the reading sakrpu a t the end of the line . . and the verb preserved by No. ii. . . . z) probably represent the word mar-~i-is'. . 44 as a-na [Apsa i-zak-kar] is shown by K. . . 39 reading [ . 45.& . 7.a?%-mai-hub-621. the fragment reading [ . 1. 11. . . in 1. ] she was grievously angered. 1.I 84 APPENDIX I1 I n 1. 35 and 36. the end of 1. ]-Rat e-dG-Si-[ . " [ . . . [el-zz--m[a]) iZ-ta-si e-Zi (var. K. the fragment end of 1. . Sg and Tab. 7. . 1. ] unto me " . the fragment reading ni-i-n[i]. ]-gat e-diS-Si-[ . . . Txfs.

. . which gives portions of the second halves of 11. 4. . . 1 . for the text see the accompanying block. reads [ . 1-n nu-uJ-&aL-lak. .FRAGMENTS OF CREATION SERIES. 4. " She plotted evil in [her] heart (?). shall we d o ? Let us destroy ! " The end of 1. For Creation Series. . [ . " What. ." The end of 1. ] inz-me-ra $[a. and gives no variants to the text as known from other tablets . 185 line may probably he restored as Li-!nut-ta (var. 1-du-tu daaccording to the fragment. and [ . 50-63 (I<. the suggested restoration i ni-[i. . Another new fragment of the First Tablet is K. . . reads [ . Tablet I. 50 and 51 the . 45. . 47 the fragment reads [ . . .-LaZ ni-i-nil is incorrect. ti) it-la-di a-na Kay-Si-[ia (01. . . ] i-[ . . . unless this represents a variant reading. . which corresponds to i-ma-nl-[Li-ku]at the end of the line. 50-63 . 11. 46. . TABLET I. then. . . ] fragment reads [ . . 1. . .4S8) 1. 1. m]u-$is' l [ u . . .488. it is possible that we may restore the line as [mil-nu-a ni-i-nu Sa xi-i[p-pu-us' Zu]-u nu-us'-&&a&. according to the fragment. . .. . For 11.

. . pl. . 66. gives good sense. pl. 1-hi-i: ta-du-ul-qi]. and gives no variants to the text . . 24 f. "[ . . which gives the variants an for a-na and mrir[P'*'-&] for m[a]-ri-e-iu. . 1."= For 1. "their first-born. 89 and 99. [ . . . .803 are those of u/i. " [ ..i. ] i-du-ul-[li]. note 3. . the fragment reads [ . 1. . that for the restoration [i]-nu-fa-knwe should read [u]-na-fa-&. 1 3 . as suggested on p. which may probably be restored as [ . . for the suggested reading (upon 81-7-27. "they all. . rather than uk (see vol. should be transliterated i-dul-lu-fu and connected with the verbs in Tablet I. . . . vi. note I I and p. . pp. and confirms the . . the verb a t the end of 1. "they lay in wait. . The reading i-[nl-lu-&~. . ] for 1. 54 the fragment reads [ . . 80 reads u-nu-as'-:a[&]. . i-dul) may well have the meaning "to prowl" or "to lie in wait. . it is clear. I.and also suggests for . 1 thou hast lain in wait!' The meaning of the verb ddlu has been pointed out by Thompson in Nebmica. vol.i ] u u-na-iak fa-a-[ . .186 APPENDIX 11. . . . . 99. ' .803) bu-[ulk-n'-Sn-un." we should read pu-[a]&ri-fu-un. xvii. 53. 46. Ohv. . 1. ." On p. i. which reads [ . . 52 the fragment reads [ . 80 and No. . suggested by Delitzsch. .. therefore. 58 the fragment reads [ . 1-ti-di-ir) hi-Sad[su].e. ] . where i-du-[ul](var. which occurs in Tablet IV. For 1. 16.and that the duplicate 81-7-27. n.B. ii. 56 the fragment reads [ . . he also cites IV R. p. ] i-te-dir (var. 334) reads i-dul-lu-fu. . 1 1 . flu-nu uS-tan-nu-[ . i]&-pu-duan i h n i lnrirC . ix). . 163. K. .57 may be restored froin the fragment as i-dul-Ln.e.." or "their assembly. 1ti-di-ir &Sad-[ . . 8. . 11. 89. for 1. This verb occurs also in Tablet I. 46. . where he shows that its participle occurs in an Assyrian letter in the sense of "scout" . ] pu-u/i-ru-US-[ ]. note 5 it was suggested that the verb i-[ul-lu-Eu." For 1. . ." and again in 1. 1 1 . ' The traces of this sign upon No. ] he lay in wait. his] neck was troubled. . 1-ku-urn-me$ uf-[ . " [ . . . . 30*. Jensen (cf. ." For 1. hut is not quite satisfactory from the omission of the doubled dental. . . 5 5 the fragment reads [ . . 1." and the line may be translated ''[Because of the evil] which they had planned together. which reads [ . 63 and 64.

Now 11. in 1. - dzlu the meaning "to run round. the repetition of the phrase empbasises Marduk's courage in setting out alone to do battle with Tiamat. the rest of the context upon K. 10. A FRAGMENT OF TIIE SECOND TABLET OF THE CREATION SERIES. "[I sent] Anu. The fragment K. 63 it only gives slight traces of two signs. 1. as "the gods watched him from hiding" ." "to prowl round. in AnSar's message as delivered by Gaga to Lahmu and Lahamu. TABLETS I AND 11. I I I f. Lines 10 and I I read [ . p. 10. . '[ .FRAGMENTS OF CR. I t will be seen that the greater part of the fragment is inscribed with part of a speech of Ansar. . 63 f. . .~ a ar-his']. . although the phrase "'Mardulz n6haL ilEni occurs in the following line in each of these passages. . and again in 1." In view of the use of the participle in the sense of "scout. "']A-nam u l i-Zi-'-[ . and it is probable that in the gap .. [Nudimlmud was afraid and turned [back]. ]-mud i-d7~v-~tza i-t[u. SER. .t [ u . .the traces of the last sign 1 . 1. but he could not [withstand her]. . (72)-(82) of the Second Tablet describe how Aniar sent Ann against Tiamat. . ] A % te-li-i-['(?)]. . B. of 1. . . Now. . ." we may perhaps render the phrase in Tablet IV. 53 f. . in the course of AnSar's instructions to Gaga. ] u-[u].008 shows that it is not a duplicate of the Third Tablet. . . I t therefore follows that the fragment cannot belong to a later tablet than the Second. - . . . 61 it gives the last word as [ . I87 suggested restoration of the second half of the line as [fa-ku-um]-mi-is" uf-bu.008 is probably a fragment of the Creation Series. 11.. this will be clear for the following reasons. 62 it gives the variant el-lu for el-lum. . and may be restored as [af-$?rr-ma ""]A-nam u l i-&-'-[a ma-bar-fa]. .. 32 f ) . ." Now these lines occur in Tablet 111. . ['"'Nu dim]-mud i-duv-??za i . 60 it gives the variant me-hi-fu-n[u] reading HI[ for me-Ki-Su-u7z . and if this is so the only place to which it is possible to assign it is the gap between 11. . ] he watched him " . and of 1. . ] and [ . (85) and (104) of the Second Tablet (see above. .. in 1. Of 1. 59 the fragment gives the end as [ .

it would he only natural that he should he the first to he sent against h e r . but as leading up to a climax . and the parallel passages. On the other hand.after 1. but contains a variant account of the story of Creation.' I t therefore follows t h a t t h e t e x t of K. 5 3 f. 10. 10. or else that K. to put Nudiinmud's attempt in the gap between 11. (85) a n d (104).njecturally numbered as (85). 58 occurred t h e account of how Nudimmud was sent against T i a m a t a n d how h e turned back.008 must b e put in t h e g a p between 11.008. 1.008 do not appear to refer to this episode. But the order in which AnSar refers to the setting out of Ann and Nudimmud is not necessarily chronological. and even Nudimmud was afraid and turned haclt. 11. and as it was he who brought the news of Tiamat's revolt to Aniar. hut he could not withstand her. and I I I f. before I came across K. in support of this view it may be further noted that Nudimmud's name occurs in I. a n d t h e subsequent appointment of Icingu b y T i a m a t t o Icad t h c rebcl forces2 I n view of the fact that in Tahlct 111. And. ( 8 5 j I n this speech Angar refers t o t h e fate of Apsu (K." With the phrase nzi-lam-mi !. if it be insisted that Angar's references in Tablet I11 must be talzen to imply that Nudimmud's setting out against Tiamat followed that of Anu. .008. 11. 4 may he compared Tablet I. and then to that of Nudimmud. which begins at 1. it follows that the gap after I. 11. And. 58. Moreover. " Anu I sent. 10. I 18 and 126. (85) and (104). (85) is greater than twenty lines . z). AnSar refers first to Ann's attempt to oppose Tiamat. 1 2 ) carries on t h e speech of AnSar. 58 is less than ten lines and that after I. On the whole it appears to me preferable to suppose that the order in which the events are referred to in AnSar's speech is not to be taken as chronological. as Nudimmud had already overcome ApsU. (72)-(82)) I was inclined. he says. it is necessary to place the account referring to Nudimmud after the line co.bit in I. as the earlier lines of K. as Ann's attempt is described in Tablet 11.10.008 does not belong to the series Enunza elif. it might legitimately he urged that this represents the order in which the events took place. T h e apparent reference to ten in place of eleven monsters is noteworthy. O n this assumption t h e greater part of t h e fragment (at least down t o 1. 10.

. . 7 f. TABLET 1 1 . . 12) he either begins his appeal to Marduk. i]S . . . . . [ . . and how they could not withstand her and turned back (1. Fragment of the Second Tablet of the Creation Series (I<. ] ] . 189 and carry on the war against the gods (1. . ro. .).[ ] it-tur-ru-:u ] . [ .[ 2. The fragment may be transliterated as follows :I. 10 f. or. he the11 describes how he sent Anu and Nudimmud against Tiatnat. as appears to me more probable. and in the following line (I.F R A G M E N T O F CREATION SERIES.[ p u ] ~ [ . 3. . states his intention of appealing to Marduli to hecome the champion of the gods. . . .). . .aoX). . ] Apsu u-[ .

. g. . ] 14. . -%]u '"'Kin-gu Su-US-[ku-u . . [ . .kiS] 12. . .n i [ . . ] u . . .m i es". . I IS. 13. . . .dur .Z u . I. 135. ] 10. ["'Nu dim] mud i . ] 17.[ . .l i . . . . .4. [as'-pur. . 1 6. . . 10. . . 1-hu(?)-ma-'-ni bum (?)-mu-r[a. [ .[ . 1 .774 correspond (with some interesting variants) to the text of the Fifth Tablet. . . ] m a . reading o''A-~zum in place - - - . ]-ma Ti-a-ma-t[i .-The first eleven lines of the fragment K. [ . . ] 7 . . in 1. . in 1. . ] 1 3[ . . [ . . . . . . 10 it reads u-dun-lzi-na for ud-dan-ni-na .. . 13. 11. . . . ] 8 . ] I$. . [ . 6 I<.13 we may compare lip-ti-& ku-ru-na in Tablet 111. . 16 it reads a-na for ana. These phrases upon I<. [ . 8 it gives a more interesting variant. .' . in 1.s a . . I n 1.bar . . ] m i . . 1-bi up-Sa-na Z a sa-hi-pa [ .ra ar .r i [ t . [ . . [ .ma i . 1. .. . . ] 5. and with u-sa-an-ni we may compare Tablet 111. . ] bul-li-[ . . 6-16 . ] zj-ti-@u k[u.Zam .ma '"']A nam ul i. . and @-ti-& [ku-ru-nu] in 1. . . .a k lib-hi-Su i . . . . . . . [ . 134.[ . .008 may be explained by supposing that AnSar's appeal to Marduk was accompanied by the mixing and drinking of wine. 17-19 upon other copies of the Fifth Tablet. . .774 gives the variant ru as the last syllable of "'Ni-6i-ri. . and for ana reads a-na. 13 it reads s"uh-nat for Su-uk-nat . . . . [ . . . I 16. . . and in 1.Sa] I I .a n . 14 it reads a g [ f ] for a-@-[el . . . . . . . .t[n . . . . '"'Mardz~]k abhal iliEni9' [ . . ] 9. .[ . . . .[ a ma . . The unimportant variants may be first noted as follows : in 1. . . . T w o FRAGMENTS O F THE FIFTHTABLET OF THE CREATIONSERIES. . C. ] irpit. . I With 1. . . . . . while the last three lines of the fragment give a variant text to that found in 11.

8. which upon other copies of the Fifth Tablet contain directions with regard to the 7th and 14th days of the month. ." For a further discussion of this reading. in 11. I' [ . according to this version. 11. AaklKabai'u 121." As the beginning and end of the line are wanting. 13. 6-19 (K.FRAGMENT OF CREATION SERIES. In 1. . I91 of ""E-a . .774 the first half of the line runs [ . that is to say. " H e set the station of BE1 and Anu along with him. Tablet V. 13. 1. K. I n the course of Marduli's address to the Moon-god. according to K.-te-pa-a. and that the lines which follow contain Marduk's charge to him.774) he caused to shine forth. 1 2 occurs a still more interesting variant. TABLET V. ] his star he caused to shine forth. The Moon-god Creation Series." in place of " H e set the station of BE1 and E a along with him. but it may be regarded as certain that the phrase iuk-nut +nu-&." in place of "'Nannar-ru ui-te-pa-a. it would be rash to conjecturally restore them ." in 1. 13 refers to the Moon-god. . see the Introduction. 13. . would read. " a being of the night. 17 and 18.774 gives the variant readings .

Tablet V. . ] and ] KAN V Zimu[ . . 13. parts of lines which may be conjecturally numbered as 1 ( 8 ) . Obverse). . 11. . .774 do not correspond t o the text of this line as already known. (17) [ (18) [ ] IV"" Vzimu [ . . . 14-22 (I<. 11. 14-22. T h e traces of 1. . and contains on its obverse parts of 11. 1. . . . [BROKEN SURFACE] Creation Series. . . .641. . and 011 its reverse .( I ) The information which the obverse of the fragment supplies with regard to the text of thc Fifth Tablet . K.Igz APPENDIX 11. 19 upon K.641 is part of another copy of the Fifth Tablet. . . I 1.

in 1. the last thirteen lines (K. and may be noted as follows: the traces of 11. . . . -$]a-hi e[ . the end of this line should read e . .F R A G M E N T O F CREATION SERIES. and proves that the suggested restoration Creation Series. ]-ti. . . 1 5 the fragment reads [ . 16 the fragment gives the variant [a]-nufor ana . Tablet V. for I. . . 13 .641.[221 ma-a-ti. I4 and 17 upon K. T A B L E T V.641 give no variants nor restorations . 193 is not very great. . 19 it gives . I n 1. Reverse) [k-nu] is incorrect . which gives the same sense as before. . 18 for me?-L[i] it gives the variant mi-i(?)-[ . 11. ] . 11. in I.

. . . it is possible that the fragment belongs to the Creation Series. ] (8) [ . 3. 1 ( 7 ) [i-p]zr-Lz~-& [ . . ] a-7z[a . a t the end of 1. ] Ti-amat us'-[ . . . . . the text is given of a small fragment. I t may here be noted that of the last line of the tablet. zz it gives slight traces of the last two characters in the line. . note 3. 85.~ ~ [ Z ~. From the style of the writing and the mention of Tiamat. and it is possible that K. 84 f. 24. . T w o POSSIBLE FRAGMENTS OF TIIE CREATION SERIES. . 8. . it is pointed out that the last six lines contain the complaint of the gods to Marduk in consequence of which he conceived the plan of creating mankind. 1.526. . K. 3. or may have immediately preceded tbe word ni-i-nu preserved by the fragment K. . in 1. pl. . . . ha. ] U F ? Z . ] (3) [ . 21 it confirms the suggested restoration of the sign ma a t the end of the line . I 1.567. . 47). . . the plural sign . read ar-h[a-nu]-us'.-In Cunezyo~~z Texts. Another possible fragment of the Creation Series is 79-7-8. . The reverse of K. . in the transliteration and translation of the end of the Fifth Tablet. ] (4) [ . . . etc. . r 1. .641 seems to give traces of MES. . . . and in 1. .588 . . ] in-nu-at-[ . part xiii. + A possible fragment of the Creation Series (79-7-8.ooo6. . K.. . this may have been followed by a pronominal suffix. . ] (5) [ . zo it gives the variant reading [air-Ka-niS.567 I<. On p. . 8. ] (6) [a]r-nu-US-Szl lu[ . . ] (2) [ . .of which the following is a transliteration: ( I ) [ . D. .641 has already been used on p. which does not correspond to those given by I<. 1z. . . .traces of the last character but one in the line. . .

cf. . . TxLs.!~. pp. part xiii. . presumably from the character of the writing. hut as the traces of the last four lines of the text do not correspond to the last four lines of the First Tablet of the series Enuma el. rz. followed by . .572 have been catalogued by Bezold as possibly belonging to tablets of the series E-nu-ma E-Zi. pl. 8. I ro f. . for the text..u i-[ . vol. 8 . . 3 .. Txts. z f . pl. . 31.. ~z. . 7. .. see Cuneifoorm Texts. 31 . 4. . 1-da a-me-Zu lum-. 178. 2. it belongs to a text which is arranged in columns and divided into sections. . also I. Txts. it is clear that K.067 probably reads "'E-a ina [aplsi [ . As. v. 47. I . . v. and as the catch-line does not correspond to the first line of the Second Tablet.048 is a misprint. while t h e mention of t h e gods '"'La-&a-mu in 1. 31) is also assigned by Bezold to the series (see Catalogue. p. t h e t e x t of which is given in t h e block on p. . p. s . . . part xiii. part xiii. A n . Weltschbpfungsepos. ina hi-rib apsi ib-n[a . . 7. 31) is another fragment which Bezold suggests may belong to the series Enuma elif. I 1. 10. hut the grounds are slender for assigning them to the Creation Series. z and j and ib-6a-nu-u in I. and their texts are therefore given in Cun. of the reverse. and ["'Bld in 1. I<. while the the line ilani*' radliti*' zin-tal-ku-ma [ first line of K . part xiii. 192 &) .. In the character of its clay and in its style of writing this fragment resembles tablets of the Creation Series.791 (Cun. 11. T h e fragment K.oooc is a fragment of the First Tahlet of some other series. . . 194 I n t h e character of t h e clay and t h e style of writing i t closely resembles K. The fragments of legends. + . 31) is assigned (with a query) by Bezold in the CataZogue. . note I . 11.078. part xiii. pl. I. the first line preserved by K. z.! a ~ in 1.078). i ~reads [ . .ib-ni-&-ma ""E-a . presumahly from the occurrence of the verbs i6-ha-ni in 11. it is clear that it does not belong to the Creation Series.. 982 807-18.. .oooc (Cun.which is a fragment of a copy of t h e Fifth T a b l e t (see above. 195. 1. 1.POSSIBLE FRAGMENTS OF CREATION SERIES. 1. 1. 1.067 and K. pl. however. 2. Tx. K. Its colophon states that it is the First Tahlet of a series styled E-n[u-ma . . of which the first few lines of the obverse are given in transliteration by Delitzsch. .641.' Reference may also he made to the fragment R. vol. p.048 (see Cun. pl. 4 is in favour of its being a fragment of a tablet of t h e series.. T o this series the minute fragment I<. unless K. . ..

not yet been published. vi.. Handworterbuch. . 2. from the accompanying block that the lines are divided in writing into halves . Jensen in Schrader's KeiZins. A REFERENCE TO " T H E WATERS T H A T WERE ABOVE " AND " T H E WATERS THAT WERE BENEATH " T H E F I R M A M E N T . xii). shows that it cannot belong to an earlier tablet than the Fifth. of.T ~ ~ text may here be given of an interesting fragment. rather Fragment referring to the Upper Tiamat and the Lpwer Tiamat (S. I believe. p.E. If it is part (as is hardly probahle) of the Creation Series. which has been copied by Bezold (cf. 307) and by Delitzsch (cf. but does not occur upon any of the Assyrian copies that have yet been identified. but has. while in general style it appears to resemble the addresses found on the Seventh Tablet. the reference to the upper and the lower Tiamat in 1. however. 2.013).013. The text of the fragment may be transliterated as follows :- . Bihl. this is characteristic of several neo-Babylonian copies of tablets of the Creation Series. p. than to be in narrative form. S. I t will be seen.

pp. Bezold. Cf.[ 4. . . .j. ] mbiti[(ti?) . . . ] . ro. . ] [nza]&ar bit xi&@urs. . . . . 16. . 11. In shape and writing the fragment resembles some of the tablets of the Creation Series. . 19. . . . . . [ 12. . . . .% is K.bu [ . . ] . . . . . 87f.[ '3. and Delitzsch. ii. ] . . I t rnay be noted that each tenth line of the text is indicated in the margin of the tablet by the Thus. . [ I. . . zg. t h e smaller fragment K. Cztz. .. ] iua 3i-amat Sa#-Li-ti [ . 396 (cf. . see t h e Introduction. . . WeNsch?ipfunfsepos. 24 f. 11.ru . ] u-~pi-izis ha-l[a-/nu(?). . . 2.a$-&ti. . . .arilib-ba-[ . [ 7. and 35 . ] [ . . . pl. . .THE UPPER AND THE LOWER TIARIAT. ] . . . . . . [ 9. 1 2 .qq5 was given by S. [ 10. . . . Tersts. . .. which it has been thought m a y perhaps belong t o one o f t h e later tablets of t h e Creation Series. . George Smith. cit. .. F o r a discussion of t h e title &ubuv and of t h e phrases Ti-amat e-Li-ti and Ti-amat . pp. 1 [ . [ 13. . The text of the reverse of R. . ] . . ] [ .949 (op. . ] . ] t u u [ . . on the Ohv. ] [ . . and on the Rev.a2 . Smith in Miscellaneous Texfs. . . and 32 are so figure "to. a ] g ize Su [ . .. Chaldea~z Account o f Genes&. . ] [ . ] fa SamZ(e) ru-ku-u-ti [ . . . on the Rev. . . 24) is a duplicate. 109f. [ 6. . ." marked. ] . . . ] &6/i u ta-ha-[xi . p a r t xiii. . 5 1 ff. Lines 1-26 of t h e obverse contain only traces of t h e beginnings of lines. . vol. 3. ] . Caialogue. . ANSAII A N D T H E HISTORY OF CREATION. sometimes two lines of the text are written in one line of the tablet. . . ] s[a (?)I-&[$ . 1-tu is-xi-tu [ . . [ 5. . ] Sa @4 . p. 534. . ] . .ba . ] . . 67 ff. . ] nam . ] fa inn Ti-amat e-Li-ti [ .445 + R. [ I 1. pl. . . . I97 [ 2.-A fragment. ... ] [ .) 3 . ] . . . F. 14. ] .bur pa/-&-ti [ . A. pl. ] [ . arnong - ' Possibly read [nzalhar E-igi-e-nz'r. 2 2 . ] . 7. [ 8.

. .. .e. . which it may be noted that 1. . . . . . . .949 gives a variant reading for this line: iu-[ . . . . 30) and possibly of Marduk (1. ' The traces of the first sign of the name upon K. The occurrence of the names of Angar (1. . ] ( 6 ) 2s"-Run eLi [ . . . .40)~ and monsters of the deep ("dolphins?") in 1. . From 1. ] (11) ina si-ma-ah-hi-& [ . ] (36) nu@-6% up-te-it[ . 38. . ] (14) i-pu-&-ma pa (?)-[ . ] (31) i h . . 1. ] (19) e-nu-ma a-na . ] (4) [ . . '"'L[a-&a-mu]. ] (30) Anin:. . . . . . $ . . . 1. . ] (3) [ .949. ] (12) ilani*' ma-La 6a-Su-[u . . . ' The sign followii~g. . . . . . . . 1 (18) . ] (7) ui-bar ?zd-?7ze [ . ." of Tiamat (1. 36t). . would not be inconsistent with the fragment forming part of the Fifth Tablet of the Creation Series. . . ] (28) ma-as-rat mu-s"i u im-[mi . ] (37) ip-te-e-ma n[a.m a ana [ .." or " t h e breadth. 1-hi-ik-ma [ . . . . . 35)) and the mention of "springs" (1. . . . . ] (8) ul-tu me-lanz-me [ . . . . . ] ' (10) 2 i7~a e-ma-& US-Sa[K. ] (5) [ . . . . . . . . I I). ] (40) nam-6a-'-[ .949suggest La. ] (32) te-6i Sa-a-ri [ . ] (38) nu-/ii-ri . . . . . ] (16) i '*'Sin ?a[+ . "deeps" (1. . 11 possibly begins with the name of Marduk. . . . ] (39) iJ-pu-uh n[a. Omitted by K.' [ . . . . . . a The duplicate K. . . the reference to "the slaver.. . . .. . . . . . . .a up-[ . ] ( I 5) pa-na-a-ma An-far [ . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . ] (29) rn-ju-US-tu Sa Ti-ajmat . ] (34) u-ad-di-ma ?[a. ] (13) *'Lab-mu u 3 . . .. . ] "'Adad [ . . so that the reading i6-fa-ni is impossible. . . . ] (33) iu-uh-tur iwzn-[ . 14. . .198 APPENDIX 1 1 . . . ] (35) if-hun @a@kada [ . . . . . . . . . .fa is not ni. . . 14. . 29) and possibly to her head (1. . .~ u r . . . . . . The reverse of the fragment reads as follows:-(I) [ . . . . .t a . . . . . ] (17) fa-nu-u it-zah-ru [ . . . ]-me Jar-[ . . . . i. . ] (9) a-za-mzl-Su apsG ra-?u6-[bu . . ] (2) ha-s'ur-ru [ . 27 onwards the obverse reads : (27) ul-tu u-me u-[ . . .

. . . ] (26) Sap-lis*a. . ] (28) hir-6uUS-Su rna-&a-za-<u iuu-far-Sia-ma : [ . 1-ni : mann-nza +-ri-ni &z-ni ( 4 1 )U S . . . . ] ( 3 0 ) aS-rzr [ . . ] abu-fu an-~za-a[ . . . 5) and to the city of A%ur (1. . . ]-pat jilli [ . . .nza : eli nzi7/tma fa ib-na-a &-a-ta-a-ha [ . . . 1-ta-7zi i-dL da-ri-Sa71z [ . 199 ] ( 2 0 ) pi(?)-ha ma-ah-turn hi-[ . . . . . . ] (24) e-li-nu ap-si-i Su-bat [ . . . . ] (40) ~ [ i . . . . ] (45) ip-te-e[ . . Lines 23 if. . 37) are not necessarily inconsistent with this view. ] . . . .. ]. . . . . . . . . ] (34) [ . . ] (28) In [ (21) .~ [ u .. can scarcely be reconciled with the end of the Fourth Tablet of the Creation Series. 1. . . . ] nu-bat-ta [ . . ] (27) I will build a house that it may be a dwelling for [ . ] (27) lu-pu us'-ma bita ZZL zu-bat [ . . . . . . . . . . . ] ul-tu u-me at-ta [ . I . . . . 13 of the reverse may also be cited in favour of the fragment belonging to the Creation Series.lu . . . ] (33) k [ ~ -. . . . . ] (44) Sa i-du [ . . . 1 ( 3 5 ) 'A' [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 2 5 ) opposite E-5ara which 1 have created. .ANSHAR A N D TI-IE CREATION. . . . ] (32) af-r[u . ] (29) e-nu-7na nl-tzl apsi i-be-[ .hu-an [ . while the references to Adad (I. . The mention of Labmu in 1.ha . . . ] (42) i/i-du-[ . . . . . . . . . .-[ . n]u-bat-ta hun[ . . . . and unto the god [ . . . . . . . . . . ] (36) ~nalz-[nu . . ] (39) [ . . he addressed the word] : (24) ' Above the Deep.a fa ad-nu-u a-lza-hu : [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-luh-ha-xi 22-bil-Zu-ni [ . These lines read : " (23) An& opened his mouth and spake. the dwelling of [ . . . . . . . . . . . ]-hi bit& ilani*' rabnli'L [ . . . . . . . . ] (43) i / Z n i i iu-[ . . 1 (31) e-[ . . . . [ . .-ra-ta u-dan-ni-n[a . . ]-ha i-Si: eli kak-ka-rz~ Sn ib-nu-a ha-ta-a-[ha . . . . . ] ( 2 2 ) ?nim-?nu-uat-ta ta-had-bu [ . . . . ] ni-zp-pu-[ . . 1 (37)maiz-[nu . ] (38) a. . . ] (23) An-Sar pa-a-fu epur"(us3-?%a i-kab-bi : a-na ""[ . . .however. . . . . . ]-~za-ahz~r[ . . . ] ( 2 5 ) mi-d-rit E-Sar-f. 1-a-fu [ . ] (26) I have strengthened the regions in the depth [ . ]-ha i-s"i : "'"ASr"urK' fa tag-ku-m mu(?)-[ . . . . . .

It will be noted that 11. Obverse).311 correspolld to 11. Until more of the text of the Fifth and Sixth Tablets is recovered. 1. in I. and not Angar.311. and not Marduk. in view of the itlconsistencies noted. In this speech Anzar. IV. 144-IA~. which is scarcely in harmony with the general tenour of the Creation Series. 2 5 An4ar definitely states that he created E-Sara. . Tabl. 128 f. 1. 146)and [ . city."' Fragment of an incanlalion-tablet containing an arldress to the River 01 Creation (82-9-18.the midst thereof will I found his district (lit. 1-8 of 82-9-18. appears as the god of creation. a transliteration and translation are given of an address to a mystical I. .704and the obverse of 82-g-18. cf. which forms the opening lines of incantations upon the reverse of S. created E-Sara.5. the obverse of the one and the reverse of the other are given in the accompanying blocks.-On p. meanwhile.531 I. river of creation. it is related that Marduk. it would be rash to assert that the fragment cannot belong to the Creation Series . G. it is preferable to assume that it does not form part of that work. whereas in Tablet IV. but is a fragment of a closely parallel version of the story in which An4ar plays a more prominent part. As the text of these fragments has not been previously published. 5. 11. 1-7 of . THE RIVER OF CREATION. . Moreover.

311.704. 111 . H.-The tablet K.364 (CUIZ. 1. given in the ninth line of 82-9-18. The eighth line of S. would not by itself prove this. of S. and from this point onward . 201 - S. 29f. pl. to the river. 7 0 4 .704. lleversr). therefore. .T H E RIVER O F CREATION. The insertion of the cominon formula. but what remains of the tenth line of 82-9-18. which concludes the direct address. 1.) was thought by George Smith to contain the instructions given to the first man and wornan after their creation.311.311 does not correspond to the ninth line Fragment of an incaiitation-tablet cotitnini>lgim address to the Ilivrr of Creation (S. 1. in treating the address to the river as an independent fragment. 1 . which has been employed as the introduction to two different incantations. is omitted by 82-9-18. Tx~s pt. xiii. THE SUPPOSED INSTRUCTIONS T O MAN A F T E R IIIS CREATION.704. 3. or invocation. . We are justified. 5.it would seem that the tablets cease to be duplicates. 5. 5.

.364 with the Creation Series. and a little later on he adds. the text of which is published in vol. " T h e obverse ' of this tablet is a fragment of the address from the deity to the newly created man on his duties to his god" . pls. iilforining her of her duties towards her partner. The reasons on which this collclusion is based may be briefly stated as follows :-(I) The recovered portion of the Sixth Tablet indicates that the description of the creation of man there given was very similar to the account furnished by Berossus." In his BabyLor2iscJie WeZsc/li. The ChaLdedenn Account of Genesis. to be addressed to the woman. 2 f . he says. 5 4 f . iv a part of the colophon.? The recovered portion of the Sixth Tablet of the Creation Series.364 contain moral precepts. p. ( 2 ) Col.364. " T h e reverse of the tablet appears.851. and it follows that the greater part of the text must have been in the form of narrative.pfungsepos. the companion of the man. 3.~ For such a long serles of moral instructions there is no room upon the Sixth Tablet of the Creation Series.. ii of No. 8 5 1 . p.. ii.851 refers to certain acts which are good. If Marduk gave man any instructions after his creation.202 API'ENDIX 1 1 . 33. Rut both the obverse and reverse of I<. In my Babylonian R e l w n and Mythology. so far as the sense can be ascertained. 3 3 . 19f. 3. and in col. however. Ixiv-lxvi (No. 88 f. 3335 I ) . ' The side of the tablet which George Smith refers to as the obverse is really the reverse: this is rendered certain by the duplicate No. I also provisionally adopted this view. these can have occupied only a small part of the tablet. 3.. Delitzsch also treats the tablet as forming part of the Creation Series. and the same is the case with colutnns ii and iii of the new duplicate No. together disprove the suggested connection of K. i of this tablet only the ends of lines are preserved. 33. In col. and the Neo-Babylonian duplicate of K. pp. and to others which are not good. 80. and I I I f.

33. 3. This fact in itself is sufficient to prove that the composition has nothing to do with the series Enuvza eLil The text upon tablets of the Creation Series is never arranged in columns. .' This is quite consistent with the character of Sama4 as the judge of heaven and earth. which has been thought by some . and even to the rough " practice . Bezold. I. 3. but each line is written across the tablet from edge to edge. .364. col. the text is arranged in columns. . 14. to be the title of a power of evil termed "the Calumniator" (cf.TkfE "DUTIES OF MAN. a long didactic composition containing a number of moral precepts. 3. Rev. 5 . 1. ta-a-6ieli"'Samadi-[ . 526).364. I. 33. 9. 33. iii. but should be rendered simply as " a slanderer!' . p.851. .% The composition in itself is of considerable interest. two on each side of the tablet. ." in the sense in which ilu-u-ti occurs in I<. . "godhead. T h e s i g n s ~ ~ . for enough of it remains to show that it indicates a high standard of morality. ii. I. . and has nothing to do with the Creation Series.851. a It may he noted that the phrase a-kil kar-si (K.. 1. but also to the Babylonian copies of all periods.u ~ i n t h e s e passages are clearly to be rendered "" Sama. 4). and not du-tu. and No. (3) In the duplicate. is not a proper name or title. 1. where he is referred to merely as the sun which Marduk created and set upon his course. This characteristic applies not only to the copies of the Creation Series from Kuyunjik. Rev." z03 in the eyes ef SamaS. vol. ul !a-a-6i eli ' " S a m a ~ i-[ .851 is.. ' Cf.364 and No. The text inscribed upon K. however. in fact. and I. but he does not appear in this character in the Creation Series. Catalogue..tablets " on which students wrote out extracts from the poem. No. r j.

and during the Neo-Babylonian and Persian periods. are there omitted. and others are incorrectly copied. That actual phrases from the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series were made use of in other similar compositions is sufficiently proved by the fragments published at the end of Appendix I . 205. It would be impossible within the limits of the present work to attempt an exhaustive treatment of this subject. and by Marduk's own position as the native god of Babylon. THERE is abundant evidence to prove that under the late Assyrian kings. including 1. it is difficult to determine how far the priestly and popular conceptions of Marduk were influenced by the actual story of the Creation as we know it. 43. has not hitherto been translated? ' A rather rough copy of this tablet is included in Craig's Religious Texts. and there can he no doubt that it exercised a considerable influence on the religious literature which continued to gather around Marduk's name. pl. and in view of this fact we may perhaps hear echoes from the earlier tablets of the series in some of the phrases and attributes applied to Marduk in the contemporary religious texts. the text of the obverse is given in the block on p.! of Crcafion in @efigioue anb @sfrofogicaf l&itercture. as a striking instance of such allusions to the Creation story. the history of the Creation as told upon the Seven Tablets of the series Enutnn elif was widely read and studied. In the fragmentary hymns and prayers which have come down to us. reference may here be made to the fragment K.204 APPENDIX 111. however. and to what extent they were moulded by earlier legends and beliefs.35 I . a n riome traces of f4e sirifor. . which. 4. I believe. As several signs. but. 3.

. . . . . .-Sat] SamZ(e) u iv.zti(ti) m[u]-SimSi-ma-a-ti 3.351). [ . . . . and may be transliterated as follows :- [ . . . . 20s The upper part of the tablet is broken and rubbed. . ] b i .I N F L U E N C E OF CREATION LEGEPZDS. . . but the greater part of the text is well preserved and clearly written. ] ~nzut-taZ-lum z. ] h[i. .n u . . . -Part of a Hymn to Mardok (K. 3. . [ .t u I. el-til-lum mriv 'I" E-a [ . . . .

. . Sa AB .ru 22. . . .a-na 12.' of which the following is a translation :- I . . . .nam . who is named in 1. and BBI.lu turn &a .6 1 1 . . I " ' l g i g i z4.ru . fa 18. . a - A P P E N D I X 111. .ub . . [ . . [{]a a 9. [Who .n a nab-li-Su u .a-na 10. apiL turn-tii% g a l . .t a b .u u i a .t i i .iu 14. . . . te-bi-Su ib-Si rabliti" be-luwz ra-US-6u ?a ina pn-&ur fin-na-as-su L a ib-ba-s'u-u ilznip' I 3. . .u5 ta .kip Kahki .l a .206 8. i-na pa-an ' a ia-zi-ti im-nte-du Sa-n~a-mi z 1. .[a] ka[li]-Sn-nu "'A-nun-nu-ki 23. .na zi ta . ] - T h e fragment contains the opening lines of a hymn to Mardnk. . . i . .Su Sanzz~(u) i id-dal-la-& iltiniJ2 a YU . ] .:u 91tar-su-ti ni-bit-su da-ad-me 5.bu YU u-ta-az-zu-mi-& a$-sw-u na .na i - 7 -L i . . the exalted [ . 0 lord [ 2.. . .Su iz-zi i . ] the [hosts] of heaven and earth. . . son of E a .t u s'adzni" 17." The Reverse of the tablet contains the last five lines of ASur-bani-pal's common colophon. .b a . [ . .tzw nl 11. . in I. . . . . .' rn-u#-p~i-Sa E-Say-ra k be-lum kar-rad i n iiani*' s'u-ut a-sur-mk-ka 19.uk . . . moreover.a n z .'ta . . . . i na b ? ~ ru .z i . 1. . I he is termed the "son of Ea.{u 16. .6 u . 7 and is referred to in the three preceding lines under his titles Tutu.mu .[ . . i-na I tak-na-a-ti Sa-ku-ZL par-su u-iu kahhc'" . i .m i eLciti" E-kur bit - fa . ul-tu 20. . who ordaineth destinies ! The composition is addressed to Marduk.s a . . 1. . .MAG sal .lu . Sagzu. . .

and tempest. 0 mighty lord. . . ] of all the Aunnaki. . . . . . . 16. . the director of the gods. . the Hero of the gods is his title ! 19. . A t the point of his weapon the gods turned back ! I I. ] t h e Igigi! 24. I 3. . 23. . cf. 22. . . . ] offspring. . . Before his terrible bow the heavens stand fast ! zr. ' . . the temple of true worship. . . 0 lord Bel. exalted is his decree ! 15.. . . . offlspring is T u t u ! 5 . g. . . who art mighty in understanding! 7. . 1. . thou prince. . . . [ . the great queen. . . With the evil wind his weapons blaze forth. . . Handw?irteer6uch. The Son of E-gara is his name. . . . . . . . I z I . [The . . 8. . A t whose wrath the Deep is troubled ! 10. With his flame steep mountains are destroyed ! 17. H e overwhelmeth the expanse of the billowing ocean ! 18. ] of war and battle is in the hand of Marduk. From the depth1 is he lord of the gods of human habitations ! 20. Concise Dicf. . . . . . [ . the consort of Sagzu ! 6. and Muss-Arnolt. .I N F L U E N C E O F CREATION LEGENUS. the . T o his furious attack there was no opponent ! 12. Delitzsch. p. [ 4. [ . [ . 207 the . . . In E-kur. . to whom there is no rival in the assembly of the great gods ! 1 3 In the bright firmament of' heaven his course is supreme ! 14. .p. I r 1 . . . A t whose battle heaven quaked. . [ In this phrase we may probably see an antithesis to "the heavens" in the following line: for other passages in which the word asurrakku occurs. . plague and destruction.

the trouble of the Deep a t his wrath. 35.466. or "evil wind. in.486. 82 f. and the flight of the gods from the point of his weapon. Ixvii-lxxii. broad columns of writing on each side. the identification of the monster-brood of Tiamat with at any rate some of the signs of the Zodiak. The fragment of the tablet recovered gives considerable portions of the first and last columns of the text. II I t will be noticed that in 11. and in " t h e billowing ocean (tam-iinz)" in 1. attaches to some astrological' fragments which I have come across. by 3. however. or possibly three. which I have rejoined. and 55. and is part of a large tablet which was inscribed with two.627. 55. as well as traces of . pls. moreover. and Marduk's "flame" in I. Nos. her helpers. The reference in 1. and 1. the mention of Marduk's bow in 1. viz. 11. 15. and. inasmuch as they show that a t a late period of Babylonian history the story of the fight between Mardulc and Tiamat had received a very definite astrological interpretation. p.. ii. Finally. W e have hcre an unmistakable reference to the battle of Marduk with Tiamat. furnishes an additibnal proof of a fact which has long been generally recognized.208 APPENDIX . 45 and 96. 1. and with the fragment of the Fifth Tablet which describes the translation of the bow to heaven as the Bow-star (see above. but the itnhulZa.). 8-11 the hymn describes the quaking of the heavens a t Marduk's battle. rz to Marduk's supremacy in the assembly of the gods does not necessarily refer to the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series. 4 0 . I t measures 5$ in. 55. 16 are clearly reminiscences of the Fourth Tablet. 17 we may possibly see a reference to Tiamat. but they do not add anything to the facts concerning Marduk's character which may be gathered from the Creation Series itselt An additional interest. 2 0 may be compared with the Fourth Tablet. Such references to the Creation story are of considerable interest. The most important of the astrological fragments above referred to is made up of three pieces.." in I. One of the fragments exhibits Tiamat as a star or constellation in the neighhourhood of the ecliptic. and the subsequent flight of the gods. and its text is published in vol.

. . .~vitha weapon not of war was cut off. the Spear-star of hlaidulr . Kinlgu. . . "disappeared. . . i it is clear that the text is closely connected with the story of the Creation. . . . ] u-hal-Lanz ab-6i-e-fu. (5) [ . 1-7 which have been preserved : ( I ) [ . This will be apparent from the following transliteration and translation of the portiolis of 11. . . . i t may possibly be assigned to as late a date as the first century B. ] that the deeds of Tiamnt should not be forgotten (7) [ ." I n the first line we may probably see a reference to Marduk's drawing forth of the mult~zuLlz~. duplif7nliti" Sa ""ZCi7z-gu it-7iz1l-hufia-fu-z~/-Sn (5) [ . . ] he created. ]-nu id-ni-ma biib ap-si-i u-/a-a. ] whose hands removcd the Spear. . . of the fact that the following lines refer to episodes in i h c Creation story. (6) [ . and a t the Gate of the Deep he stationed. not Rl. " ( I ) [ . . 14 . and [ . . . . or spear. .. . . . . . and (3) [ . . ]-nu Sa !ciFt?"-f!iil rnz~L-muL is-si-ma [ . . . ." In vie\\. . her spouse. . .irduk's actual \vealion.ta-his-n[m] -??~[a] ( 3 ) [ . . (4) [ . . ] Tiamat he conquered. The colophon. . . ] Ti-amat 2%-mu-n iL-&-u s'ilrvu-us-su (4) [ . . . ]-?nu alza L a ?%a-Si-ezip-fe-e-ti Ti-anzat (7) [ . which possibly contained the date a t which the tablet was inscribed. . "'Z<i7~]-g7~ &a-mi-ri-Su ina kakhi L a ga-6a-al i[t] . . but Mul-mul.the second column on the obverse and of the last column but one on the reverse. . ] (2) [ . .C. . has not been preserved. ] .-hit (6) [ .' which we know from It is possible that mtrZ-mul is here. . . . . ] he causeth his fathers to behold. . From the first section which has been preserved of col. . I think the rendering suggested above is preferable. the Tablets of Destiny from Kingu he took in his hand. . . . . . . . . and the verb fi-si-nin lnay have the intransitive meaning. . but from the character of the writing and the shape of the tablet it may be concluded that it does not belong to an earlier period than that of the Arsacidzc . . . . he took her sovereignty. ] (2) [ . .

e. If this interpretation is correct. "that the deeds of 'I'iamat sho~ildbe no more. la 6n-ii-e. While they believed that Marduk actually slew Tiamat and subsequently created the universe as narrated it1 the tablets of the Creation Series.137if.210 A1'l'ENT)TX ~~ ill. i. it is possiblc that a similar guardian was stationed by Marduk in order to restrain the waters of the Deep. after he had filled her with the evil wind. The first section which is prcservcd of the text. ~~ ~~~ ~ -- rendering appcars prcferahle to ltlc possible rending." in order " t h a t the deeds of Tiamat (i. looked upon the astrological aspect of the Creation story as in accordance with definite instructions given by Marduk himself. at any. and with the capture of the Tablets of Destiny from Icing". 120. his object being to ensure that the history of the creation of the world should always be kept in remembrance. referring ~ . - ~- Tablet IV of the Creation Series. I.c. rate. referred to in 1. L. though it is possible that it has some connection with the obscure expression in Tablet IV. Tablet IV. r z r f. 4. Line 6 f. in order to keep thc waters above the firmament in their placc (cf. we may compare Tablet IV.itie 5 possibly refers to an episode in the Creation which may have been recorded in the missing portion of Tablet V of the Creation Series." ' This . I n 1. Line z may be explained as referring to Mardulc's conquest of Icingu after Tiamat's death. it follows that the later Babylonians." I t is possible that the instructions which Mardulz is here represented as giving to the gods refer to their positions in heaven and to the heavenly bodies associated with them. her revolt and subsequent conquest by himself) should not be forgotten. they held that the associati011 of the principal actors in the story with some of the more important stars and constellations was also Marduk's work. ~ o rhe . without further fighting. With it we may compare the fixing of a bolt by Marduk and the stationing of a watchman. I. I. apparently refer to the il~structionsgiven by Marduk to the gods. "his fathers.). plunged into the belly of Tiamat. 11. 3 thc text returns to Marduk's defeat of T i a m a t .

. . . .turn i -s'ak . . T]i-ai~zatinaLib-bii"'Si~z i7z-n[a11z (?). . The sign is Mn. . ul ul-la-a-[um. . . . If unchecked. and Tiamat as a constellation in the neighbourhood of the ecliptic. ] (14) i-nn ri-&is si-pit-ti u me-Lul-ti-& i-kab-[ . I 2 I f. appears to be of the nature of an introduction to what follows. . 21 I as it does to some of the most striking episodes recorded i11 the Creation Series. Marduk probably as Jupiter. I~osmologie. ] ( 1 5 ) e-Zzs" u S@-lii Liml~t-tu7n u-fa-tar-~iza' i-hap-pu-dzr szrr-ra-[a-turn] ( 1 6 ) inn u-mu Su-u aga taf-i-ri-i&-tumSa nu-uh-hu-ri Sup-pad zr-ha/Z [ i . . the rvrath of Bel (i. . I . In this section Marduk and Tiamat appear in their astrological characters. ] Ti-amat itba-a71z-~?za [ .. .. ] '"Marn'u/z inn Lib-bi 'h'Tam-tzl~z [ .du]k(?) u-hal-La-~izupnr-~i-Szr-[nu] ( 9 ) [ . The second sectioil reads : (8) [ . . p. . Marduk) would result in the destruction of the temples and in the ruin of the land.zi ""'" AhKadiXf """"' nifd P'-fu-liu zl-!a&-ha-su ul nl-La-a-tunz (19) a-17zat su-us'-turn(?)i-di6-bu-6% i-4ab-bu-u mn-crg-ri-tu7iz (20) mi-iZ-hi L a tuS-fir (?) 27%-tal-l'iR i-te-z$-s'u sz~r-ra-a-t7~11r (21) h a ag-ma '"'Bd u-/iaZ-Lab e.e. .i-/z~a (cf.D I M .T H E CREATION LEGENDS A N D ASTROLOGY. . . 13 ff. .xi(?) . e-nu-turn s"u la si-nzaa . . .t i m E-la-?nu-u sh [ . . . .M U ep24<uf) NAM-BUL-Dr.e. 1. ] ( 1 3 ) hi-i fa vu-bu-u '"'Marduk a~zafa-han a-~[zL-bu . . a thundetbolt. Jcnsen. Jupiter) and Tiamat would seem from 11. .. I a-. to portend the sending of an abubu. . .ah-[ku] ( t o ) [ . not 12. ~ g ) see . ~ the earth. . The approach of Tiamat and the Moon and of Marduk (i. ] (17) ana mzrh-hi #am. .[s'u] ( I 8 ) iLalzi*' 7na . followed by rebellion and tumult among gods and men. ] ( 1 1 ) [ . . ' For .-vi-e-tam ( 2 2 ) E-la-17zn-a ti-e-rnz~ i-~ah-ha7z-rua i-sap-pan ma-a-ium (23) ana I. . . .as parallel L o mn-ng-~.ba .han pa . ] ( 1 2 ) [ . o. possibly. . . or d e l ~ g e upon . r~r-u~~z $a-ha12 a-bu-6% ana fz~z-muI Z . . T o prevent the sending of a deluge and to change the omen to one of prosperity. . ] ?zi[772 . . . "'Mai. . . .

t h a t this section was continued in with col. ] (35) [ .te d i . Z. 1.. .-I(I prayers.turn ina /car . intcnded to avert the erects or an evil omen (cf. 1 (31)1<1ni- sir-t?~?n fa Ca"'Mzritabarrzi-?~zilta~zu *"""'" [ . . or the expression may possibly be employed.nu . ii only traces of the beginnings of a fern lines are preserved from the lower half of the column: thcy read: ( I ) n- [ . p. . . . . . vii. p.t h e t e x t enjoins t h e performance of certain NAM-13~1. . . . . ] ( 2 ) Ru-[ . This may be the title of a special class of incantations (cf.ir-tunz fa majallza.). . .' T h e third a n d last section of t h e first column reads : (24) ina " ' ~ * " D ~fa z u~zi-pi-s"' fa sa-knp ~znkiriinn Dri6iLix' i-pu-us" ( 2 5 ) iiza Lib-6i ?a *"' M~uftabarvG-nzntan u '"'Silz bpL?*' ni-sic-ium i a """ELa71ztu' X (26) NUM-LU *' "" SAG-\ ilL I GAR u ""Sanzns' bel2*' ni-sir-rum Sn '""L"Ahkadfix' ( 2 7 ) SU-[ . . . zzr f. . *dhZh LU-ICU-MAL""[ . T o t h a t e x t e n t this section resembles t h e one t h a t precedes it. . ] (34) [ . . Reports of Masicians and Aslrologers. . . . . ] . . .B irza I aii i-te-flu-us"I<I ni-sir-tunz fa "'Si7z (29) T E SU-GIu MuL-vzi~l TE & ~ ~ a l i z t u (30) ~ ' I<I 7zi-. xlvii f. . . . . . .+ and Sorcery. .ri pali L'n6iLix' ' . p. .: e-nu-turn [ . . Thompson. Vossihly nsar. ] (32) " 1 ni-~ir-tum fa "' SAG-ME-CAR "*"*" [ . and it would seem t h a t a change in t h e dynasty ruling a t Babylon was portended b y t h e rclative positions of Mercury a n d Jupiter.p a t . 12r3). ] ( 3 3 ) ilzn ""b" Tap . or ceremonies.lzm-' (28) N A M . 1LU *' idati [*'I fa nu -uk .H U L . . .[ . . ] wmk-ki Sip (?)-tz~m [ . b u t there is little apparent connection between this portion of t h e t e x t a n d t h e Creation Series. ' Of col. to indicate generally a class of incantations. .k7~ . . as in some other passages.A. . my Ma. a n d t h a t t h e missing portion h a d some co~lnection t h e legend? . 1-ba-ha-anpa~a. . .Z L kal. It is possible. . ] (3) IT[I . a n d of t h e stars Su-GI and MZLL?IZILL. C f Eppin5 and Strassmaier. ii. . T h i s section is concerned with t h e positious of t h e planets M~~ila6arrzi-?nzita7zu (Mercury) and SAG-h:~-GAR (Jupiter) and of t h e moon a n d sun. . however.

. . . ] ( 6 ) a-&I-me. . . . Oh". The sign was read by Strassmaier and Epping as .n6u PAD [ . -pi af-Su ail-ni-i iira .bi te [ . .f a fa Ti-amnt ni-ha. ] (7) TB[ . 46. . . . . . . (4) . . 1 ( 6 ) . .' Gud ~ u Akra6ir I?-ten Szz-n ( I S ) GIR : zu-ha-hi-pu : GIR I z L . p. Similarly."a'' 7. ] ( 3 ) . . . .u(k~.e.E NIULU-BAD Ti-aliznl tu-ra-ah-tum !zrvz-{~z fairu pa-nu-& z i k m u si7zizi.lY-anznt 8 1 zc '"'Iiiizyri (10) Su-nu : gi-iz-za-fzi-tu : /E-i-iz-zn-ui-tilSIL?IZ-!IL aiza lizic/t-hi TE BIR Ri-iz-zu ( I I ) pu-u!-!a-ni-turn $u-u-za-izi-t?~iiz turi~-!' aiza iuub-bi T E IliA ka-6i ( 1 2 ) T E l i A : 1. . . . . pl. .tzz &r-u ( 1 3 )ina ii6-bi hi-i i-hat &I T E A(zra6u it-ti '"'NNill-Iid u "'"IViizki-gal ( 1 4 )6a!G(u) ziza mu/z-bi j a r . . .024 (sce Kosii~oiugie. . I .. .~) (17) [ .I'U-ICA-GHB-A i l ~ aIib. 7 ) .. . . . .. 2. only traces remain of the first collimn preserved upon tile reverse of the tablet. 1 ( 8 ) *nia"a" [ . As the tenth sign of the Zodiac it should possibly be rcad as LaZzi. 1. 1 ( 2 ) '"'Na-na-[a . . . . . . .. ] ( 3 ) u '"'lii?z-p s'u-u : a&-6i : "'U"AB : ah-[ .Fa bu-la-[ . . . . No. . . in-nam-mar-ru-' a<-s'u an-ni-i T E Eusu !a IliI T E A/ir.zu fi~w. . . .a [ . ] (9) rali[ . 28. . . 213 T h e greater part of t h e reverse of t h e fragment is inscribed with t h e upper half of t h e last column. ] ( 4 ) TE HIR' Ti-a~izat pu-uh-ri ana &aZ-turn hi-i [ .: I1 . . .. which perhaps has the value R I R . ] ( 5 ) epu!(uf) Ti-amat n "' Kin-g-i ana if-ten itz2rzlP-ma [ . . . p. . Explained as pa-far aSakk1' (ID-FA) in VR.. . . . . . ] (4) hi-rza-[a. .Z L ~ :a-ui-turn Sa it-ti dib-bi T E ~ '~ ( u () 9 ) a m niu/lhi """'""' E~zzu u TE MULU. . 1: 1. . . 3r3). j.. the sign Ur. . . .:S~r par-ji Sa Ti-anzat (8) RuZ-/u .AH. . .T I I E CREATION LEGENDS AND ASTROLOGY. ] (5) aZz1 [ .BAD^ zna Zz6-bi TE H I R ~ ~ . App. $a&u (set: Aslron. T h e lines t h a t have been preserved read as follows : ( I ) ina "'6'' Taj-pat-tunz Sa ni-pi-s'u an-nu-tu [ . . . . ] (5. j (6) ku[ . . . ] ( 2 ) aiza muh-bi '"'MariiuR iIIi/zu(Ku) ilza hap-kar '"b2'[ . . . . which read: ( I ) [ . . . . ."i-iz-sir-ni-/UI u $ Z L . . 1-da TE U.l. ] (7) pllu . . . . No. Caper. which in somc respects is t h e most interesting portion of t h e text. but Jensen lias shown that it is not S A I ~ but .@-$at-tirliz (16) I<I n-!ah-ku TE Enzu iua 1li1 TE MULU-RAII iiza ngi insv-ri-z/l-tz~i/r ilIi. . ] ( 7 ) E:zi-rfa : T E Enzir : *"*"'"' U/l-. . ] ( t o ) ul [ . nus Bab. beginning a new scctiou) inn " ' b y .

. . . . . . . .S~~ i-si-&u tr~-kz!-un-t~rnz "'Win-[ . . 6 and 7) or additional names (cf. . 1 ( 2 0 ) [ . .a[ . . ] ta-ha-zi hi-vza iz-zi-zu ri-[ . . 1.S I . . . it may be noted that Kingu. ] (31) [ . . . . ] (27) [ . . ] Kak. . .. I t will be noticed that this portion of the text is in the main explanatory. . . .i[6 . . ~ - -- - I Either tile Bow-star. . . . . IIc is herc associated in an astrological sense with Tiamat. . Moreover. . . . . ] "" Brl 8ar-m-dn Sa irza af-gu lib-bi-iu a-Sah-hn [ . .f~z. . . . . . . . . . . . ] fa SAG-ME-GAR ni-me-du T E K A K . . . 1-ir i. . ] ( 3 0 ) [ . . . . 1?iza-S~~ [ . . . . . . ] (23) [ . . 4-6. ]z.ll]. . AI'PENDIX - 111. . possibly. . .'ii'kiz. . . ] i-kab-~IL-u 1t1 S I R N A M LUL {a il711uXVIIX"" inn ]<I SIG [ . and their alliance in opposition to Marduk is clearly referrcd to in 11.214 . ] "". . . . . ] (29) [ . . . PIAN' a-bn-6u hak-kn-iu ra66(a) a<-{% Sa "'Nin-ib a-si a?-Sn an-ni-i [ . . . . 1-pu-Su "'*'"TAB i-sak-ki-pu I G I MAW 'h'Nziz . Unlike col. ] ( 2 1 ) [ . .'**""' [ . . i. . . . . . .Su k[a . [I% . . 11. . . . is introduced. ] (26) [ .r [ . . these lines of the text do not run on in the form of connected sentences. 11. . ] ( z z ) [ .$a~tza< [ ~ ~ I L ' I'"'Nin-ib L Sum-Su ana . . . . 1-an-ua kz [ . . .bu . 3 and of). I (32)[. . . . . . With regard to the connection of passages it1 this column with the Creation Series. . . . . 1-fz~-nu u-tir-ru-nim-ma ana ~al-trim iz-zi-ail-u '"'Sa7uaS iiza li6-6i [ . . i . . . . . [ . 1(33)[. the fact that Caper and Scorpio are mentioned in close connection with this passage shows that - I. ~ . . or. 12). . .ku Su-u huh k z ~ a . . . Marduli's bovr.Du I TE PAN inn pa-ni *. . .hi] ( 2 5 ) [ . . ] (28) [ . . ] (24) [ . ] ( 1 9 ) [ . . . . . . 1-tuzlnz inn id-Sn [[i-ZuZ(-)in (?)E-hr.6u '"' Mafduh ina siliiii . ] m i b a [ . .\N. some terms are explaitled by a play upon words (cf. .- UIR ICI ni-sir-tum Sa "'""Ela77ztu ["I (18) [ . but are broken up into a number of equations and explanations of terms and titles . . . . . while in other places the reason is given for certain titles (cf. in addition to Marduk and Tiamat.TC[. . ]u[ . . . . 1-yi. . thus.

nu-pi?-ta-Su)Li-si-zb u lib-ri (see above.')59) the accompanying block. z of the reverse. . 55. . 2 15 they here occur.959 resemble the last column of No. is also notccvorthy. 112 of the Seventh Tablet of the Creation Series reads lih-me (var. 40. The rcfcrence to Marduk's "mighty weapon" in 1. The smaller of these fragments.959. etc. . and it is clear that this line is here quoted upon thc fragment. Both the obverse and reverse of No. preserves a few traces of signs from the beginning of the obverse and from the end of tlic reverse of the tablet. . ii had been printed off I came across two other fragments of somewhat similar astrological texts. 40. . 40.-jir-ta-sir (var. . . which furnish additional illustrations of thc manner in which the legends of the Creation were connected by thc later Babylonians with astrological phenomena. Fragment of an astrological explanatory tent (No. li-ih-mi) Ti-aitmt 12. . in being of an explanatory .. p 1 0 8 f. ]-ti: lib-mi Ti-ainnt napiSta-Jil l[i. I. the text of which is given in RIIVEI<SE. 24f. No. which reads [ .466. A few complete words occur in 1. but also in their mythical character as monsters in the host of Tiamat.). not only in their astronomical sense as constellations of the Zodiac.T I I E CREATION LEGENDS A N D ASTROLOGY. After the sheets of vol. ] .

and. . and the text block. and of ail astrological character. 40. A]LIRI-NUN-NA' ' At the beginning of the line there is hardly room for the restoration ['"'As~nu-A]LI~%-NUN N A .u-aliiiz-nulz-na occurs as onc of the titles of Marduk in 1. 32. . 5 of the Seventh Tablet of the Fragment of an astrological explanatory text (No. it has in some respects a closc conilection with the Creation Series. l'his of its obverse is published in the acco~npa~iyillg t e x t also is explanatory. and Ea. now "'Asa?. . . . 32. it is prohablc that the line read ~""AILI~I-NuN-NA. and it is probable that the quotation froin the Seventh Tablet is here introduced in an astrological context." we may compare the explanation in 1. 1. z reads [ . . and with the explanation of the title here given as "the Light of Anu. T h e larger of the two fi-agments is No. which reads mu. E l . like No. Creation Series. 6 of the Seventh Tablet.nature. Obverse). which may he regarded as a shorter form of the same title.959. ALIIM-NUN-NA:nu-zlr s " a "'Anu ""b'2Z u i"[E-n : ] A[SAR]U : [ . 3 of the fragment ha-YU-ha ?zu-up a-hi reads [ . [and Ea]. . 1 . .-te-EY te-$4 ""A -nim "' Bzl [ Z L "'E-a]. .574. ." Moreover. .574. . Thus 1. ."who directeth the decrees of Anu. Btl.

. T h e text of the reverse of No.' Line g o f the fragment reads im-bi s'ut?zu-haa-bi ilEni" " " N U . ] (4) GIS-SID I<[-IN-GI-RA : hu-la me [ . . . . . . I 16 and 11. 1. . . ] . and may be compared with the Seventh Tablet. . and reads: ( I ) [ . . . Reverse and Edge). 1. . . . . .N A ~ ~ . .a-Zi-i-di-s'u [ . . nocvl. 32. ] ( 5 ) ICI-IN-GI : N$pu~'u : Scc above. .R . .574 (see the accompanying block) is also explanatory. .574. . ] ( 3 ) mu~u-zl J'a Say Nippu7iXi : iz~L-7~zu [ . 32. . reads '"'Asauz~-aLi7iz-nun-?ln and the end of the line may probably be restored from the fragment as nu-ur [a-bi a-Zi-di-&]. . Fragment of an astrological explanatory tent (No. I IS ff. p. . . q z f. 5 of thc Scvcnth Tablet in-ru-62~ nu-7~v [ . . ] (2) S I G I ~ S E : !n~a-bi : U R : znb-Zui7z : [ . . this also possibly refers to Marduk. 1 .N [ I .

. "At the word of the Lord and of my Lady. . . . ] ( 8 ) '"'Kiiz-gu u ""'"'Nisnunu fa "'Aizu u i " GI ~ Z U ~ [ ~ . Kingu is introduced. . this titic we may compare that which occurs at the beginning or upon the edge of many of the late Babylonian astronomical tablets. . . . Asfiunomisches nus Dn&yZon. 55. . 1. . . but they are distinctly HE& and not &BAR (i.[ . ] (11) [ ~ i ] . . . . ." evidently gives a quotation from a legend of the Storm-god Z i i . .MAS. . . . . .. e. ] 'b'AZ-ma-nu UD-DU AG : [ . . and 40. T h e occurrence of Marduk's name in the title is in accordance with the suggested connection bctween these fragments and the Creation Series. In 11. .e. 1.959) are parts of tablets belonging to the same series. p. . . 8 f. Epping.' and it is possible that the other astrological fragments above dcscribed (Nos. ] (6) "'Zu-u iin-&a$kap-pa-s"u z'i-fiir : . ] (7) Sa aiza 6di-Su hay-nu ~a6-ru u 7izu-SaKiL--Su [ . The last two signs are not very carefully written. ] (lo) [ . this line proves that other Babylonian legends were.466.& . 1 (9) *Ri"ri"z LU . . like those of the Creation. .. . '53. but there is no other evidence of a connection between the Creation Series and this portion of tlie text . connected by tlie later Babylonians with certain of the heavenly bodies.g. ~ U T U S S ~ ~ Wilh ) . beginning. . viz. 6.[ . . "']MarduK u 'b'Sar-pa-ni-tu?u BE-51. The BZI and B?/fL-ia are probably Marduk and Sarpanitum. lizn a-maf "'BZ u "' BZNi-ia purussii. . z . the Creation Series. .which has nothing to do with.iiu . .218 APPEXDIX 1x1. . . however. 1 :a SID [ . from the last line of which we learn that the tablet belonged to a series.. cf.. a decision ! " . the title of which reads [ . . in fact.m u Sah-ua-at : E-Kur : E . etc. " Z i i smote and broke his wing. Indirectly. : si"Dumu-si: ib'Kin-g[u . The four lines inscribed upon the edge of the tablet give a portion of the colophon.

IN vol. and Rabylon is referred to as suffering through the evil designs of the god or king. The tablet is too broken to allow of a completely satisfactory explanation of the nature of the legend. the lines supposed to recount the destructioli of the tower by night really describe how the complaints of the oppressed people prevented the king. (edited by Delitzsch).IV. but from what remains of col. The text is very broken. Moreover.U. ~ z f. and Recoliis o f the P c ~ vol.. Y:S.657))which was thought at one time by George Smith and others' to contain an Assyrian version of the story of the Tower of Babel (cf. 5 ff. German cd. . no mention of a tower or building of any sort. 3. but the rendering ' See Chaldean Account of Ge~zesis. however. 11. or possibly a king. pp.. 2-4. anb f4e Comer of @aBeP. I K ) . xi. I . z cf. i it would appear to be part of a legend concerning a god. for these lines were believed to refer to the building of a tower a t Babylon. There is. described in 11. . also Bosca~\~en. 160 ff. p. and to describe how the tower erected by the builders in the day was destroyed in the night by a god. 3 o 4 r . vii. . from getting any sleep at night up011 his couc11. pl. Gen. ' . the text is given of a fragment of a legend (K. pp.A. who confounded their speech and confused their counsel.pp. In col. . ii. Ixxiii f. 1 2 9 ff. the passage occurs on which the supposed parallel with the story of the Towcr of Babel was based.. who plotted evil in his heart and conceived a hatred against the father of all the gods. i. or possibly an avenger of the people.

z). (7) [ . . . . ii contains refrrences to the gods ""LUGAL-DUI. (4) [ . . . . . (12) [In] the anger of his heart he put an end to (?) supplication . . A s with t h e story of t h e Towcr of Babel. . . scc the Introduction. but it may here be noted that col. 1-14 given below1 will suffice t o show t h a t t h e suggested connection between this legend and t h e story of t h e Tower of Babel was not justified. .m i .e pa-~zi-s*u is'-Ru-ufz (14) [US(?)-tlan-ni !r-ma ui-fak~ki-ra mi-lih-Sc~-nn . (2) [ . . ' The first fourteen lines of col. . their counsel mas altered . . . a For a furthcr discussion of this subject. I ) and '"'EN-HI (I. . . so also has i t been claimed t h a t a n Assyrian legend has been found which presents a close parallel t o t h e story of t h e temptation of E v e in t h e garden of Eden. . upon (his) couch ( I r ) he obtained no sleep. . 'I ( I ) [ . . . . . . . . Iti-& Lib-6a-Su il-fe-inz-na ( 3 ) [ . ] the father of the gods he hated . . . . T h a t t h e description of paradise in Gen. -s]u(?)-nzla6-[ . . Bii6ilum] a . . . . 1. ] their [ . . iii to the god ""NU-NA~~I-NIR (1. -t]Giz~ l<6-6a-k il-fe-inz-fza ( 5 ) [ . . . (g) [Through] their [ . . . (I+) [He chanlged (their) understanding. . Babylon] was yoked to forced labour. . narrated in Gen.of 11. ( 1 3 ) [to] overlhrow the kingdom he set his face. (8) [small] and great rendered(?) service. . . . ] his heart plotted evil. all day was he alfiicted . . . . . B Z I I ] I % L ~ la-mi-id ' a-na il-Rr'im ( 8 ) [li-$-nr] u ra-6u-u u-ha-al-lu dul-la ( 9 ) [ . . iii. . ] his heart plotted evil.i f . . ] ( 2 ) [ .?a-am i-sn-pa-a ( 1 3 ) [a-nu] Eu-ba-al-ku~ut pa-lL1. 5 ) . and to the goddess ""Dnnz-kl-7ra (1.% a n d it is not impossible t h a t a Babylonian legend m a y a t some future time be discovered which bears ( I ) [ . -i]~~i-via-ns-sinn ka-la u-mi i-lu-id ( l o ) [<I-na fa-az-zi-ijiz-ti-s'i-na <-na 7izn-ai-li ( I I ) u-ul u-hat-fa i i ." Too little is preserved of cols. . . . . . . . . i may be rendered as follows :- . . ] . ii and iii to allow of a counected translation. ( 5 ) [ . . . (3) [ . Bablglon was yoked to forced labour . ( l o ) through their lamentation. ii shows traces of Babylonian influence is certain.. . .f a ( I 2 ) [i-n]a zq-ga-fi-Jz~-mafe-me-.i b . . . (6) [small and] great rendered(?) service.n u l ?]a-621-t~u~ba-al-11' dul-la (7) [ . 8). . ]a-6i Rn-la < l d ~ ~ < * ~ i-zi-ru (4) [ . .(O~ UU:-AZAG-GA (1.i d a-nu il-hi-im ( 6 ) [ ~ i . . . . . . and col.

TFIE TEMPTATION A N D T H E TOWER OF IIAI31:L.

221

a close resembfance t o the story of the temptation of E v e h y t h e serpent.' T h e tablet which has been supposed t o contain a n Assyrian version of the story is I<, 3,473 79-74 296 K. 615, which is one of the principal copies of the Third Tablet of the Creation Series. T h e closing lines of t h e Third Tablet recount how the gods gathered to a feast a t Ansar's bidding before they decreed the fate for Marduk, their avenger' ; the passage which recounts how t h e gods a t e bread (1. 134) wasbelieved t o contain a reference t o man's eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge, a n d Marduk was supposed t o be described in 1. 138, not a s the avenger of the gods, but as the " Redeemer" of mankind. T h i s suggestion was never widely adopted a n d has long heen given up, but i t had meanwhile found its way into some popular w o r k s ; and, as enquiries are still sometimes made for the Assyrian version of the story of the Temptation, i t is perhaps n o t superfluous t o state definitely t h e fact of its non-existence.

+

+

' The cylinder seal, Brit. Mus., No. 89,326, has heen thought to furnish evidence of the existence of such a legend, as it represents a male and a female figure seated near a sacred tree, and behind the female figure is a serpent. Gcorge Smilh published a woodcut of the scene in The Chaidean Accozrnt o f GcnesLs, p. 91 ; for a photographic reproduction of the impressio~lof the seal, see my Bab. Rel. and iMyLh.,p. I 1 3 . The suggestion was first made in the Bab. and Or. Rec, iv (1890),pp. 2 5 1 ff. a See above, p. 56f., 11. 129-138.

I N the following pages a transliteration and a trans1at'Ion are given of a remarkable "Prayer of the Raising of the Hand " t o IStar, No. 26,187, the text of which is published in vol. ii, pls. lxxvff: A n explanation is perhaps necessary of the reasons which have led to the publication of this tablet in a book dealing with legends of Creation and with texts connected therewith. I n a previous work, entitled " Babylonian Magic and Sorcery: I had collected all the texts belonging to the series o f " Prayers of the Raising of the H a n d " which were known to me a t the time ; when later on I came across the text of No. 26,187 it followed that it must necessarily be published b y itself, apart from other tablcts of its class. I t would, of course, have been possible t o delay its publication until it could be included in a work dealing with a number of miscellaneous religious compositions, but, in view of the
0s".
I.

Siptu zr-sa/-li-hi

6e-lit

6e-li-e-ti i - Lzt

i - /a - a - ti

z. '"'IStar s"a7-?,a-tiicul-[at da-ad-71ze71z1rS-te-Sz-mt te-ui-Se-e-ti " Y - i n 1 mut-tnl-h-a-ti ra-I.it ' ' 6 ' 2' 61 2"

' Iztar, to whom the prayer is offered (cf. 1. l o b ) , is in this linc and in 1. 105 addressed by the title Irnini ; in I. r z she is addressed as Gutira. It is well bnown that in course of time I3tar was identified by the Babylonians and Assyrians with other goddesses,

A PRAYER TO ISTITAR.
~

2z3
-~

interesting nature of its contents, it has seemed preferable to make it available without further delay for students of Babylonian religion, by including it as an appendix to the present work. I t will be seen that the text, both from the beauty of its language aud from its perfect state of preservation, is one of the finest Babylonian religious compositions that has yet been recovered. The tablet tncasures Skin. by zkin., and is of the long narrow shape which is one of the characteristics of the larger tablets of the series to which it belongs. From the colophon (cf. Rev., 11. I I I K) we gather that it was copied from an original a t Rorsippa by a certain Nergal-balitsu-i!cbi, who 'deposited it as a votive offering in E-sagila, the temple of Marduk at Babylon, whence it was probably removed before the destruction of the temple. Thc text is addressed to I 3 a r in her character as the goddess of battle, and she is here identified with Irliini and with Gutira (see below, note). Lines 1-41 contain addresses to the goddess, descriptive of her power and splendour, and a t 1. 42 the suppliant begins to make his own personal petitions, describing his state of affliction and praying for deliverance. A rubric occurs at the end of the text (cf. 11. 107 ff), giving directions for the performance of ccrtain ceremonies and for the due recital of the prayer.

1 pray unto thee, lady of ladies, goddess of goddcsscs ! z. 0 Ishtar, queen of all peoples, clircctress of ~nallkind ! 3. 0 Irnini,' thou art raised on high, mistress of the Spirits of heaven ; 4. Thou art mighty, thou hast sovereign power, exalted is thy name ! 5 . Thou art the light of heaven and earth, 0 valiant daughter of the Moon-god.
I.
.
-

e.g., Ninni, Nani, Anonitnm, and BElit; and when so identified she absorbed their names, titles, and attributes. I n these passages we have two additiolial instances of her identification with othcr deities.

ow.

6. ?nut-tab-bi-la-athahhri"ia-hi-nn-at t ; ~- ~ I L- zln - ti 7. ba-mz-nzat gi-?nir par-si a-pi-rat a - g-2 - e he - /ZL - ti 8. ."" 6?Ztiti' Su -pzl - u nar - 6%- h i eli ha-Za ilZfziQ' si-rz~

10.
I I.
12.

?nut - fa ad - d i - na - at it 6a YU a it - bur - ti be - lit tu - Sa ri vzut-tah-ki-pat eriSti-in

-

-

"" GGuir-a Sa tu-kzr-;~?z-fa bal-pat la - 6 i - Sat ~ar-ba-&z

15. e-hi-a-urn L a iunzu-hi e-hi-a-am Z a

par

-

p i

-

hi

16. e-hi-a-am la us-sr~-?.nu:urn"ti#'-hi e-hi-a-a?>z.la inizada#' parahh?" - hi 17. c-hi-a-am la ra-6a-a-ti e-hi-a-a?% l'n si m - a - ti IS. '"'A-nu?7z"'B~Z u ""E-a uZ-/u-u-hi inn iiiinip' u-Ta7,-hi~-;~ be-lu-ut-hi

-

' As the determinative AN is ctnployed before the ideogram, it is possible that here and in il. 29 and 104 it si~onldbe rendered as tile proper name, or title, BZId (cf. thc preceding note). 3:lsewhere in the prayer, however, t h e word takes in addition the I s. pron. suffix (cf. 11. 43, 56, 59, 7 2 , 73, 79, 93, and 94) ; it scems more probable, therefore, that t h e ideogram is cmployed for the substantive 6Tliz1, "lady." T h i s line probably continues the class of attributes ascribed t o t h e goddess in the preceding line, and does not form a contrast t o it ; the meaning " strength " rather than " friendship " is

A PICAYER TO ISHTAR.

225

6. Ruler of weapons, arbitress of the battle !

7. Framer of all decrees, wearer of the crown of dominion !
8. 0 lady,' majestic is thy rank, over all the gods is it exalted ! g. Thou art the cause of lamentation, thou sowest hostility among brethren who are a t peace ; 10 Thou art the bestower of strength ! 11. Thou art strong, 0 lady of victory, thou canst violently attain my desire ! 1 2 . 0 G ~ t i r awho , ~ art girt with battle, who art clothed with terror, I 3. Thou wieldest the sceptre and the decision, the control of earth and heaven ! 14. Holy chambers, shrines, divine dwellings, and temples worship thee ! 1 5 . Where is thy name not (heard)? Where is thy decree not (obeyed) ? 16. Where are thine images not made ? Where are thy temples not founded ? 17. Where art thou not great? Where art thou not cxalted ? 18. Anu, BEI, and E a have raised thee on high, among the gods have they made great thy dominion,

therefore to he assigned to if-6a-YU. In support of this view, cf. tllc attributes in the following lines, and the occurrence of if-bur-ti in 1. 11, where any other meaning but L L T h art o ~ strong" is out of the question. It is clear that in this passage we must assign some such active meaning to the Ifteal of nahiipu. See above, p. Z Z Z f., n. I . The second half of the line is in apposition to the phrase di6ta u purussZ, "the sceptre" representing the control of earth and "the decision " that of heaven.
'5

osv.
19.

u-fa-a?-&-hi ina nap-bar '"'lgigi u-;a-ti-ru 7nan-%a-az-hi

il8ni" i ru - 6u i - nar - ru - ?u '"'A - nun - nu - h i Sumu-hi m-US-6u is'- tam ma - ra te - ni - S e - e - ti 23. at - ti - ma ra 6a - a - ti u ~i - ?a - -a ti 24. nap-kar :a/-mat ha&-$a-diZ nam-maf-fu-u te-ni-ie-e-Li i-da/-la-Zu bur-di-Ki 25. di-in ha-$u-la-a-ti ina Kit-ti u mi-Sa-ri ta-din-ni at-ti
21. 22.

-

-

-

27. a-&u-lap-Ki 6e-lit Sam?(#) u ir,ritznz(tim) ri-e-a-at nii?*'
28. 29.

a-pa-a-ti a-421-lap-ki be-Zit E-an-nu4 kud-du-iu Su - ttllm nzu e l - Z u

-

a-&u-lap-Ki'" 6?/ti5 uZ a-ni-&aS'p8"-Ki la-si-ma 6ir-ha-a-hi

33. pi-ta-a-at

pu.sn-urn-me6

Sa

Ka-li-s"i-na

arddti"

The verb rEbu is here used of the "quaking" of the heaven and earth (see above, p. 206 f., 1. a), and in the follolring line of the "trembling" of the gods; for its use in the former sense in the astrological reports, cf. Thompson, Reports ofthe Magicians and Astrologers, vol. ii, p. ~ z g . Literally "the black-headed," i.e. mankind.

A PRAYER T O ISHTAR.

227

19. They have exalted thee among all the Spirits of heaven, they have made thy rank pre-eminent. zo. A t the thought of thy name the heaven and the earth quake,' 21. The gods tremble, and the Spirits of the earth falter. zz. Mankind payeth homage unto thy mighty name, 23. For thou art great, and thou art exalted. 24. AU mankind,a the whole human race, boweth down before thy power. 25. Thou judgest the cause of men with justice and righteousness ; 26. Thou lookest with mercy on the violent man, and thou settest right the unruly every morning. 27. How long wilt thou tarry, 0 lady of heaven and earth, shepherdess of those that dwell in human habitations? 28. How long wilt thou tarry, 0 lady of the holy E-antla: the pure Storehouse? zg. How long wilt thou tarry, 0 lady: whose feet are unwearied, whose knees have not lost their vigour ? 30. How long wilt thou tarry, 0 lady of all fights and of the battle ? 31. 0 thou glorious one, that ragest among the Spirits of heaven, that subduest angry gods, 32. That hast power over all princes, that controllest the sceptre of kings, 33. That openest the bonds of all handmaids,

he word i'ak-h is practically synonymous with Eab-Zu, and conveys the meaning of "destruction " or "violence," rather than " wrong." I.e., the temple of IStar in the city of Erech. See above, p. 224, n. I . T h e rendering of the word pusun~~izu is conjeclural.

~ u .ul?z .rn a . pl. nu-mir-tuoz di-par Sanz~(e) u i i i ( t i z ) i ' a .r u p a .057. where a-kn-iru-t[u71~] and n-Snla-Su-/z<m . a-&u-lapl(id-hi-iaS~l?iz-ru-su s'a ma-IZI-u &-ti u fa-ni-hi 48.. ii. a-&lap te-ri-ti-ia nn-ns-sa-a~ti e-in-a-ti u daZ-&a-a-ti ' For the meaning of the word ainrkiZtunz. I1 R.te .mil .Sa . ~lzu .6i i7znr-su 4 1 .tar ml~-$ah-&rat pl4-uh-ri 39.. nu-an-Se-a-at na-an-di-a-at ha-rit-ti ""ls'tar ra-bu-u bur-di-ki 35.Zat fnnz-&a-r i - 37.h i e-Sa-a-ti u dal-&-ti 46.it !lab . .bar a Z i . 34. col. 5.turn "' 1s'. a-Ru-Ku-u-turn' Sa ana aai-bi nap-bat Sa-hi-na-rrt S .u ~ a dn-ad-me 36.n i .u i iK-d~~-ti 38. cf. 39. a-/iu-Zap zumri-in na-as-si 5% nza-ZIL-74 47. Obv. R.Si - ir' la i .2. 1. i .ii. a-Sar tap-paZ-La-si i-bnl-Znt e"'"f?nitu i .zi .Zzz la mn . iz .228 APPENDIX v Onv. i-lat zikrziti" jJ"IS-tar sinni?iti" ?a Z a i-la?rz-ma-& nzi-Zih-Su ma-am-nzan 40.n ~ i .

that art firmly established. 229 34.' that roarest against the foe and cuttest off the mighty ! 38. sorrowful. Where thou lookest in pity. Bright torch of heaven and earth. one who cannot be opposed. the dead man lives again. Look upon me. I. How long shall my 11ouse be troubled. summoner of armies ! 39. 0 whirlwind. p.0 valiant Istar. 0 furious Ishtar. 43. thou whose counsel none may learn ! 40. 44. great is thy might! 35. strong in the battle ! 37. How long shall my body lament. light of all dwellings. 41.A PRAYER TO ISIITAlt. and in distress cry unto thee. How long shall my omens be grievous in restlessness and confusion ? 49. How long shall my heart be afflicted. sighing. which is full of restlessness and confusion ? 47. 0 my lady. and accept my supplication. thy servant. That art raised on high. . iF(n~zifzizuirie1~6urh. which mourlieth bitterly? occur as equivalents of two ideograms which form a section by themselves . 36. when he beholdeth thy face ! 42. Terrible in the fight. Cry unto me " I t is enough!" and let thy spirit be appeased ! 46. 0 goddess of men. 53. 0 goddess of women. Truly pity me. The afflicted is saved from his affliction. the sick is healed . see also Delitzsch. and hearken unto my praycr ! 45. which is full of sorrow and sighing ? 48.

d i ma .Sa . 1'-i-tzdm la-ab-6u nu-ad-ru lib-ba-hi li-nzl-&a 52. "'Zr-ni-ni [ . i . 377.ia lil.aS. a .nap . 5 3 .ii '"'bzbi.Si u ur . dam&Eti" in&" .jab .n i . Some such general meaning is probably to be assigned to . 27.lu a-ku-u i-ba-'-an-ni r i id .ma a -gc .m 65.7 a .bii" - ' T h e scribe has erased the first character of the word and has not rewritten it. ri-i-mu Sub-ba-SZL-u ka-bit-ta-hi lip . 50. .bi hi-ma i$-:ur Sa-ma-mi 64. . No.an .bak .k7~ e .hi lib . cf.gu .a e /i ia 54. uk-hi-fi u-pi-:a li1un2ti" Sa zurnri-ca nziru-hi nat?z-ru LIL-mu? 56.if .Onv. p. pl.Su - 63.pa . Lin-na 62. and Muss-Amolt.ku mas a . a .z Sa wp-pa-!zu S ~ r u 61. ina bu-ni-hi nam-ru-ti hi-nis" nap-li-sin-ni ia-tz-fi 5 5 . en ./a . 57.ma ana . 1.ras' lib . p.ni . nu .& .' k i . see also Delitzsch. 481.' it . and its context. especially IV R. 4.bu . a-di ma-ti ""6Zlfi-iab212pi da-ba-bi-ia ni-kil--inu-u-i~z-~zi-?na REV.h i zar . a T h e meaning assigned to iiXu in the translation is conjectural : among other passages in which the word occurs. 57.ta . a-dam-mu-um hi-ma su-urn-ma-turn mu . ina sur-ra-a-ti u la hi-%a-a-tii-ha$-pu-du-ni lzm-ni-e-ti 59. ElnndwZyierbuch.12u . Concise Diciionary. a-&u-laphub-ta-ti-iaSa US-ta-bar-ru-u dim-ti u ta-ni-hi 5 I .

. With thy glorious regard truly in mercy look upon me ! 55. 58. I from nag&. iv. may thy heart bave rest ! 52. Is anger mercy? Then let thy spirit be appeased ! 53. 8%-j-z3. (P:S. 0 [ .R. fierce lioness. im-mz+-&ma. It is clear that in this passage an active meaning is to be assigned to aambru. 5 5 .xviii. 54. 11. 51. 23 5 0 How iong shall my spirit (be troubled). V R. The weak have become strong.~ but I have praised thee. the subject of the verb is probably impersonal. . 62. mu@u in this passage. n'gaI. I a m made desolate: a n d I weep bitterly . p. Syr. cf. q B ) . 64. 2 7 and 37. 63. and hath flown away like a bird of the heavens . but I am weak . They have caused me continuous afilicti~n. and u-mu-ka nam-mar. cited by Muss-Amolt. etc. shall mine enemies persecute m e ? 5 7 How long shall they devise evil in rebellion and wickedness.344. 4.A PRAYER TO ISHTAR. 61. p. How long.. pl. Concise Dictionary. How long. 0 my lady.B. cf. May thine eyes rest with favour upon me . . 1' Irnini. let me behold thy clear light ! 56. I am sated like a flood which the evil wind lnaketh to rage. Put an end to the evil bewitchments of my body . My heart hath taken wing. I moan like a dove. 684. And in my pursuits and my pleasures shall they rage against me ? 59. night and day. shall the ravenous demon pursue me ? 60. 0 my lady. which aboundeth in sorrow and sighing ? . and it may be taken as followed by the double accusative. 65.

YU urn .i n l i .REV.in . u-pa-&a a-na '"'bzlti-ia ka-a-ii i6 -&I . m . UZ-zu UR-ga-ti me-nut' ilEizi" 24 a .u ti-'-i bu-ln-u&-ku-u u ful-ln-z~&-ti 70. ili-ia ana n-far &-nim-~nasu&-bu-ru pa nu fu 78.% .i& - 69. ki-z la pa-lib ili-ia u '"'iStari-ia alza Kn z) .ti .i-ri kib-si nam-ris" e-til-lif il-ti a7izPlfiti" lu-6a-' s0il.Y U .ti 74. eli brli bzbi u bar-da-a-ti-ia fa-&1r-w71z-nza-ti tab-Rat 77.n i .bi .nze .R i .a a .nzas" ." Under the line. the host of.ti ta .ia ZL '"if-tar-in a-nn-ku 68.rim . the scribe has written the division mark followed by the word i-Si-ti.pu . sap . Su-bar-ru-ur sa-gi-e-a Su-bar-rn-mt a fir ti 76.ia K i . fak-na-ni nd-da-a-ti sub-bur pa-ni u ma-li-e lib-6n-n-ti 71.fa .t i 72.ia 83.ti - rz ti 82.la .f i & a b .e .nza ina h i .ti pu . u .hi kn . a-ta-mar ""b?lti-za jib-& i-Si-ti u sub .la .hat z l ..an .~ z ipur ru nr 79.a . "my ' .k i U Z I Z ~ ".tu u in$ . n . ju-te-. h i .bi .~ z i .ns" zli .ia Su-bar-ra-ai ink-ni - 84. a-ta-mar ""b2lti-ia am?*' uk-ku-lzi-ti arb?" na-an-du-ru-ti fandti*' fa xi-&ti 73.uf 81. pu-ut-ri ar-ni2 &-ti ba6-la-ti u &i. 66.t i .ina ' . " numbers of.nn .u .a t kabitti 67.l a . m i .li . and between the signs n i and Sii.je .fi ' .k i ilu xi-nu-zi li-is-linz Literally.il .&n 75. Sak-nu-nim-ma mur-.e un .sal .6i . m i .Kal .a S u ~ n .ai 80.z 85.a e .n i 77zu .m i .

. 77. 78. 71. Forgive my transgression. 70.A FIlAYER TO ISHTAR. Sickness. that among men I may gloriously seek my way! 85. 233 66. and my offence ! 82. Is it because I feared not my god or my goddcss that trouble hath befallen me ? 69. My need is grievous. But unto thee. and let me be loved and carefully tended ! 84. ruin. my gate. I have beheld. Troubles. disease. turning away of the countenance. days of affliction. Say the word.2 my iniquity. and my fields is affliction poured forth. Guide my footsteps in the light. months or sorrow. As for my god. that at thy command my angry god may have mercy. and rebellion. My strength is brought to nought. Death and misery have made an end of me ! 75. What have I done. Unto thee therefore do I pray. 72. and fullless of anger are my lot. With grief and woe my spirit is distressed. I have beheld. Dissolve my sin. 0 my lady. Secure my deliverance. 76. and destruction are come upon me . 74. my transgression. grievous is my humiliation . Over my house. turmoil. 73. I have kept thee in my mind . 0 my lady. do I give heed. 0 my lady. his face is turned elsewhere . accept my supplication! 83. confusion". years of misfortune . he probably had omitted the word by mistakc and intended it to be inserted after ar-?ti. slaughter. my power is broken ! 79. dissolve my ban ! 81. And the indignation and the wrath of all' gods and men. 80. 67. 0 my god and my goddess? 68.

pa .v i L i . 103. tavba~a l i p id-tam-dl-lu 91.t a v .tu i L .bi .L u .i a dilz$ pa - ri $11~ - su pu 74 3 .a 101.a . however. a-di ma-ti i's'b~lti-iazi-nu-ti-ma sub-bu-ru pa-nu-ki - 94. '"'bdti ma " si . .ra . tir-ri ki-Sad k i Sa iftu ad-di-ia a-mat damiktim(tim) pa-7zi-ki Tuk-ni 96.tu . - - eli-ki eli .is 98.b i . m u g .u .ma 93.ti lib .a u S U .e su-pi-e-a [ernsure by the scribe] ' 92.m e .e n a $ .ti go. '"'I?. ik-du-ti-in hi-ma +a@-@a-ru ln .mt ' Probably Perm. 1 ~ .Sa .ma I 04.sin . !<a1 from bZZu .p i .as'. its occurrence being due t o the necessities of rhythm. . su .a lil-22-ku ta ai . iab-su-ti-ia kun-nu-Tim-ma Sn-pal-si-@i ina Snp-Zi-in 9 9 .88.rrzt "' b2lti .Li . a-mi-vu-u-a ina saki li-Say-bu-u zi kiv 100.ba . is possibly the lengthened form of b&i.va 97.u .ma Tar .6i-Zi-ti' Li-in-nu-pi-+ 89.ha6 . hi-ma mi9'pa-Sr nZ9-i ha-bit-ta-hi Zz) .pi .i&. the word.la . h i nis" nap .k i rub .p n .rat ""IS-far-ma Tar-rat :i .ni .in ki . a-di ma-ti "'bzlti-ia ra-'-ba-ti-ma uz-zu-aa-at kab-ta-at-hi 95.

as suggested in the translation. I . How long. My lady 3 is exalted ! My lady is queen ! The scribe has erased the second half of the line. Truly pity me. and set prosperity before thy face . 0 my lady. My mighty foes may I trample like the ground . which (is turned) away from my affairs. 0 my lady. wilt thou rage and thy spirit be full of wrath ? 95. 100. Incline thy neck.A PRAYER TO ISHTAR. p. 101. 88. . and may my pen be bolted fast ! 91. And let thy great mercy be upon me. may turn again ! 87. who is wroth. See above. we may restore some such phrase as Zi-ki-e un-nz'-ni-ia. Let my prayer and my supplication come unto thee. 92. May the fold be wide. and [accept my supplication] ! 93. 235 86. And those who are wroth with me mayest thou force into submission and crush beneath my feet ! 99. go. give ear unto my prayer. And that I may glorify thy godhead and thy might before mankind ! 103 IStar is exalted! IStar is queen ! 104. so let my brazier be bright . As by the solving waters of the river may thine anger be dissolved ! 97. Receive the abasement of my countenance. And that my goddess. wilt thou be angry and thy face be turned away? 94. That those who behold me in the street may magnify thy name. 98. 102. May my scattered strength be collected .' let then my torch flame forth ! 89. z t q . How long. n. The darkness hath settled down. Thou art the ruler. 96.

which. faZultu faizitu tamannu(nu) IcI-ZA-ZA-ma la tabari nfza ai hi-ha II I.far ?izu-nam-mi-rat kib-ra-a-ti4 Buff-sipx' kilua labiri-&L """Nel-gal-6aZri. epus"alll2ri IV IcI 1i15 T A R A D gufui~11. . 105. ana baZ&!i-fu i&r ' Line 106 gives the title of the prayer.-su-ik-bi n$iZ ""A-ta-rad-hal-me "'""'asz~u ibri-ma ina E-SUE-ila u-kin I 1 2 .Rev. '"'Zr-ni-ni aza.a tanakki(/ci)-ma Z mr-nu-lu an-ni-tu aiza pdn ""lf-tar tuf-hip2 I lo. gab-ri 113. if the suggested rendering is correct. &)tu fa-ku-turn '"'IS.at '"'Sin ka-rit-ti ma -hi . then follows a rubric of four lines giving directions for the performance of certain ceremonies and for the due recital of the prayer.ra uZ iSat 107. I n the four bricks.u a?*#u??zU elh4 tasallah Zibn&tipi Zihbi .Jjal&!zi(?) tanaddi(di) 109. tattabah(a/c) n .

. but cf. the son of Atarad-lialme. Prayer of the Raising of the Hand to Igtar. . 237 105.' 107 This shalt thou do . four bricks from a ruin shalt thou set in place .A PRAYER TO ISIITAIt. No. . some upuntu-plant and some cypress-wood 109. and hath deposited it within the ternplc of E-sagila. . . hath not a rival ! 106. r. with sarbatu-wood shalt thou fill (the censer). and thou shalt not look behind thee. but thou shalt not bow thyself down. and thou shalt set firc (thereto) . a lamb shalt thou take . . . Briinnow. shalt thou heap up . (This) copy from Borsippa. Possibly kiza-aa-ma. a green bough shalt thou sprinkle with pure water .843. II 0 exalted Iitar. Line I I r gives the catch-line for the next tablet. 9. a drink offering shalt thou offer. we may perhaps see a symbolical offering to IStar in her character of the goddess of battle and destruction. 108. " are here directed to be brought from a ruin. 113. and he hath revised it. This incantation before the goddess Igtar 110. sweet-scented woods. Irnini. . written for (the preservation of) his life. the valiant daughter of the Moon-god. hath Nergal-balztsu-ikbi. the magician. (made) like unto its original. that givest light unto the (four) quarters of the world ! " 112. three times shalt thou recite.

. K. : . : . and . 11. .473. Tabl. . Rev. : . Obv. 38-55. Traces of catch-line to Tabl. . 4. I 1-29. I. 11. or 96-1 I 3. K. : 9. (cont. Tabl. 114-138. and colophon. 1. 11. Obv. 11. Obv. . : 7 11. 11. : . 11.. (69)-(75). Obv. . 11. 81-7-27. : . &eo66art. 5.396. : . 79-7-8. 11. . : K... : .. . K. Obv.. 3.. (cont.) : catch-line to Tabl. catch-line to Tabl.. Obv. 11.Jnbicee. 11. . . : .832. Rev. 11. Tabl. No. Rev. IV. 11. 292.. Obv. ... Rev.. 178. etc. 11. Rev. I. 11.33-42. 80.. (76)-(85). 11.. Cr. 32-58. 38. Obv. 11. (131)-(140). and No. 128-142. Rev. Ser.) : . Rev..015. 86-113. etc. Rev. Obv. : . 124-142. : .. 31-56.. 93. I 18-142.419~. 111.. 11. Rev. 11.. K. PLATE.. : colophon.938. 3. Rev. (105)-(132). (104)-(138).015. 11. 1-16. 93. : . : $9 11. 57-85. No.: Cr. 111.. Ser. 1-16. and colophon. 1-56. Tabl.

109-138. p. 116-146. (138)-(140). . see vol.> . etc.) : see Appendix 11. . : .. : K. 103-107.. . : .403: joined to 82-9-18.524 : 83-1-18. I<. 11. K. 1. I<. : . . : . Rcv. 251.: . 11.OSI.. 3. . 1-26. Rev.445. 84-107. K. 11. 197 ff. : . Cr.. Tabl. Rev.. 1. I<. . 85-94... 8. 93. : catch-line toTahl..437. Cr. 117-129 No.. 11..77-85. 198 ff.69-76. and colophon. Obv. . Tabl.74-92.449~. Ser. 11. 78-105. (75)-(87)...016. Ser. 93. V. see vol. pp.42-34. : .. Ohv. pp. : .. joined to 82-9-18..267. K. Tabl. 3. . see vol. IV.. Tabl. + z o c Obv. .. Obv. 11.Obv.. 11. . . . : .35-49.VI. Rev. 11. V. 8.. 5. Ser.40-47.. . Obv. (66)-(74). 11. Obv.. : 11. 11. Obv.. z.949 : see Appendix 11. VII. R. Rev. pls. ii. 11.No. xxix. ii.. ii. Rev.316 .. etc. 8. . 194. Rev. 12.) : . 11. Rev..526... . 11. 1-44. V. Cr. 6.448 . K. 1-18. and colophon. Obv. . Rev.. 6. Obv. : . 14.. I<..: .0006: see Appendix 11.: . 197 f. 11. : . .. 11.. Tabl. 105-r37. .567. : 11. 47-77. : . 11.116 : Cr. (cont. 11.73-86. : . . I 5-45.: . Obv. ~ .. 93. 79-7-8.868 : joined to 82-4-18. .017. 82-9-18. xxv ff. 11. (cont. 11. p.. 2. : K.36-39. 3. 11. : . I<. 11. 11.60-83. 3. Rev. xxxiv... Ser. Obv. 108-1 rq.. . 83 : *. 93-1 19.. Obv.) : .. (cont. Rev. I<.. : . 9. Rev. No. 11. 8 3-1-18. catch-line to Tabl. etc. : . pl. Rev. 111. Rev.575. see Appendix 11. pl. I.522. 11. : . 8...950. 11.

29-30. 11... 11. 35-38.. 39-41. 11. Obv. qr : see pp. see Appendix I. 1-16. PLATE. (cont. 1 1 1 . .. note I . Rev. .. 140 ff.. 3..067 : I<. p..) : .33-48. 11. SUPPLEMENTARY IN VOL. r z. ~ I .. p. note I . 282.and colophon. : see p. note I .879. see Appendix 11.. 7. VII. 36. 11-20. 195. 11.. 10. p. (cont. .) : .528. 195.I ~ z . 2 1-30. Tabl...oooc: see Appendix 11. 28-33. Obv... 11.INDEX TO TEXTS.): . . .. 982.) : . 2 0 1 ff. No.. p. Rev. 195. I. .. . 11. 93-104... Rev. see Appendix 11. No..: . 82-9-18. : see Appendix 11. XIV. 130 ff. . 45. Obv. XI. Obv. Rev. TEXTS. 5.... 11 1-124. . I .83-90.) : .. 11. 11.559. etc.418a and I<.134: No. XIII. note I . . 11. No.726: . VI. . 36.. 122 ff. 116 ff.791 : K. X. 195. 11. pp. 11-21. 46-60.: .> Obv... 11.640: see pp. : . 1 1 . : . Obv. 5. 11. . Rev. Cr. K. 11.. (cont. Obv.. XII.572 : see Appendix 11. 32. 8. I 1.. 241 PLATE. 17-32. 35. Rev. 1. R.048 : see Appendix 11. 91-103. .. PI Rev. IX. 40.. V. : see pp. 195. IV. see Appendix 11. (cont. p. . (cont. : . 62-67. XV. . 11. 1-10. . . 34. 170 f. Tabl. SF 16 .. K... . x. . II. p. (cont. . I<. . D. K. XVI.. Ser.) : . 6.. 11. (cont. 195. R.. note I . (cont. PLATES I-LXXXIV.): . S.048 : see pp. 11. .803. 125-139.688: . etc. 105-1 18. rzo f. No.364 : 31. (cont. 747 : 33. note 1 .. Rev. : .): . . 11. catch-line to Tabl. VIII. p.) : .. No. PUBLISHED B. I ~ o .T. . Obv. 46. . Obv.31-43. 81-5-12. 11.

.. : XXVI.. No.. (cant. 5-15. : XXVIII.1.. No.) : XLI. (cant. .. 46-57. Rev... . . Obv.. . Obv. PLATE. Rev..(114)-(119). Tabl.. . . .950. (cant. . . No. .. .403. . 3'-36. . . 106-1 14. (cont. 22-30.. . etc. ll. . : Ser. 82-9-18. . 5. Obv. 82-9-1 8.line to Tabl.) : Rev. .(129j-(137j. . 11.and colophon. (cont. ... 11. Rev. 11. Rev. .I l . Rev.): XXV.): Cr. .(120)-(128). . . .) : XXVII..52-61.) : XL. : XLVII. Tabl.26-29.. . . II. XXXVI... . ... . II1. 133-141. . .) : Rev. . 11. Rev. 11...lI. Obv. XVII. 11. (cant. 1-10. etc. XX.. . 11. . Rev.. ... XXXIV. 92. . Obv. Obv. . 11.. : Obv... . ll. XXXV. . 6. 42.) : XLIV. Obv. etc. j.. Obv..62-71. 11.VI1.78-87. . 11. . VII.) : 82-9-1 8. .14-30. 13-21. XXXVIII.448. . . (cant.11. 11. 11. . 3-12. : No... .(138j7(~4~). Rev... Rev. 31-40..) : XLVI.) : XXIX...632. Obv.. Tabl... .139.. . 11... II. 138-146. . Rev. XIX. . XXXIII. 19-26 or 77-84. 11.. . (cont.. .69-77. Obv.: XXIII. catch-line to Tabl. ..... No. : . No. 11. : .. (cont. 11..( r ~ g ) . (cont.. : XLII. XXI.. : Rev. rzq-132. (cant..11. (cant. Obv. : I..242 INDEX TO TEXTS. 11. 115-123.. 11. 11.) : Rev.ll. VI. . 72-128. 40. =I. 11-21. . XXXII. : Obv.14-25. 11.. 11. 11. XLIII. : XXX.629.. 11. 11.) : Rev. (cant. Obv.64-72.. XVIII. 111. (cant. 35. . XXXVII. (cont.... 92. 105-120. ( r ~ ~ j . Rev... Obv.) : XXII..(izo)-(131).. .. (cont. . : XXIV. etc.) : . . .. . . .) : XXXIX . 91.. (cant.559.) : XLV. etc. (cont. ..506.58-68. Tabl..285. . . 31-40. catch .) : . . . 11.... . and colophon.

2 1 .. 11. V I I (ICIC. 11.Tabl.).VII. . see Appendix I. 11. 120124. 15I : Comm. pp.) : Comm. : Comm.005 : see pp. 8. pp. Rev. to Tabl. 167 f. see Appendix I. V I I .761. . 11. . Cornm. 163 ff. p. p.9-1 3 . 243 PLATE. Cr. 366. p. R. 11. VII. 11. p. and colophon. K.416 : Comm. to Tabl. 108I lo.. 9-10. S. 35. 1-5. Obv. 17-19. Rev.406. VII. LIII. pp. Tabl. : Comrn. etc. z. Ser. . (cont. see Appendix I. p.II. scc Appcndix I. Rev. VII (I<I<.. 169.VII. : Comm. p. Rev. . 109. etc. see Appendix I. 13. .. etc. . 161. see Appendix I.) : Comm. LIV. p. 106109. Obv. VII. Rev. XLIX-L.162.. . to Tabl. 163 ff. etc. . 3.506. LVI. etc.) : Cr. 11.).): Comm. . No. VII. 167 f. to Tabl. Rcv. XLVIII. see Appendix I. : Comm. LVIII. toTabl. LI. 1. 13. Tabl. p. p. to Tabl. to Tabl.. 11. 124ff. LV. : Commentary to Cr. I 19 . I I 2 . Rev. etc. 4. .761. . (cont.o5 j.. etc. 82-7-11. 1. 168. to Tabl.519. VII. LIX. 11.. 160. 8. : Cornm. I r. (cont. 158 ff. Ser. r 14I I 8. to Tabl. see Appendix I. VII. VII. 82-3-23. 168f. t o Tabl.I N D E X TO TEXTS. Rev. : LII. LVII. Ser. see Appendix I. 4. see Appendix I. Obv. 1 7 . see Appendix I . to Tabl. (cont. S. 16of. etc. etc.1z1-142. I<. VII. etc. see Appendix 1.VI1.519.

2. (85) and (104). No. p. I 80 f. K. 175 1 7 . No. p.107. p. p.p. 176. 1).299: Comm. . : see Appendix 111.50-63. to Tabl. 6-19. . : . Tabl. Obv. LX. K. etc.187 : C. 1 7 1 ff. 11. K. I<.161. 164. seepp. p. . Rev : . Obv. V I I . 7.830. 11. etc. 8. and colophon. K. Tabl. . I<. 191.488 : I<.p. etc. p . K. 55. Ser. 166. (cont. see Appendix IV.to Tabl. No. (cont. pp. Cr.. 159.* . 11. 3. catch-llne to Tdbl.337 : . IN APPENDICES I.s I 9 : . . p . LXI. : see Appendix I. 2. 2. . Parallel texttoTab1. .) : Cornm. I I I .. 11. zoz f.. AND 111. 2. pp. 13..871 : Cr. PUBLISHED SUPPLEMENTARY I. p 180.233 : .14-22.) . 11. 11. 26. I. R. pp. Obv. I<.. 11.761 : . K. VII. see Appendix I. Rev.. p. etc.641. 13. betwcenll. LXII. see Appendix I. 11. 10. 162f. 189. VI. p. 193.. 8. 173 f. Ser.VII(I<. 165. I. see p. 54. between 11. K. see Appendix 11.47 and 105. pp.. 33-47. I. No..85 r : LXVII-LXXII. (128)-(140). p.. Tabl.. 175 fl.47 and 105. 208 ff. . 185. VII. I<. 1 1 . LXXV-LXXXIV.854: I.053. 13. 1 1 . 11.47 and 10s. 12... 1-18.466. 192. 12. INDEX TO TEXTS. 11. TEXTS. pp.q7 and 105.228 : see Appendix I. I<.. 33. I<.830: I. LXIV-LXVI. betwcenll. 11. 1.657 : see Appendix V. I. V. 11. 183. LXXIII-LXXIV. p . 538 : K. 1 1 . betweenll. APPENDIX. p.. 395 : LXIII. R.774: Tabl.): see Appendix I.008 : . 4. 5. . see Appendix I. . between 11.. p. 175 ff. 168.244 PLATE. zzz ff. p . 2 I 9 f.. I.

200. zo4ff. Vol. see pp. I 96 f. Cr. 6. 111. Astrol. .INDEX TO TEXTS. 159. pl. Ser. 11. XIII.p. see p. VlI. .959 : No. 194 f. K. p. TEXT. K. see p. Txts. 111.351. 205. Ser. 11. K. Ser.445 +R. text. p. App.. K. 23. 32. 396. 5. 11. . Cr. 11. frag. 217 f. : . : . Tabl. 29-30. pl. Txts. K. 204 ff.. 11.. 6.364. CONTENTS. 217. 2 1 5 f.. 11. 1-18. 161. see p. Cr. 11.. see App. . Rev. 11. expl.574.053. p.351 : No. see p. p. 2. REGISTRATION NO. Cun. 641.854. Cr. 167 f. p l s 24-25..449a. see App. . (131)-(140). p. 47 : S. 2.Tabl... pls. Ser. 3. K. p. z I 6 f. 201. 11. 128 f. 128 f. 111. 111. pls. App. '97 ff. 292.437+R. 2. 3. 3. 3. 111. (66)-(87). Ixi-lxii.V. XIII. 79-7-8. 3. Comm.. .086. see pp. PIS. p. 215. 1. 201 ff. p. see p. p. 1. see pp. Obv. IV. 171 ff. Tabl. see p. Poss. 16-19. Cr. 196. 194. . Tabl.. K. Ser. 11.. lix-lx. p. 245 APPENDIX..704: K. Vol. 216. 11. K. Ser.107-kK.. 40.. 11. .2.3 1 1 : s. K. 3. 11. PIS. 36-119. see p. Cr.VII: seepp. p.. Cun. 205.or3: 82-9-18.

pl. Txts. 180. App.V. (~38)-(140).. 11. ~9 . I. 162 f. 32-58. I.. Cr. Ser. Tabl. . Txts.. Ser. Ser. Cun. Tabl. Tabl. p. VII. . 39-40.. 195. Cun. I . Cr. Ser.567+K. between 11. 185. Ser. I . . p.. 183 ff. pls.47 and 105.II. Vol. I. K.. Cr. Comm.. pl. see App..V. n. 111. 11. Txts. 74-1 . Ser.. Cr. pl. XIII. 1. pl.. . 11. App.INDEX TO TEXTS. Comm. DP. Txts. 1-138.. pls. Cr.50-63 ... Txts. Cr. Tabl. pls. 26-27. 5. seepp. 15-45. . XIII. 11.33-47 .615. Cun. Ser. XIII.. Cr. Ser. V I I . Ixxiii-lxxiv.ff. 195. 22. . p. Cr. Cr. IV. 2. 165. 33-42. 14off. pl. 9. 11. . 7-9. TEXT. see pp. Vol. . ~ 1 .107. pl. see I<. 11. see p. . Tabl. Tabl. zrgf.. see pp. . 1-16. . p.. I . App.. 11. 1-18. Cr. 11. 11. I 80 f. . Tabl. CUNTKNTS.. 11. z j.. 11. Ser. pl.473+79-7-8. 11. PI. 183. 75-86. . 31. 1 .. Cun.. see p. Tabl.. Cr. or 96-1 13. 31. pl. XIII. Tabl. lx. VII . pls. Cr. Cr..Tabl. . . 11. Ser. 11. 3. see App.. (104)-(138)... 128-142.11. 8.lI.. 296+11.. pls. Txts. seepp. 'l'abl. Tabl. 38-55. Tabl.. I 2 I . see App.. 111.. . Cr. Ser. 1-26. K.588. .. 11. p. '05-137. 140ff. . 11. XIII.. 3. . Vol. Cun. Ser. 3. p. Ser. Cr. 16: . 11. 41. liv-lv. 185 ff. 111. Ser. VII. XIII.. RBGlSTRATlON NO. see . p. App. 19.. IV. n. I. 12.Ser. pl.. Cun.

VII. 170 f. Cr. I. Cun.. Ser.. Txts. Cr. Cr. Ser...VI1. 196f. Cr. p.T. Cr.195. I . see App. Cr. 11. see App.013. Txts.. 166. p. z o ~ . II. Comm. Cun. 11.. p. VII. . 11. 1 2 2 ff. Cr. between 11. 3.47 and 105. p.INDEX TO TEXTS. n. Cr. 192 f. Cr. XIII. see S. I . Iv. Cr.47 and 105.VI1. PI. p. ~ . 163. Txts. Cun.704.). Ser. see App.2. . 190 ff. V. 32. App. Vol. Ser. 11. I . 158 f f . 28. XIII.6-19. Tabl. 195. pl.47 and 105. (128)-(140). see p. 1 1 . App. see App. 187 8 . 11. 167 f. . 192 ff. see pp.i. XIII. 191. s. XIII. see S. Cun. V. see App. App. pl. 189..p. 11. Txts. . Cun.. (85) and (104) . Tabl. pl.. n. pl. 31.. I I. see pp. see p. Cnn. see pp. s e e A p p . pls. pl. Cun. Tabl. p.575. 195. p. 41. 14-22 (seepp. Tabl. pl.. pl. Vol. Tabl. Ser. . pl. 69-85. App.. between 11. XIII. Tabl. 31. I? .. see K. 34. 194.. Ser. see pp. Tabl. 3. zq.. 11. 128 f. Ser. Comm.8. Tabl. 11..1og-138. XIII. . S. 247 CONTENTS. p. App. between 11. 11. . 11.. P 164.qo-q7. 11. VII . TEXT. p. Txts. 11. pl. K. p. Ser.. XIII.. Ser.. n. I I . lv.. 111. 11. VII ..567. D. 24. li-liii. between 11. P 196. REGISTRATION NO. I.. Ser.. I 97 f. 12. 11. Txts. Txts.

I 24 f f . .. 3. xii-xiii. liv. lvi-lviii. Ser. I. Tabl. See K.366480-7-19. 35-49. Cr. 195.. 6. 1 1 . Cr. 118-142. 178. xxv-xxviii.01j. 168 f. 2. R.. IV.982 + 80-7-18. 176. see I<. Vol. p. .. R. 11. 3. 366. 11. R.52-128. PI.. Cun. Ser. . Cr. 1. R. see R. Cr. pl. 64-72... 175 ff. Cun. 395. pl. see 82-9-18. Ser. 35-38. Ser.. Comm. 31. p. REDISTKATION NO. 11. R. Ser.Tabl. pls. Tabl. Tabl. Txts. (69)-(85). 11. s e e p . 175 f f .641. see No. 33-34. Ser. Ser.. 93. 128 f. 982. 93-118. p. VII . pis. 11. 162. xxxiv. see R. 2. I. pls. Vol. XIII. Vol. 11. pls. see p.473. see pp. 194 f. Txts.. App.. 11. see I<. n.403. I 16 ff. Tabl. p.. see App. xlix-I. 11. 538. 111. 11.. Cr. Vol. . 103-107. 11. z. pl. 160. see pp. see R. Cr. 79-7-8. 93.016. see pp. I. lxii. App. 117-129. pls. 47.282. I.445. pl. I 30 ff. Cun. 11. Txts. pl. TabL. I. 111. 83. see pp. 11. Txts. 3. Vol. App. 11.INDEX TO TEXTS. See K. . 366.396... TEXT. 31-56. XIII.615. see pp. . 178. PI. Cun. 194. see p. 79-7-8. R..473. R. lV. Cun. see No. 11. Cr.. zo. pl. Cr.. see App.5-15. pls.. 11. Comm. R.VI1. Vol. 288+293. 1 9 . CONIXNTS. 11. Tabl. XIII. R. XIII. Txts. 3.437. zoo. Ser. Ser. Cr. pp.

see No. No. 11. . pls.950+ 83-1-18. 11.pp. 11. App. 11-21. Ser. TEXT. 13. rob-141. 82-9-18.139+93. NO.187. XIII..228. 91. 215. ix-xi.868. I. see App.528+46. Ser.8 3-103.959. 111. pp. 11. xxix. (I I I)-(140).134. No..486. 11. 22zff. 55. 28-33 Cun.. Cr.506. 11. NO.803. pls. 111. 2. 4 . pl. xxxviii-xlv.. I. Val. 11. pl. Ixxv-lxxxiv. Cr. 26. Ser. 40. No. see pp. Ser. Cr.45. 111. Ser. 111-1 39.V. xiv-xxi. Cr. Ser. Tabl. seeApp. Cr. . see No. No. lxvii-lxxii see App. (105)-(132). pis. see 82-9-18. 11.. Tabl. I. 46-87. 11.116. 40. Tabl. 32. REGISTRATION NO. No. Cr.486+ 55.. 11. Ser. i-vi. 11. 35. 1-48.851. 55.559.viii. No. 19-26 or 77-84. Tabl. I 1-29. pl. pls.614. 6. pls. p. 83-1-18. 38.396.688.35. No. 208 ff. 105-142. 55... 111.017. No. pl.574. .448. I. Tabl. Vol. see No..vii.627. pl. Tabl. Ser. Ser. Cr. 11. 93.073.INDEX TO TEXTS. 11. 36. 1-40.vii. p. xxx-xxxiii.. 11.. Cr. I. p. 175 ff. 3-40. 54. 202 f. 89-1-18.285. 55. lxiv-lxvi. No. No. 11.726. Cr. 2 1 5f . see 82-9-18. No. 14-36.. 11. Tabl. s e e p . 5. 111. Ser.VI1.62-67. pls. VII. Vol. Tabl. Tabl. 45. 42. No. I.950. see No. Cr. z49 CONTENTS.466.46. 33. . . 1... No. 38-43. Vol. No..627. Vol. Cr. 11. 11.46-60.528. App. 11.Tabl. Ser. pls. pl. pls. No. 216 f. No. 46. see App. 11. Vol. Txts. 36.. pp. Tabl.. 6. . Vol. 884-19.868. lxiii.466. xlvi-xlviii.. 55. . NO. 2 I 6 ff. .466+55.. 1.614. pis. 11.

..93. 91. Ser. COhTENTS.737). No. 138-146. 13). pls.. xxxv-xxxvii.. Ser. see No. 93.061.048.017 (88-4-19.> . xxii-xxiv.015 (82-7-14. Cr. Ser. 1-16.. Cr. Cun. 111.1 5 Cr.42-54. 47-105.93.629. Ser. No. 14-29> (114)-(131). 11. see No.016 (82-9-18. 3. 11.632.250 INDEX TO TEXTS TEXT. 11. No. 1 4 . Cr. 85-94. No. . Txts. REGISTRATION NO. Vol. Tabl. pls.. Txts. 116-146.632+93. Tabl. 11.93. 93. 124-142. IV.. No. 1-44. 1-21. VI. 11.. pls. Tabl. XIII. . Ser. 402).Tabl. 11. Cr. XIII. 11.139. . . NO.93. pls...048.. IV. pl.. 92. 11. NO. 20. No.92. Cun.92. pls. I. Ser.073. Tabl. 3. Cr. 10-1 r. I . . Tabl.

i-fe-dzi. Tabl. I I . bolt(?)": a-6u-ba (var. p. " t o know . 1. abiku. ( P 62). abitru. a-di-i). ing. 1. 16. 1. 1 2 2 (p. 1. 103 (P. 1. " t o be strong" . 90 ( P 50). 20). n. 206. 68)." VII. " t o be destroyed" : ti-di-ir. D. " strength " : it-ha-ru. I. . 1. " t o idu. I I . way.Tabl. every morning " : p. 108 adiru. 64). 1. uddakam.ug-[g]u-ga[t]. 4 5 (var. 167. F. p. p. 52. 1. 49 (p. 1. 1. adv. 224. 1. "daylight. u-fa-az-zu-mi&. do. 11. 5". Tabl. go. Tahl. 1. 1. ud-da-kam. (P. uddu. Iab-6a-su-u. 4). "to heangry(?)": Perm. 111. 9. abubu. I1 2. "to be bolted ": force a way into" : i-125liT-tam-di-Iu.1. li-. 95. I I (p. 234. I I : e-6i-m. ud-dap. 234. thunder adfi. uddfi. Inf.1. Tabl. 26) . lo. m). Pret. Tabl. 111. Tabl. edelu. 111. 186). 110). . Tabl. bi-ru. IV. " to cause to bring. ftdfi. I I . I. 206. 11. . 26. C . 43 (p. 224. " t o make angry" : [azitmu]. 41 VII. I. . to choose (?) " : e-du-u.ba). enclitic interrogative particle : 1. " side" . Tabl. " deluge . 7q . 8 ( p 38). 1. Eu-61-ha. IV. 232.. a-ti.ad-di-ia. " t o bring". (p. Tabl. K .. 1. 1abittu. 226. u-ta6-ba-tu. to I11 z. I z. 1. p. abitlu. p. 1 . 1. 184). 18). I. I1 z. I I . Tabl. itbaru. 44 Imver. " t o bolt!' I z. " t o pass through. 26) . affair " : a-bu-6a. I. 53 (pp. 3z ( P 42). 28 (p. 70. 1. "trouble " : plur. I. agitgu. "hurricane" : Tabl.'tothe side of " : i-du-us' sa-$a-m to cause to be brought" : (var. I1 I . 111 I ./)-tab-baI. Tabl. idu. "age ": plur. I. zjo.toproclaim(?)" : lit (var. eberu. a-di (var.Tabl. 98). p. 33 (p. : Perm. 135 bringont. lit (p. ( P 441. 1.I ugallu. lo. Tabl. . rzz (p. Tabl. p. " course. VII. I. "in the mornI 2 . var. I z. Ii-it) -/a-bal. IV. 1 . idu. " t o he troubled" : ( p 106). I/-bur-ti.

IV. mu-al-lido-af. "aflicted" : uk-kulu-ti. emt. 16. Tabl. 50 ( P 64). 11.a@n.kuku-u-tum. Tahl. 29. " t o he taken " : inni-haz. 14. I. deed": a-ma-tu-Ju. 18. 18). 1. 15. 111. " t o take . I. 30 . 1. p. IV. 59. 1. Tabl. ekism. " going. applied to Marduk's chariot.. "dav" . [akitiiu]. Ju-ta-mu-u. 228. " t o he dark" . var. p. 1. 1. I V I . " to cry ' It is enough ! ' " : a-bu-Zap-ia ki-6i-ma. 1.27. do. 1. I I . with suffix. to begin " : i-Eu-zu. 4. . with Ribti. Tahl. " border (?)of a robe " : ulinni-Su. innirt-du-ma. "tempest" : Tabl. p. a-ma-am. akE. 17. I I (p."speech. I. 1.. IV. e l t . 126. I I . z30. 87. " t o be afflicted" : Pres. IV. 123 (p. amu. 52). i t f u Gmhvza. Tabl. plur. 11. Tabl. Tabl. Tahl. p. 49. 234. to undertake. I. Tabl. . " t o be like. zz8. 93 ( P 70). 1. : Part. " t o bear. p 125. mu-um-nra-alli-da-at (= muwallidal). 4 (p. [akilu]. lo). 91 (P. '7. 1. : . eldti. uliunu. uk-ki-Jc. [ziz-nin-d]u u[ 1. 230." amitu. 72. " to go. 46. 45. interrog. p.-70). Inf. " how l o n g ? " : a-@-lo$.. emGdu. 23% 1. 16. 1. adv. var. by transference of meaning. Tahl. to create" : u:-ta-nu-u. I1 r. ahulap. IV. interrog. " high " . 1. 1. 78). adv. 37." malaku. p. " whirlwind" : a. 7 ( P 58). 1. fem. 1. 18 (p. p. thing. 1. p. 132. "hungry. 1. ali. " t o speak. to advance" : in-nin-duma.1 6 . 48. Tabl. p.11. " darkness" : e-tu-u. [amii]. I. 132 .. 232. 26) . akukiitu. 67 ( P 66). . 146. 118. p. V. Emu. 28. "where ? " : a a h . I. 60). 1." I r . p. a-ha-la. ravenous " : a-ku-u. "to he established. Emu. p. akkulu. 2). 5 5 . e t t . 224. a-hulap-ki. p. IV r. aliku. 3 j (P. zz. 1. " reed (?)" : a-mi. 2 1 (p. n. 228. 5. p. 3' ( P 98). 148. 4 ) . 11. I. p. loo (~. 29 (p. " t h e height. " t o put an end to" : Imper. adv. "where?": e-ki-a-am.(p. interrog. Tahl. p. 50. " t o make like.I. VII. 1. n. 42).226. . 1. "henceforth" : if-tu u mi-im-ma. alidu. IV." 111 r . the zenith (?)" : e-la-a-h. gait" : mnlak-Ju. 47.

p. fe-i!'(sic)-si-ib-ku. is-sibu. Tabl. apparu. p.. I (p 6 Tabl. 1. 4 . depth": a. 94 (P. 72). "swamp": &pa. z24. p. 98 (p. 230.11q(var. 1. appunama. I. fa-ar-ha. I. p. 1. 1. 70). "bewitchment" : u-bi-fa. a-ju-um-mu. p. 18) . 80 (p. 160. 1. p. Tabl. u-ur-ri-ku. p. 50 (p. 13 ( p 4 ) . p. VI. 134. 14. 7 (p.nu-ma. 62). "of huge size": up-pu-nu-ma. apu. up-pu-un. u-ri-ki. 11. 230. im-/&-la. ukti : u-ku-u. 18 (p. p. 94 (var. 50. 206. I11 I .p.. Tabl. Tabl. 32. I I . 15. I. ' I scorpion-man" : Tabl. "to cause to go out . adv. akrab-amklu. 52). Tabl. I.. varr. 1.ri. 2). Tabl. asurakku. 'Bru. 1.Tabl. 54) . " t o cause to rage" : ~. Z Z (p.. 34). Tabl.. 1.). 1. 50) . VII. 2 (p. 28 (p. 1 2 2 (p. 32 (p. 'Lbone": i!-~i-in2-[tu]?. IV.. 1. Tabl. 32 (p. 86). 36 (P. lo). I. 111. Tabl. I1 I . I. 92). 26). . 111. Tabl.ki. la). 1. Tabl. 1. I I . 22).nu. 126 (var. strength. [esEhu]. 45 (p. I. 55 (p. apu. VII. Tabl. fe-si-ib-Eu. 46). p. ispimtu. intrans. 27. 90 (P. n.108f. to be long" : u r . 146.~. p. 18). Tabl. Tabl. to endure" : [li-112-ik. . " t o lengthen. 50). 1 8 ) . I. Tabl. 1. 4 (p. 134. P.. arsku. 1. ammatu. lu (var. "huge" : [alp-pu-nua-fa. 55. 11. un . to take to flight" : u-s'e-su-ma. [uj-ri-kuma. appuuu.. 27. 228. 52) . 38. 40). I. p. 11. Tabl.sur-rak-ka. . to take oneself off. " t o be furious" : Part. I I. 26). " t o pay homage. to set out against. " might. 1. nu-ummil-turn. var. " by day" : [t~r-r]d. 62.imhullu. '34. to worship" : u-fak-fin-u. "marsh " : aj-pa-< p. 24. 421. 11. to bring upon" : Pret. Tabl. 1 2 2 (p. I. p. 111. 1. " t o despair" : Pres. 22. forces" : unken-nu. 1. epeku. " to set out. 1. 1. n. I. 25. to attack": '-ir. Tabl. Tabl. 111. " t o add t o . [amBlu]. 42). 80 (var. 1. 152. I.l. 1. 5). 16. " t o be long.en . 1. urriij. Tabl. e-sip. 1. IV.ku. 1 I 3 (p. 11. 148. . uoiHu. p. I 126 (p. p. 206. I1 I . 1. esepu. 5 (p. 1. 11 2 . I. 11. Sru. 148. "the sure earth" : Tabl. log (p. "evil wind " : tin-kul. 70) ."bedofariver. 19. 111. unkennu. I1 I . 1. 1.b-pU-klL. I. 1. IV. u-fukku. im-hul-lri. 24). 111. adv. 1. 96 (p. " t o go out".

.

( P 42). i-dulP '34. "ruler (?)" : dUr. 104 (Tabl.a . I. 16). 24) . Tahl. 4). I . I. 228. 88). VII. gipiru. 49. I . 54). 1. 168 . IV. dabru. " firmness . zakiru. 1. from hiding": Pret. 89 7 (p. I. 47 (p. the firm earth ?' : don . 1. 6u-ud-lu-6u. 1. . danninu. Tabl. zg (p. VII) . 8 (p. 42)s 1. ui-dai-la-a. 111. 28 1. 66. zazitru: i-aanz-l-u-&." I1 I . l i . 12) . 137 (p. dupgimtu. pl. gall. Tabl. durmabu. to watch dittu.rnnhi. service (of the gods) " : dul-lu. 5 2 ) .u l . 19 (P. 20). I1 I . 99 (p. p.f a . 90). YU-bu].e f . so). Tabl. Tabl. I.9' (P.[ d i ] . Tabl. Tabl. 2). r 15 (p. magBaru. dur-ma-&. 11. IV.d u . 5 2 ( P 44)r 1. 1. 209. 1.". 130 (p. I. 186 f. Tabl. IV. 2 8 ) . 4.1. 33 (P. ros (p. Tabl. p. 111. I. 1 2 3 ( p 1 8 ) . 57 (p. to round. I. I. ' I to cause to abound in. 86 (p. I. / a . Tabl. 146 (P. i-dul-lu-s'u. 26). var. to clothe with" : Pret. Tabl. 255 gdlt.Z [ i ] . VII. p. " t o make very strong": Perm. 1x0 (p. 6 (p.GLOSSARY. 108). Tabl. Tabl. p. p. 44). 1 1 8 I . 1. 1. 1. Tabl. 1. I' '4' (p' "). 111. (pp. 52). 11. lu. 1. gu-ui-Jur.n i ." I 1 I .id. 1. VI. 1. 1.). I. "field (?). 48 (p. 28). 1. "to exalt" : u-znk-&[adalibu. 112). VI. 63 f. du$s*imriti. I. 30. 1. 1. var. V . 11. " t o strengthen. 1 2 1 (p. " t o cause to be fruitful": lid-di$-&-a. Tabl. Tabl. " devil " : gal-li-e. 83 (p. 1. Tabl. 1. "mighty (?)" : Tabl. 74): p. " station " : gi-k-galla-fa. Tabl. " t o trouble" : Perm. Tabl. to scout. r 16 ( P 72): gisgallu. (p. 14). ' L to he high. " t h e Tablets of Destiny" : Tab). danni-nu. I I . 186) . dilu. 43 (p. 25. 'I3 1. 24 (p. 1. 1. 134. "might " : Tabl. i-du-ul-[li]. 1. I I . 165." or possibly a kind of tree : gi-pa-ra. " t o move about . ' I 1 1 1'I. Tabl. 111. var. gi-$ar-ra. udittu. Tabl. g a i i r u . 111 I . jda8ii.nu = ir$i!im(!im). d u l l ~" . " rush" : di-il-la. 1. 84).

" t o shatter. tobriug": Zi-ki-iZ-Zu. VII. tubtu. to overcome(?)": (&barm i . VI. $ibu. 1. (?): Zzlih-bar-miin. " midst (?)" : ka-bift i . 14). 1 7 ( p 24).Tabl.z3z. izir.zakiku. k u b u t t t . Tabl. 18 ( P 4). I' to inform. 79 ( P 50)."instruction": ta[k]i . I I O (p. Pret. 3 b a b e u . baliku. tu-u6-ba-a11. Tabl. 1. Tabl. p. [z*u]. 60 (P. i-te-d-bi. I. 16). z I (p. 206. 32)." intrans.fume. Tabl. ' I to mingle together. 1. 96). 1. 108). 40. hamii. I . II. kilu. VII.l. 29 (p.) nuus'-@-la@ (=nrrfabla). "tempest " : za-hi-ku. " to destroy (?)" : hamu-u. 4". 185).p. IS. : Pret. mukil. kalfi. [barmamul. 111. I j (p. to know " : Part.h .. i-hi-$u-uma. 45 (p. 96). 1. I I (D. "to uphold. 40). p. to oppress" : u-kab-bi[t]ma. Tabl. rr I (p. " t o cease (?) " : (?)ukfa-li (var. " t o destroy" : Pres. 12). 2 I . "tomake an end of": u-kaZ-Za-an-ni. I I ( P 78). 104 (p. Tabl. 119 (p. Tabl. Tabl. 16): Tabl. \. I. I. 5 (p.1 I I. 1 3 6 ( P 56). Tabl. Tabl. so). 1. Tabl. I. 1. 1 0 (p. 11 r . 11. IV I . (not as Prec. 1. Tabl. 161. Tabl. 114 (p."tobesound. 137 ( P "4). " t o think. na-aar-bubu. 108). " abundance" : kubu-uf-te-e. 1. p.b m a . kub-6u-tu-ma. I.1. 1. I. to hold. 22): . V. z j (p. 101 ( P 70). 19 (p. r I j (p. VII. I1 I . Tabl. to be bloated (?)" : Perm. 1. I. VI1. " t o make weighty. Tabl. I1 2. ?lip& 12. to burst" : ib-fe-pi. I. 1. 1. [zarbabu]. ha-sis. 1. " t o destroy. 111 I . 21 (p.l. 88). Tabl. [kalimu]. 1. Tabl. 1. Tabl. do. haha-su. kabittu. 11. kabitu. I11 I . 87 (p. 111. to conceive a hatred for " : Tabl. 111. 22). I. 73 ( P 48). 111. " t o be filled. 2 2 8 . I1 I . 1. 11. +a).7q. to rage" : Perm. I1 I . I V I . Zu). tobehealed": Pres. 2). 1. IV. Tabl. I. basisu. 1. 24)." taklimtu. " t o . " t o hate. 111. "joy": plur. I. biku. I (p. . Tabl. 1.

loo (p. " t o collect (?)" : Pret. rzo. I.06."dragon": lab-6i.24. 111. V I I . 146. IV. " t o be lull. Tabl. 79 (P. I. lalfi. " t o rage " : Tabl. 70). . I. " t o overcome" : Perm. "love " : ki-rin-ia.F. 1. 7. kaGaiu. " snare. 11. 234. " bondage. "ram " : Tabl. 72 (p. 4. 51). I V I . I.na-ri<. 111. p. 11. "circumferellce. ( P 72). 24). labinu. 234." I1 I . Tabl. z57 [kalmii]. 44 (p. r I z (P72). Zi-hierz. kusarieu. kiniinu. kupu. I V I. " to loo$ with anger upon. "to be strong.GLOSSARY. Tabl. IV. 230 (1. 1. 1. " plan" : [iii!p-di-. p. )'I'ahl. Tabl. I. 111 I . I. p. 230. 44). kisukku. 48)rI. ih . 56. 3 3 (P. 1. 9 . 112-hii-mu-u-irz-ni7zn.7. 230. a weapon : Zu-ud-di. true worship "' : iuh-z<z-a-Li. IV.irn n r u ~ uTabl.li nza-a-ii. " t o tend carefully!' taknitu. 17 . lioness": la-ahbu. 1 8 ) . 48 (p. I. 50) . 2 8 ) . 74 (P. lillu. 1. 87. lo. I I . " t o malie full " : Perm. 66). luddn. 119 119 ( P 32). labbu. 44)) I.p. karru. 1. 56). I. 1. I1 I ." la'itu. kirimmu. iiu-pu. zr (p. lul-liz-a. 11. ' Tabl. " to be taken captive" : Fret. " i n bondage " : hi-~~B-kz. I. 17." limitu." ltisukkii. Tabl. I v . 14). z 9 (P. ~ q z (p. 136 (p.l'abl. 52). 1. lab-ha. 0 Tabl. 123 (p. A%). 1. . 83.1 18. 98 (p. kipdu. 232.to persecute": Perm. 11. 1.40). leb&nu. 1. I. 11. " t o abase " : Inf. I. 13z (p. p. 9 ' (P. 1. I la ~. p. 111. Tabl. 38 (p. roo). IV. "trunk ( ? ) " : s'zi. J 29 (p. lam% " t o surround. [labibu]. I 2. Tabl. p. I 1 0 (p. Inf. 59. p. ~ 6 . kani. I. kamiru. 54). I . " costly raiment (?)" : Tabl. circuit": pl. ZZ).l~-nza. "demon " : Zil-lu. 97 (P. II1. 5 [li't]. " full extent" : a-nn In-'-a-ti-sa(var. 52 (p. p. iir-En-Yu-ni. Tahl. I.1. 14. 42)) 1 .11.IZO. 3 1 . I 2 (p. hilnztzn~. Tabl. "in the snare": ha-. 17 (P. 4: (p. kamiru. p. katimu. 2 2 6 . 1. 1.17." kamirii. 91.u-nu. I 18. labbu. p. 1. 1. 26) .20. ' I battle" : Tabl. kamE. 52).ll. "fostering care.. " brazier " : hi-nu-%. 111. I. Tabl. I. 1. to be able. ZO). p. 16.p. "lion. Tabl. I. 76).

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1. p. napihu. " t o diminish": Perm. ro (p. 112. 2 0 (P. tai u . 1. Tabl. Inf. 1. p. napiiu. 1. 186).S U . to roar against (of a w i n d ) " : nap-hat. Tabl. T. nake. IV. snk-ju.a at. 34. 4.a/i. 11.260 GLOSSARY. I. 401.1. to place the hand upon. 1V I . p. p. 56).-&~. Tabl. "to kiss one another" : Pret. 28 (p. 228. nassu. 6). 66). 11. Tabl. sn-ki-ju. " t o place. 1. Tabl. 11. 6 8 (p. l . " t o want. 1.l-li-ie. 232. to rest " : Part. nissatu. nasiku. "to liiss": [i]. " t o makr broad. p.ra-ieEu.nu-ti.n[b . lamentation" : nissaii". Tabl.III I . 1.iir!(var. p."tocauselamentation": mul-/a-. I E L . I. 49. child " : xiLjn-n. z~-ria-a~-. 32). naiBru. p. I l a (p. " t o lament. "sorrowf~~I. nipru. 1. 111. 161. 1. 130 (p. I 16 (p.Tabl. " t o become weak. 58) . [silpi]. I I . naBaku. 1." ~ L . 36) p. sakipu. 2 1 . need sn-. 1.varr. ' g to nou urn bitterly" : u-naas-sa-su. I 18. is-su-knmnza. naiiku. nas8su." IIIz. 160. 94). I. 78 (P. VII. I. 2 2 6 . 7 ." (p. 49.. ?'abl. zz4. 46 . . naritu.i2l. t o seize. 228. in-m:. l'abl. n u .&I-as. VII. naiiku. na-as-sa-a-/i.iu. : if-fa-5~2.zu-&a-a-t1. 21 na-fa&. I. sil. 1.r. V . grievous. 2 2 8 . I l l .~ ~ b 11. to falter" : i-nar-ru-!z!. n~u-nap-ji-. uf-tak-kn (?). " t o be poured out" : Pres. I.ni-c-a. 11. . a sagii. 1 3 2 (p. I 18. 1. 1. Tabl. 96). 1. Tabl. 1V I . to make merciful" : Part. 75. Tabl. "treasure" .. do.ibl. I I . p. I. " t o be raised on . 1. t o grasp. 9. 50) . naiii. 34). p. 228. ( P 22). I. r o . var. lamenting " : na-as-s< p. 37. I. crnploycd as srnongm for " life" : ni-p'r-ta~lu. gg (pp. 1 2 . niku.": ir-suk. 48. 1. I O I (p. 'I L o flame o u t . z4). "offspring. high " : Perm. 11 I . " t o give way beneath ( ? ) " : [u]~. 79 ( P 82). IV. Tabl. sa. 33 (P. 1. lz . "to cease": Perm. 7 0 ) . Tabl. I. p.l. lV. nn pi. I l r (p. I1 I . us-Rawnza.25(p. 108).6). 11 njsIat. sa-. 228.sa-gi-su-nt~-n2a. ' L mourning. " to lie d o w n . lack. . 1. k n ) . na-ii-i~. 16 (p. ": nisirtu. VII.l. 228. Tabl. I. "to remove from ": zl .I. Perm.Tabl.s i .a d e . I. I I O (p.

1qo. 8 ) . su-lu-u-a. ' ( t o escape" : na-par-lu-dil (var. plicate" : Inf. 72)). p. supuru. " t o rest" : &-u$Tabl.rq8. 1. I V I . 98. 1. var. "body " . I V . 111 I . "to alter.72). [palsa@u]. pa-ag-r. I1 I : " to pray. [pahii]. V11. ( P 58). t o sup- . 72 (p. su-pu-u-a. 11. [piku]. I. Perm. 154. ( P 58).. 111 I . " t o snccumb. 34). 154. " my own person. 11. " t o pray " : Inf. I. I 12). p. 79. IV. 146 f. var.FII.chest " : & . 3 3 . 1.i f ) . 1. I. 16 Prec.p. " my paiiru. 23% I. IV. pa&hu. . annul": self. 1. f. "4.8. p. 1. p. n.z j q . plnr. 39 (P. $ j .f i ) . "in t h e net" : sa-pa. iu-pal-si-&<p. 148. 1. T a b l . 25. 4 (p. 1 .1. I V I : ni-pzl~szr-u. 1. si-in-niia-at. "to oppose. 99. 90. 1.1' "ring(?)": pn/Z(a). 7. u pu-CL-ti (var. . 4. 99. I1 I . [sap%]. ul-it-pi-. 2349 1. " treasure . 1. sarru. [peB6ku]. Tabl. ku).. Tabl. I .2). sinniztu. 167. 132 pitku. I . IV. IV. " f r o n t ." u??~-nze. 107 (p. P. s a p & & I 1 I . 29 (p.a . funr.. 234. " net. sa-m-ar. 22.in. .*.l. bellion" : s a r . 111'' z.I. uf-it-pi-elI[u]. paf-7. 11. 66). I. 22). $ Z L . " t o make of n o [paltt]. p. t o divulge (?) " : body. 9 [parsadu].palisu.t i . Tabl. ip-fa-Tar (?): Tabl. cf. pa-la-st'. 84). 106) . I z. 1 (p. s'rrp-Iu-ha-nl. p. 50 (p. pagru. Tabl. \r. saparig. 38 (p. 68. V I I . 126." p. 232. ~ ~ (p. ~ [salii].to resist(?)": u-pa-ka. 1 2 2 (p. " female.r a . 4 . (p. I 1 I . I V I . 1. also p a h .ornan2': p. 1. symbol of royalty.pisannu.z. lu-sap-pi-ie. pusummu.la. Tahl. sarriiii./. Tahl. p . z>-Be-ih."p. " t o crush": 1. " reTabl. fold" : su-pu-7-i. Tabl. " t o give heed to " : sarsru. " handiworlt " : pi-li $-. " bond (i)": pu-susaparu.. I I O (p. myself. my[pelu]. Tabl. . Imper. I. t o be defeated (?)" : 7)-paleffect. z pi-sn-an-lza-ti-ha. Tabl. 1. 60). lo). plltu. t o cast down" : fu-u. d i . " t o be in trouble": Pret. " to pay homage t o (?)": pal-sz~[ . Tabl. IV. 1. person" : puu t ~ i mp. l . lu-$-ah (var. " t o pacify". I. palii.

40 (p.~ ~ L ~ ni-{a-nl-/a/. var. '84).zc. 28. (p So). Tabl. 185).I. 89 (P. 96 if. 1. V ." 1 2 . bud-meJ. p. V I I .i : ~ . sirritu. 24 (P. 128 (P. i-iin-ni. :ri-rii". 206. I' t o take. 111. 1. "plague " : ~ a l . t o lie down t o rest" : Fret. I z . I. " t o b e held fast. 2 6 ) .32.Tabl.7zi. p ) . 11. 111. 1 8 ) . 36 (p. u-!aa. (P. 2 1 (p.l t ~ .~lor. holy" : !nilqa-nl-la-hu. [ialilu. 1. 38 dl'-. Tabl. Tabl. 1. "pure. ' I to attain (?). t o make known t o " : Pret. 130 (p. a). Pres. 1 4 (P 78). 111. " fulnessM: .u. 6). 1.in2 .:~i~~~~n~Z. Yz~-/n!l@imru. V I I . l ' a b l .2-oin. p. 401.. [iabiru. 2 j (p. 31 (P. 125 ( p 110). I. 1. I I . qo Tabl.)."monsterserpcnt" : Tabl. 6 (p. I11 2 : Imper. 1 2 1 (p. Tabl. Tahl. (p.'dingon " : Talil. V .F-8i-ra-az. 1. I. Tabl. 1. IV. marsh " : :u-$a-a. 111. 1 8 ) . sirru$. 1. 11. 4z). 1. 1. 74). [kaqibu]. 1. to be heldin remembrance": ii-i--:ah-iu-ma. (P. Tabl. (p. si-im-nr. 1. [ s i r u ?].a -771a-/i. kablu. [ii-elsa-a6-tu. p. Tabl. 24) . 14 (p. k i z Tabl. Tabl. 161. kudmib.za Tabl. Tabl. 72 (var. 1. 2 I . 1 6 ) .i. I . 1. I. 1. 3 3 (P.z I ~ . 1. inward parts" : &a6. 10) . 111.r z . 1. . Inf. 14). 1. 1. var. 14) . 40)s 1.'Tal~l.t~: T i . Perm. 52). I. I. Tabl. 1. 226.i . var. 1. " u n t o " : i .t z ~ n ~ . I1 I . "to impartto. 48 f. Tabl. roo. 66)." o r "to understand(?)": Inf. 111 I. 226. begin": Tabl. 1. 32 (p. I V I . . 111.Y sabitu. u-Sa-a<-bLi-a7~-7zi. 1. iJ .7. Tabl. 1. Tabl. 50 (P. / Z : ! ~ U / "Z tL o . " t o lie down. I. zo (P 2 4 ) . I .46 (butcf. var. " t o cover (?)" : u-sir.. 11. " t o entrust to " : aallBtu. 48) . !. p. 98 (p. Tabl. 2).i. I z. Tabl. " szr-sn-'. 96) . 5 ( P 38). " before" : / ? I L . 11. V. 8 2 (pi 50). 1. 1. fi-i. siriS. I Z p. " midst. "sceptre " : s i ~ + ~ i p. 50). 78). 65 (p. 1. Si-~-i-r. 1 0 % (p. 72 (P. kudduiu. I . 114 (p. t. IV.-bz~-yu. girma~~. ni-it-/al. 1. 'I'abl. 1. k i p u . 6) . I. sai-/a-[at!.

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I. 1.Bubarruru. 1. . 26) .iirrm)ri-e-ic~ar-hat. " to overwhelm " : i-sn-am-6u-'. 1. st.-IIi-LL. 1. 37 . to cut off. j7 (p. I Z ) . 66 (p. iikkatu. Tabl. j. T'II. 42). 1-re ' . 1z4 ilS-ln/7-$i-dn7. 'I'abl. 111. 228. 1. I z. 2 0 ) . p. 56). 99 (p. p. (p.1~a. struction": . 69." Sukuttu. dn-[ad]. I j r (p. Perm. s'aliku.z~l-lzi-uil-f1. p. to look f o r . 19.' . 11. also !a ijza 7. b e drunk (?) " : ?i-iA-7. 1. 68). I I . 106) . 11. Tabl. iumu. Tahl.a-'-iu. 5 . 42).S I L Tabl. p. control " . perceive. 26 (p.' . . 206. Tabl. 88 (P. BabiBu. "sense (?) " : . Cs'adp. 111. . %'u. 81 (p. nr6-. . I. 178. h i ' : Tabl. " to ask. 4":. ' I to take wing. nia. VII. pride " : Tabl. 1. 118. the Future " : ~-E:n-n~hiit. I I . " to :ah-Su. z. V11. 83 (p. p. I. w mi. " t o seek. p. . 11. ." Sulluktu. 107 (p. z j z . I. 232. 140. 1. 8 BabCi. IV. " cutting o& deb I . 7 ~ 6 Tabl. 20). 37 Ha'ilu. 5"). 1.m a .n ~ ~ z . " t o rage. &-' (= !t'i). I. !a-!urn-ma/. < . tele-'-e-ma. 1. Tabl.a . " to drink " . " height. (poss. I z . 6 0 p. " glory. 1. Tabl. 17."cliiel" .. Iu-u. cf. j2).i-i/. I. 30 (p. 1. j o ) . 1. s'udiam!ari.f e . ( P 92). var. subs. 1.Tabl. out for" : u-. 41 I1 I .i-e-. I. to de'fi. 7. 2).1~ [Sudu]. ~ z (p. 1.i-ih-ln-iu. z 30. p.i-nm. 66) . Tabl. 1. " t o rear u p " : mi-t-!ii. Tahl. " nalnc. " chieftain Perm.. " t o demand. I. 111. " command in battlc " : Halummatu. 75. to stir up " : u-Ia-n.-1." (p. 1 2 0 . 6 (p." plur.i 76 ar-ha. Yabl.-ka-ri-2l-. 2 2 ) . [ t i . p. 26). " supremacy. 99 (p. I." i . lii-ta~-bi-iEn-n~~z (oar. I.b . supremacy". to pervert (?)" : Sakiru. Tabl. to behold " : p. h . . 1 2 0 . I.L. " the Beginning and I. r lo). 136 (p. I. I. " t o turn. " t o set : to provide. IV. I. l'ahl. p. (var. . I. I. 6 (p. gz Sakinu. rz. o r6) . 11. p. " to drag " : Pres. p. 167 . var. te-e!-[ . to cry (p. " t o cause to rage. 1. 148. IL-.~kknti. I j I 1. I .llit~iaii~. I. I. 24). to fly " : iabitu. IV. (p.. 'I'abl. itid. 5 0 ) . r ~ o z E : SU[babidu]. 1 4 0 . 11. u.iiklu. 1. Tahl.hi-hnl--f-u.a-'-a-izr. 63. Perm.r8Su-arkit. 1. Badidu. "carouse"). 111 r . 7. 4 (p. 1. " t o be alflicted " : Pret. " t o cut out. con. U S . ' L p r o v i s i o ~: ~du-htt" (P 70). 1.

I. 1 ~ 8 I. Tabl. qz (p. l o o ) . -. " to oppose (?)" : Part.:. iiauinu. . . iamiru. n. I .. A . 109. I. " l i g h t " : Ya-1-u-u.rt'. 11.p.iinanger " : iu-mur-m-lrr. j . z z b . [ a ] . 7 2 ) .. I . 1.em%.. IV. iariku. I. 1. 16) .p a . Inf." Sakiu. "to rival. p. I. " wind " : nha'i. to furnish": p. I 14 (p. z j ( P 70). which had no equal. 5.' (var. occupation " : SuriSam.. iasi.iertu. I. unruly " : Sob-in. Tabl. " to be heard " : (?)lir-s'i-ma (or na. 206. Tabl.. su." iY-rz~-z~h-ku. Tabl. "confusion. Tabl. : fa-hi- " enclosing wall " : tub-!a-a-fi. " to hear.. . " business. 11. VII. Tabl. -~~~n. 1. takizu." [ S t ~ 1 . 46 (p. I. "power. 6 (p.u-ku-~zik-ki~.a [ / ] . " t h e wind I V I . adv. . Tabl. lum-mu. 1 1 . 42).~ p. . I I . I.? ~ [ i ] . "pr~nishment": it-rii-su. " t o the fight " : FaUS-me:. p. 1. . I." tabizii. 128.am. iartiru. " t o destroy. I r q [Siru]. 1. 228. 35. 226. I. 10. . I$-rd-[Air].a la Smziiz.ia3me8. I z . z q (p.h i . 87 (p. 126. 1. p. m n . Sa-kt'-urn-nzi-2. Sumurratu. "terror (?) " : :ac*nr." a . iinnatu. :iWu IJ. Tabl. j8 (pp. 2 2 ) . far-ha-bi-2." cf.p. 1. 6). "battle. !II. 154. I.n z [ a ] . I I . tubuktu. . I.). 78. i~-pir. (P" 4 ) "version" : .. fight. 1. IV. p. 24. . L. IV. 1. r 19 (p. . . " the whirlwind " . 58. ( p 108). var. . Sitmurig. I . r j). 1. p. I. 1V. "to present. Gr.GLOSSARY. . 8). 265 ~~ - . 152. gq (P. rase. 206. p. "rivalry" :sin-na-asi:-~. gipru. p. 62). s d i (var. " t h e sevenfold wind " . 26. might" ni. . IV. . V I I . 1 2 .186). [&I-tu-unr-me:. . " to the battle " : /aba-zi-zi. 1n7. Tabl. "battle. iiru. " t o roar " : perm. " to cry" : il-fa-st'. gakOu. n't:).an%. iani. 28. p. not adv. var. I. 42 (p.if-n~u-f-li I. g + 'Tabl.n ~p. 8. 26 (p. p. iaimu.a m . . I. I Z ~ 11.hi). 1. fr. ~zini. "the fourfold wind" . " violent. " \vildly" : . " to repeat" . iarbabu. " t o rage": L-tan. Tabl. " . Tabl. I. 5 0 ) . [ e ] . n tabinu. ." .t ~ ~ z ~ . 74). l'abl. gukammumu... 1 2 4 (p. (?) : . VII. 7. 19. 89 (probably with pron.. IV. 232. 230. 1. suff.. bn. Tabl. Iz. 70). la-'-zi=ru. Tabl.u .

3 o f .13(~4Of.IV.). "5 (p. 58 f. god : i b ' A . 115(p. fjthni. 11. 1. 6 . Jnbe. 28 f. p. rgof. I. of Asaru-ali!n-nu7ta. I. 26. Adad. note. l .) . . p . 30.). 'I'abl. . 163. 20. @f~cee.cfe.). 2 16. ~ z f . Tahl. I. Tabl. 5 ) .774.406. Tabl. Alckad : Ak-in-di-i. 7 4 f . 2 .l.7I(p. 9 (P. 224.). I. 56 f. 4. 1. (var. [p. p. 30f. 1. 111. 6. 111. 126.. 4 f .). 1.zo.Tabl. 18. I . p.) . p. deity: "'dl-ma-nu. ( ~ d r for . I.). . 198. mythical king: An-bani-ni. 2 1 I .).49 (P. 1. p. 1. 131 (p. 34f. 1. p. 10. 1. 16 NA. title of Mardok : om AKa-bzag. 15. p. 81 p.+8f. 13. see (p. see Introduction. 218.). 78 (p. p. gz f. ii. . . p. V. Akkadii. 1. 173. col. I . ""E-U. VII (K. si-ridk-ka-di-i. I.761). 1. 15 (Rev. 216. I. I. 62 f. 142. 1. A]LIAT-NUNiiir A-nu-unz. Tabl. Anbanini. Anu. Tabl. 126. V I I (I<. also Anu.. 32 f. ) . 8 11. I. 85 and 104. I. god : "'Adad. ""Afzu.519 and comm. I. Tabl. 1. the god Anu: AN-NA. 1. I . 147. I. IV. 6 124. 166.) . I. 46 f. VII. . Alim-nuns. 8. p. 178.008. 1 8 . (p. 1. Agi[l . ) . Z sar. 5. Szf. p. VII. IV. 146 Akrabu.1. 4 f.p.Scorpio: A+~-ahu. god : An-iar.p. p. I. siri'Ailfadiu. IV. 14. 11. I (p. 212. 54 f.h 11. title of Marduk : u"A-du-ntrn-na..r fo n ~ m e e of Beitiee. 13.."'~"AkkndC~~ 11. p. 4. Ana.1. I. 1. (p. 11. title of Marduk : ""A-gi[l . l'abl. p. (p.note.).). 53 p. 8. '"'GIL[ 1. pp. 119(p. ""A-ni111. I. 1. 46) . R. possibly shorter form p. . Tab). 19q. (I<.. 10. I I I (p.nnnz. 8. 6 (p. 11.) . 14 (var. I.~ ~ u Tabl. restore AIL-far). 12. 5). I. 53 Almanu. 79 (p. p. 1.I. Tabl. p. 190) . I 5 (p. 13. 111. 83. qf. 11. title of P. 21. I<. 44. Aga-azag.p.) .). Rev. 147.. 104f. ~ O f.z 13. 11. betwecn 11. (var. 25 (P. 18. I . 1. I. 96 f. I. 195. l'abl. 2 2 f.). . 198. 16. Tabl. Tabl. p. [ " " A] .). 1. 76f. p. ='Aoowpdr. 1 4 (p. Mardulr : [ . p. Adu-nuna. . 38 f.). ) . 85 (p. l'ahl. 16 (p. 'h'A-num. Angar. 218.). 23). 114. Tabl. 2 3 . 1. 72 ( p 30. l'abl.

.

.

HanBi. 214. VII (p.).me. zzz. p. Cuthah : EGid-/am.3. 1. . 213. 3.1. 132. . I. the names of Marduk's bow : Gibil. V I I . Hubur.5. Tahl. isz~ a-rilz. p. 109. I I O f. 269 Gugu. V. title of Mnrduli: F u n id^. 51 ( p 44f. 38. i identified ~ ~ . Mars: Gud. . 11. god: "" G a .). 222.V. 'I'abl. p. I. 144. 1. . Tabl. 109 Kaksidi. p.). 34. 145 (P.INDEX TO DEITIES. 25 . 1. star : *"*""*" KoJfu (one p. p. I. 1v. 1. sippa: E . 2 . 1 . 197. 111. title of Marduk. 7 6 f. 31.a . .p. Tabl. Enzu. 1. I 8. 1. 81 1. I. {Z"~"". Gaga. 106. E-sagil. p. p. see ICAIC-SI-111. 4 . (p. I . p.8z(p. . Giskul. [E-SAG-IL~A. temple of Marduk at ""tlnniil. l o . q q .i*'. 9. p.67 1. p. I Z . 213. 3.rC. title of 1VIarduk : '"'Gzb-gn. 47 (p. 13.s q . 3 . E-sag--iin. p. I . title of Marduk : " GI!kul. 1. 1.).21-DA. 761). p. b'Igi. 105.Tabl. p. p. 1. 130. (?) E-zi-du. p. 173. Gutira. p. Karrad iliui.236. Idigna.I. 2 2 . E-Udlam. 82 f. E-SAG-IL-I. p. 13 . . 1. 1.A.11 (p38f. Tabl.). zz6. ) p.l. p.z. zz. 111. of the names of Marduli's bow). 236. 23. 1.r. 3. npIl E-!ar-?a. star : Et'lzziL. 138. 1. 123 (p. Tabl. I. Babylon: E . identified with Ktar: "" Gu-lir-a. I . Tahl. I. V1I (I<. Enzu. '"'A?lar. 224. heaven : E-Say-fa. I?u-arik. 228. 111. 230. 141 (p.-GID-DA. 1. 1.V. ) .ith . 7. temple of Nabti at Bar. 6. KaStu. 206.p. E-SAG-IL-LA= Igigi. AmhAnbw Eneu. ~ ~ goddess. p. 1 0 2 f. title of MarduL : kar-rod il21.138. ~ 0 6 ~18. p. 9. 1. 1.). 6 . Sin : ( D I N G I ~ EN-zu-NA. 1. p. p. 178. star : (P. god : "' Gihil. p.). 1. 1.. 132. 236. 8 . E-zida. 13 . 51 . 19.). p. 213. 177~1. 150. Il. I. Icalikab . Gil[ 1. goddess : " ' I ~ f n p.Igtar. I. Z Z Z . " Long-wood. I. 1. 23. 144. GI.). ~ . I 3 f. title: fJu-burpal-ha-li. 11. 1 z 6 E-Bara. 11. I. r r 3 . 132. 1-26. p. II. I. 82 f. 54f. p. 14. 234.. I. temple of Nergal in Iztar : "'Zr-ni-ni. p.$a . goddess .g i l . I. 177. 134." ouc of ( P 48 f. city : =e~aEridl. Gud. the spirits of heaven: E-sag-ila. var. Tigris : (ID)IDIGNA.) i of. p. 132. 111. p 236. 28 f. p. p 228. Tabl.). 1. 20f. 152.~ aTabl. 213. fZa --a . Tabl. p. . 82f.). 12. p. 1. 1 2 . ETC. p. Z Z . l Z . Agiil . 1. I. II. I. i ! 1 1 1a-rip. 1. 206. b g (p. 19. titleof Marduk P. 14. 5 6 f . (p.

126 (p. ""LUGAL. Kuta.11.5j(p. IV. 1 2 9 (p. I. p.5r9). hInrdu%: ""Lugiil-iitll-nzofbetween 11. 1. l o (p. 136 ( v a r .). 85 ha-me. 56 (p. Tabl. z r 3 . 7 4 f .) . . 138 (2) monster : "" Ln-ha-niu. . I. 1. l . 38 f. bctween I!.z11. 1. " ' * a " ' Lu-I~ULahamu. 111. Tabl.). 68 (var. ) Tabl. p . ( I ) deity: ibzZa-~a-niu. 56 f. j .1o(r1.). pp. Tdbl. 28 f. 190). . p.d f ~ ~ 42 f. Tabl. Tabl. ~ . 190). . 213. title o f Marduk: p. I. 2 .p.zog. 6o f. 1..519. ~'agLt~gni-iiLrrTabl. 1. s z " L ~ ~ ~ ~ . li. I (p. IV. star: * MAL. '34.2?0 INIIEX TO DEITIES. 111. 1. "3 (p.).a b [ . . 1. 44f.8. l z (p.4(~. p. p.l. 66 (p. I . I. 38 (p. I . and comm. 81 ( p 6 8 f.II p. see Introduction.45 Lugal-dul(or du)-azaga. p. = K'oo=Pjs . 85 and 104 (p. ) . 7 6 1 ) ~ 1. title orfiTarduk: see Introduction. (p.1.~of.). 8). I. Tabl. 2 . 1. 56 f. 30.18f. 111. 54f. f . 16j. Tabl. "+I. 70 f. roz f. 48 f . p. ) = Aax$ (for 1. title of (p. rob f. p. p. P. p. I. I. 11. Tabl. ) .) .l.Lugal-en-ankia. I. 8. 1 7 8 .b a . 107 (P.&. ~ g j p.).~ < ~ . 111. 4 . 1.t!>l.~-SAR). p.). (AN-ASAII-1.IIDL-AZAG-GA= " ' L u ~ ( i 2 . 111. '"'Tin-gi. p. 1.b(K. 1 7 . 3'. 9 .. 34 (P. .. zq f. 1181. cal. I . IZI (p. Tabl. Tab\. p . ga. 1.). 27 (p. h 1. ( P 5 d . 13 ( p 58f. 18 f.).~ . ' " ' L a (I<. 181. ) . '"'~lfla~~dt~k AnXdr). 218. 218.b a . V I I (I<. zza. 84 (p. q f. (P. I<i]~i. (UING~I<)AS~II~-LU-SAI< Marduk: '"'Lugal-nb-[. (p. 1 8 0 . 11. 1. I I 10 ( p 4 f . p. 60 f. 4. z ~ ) . KiBar.68(p.Talil. 6. 1. 1 2 .). 198. Z I Z . ii.1~8(p. 111. 4. rg8. A ) see Introduction . 1. 1. T a b l V I I (I<. 86 f . P. T. 50 f. 96 nzn: .1. 13 .38f. titie of 1.7. I<. 11.oo8). Lahmu. 1 3 . 24. 56 f.). 11. I.. n. 4. Cuthah: KulGK{ p. 1. 6 8 and raq (p. 13. 11.D U L . p. 49 (P..~ ~ . l .a.13g(p.n ~ i l'abl. h g a l . 4 f . Tabl. p . Lahmu: L a { . 125 (p.). 7 . 3.).q8f. p. 48). 8. 30 f. zrq. I. l'abl. . 11.I. 1o. 1 2 . 54 f. 20. p. bw. 1.7+f. 5 .1. zo9. r 32. I.).406. 139 Labha. roqf. Rev. 1. 19.). VII. ) . I. v ~ n ~V1I .). Marduk. Lugal-durmah. I 1g(p. Tabl. 93 (p. 1 z j (p. 26 f. n. 1. p.).461. = AoX:s (tor 1.38f. deity : "'La/i-mu.). 31 1. Tabl. . V1. Tab).). deity: X-Iar. I.). god : '"Kijz-g~~ Tabl. 1. I .). ( p 42 f.p.Tabl. I .).l.. 8. (p. Lu-ku-mal.l. q (p.). 2 1 8 . z. 111. I. ETC Kingu.GA. I 3 .). 5 . (DINGII<)LUCAT.god: "'nC~d~iB. 9. ~I 73. I. 128. 3. 9 .).).AZAG . 2 1 3 . I. 152. . 28 " " L a .

68f. 175. Margida. 124. 173. 1. 131 (p. "'Mu-urn-niu. I 0 2 f. $2 '3 I (p. 11. p. I Z . -15 . 109 I L L . 17 .). V. ~ B . Muljl. I. p. mythical queen: 'Me-li1. Tabl. 21 r . title of LIarduk: '"'Mu11. 1 9 0 ) : ( 2 ) title of (i. ETC. reading). V I I . . 2 8 f. 2 .761)~ (p. 32 f. r o z f. 7. Medudu. referred to as B e ? and brlu : = MwGp. Mu-urn-mu.). 25.p. 142.1qf. z 12.5 (P. see Inlroduction. p. god : ""Nubn.). 1. p. 16 I .. p.l. (p. p.98(p. 27r =""MarduiZ. V. mythical prince: "MeNannar.p. 23.).31 . I. title of Marduk: 'd"Afup. V I I (I<. 23. . 48 (p. p. "'MU 78 f. da]. god : '"'Nminar . I. 178. [(DINGIR)] GI . MU azag. 30 - . note.VII. IS. see Introduction.l. star : M u m . ~ d k p. 65 (p. star : [Mar-gidNan%. god : ~ '"'Nergnl. star: Mul-mul. 71. 26. p. I. be-Zu?n. ~AR)-AZAG. Melili. "'x'-azn. 7). p. 6 (pp. Tabl. (possible Nin-aha-kudu. prillce: "" N. goddcss : ""Na-na-[a]. I. ( P 74 f. nlrr (var.47(p. [kaklfaba-Szi). 75 MuBtabarrt-miitanu. p. 9. 1. Mummu. 13. Mulu-bad. p.. I. "'Aft-nia-arr-gab.l. 1. p 6 2 f .MA = 1.l. 98 f. p.). 13. 36 f . vat. DU. minister of Apsil : 178. Mummu.) . god : ""Ni7zz-ib. 6i-m. p. l o r ) . Tabl. z r . 1. 1. 13. 78f. Niu-igi-azag. 33 Nibiru. ) .I ~ A . 6. 2 2 .6L-rG Tabl. ~ Z IV. Tabl. I. I.8f. 60f. 108 f. 49 mrr. n. 1. ) . I. P. titie of ~ ~ : Nergal.). 129 ""M~/~labarr~-mtiinxu. 6 f. 3 1 . 16.INDEX TO DEITIES.RAD. I. 152. sub nzunzmu. li.) .K U D -p. 17. p. title of Mardulz: Memangab. 5.7of. II.. I 1.z I z.761). I. I. 27 . Tabl. p. IV. I Z (pp.A . NI-ur-nu = Nip. Ninib. I ~ Z1. 2 1 (p. uv-niu. Mumu.1. Mercury : (p. ) .95(p.. god : *'Ni?z-i aaag. Tabl. 14z. 205. 11. iVIaniub: ""Ni-6i-rr~. p. Tabl. p. 138. p. p. 173. 9. =Bljhor. zo. 66 f. 55 (p. 20. 11. z 14. 1 0 : (var. 33 Mummu. 27 . I I 3 (p.Tabl. 2 9 . I 3..72' du-du.VII (p. 1. Tabl. ( I ) Jupiter: ""Ni-hi-ri (p. I. Y Z ‘ ) . Tabl. I . 168. Mulmul.19. z r 3. 8 f . (var. 18. 173. 31 (var.l. 64 f. 1.). 136.y.4-21-AznG-G[A]. title of Mardnk: ""M~LP]ATe. 1. zz. 213. o " N i x i ~ .. 1.). 1. 1. 11. 76 f . I. p. goddess : (DING I I ~ ) N I N . p. 1. 214. ) .e. 30.) ..). Nabii. Na-zi-azaga. sec Glossary. title of T i a m a t . 139. p. Tabl. ""Mardulz. p. var.).

5 . 1. p. p. Tabl. 48f. 18.5 ( P 72 f. 32.L I. lizcr. 1.).). I. 54 (p.p ~ .gal. (p.272 INDEX TO DEITIES. 73 (P.e. . 142 (p. 130. 74 f.~5. i ~ primeval. [I<GI<]. 76 p. afr. 1 1 . 111. ETC. 56 f. 1. 1. 179. cf. ~ ~mythical t . Nippur. 11. 5. p. . Tabl. I. z z f . 26. 6. ""Sir. I. 60. d . 8 . god : '"'Nu-nan~-7zir. 1.). 4 .). 1 5 Sag-garw(?). p. I I . Tabl.) .4~(p~ o o f .h '>'Sag-gnr(?). p.I . p. 54 1.Z~. 1.e. 1. 31 .). I . 1. "'*'("' SUgp. '"'Po$-[ . 4 (p.EreSkigal. 75 (1'. 13. 217.). 128 (p. 70 f. 4 6 f . 136. 15. 60 f. p. Omorka. 1. ~ 3 p. Nunamnir. p. goddess: ""NinZLI rP 2'3. 56.). p. SU-gi. p. d<n~-nztld. 181. p. 66f. city : N$pzn. 97 ]. 1 6 . ) . 1. 190). I. 1 5 . 11. star: Su-GI. 1 . ~~. I.). 205. p. 171. 13.) H. 212. ) .title ofTiamat: ' O P ~ P K ~ ~ . zzo. I. 1 . ) . 11. 109 (p. p . Z I ~ . Tabl. 46 f.II. Jupitcr : "'SAG-AIEG A R . 77 (var.236. ~ . 11. 0 .V. 105. 39. 1 . 19. (p 54 r. 203. j g (p.) . 8 f. 1.761).t~~'. 173. 3 2 . Tnbl. 214. 119. 2 I 7. z. 1 7 (p. 171.the Sun-god. Tabl. z z .I. 80 f. Nip$1rri~{p. Tab\. z I 8. Tabl.i. 33 (p.Tabl.). 49!. rille of Rlarduk: s"~. rozf.). 2 F. 54. p.. 9 . 1. No. 5. p. 30 1. cf. p. 1. hetween 11. 98 f. ~ Ninkigal. 126. 58(p. 114 *"'*""~AG-M~-GAI<. p. I . 4of. I. ni !um. 11. the sun : '"'Snmn!.). 26. 1. 19. r g (p. P 177. 1. 6 2 f.222. (P. 1 2 . Tabl. r r ( p . 174. I. 213.].).30F. 4 1 (p. I . 56 Sag-me-gar. . 11.641. Ere:) . 212. n. n.). 36. r6 1. 150. 89.). 1.5. 1 6 .). 10. Sin. p. 128 (p.. 177. 11. 5. z 14. 212.. I. "#' . 85 ahd lo4 (p. 1.1. 1. 3. 1. "".i p . 129 (var. 11. 4 f . Sag-zu. goddess : "" S a y . ster .VII. 71 (p. Pap-sukal. l 1. 128 (p. p. ( p 68 f. 11. p. lV. 1. (I<. I. the moon : ~ ~ d i tille ~ of ~ Ea ~: it.6 f. 1.goddess: Barnag. VII. 13. 2 2 .28. 126 (p. 1 2 2 .l. V I I I. I. title of Marduk: ( P 24 f. I. I L ( ~ ~= I ) N i .). z r i . p. I 1 2 (p. r 1 8 .zr7. 1. p. 2 1 . god : "'Pczj-sufinl. ~ 6 . 34f. p.48 (p. . 0 . zz (p. mansee Introduction. 13. p. p. . 2 1 2 .r. 144. 1. constellalion in tile Pan.hi . 11. of the Pap-[ . p. DIA2GIR SAG-zu. 1. 1. I. 198. p. 36 f. Ninlil. 23. I ~ neighbourl~ood . 11. 93. 1 1 .Yc-?)ia. I. 4' (p. IV1 I' l Z 6 (P' 74f')' Sub-kur. II. the Moon-god. 13. ~ ~ . 4.star: P A N . ~ Sarpanitu. 1. I. title of nfarduli: ecliptic: Zi-anz<z!. titleo1Marduk: sb'S2~61.). p.228. 3 1 (p. 181. 124. q. p. 29.<Tabl.p a E N .3.1.) .). p.'Nu. 111. 1. 76r. 87. ""h7i7z(i.). p 136.). " p.

ETC. (p. ro6f. 96 f. p. 12. 66f. 1.. 30 f. 1 0 . 213. 1. 7) . p. l . p. 1..). 111.Uruk. 108 (p. and Utu-ka-gab-a. 11. {up-li-ti. 40 f. Unug. 190). 37) . 4 6 ) .) . Tabl. 2 1 . r 18 f. 49) .6. Tabl. Introduction .) . 12.) .bur. 5 1 9 . 111. 81 (p. 111. 1. ham) . 32 p. 98 f. star : UTU-~m= €Iahdv@. Tabl.). 111. I. Tutu. 1 1. 13 . 11. IV. IV. Tabl. 1.). 33 (P. p. 111. 11. = Tau@. 65 chamber of the gods: Up(p. Tabl. am-ma.5 11.. see GAB-A. 130. I.ukkin . Tabl. VII Up-Su-ukhin-na-ha.) . 19 (p. 128 (var. Erech : UNUG(KI) = Uma. 50 f. f. 1. '"'Tutu. between 11. Ti-amat. 135 . Tabl. p. tim. 1. 3 . 1.). p. 9 (p. Ti-amat-ma. p. 8 . p.INDEX TO DEITIES. p. 85 and 104 (p.zog. 198. h 11. Tabl. Ta-a-ma-ti. p. 15 (P. 6 . Feast of the New ti.Tabl.. 59 (var. 40.).(var. ruk.. 1. 1. Tabl. 7). Ti-amat Year : Zag . 11. 6u-ur) . I. 1. 100 f. 59 Ummu-Hubur. 17. 136.).). 54f. 2.). 1. Tabl. p. (p. 10. I 97. 178. 46). Tiibu. 14.3.) . p.11. 90 f. 197. 2 1 I . i. p. 1. I I I .) . 11. 117 (p.) .). p.4. 59 (p.nzuk. - 18 . 1. Ti-a-ma-tum. Su . p. 1. 213. 1.. see Uruk. I.) . 1. b r (p. 177. I. 1. p. 11. 88 (p.). " r N G T x T ~ . (var. p. ""[. 111. god : " " T i & u .830. 1. 1. p. "' TamI. IV.p. 1. p. Tabl. title of Marduk : "wTzr-fz~.~ ~ . 17. 1. 11. 173.I. 1 1 I. 1. 23 (p..zqf. ) . Tabl. 1. 11.p. 175. 46) . Tabl.Q z u .215. 4 . zq) . qr (p. the council (p. Tabl. 1. 81 6u-ur. Ti-a-ma-fu. 75). 7 . Tabl. 77 UpBukkinaki. 1.).zg. 1. 2 1 3.).) . 16. (I<. 1 0 . Urn-ma-@ITi-a-ma-ti. 12 f. p. Tabl. Tabl. q j 9. III. 1. Tabl. 92 f. title of Tiamat: Urn .z11.)...n a . 16. 150..p.4. Tabl. 62). 19. 32 (var... VII. 273 p. Tam-tam. 48 f. (P. ku. 11. 1 1 2 (p.mu g u . earl. 18. 49 (p. 1 2 . star : *"*'""' Ub-zu. p. 7. p. 1 6 f . 11. ukkin-nu-ki (varr. 46 f. 2 2 f. 1.) . Urn-mu-KuTabl. 194.) . roof.. I. 111. 142. Tabl.). 1. I. l. 74 f. IS. 1. p. (var. p. Tabl. 1. 205. loof.Zag-muk. tam-tu-um-ma.I. I. Tam-tim. 9 4 f . p. p.p. Tabl.]. 1. 137 (p. 19 (var.VII(IC. 119 (p. 1. 20.VI. z8f. Up-Inp. 5. 181. 1. 1. 11. 46 f. Tabl. 7) . 129 (p. 33 (var. 178. Tabl. "3 (p. 1. 1. 77 (var. ""Ti-amat.41 (var. 1. 36 f. 36 f. Ti-amat e-li.. p. p. 1. 54f. ~ 106 . loaf. Tabl. 7 5 ) .e. ""Tu-TU. 142 (p.Tabl. bur (var.. I 35 (p. I. 14.hi.. 1.) . p. r (p. 56 (var. p.

174.. 1. a-azag.). 30. 95) . to. 150. VII Tabl. 6. 144. 96 f. cf. cf. . 1. p. VII.274 INDEX TO DEITIES. . title of Mardok: Zi-si. Zi ukkina. Zulummu. . 2 18 . z t . var. p. cf. Tabl. god : "t'Zu-u. god : ""Za . D.) . (I<. Tabl. ). 161. r3. too f . . 'h'Zi-~kkljZ. Tabl. Zamama. 1. ZB. azag. p. 1 5 ( p 94f. p. 29.. VII. title of Marduk : ""Zi-si. 1.15 (var. 1. 1. p. .mu. 41 (p. ""Zu . title of Marduk : "'Zi-udkin-na.m a -"ma. ETC Tabl. 19 (p. VII. VII. p. 1. . 1.761). "'NA-ZIAZAG-G[A].lum . toz f . 1 p 164. . title of Marduk :"'Zi- / . p. I .

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Rov. I. 11. KINGfar the excellence of his autograph plater of text. King (Leonard W. . 11. King supplies an excelient vocabulary for hoth the Sumeiian and Semitic words used in these texts. edited from Tablets in the British hluseum. 18s.T h e Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi. 18s.). Edited by WILLIAM R."-Tjnrr. See American Journal of Semitic Languages." The Cuneiform Teats of a Group of Babylonian and Assyrian Incantations and Magical Formulz. net.] . Roy. n e t . M. Altogether. I . Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. King (Leonard W... 111. n e t . "Mr. etc. Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. King (Leonard W.-Babylonian Magic and Sorcery. and VIII. qta. . edited with Transliterations."Jnulih Chronirie. Babylonian Tents (continued). Vol. British Muaeurn. 7 Hebraica. z "01s. In three volumes. the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi. Translations and full Vocabulary. fram Tablets of the Kuyunjik Collection preserved in the British Museum. . net. 111.). T h e vdue of these annals can scarcely be over-estimated. Introduction. Parts 1 to XV. Vocabularies. Vols. Transliterations. . "This is the only Talmudic dictionary in English. Annual subscnptlon. . English Translations. 11. HARPER and the Staff of the Semitic Department of the University of Chicago. Vol. we believe. 14s. and still more on his translations and notes. or the Babylonian and Assyrian Legends concerning the Creation of the World and of Mankind.). Cloth. KING'S work. English Translations. Indices. with English Translations.[Lurac9s Semitic Text and Translation Series. hoth he and the Museum are to be congrntuivted on the completion of a dimcult task. and it marks an era in Arsyriological studies in England. XI1 and XIII. Supplementary (Babylonian and Assyrian) Texts.] "The concluding volumes of thin important hook are out at last. "We cannot pretend to form an adequate judgment of the merits of Mr. Compiled by M. Introduction and Babylonian Texts.L i s t oj B o o k s and PeriodicaZs. King may be congratulated on his copies of the cuneiform texts. and all students should subscribe to it. 111.A.A. 2200. Transliterations."-(Proff6666 Sayce) Expoiitory T z m r r . . F. JASTROW. Vol. . A word of special praise ir due to Mr. Vol. By LEONARD W. 18s.. each part. W. ICING. The meritr of this work are now too well known to need rapetitian. 11. by means of which several of the mutilated passages in the annals can h e restored. Vol. . 21s. 11. 18s. but it is manifestly conceived and executed in a very scholarly spirit. and the Midrashic Literature. [Luracs Semitic Text and Translation Series. Vols. KING. . .he has kept most commendably clear fram philological discussion. I. British Museum. Val."-Atheneum. Roy. etc. Mr. avo.. Vol. Cloth."-Afh~nenm. etc. Summaries of Cantents. . Vol. to which are added a Series of Letters of other Kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon. be ai great use to all students oi Mesopotamian religions.S. Vol.D. Published quarterly. Glossary.A. The Original Babylonian Texts. . 5 s . Vol. M. Being " T h e Prayers of the Lifting of the Hand. T h e noter contain very full references to the dates found in the legal documents of the period. and although his translation differs somewilat from that adopted hy German cuneiform scholars. Sva. I. Boards. 8vo. "Mr. Jastrow's Dictionary of the Targumim. . 15s . KING'S book will.-A Quarterly Journal in the interests of Semitic Study. 1'h. By L.-The Seven Tablets of Creation.C. etc. King of Babylon about B.

Balliol College. Cloth.1 9 0 1 A. Paper covers.). Post 8vo. Uemy avo. IX. Translated from the Dutch by REGINALD LANE POOLE. Vol. XIX. each. VI. By ROLAND L. 2s.) Reduced price.-Arabic Papyri of the Bodleian Library. Luzac's Semitic T e x t and Translation Series. 5s. Vol. (Published 21s. V. IV. 5s. see Rosen . 11. Text in 4to. I n two parts. Vols. pp. see Efes. 12s. and IV are left at 10s. and a Bibliographical List of all new Publications on Africa and the East. 111.). Annual subscription. LAND. 130 p p Cloth.) Reduced price. xx. S. " T h e book is ar seholarlv as it is useful. The Commentary of El-Raidawi on Sura 111. etc. Some Notices of an Egyptlan Calendar for the year 1395 A. 3s. Margoliouth (D. ) . 3s.-An Egyptian Calendar for the Koptic year 1617 ( r p . A few copies of Vols. Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Leyden.N. and XIX. MARGOLIDUTII. XIII. and XV. P. Loewe (L.). see Crow.D. XII. MICHELL. Corresponding with the years 1318-1319 of the Mohammedan Era. 219. (Published 7s. etc. IV. Demy 8vo.. 6d.-Efes Damim. see King. N. Laudian Professor of Arabic in the University of Oxford. Oxford. Vols.-A Dictionary of the Circassian Language. and XVI to XVIII. Vol.).). Luzac's Oriental Grammars Series. Of articular irnoortance are t h e book affords pleasure from beginning to end.-Chrestomathia Baidawiana. I and 11. 111. see Thompson. P. being a Series of Babylonian Historical Texts with English Tmnslations. Published by Mr. MICHELLin Egypt in 1877.).] In the Press. Vols. Containing Notes and News on. VII. Published monthly.). IM. 7 and 2 facsimiles in large folio.-A Contribution to Babylonian History. Yearly volumes (with Index. 6s. S. By J. X.-The Principles of Hebrew Grammar. N. . Vols. pp. and Circassiau-English-Turkish. I (1890) is entirely out of print. .). see Wynkoop. N. see Budge. Michell (R. half-bound). XI. S. Translated and explained for the use of Students of Arabic. 6d. Cloth. V to XIII (1894-1902) are still to be had at 5s. XIV. With T~anscriptionand Translation. I.King (Leonard W. 11. 111. Repraduced by the Collotype Process. L. 8vo. Loewe (L. Cloth."--journni .net. Vols. VIII. each. English-Circassian-Turkish. Luzac's Oriental List.A. [Luzac's Semitic Text and Translation Series. (1878 A . Margoliouth (D.. Vol. D . By D. each. N. 5s. Land (J.

(Leipzig).D. Kings."-Saturday Rrurm. Rosen (F."-Ariolir Quarltriy Review. pp.R. For the first time the reader has placed before him a full and interestins discov~rvand " account of one of the romancer of historical science-the decipherment of the cuneiform inacriptions. D."Pu61. ! I S > s \ \ ' I . Vol. Cloth. 9 "One of the strangest pieces of ~ a d i n g probably ever offerad under the name of contemporary literature. ! h . in lhe Univcrr. .D. Two "01s. 430. the best of its kind 5 0 far written in English. so. O'mar. o/ Pmz~yInamia. F. Ph. the four immediate successors of Muhammad the Apostle. (Frcs. Professor in Drew Theological Seminary. and a handbook of the agricultural and natural p h ~ n o m c n a of the Nile Valley. By ROBERT WILLIAM ROGERS. 20s. Voln. Profrsior.% ::\ Picart (Bernard)."-E~p~~~ttty T~mer " I consider Rogers's ' History of Babylonia and Assyriv' a really useful hook. 3 a n d 4 contain : T h e Life of Muhammad the Aportle of Allah. or packed in so small a co~npars. New J e r s e y . Translated from .--A Modern Persian Colloquial Grammar..ty class-room.-Sdnes de la vie Juive dessides d'aprhs Nature par Bernard Picart 1663-1733 Sixteen Plates (Reproduction en heliogravure Dujardin). . Never was information so new. lor.S. I to V. .). so oid."-H. pp. Baluciiistun. I ). .-The Rauzat-us-Safa . aud All. Cloth. "Very useful to r t u d e n t r . 6d net. T h e Glossary may be described as a local guzetteerva brief biographical dictionary of holy and historical personages. Mirkhond. t I'. 418. ~ "Dr. 400. Vols.-A History of Babylonia and Assyria. or Garden of Purity. . 2jh. Tales. pp. and a Vocabulary. HILPKECHT. an epitome of popular customs and superstitions.. . Dialogues and Entlacts from Nasir Eddin Shah's Diaries. P h D . 6%. net.D. Royal 8vo. Circiilor. a foremost place among curiosities OC modern literature.). . Scienf*$c Director ofUobytonian L'xplornii. . richly ornamented with gold and colours. . ARBUTHNOT.. especially as it is in the same uolurnc with the grammar and the dialogues. REHATSEIC 8vo. L.Lirt o f Books and Periodical's..6d. "This quaint and entertaining pamphlet may ciain. ( /. J . 5 contains : The Lives of Ab6 Balrr. F.tn I . I ! I 1 rn I \ I ti\. Rogers (R. 'The Vocabulary will be a boon to students. xx. There is DO fear that anyone who uscs this during a visit to Egypt will fail to see any particular little booli for cons~~ltafion ceiellratian for want of exact information as to its probable date. so fantastic. Crown avo. Folio. ."-Acodrtsy.. VoB. Containing a short Grammar. Together in a beautiful cloth cover. It is not only a history of Babylonia and Arsyria brought up to date. so varied. ROSBN'S learned work will be ureful t o all who have occsaion to g o t o Persia. O'thmin. and xv. : r . Cloth. LL. : I I I . 10s. . edited by F. Madison. c .m f i n d . I and 2 contain: T h e Histories of Prophets. U. W. L L D . and Khalifs. T h e fairness with which the author endeavours to represent different views so frequently h i d with i-egard to the r a r l ~ e r dynasties and events maker his work especially desirable for the student in the V. and Afghanirtun. if is also a hirtory of Assyrian and Bnhyloniw excavation and of cuneifor~n decipherment. ~ . . the original Persian by E.D.G. " Werfffiniter Reaiew. Muallakat. " Excellent guide t o the acquisition of Persian. . " T h e first volume of one of t h e most useful woil<s yet published on Assyriology has just appeared. Third edition.T h e Seven Poems suspended in the Temple ar Mecca. etc. . net each volume. . XI".) 12s.

pp. CAMPBELL THOMPSON. Thosc who wish to know what the astrological lore of Babylonia was like cannot do better than study it. z98. Now first edited in the original Syriac. Limp cloth.A. Val. Vocabulary. ."Na1ui-e. Vocabulary."-/iwi$h Chronicle. Spells. By MAXJACOB. 8th February. T h e get-up of the book is excellent. 6d. Notes.-Address to the Assyrian Section of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists. etc. and an Introduction.-Western Asia. 1893. 2 vals. 1s.C. we find a translation of the tablets in English. In the British Illuseurn. The Original Text. Indexes.) Tiele (C. a wide knowledge of authorities. ii.). The Cuneiform Texts. Thompson g i ~ e us s the cuneiform text of what is. ' ' T h e value of the book is enhanced by its excellent indices. the complete series of the Astrological Reports of the Royal Library at Nineveh-that is to say. zq."-Expoiiiory Tim-.). directed against the Attacks of Evil Spirits. 6d. IS. By PAUL RUBEN. 5s. with a n English Translation and Notes by G. (In the Press. Cloth. 12s. and a true grasp of critical principles. printed in Cuneiform Characters. Paper covers. Sauerwein (G. Small 8vo.Critical Remarks upon some Passages of the Old Testament."-A~oclemy. 2s. ."-Monnng Poit. 8v0. I.Ruben (Paul). 6d. net. according to the mast recent Discoveries. H. net each. Thompson (R. and a vocabulary. 8vo. discovery. with references. 8vo.Ph. 11. (Cantab. . The work in each of these sections has been carefully done. and Formulz. In addition. pp. "Dr. B. . practically. Index. and an Introduction. Translated and Transliterated. . Val. Kay. English Translations. and a rubiect index. Scholia on Passages of the Old Testament. British Museum. Thompson (R. copies of about 180 tablets and transliterations of about 220 dupllcatea. with Vocabulary. Roy. 3s.-The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon. Translated by ELIZAEETH J. 32. P. 8vo.). Very many of the nates are in a high degree stirnularing and suggestive. Bishop of Edessa.D. .). Mr. without reckoning the transliterations of the texts of the original series. Cloth. 36. Rectorial Address on the occasion of the 318th Anniversary of the Leyden University. 4 t 0 Cloth. Campbell). edited with Translations. Small avo. -A Pocket Dictionary of the English and Turkish Languages. 6d.D. 14. pp. By R. 3 ~6d. " I t may suffice t o congratulate ourrelves that a scholar of vigorous mind and accurate philological training is devoting his leisure to a subject worthy a[ attention. TAYLOR. net. Sayce (A.U. In two vols. "An authoritative summary of the results of recent Oriental research and " T h e address presents a graphic picture of the political situation in Western Asia in the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries e. Paper covers. pp."-The Timer. PHILLIP.-Assyrian Incantations. Campbell). RUBEN shows much originality. .Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities.

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