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0: CONDITION SURVEY & ANALYSIS
The surveying process is being done accordingly, stage by stage. Firstly, images of defect on the regarded elements were captured as this helps in giving a better view to analyses. Secondly,
defect spots were jotted down on the floor plan, as it shows the exact location of each defect. Samples of defect on certain elements were taken to ensure the main causes of each defect
There were several methods being used in order to obtain an accurate data of defect analysis. Usage of equipments is needed during the surveying process, as it helps in obtaining data.
occurred. At the final stage, the obtained data’s were transferred on measured drawings, elevations and floor plan, and an analysis of defect report is produced for the usage of clients and future purposes. The main purpose in producing an analysis of defect faultiness is to check whether the regarded building is safe for future usage or it needs a refurbishment in terms of maintenance,
SURVEYING WORK STARTS
extensions or restoration so that the length period of the building last long.
SKETCHES OF ELEVATION & FLOOR PLAN
IMAGES OF DEFECT IS CAPTURED LOCATES THE DEFECT ON FLOOR PLAN SAMPLE OF DEFECT WAS TAKEN
Figure 19: Measurement work Figure 20: Moisture meter Source: Field Study
ELABORATION OF DEFECT DATAS
Source: Field Study
Equipments used for defect analysis:
ANALYSIS OF DEFECT
a. Moisture Meter b. Laser Distance c. Measuring Tape (30 m, 50m)
PRODUCTION OF FULL REPORT
Figure 18: Flow Chart of the Defect Analysis Process
d. Binocular e. Vernier Caliper
REF NO: AT/TMBR/001/J3-1 BUILDING CONDITION SURVEY FOR DEFECTS OF INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGY OF BANDUNG PROJECT: Building Measurement and DATE: 22nd ELEMENT: Decorative Analysis May 2008 landscape AUDITED BY: Group 3, Department of TIME: Building component: Building Surveyor, Universiti Malaya, 1300 External Kuala Lumpur. WEATHER: Sunny
Figure 21: Vernier caliper Source: Field Study Each equipment tools being used has their own function. E.g; Moisture Meter is being used to check the humidity reading on a specific elements. This will determine whether the humidity causes the defect failures to occur. Meanwhile, a Vernier Caliper is used to measure the size of crack and depth of crack failures in the specified elements.
Types of Defect: (Cause) -Category 3 -Decay Cause(s) of defect: Durability of material: Insects and fungi on materials timber based easily attacked by insects. Building design: Rain causes humidity, rot, and leakage Building element specification Material: timber Colour: Dark brown/black(originally) Height: 2.84 m (measured from floor) Description of defect Timber was found in the state of decaying. It has become rotten; as shown white elements which are the fungi and bacteria had appear on the surface of the timber. It has become dirt. As the timber is exposed towards sun and rain, these become an influence for the fungi to grow.
5.2 Coding Systems
For professional view and purposes, each defect that is being detected is on each element were labeled with a standard coding system. This is for reference usage in the defect checklist, as it is also noted down on the floor plan accordingly on the grid lineage. Example of a defect checklist is being attached below for a clear view; AT is the abbreviation of the building, which is Aula Timur, whereas TMBR stands for the element involved which is timber, numerical 001 shows the defect number accordingly, and lastly J3-1 shows the grid line which can be referred on the floor plan.
5.3 Condition Survey Checklist 5.3.1 EXAMPLE OF DEFECT CHECKLIST. REF NO: ___________________ BUILDING CONDITION SURVEY FOR DEFECTS OF INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGY OF BANDUNG
PROJECT: Building Measurement and Analysis AUDITED BY: Group 3, Department of Building Surveyor, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. DATE: TIME: WEATHER: ELEMENT: Building component:
Types of Defect: (Cause)
Referring to the inspection form, the main cause Captured images of defect failures There may be several factors that contribute to the defect
Cause(s) of defect:
Building element specification
The element involved is described in terms of colour, thickness, type of material and etc.
Description of defect
Defect failure is described in detail. If a equipment is used during surveying work, the reading is noted down.
The person involved in the surveying work, who inspects the defect failure.
5.3.2 EXAMPLE OF INSPECTION FORM
-Erosion on materials that can’t stand heavy loads, frictions and repeatedly usage.
-Blister -Corrosion -Crack -Can’t be close -Can’t be lock -Can’t be open -Collapse -Curve -Damp -Decay -Dirt -Disengage -Electrocuted -Erosion -Fade -Friction -Fiber -Hole -Hollow -Leak -Lost -Mold -Not functioning -Poor Installation -Relocation of building -Rough surface -Rust -Sagging -Settlement -Split -Spotty surface -Stagnant -Torn -Unstable -Unsuitable Installation -Untidy -Vandalism -Vibration -Weather
(1). DEFECT CATEGORIES: PLEASE MARK ONLY -CATEGORY 1 (1>25%): still in good condition, can be observe, replace & repair (__) -CATEGORY 2 (26>50%): averagely, need to be observed & replace/repair as scheduled (__) -CATEGORY 3 (51-75%): serious, need to be replaced a.s.a.p (__) -CATEGORY 4(76-100%): critically, must be replaced (__) (2). CAUSES OF DEFECT(S) BUILDING DESIGN -Exposure to sunlight causes the building façade to crack, fade. -Changes of temperature cause crack and building materials contract. -Rain causes humidity, rot, and leakage. -Wind and dust causes dirty stain, erosion that can spoil certain components. -Humidity can affect the stability of the building structure, can cause the growth of algae, fungi and plant growth on buildings. -Increase of water level causes dampness on building walls, weakens the strength of a building as corrosion occurs, and spoils the paint of a building. -others DURABILITY OF MATERIALS -Short term of usage and easily spoil as the strength of material is low and sensitive towards outer environment. -Insects and fungi on materials timber based easily attacked by insects. -Absorption of water.
-Corrosion happens as the materials are being exposed to sun, rain without no anti-corrosion coating. -Disengagement of materials happen as it is easily broken, fragile to debris. This is because of exposure to sun. -Others. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION -It doesn’t have quality observation during construction -Quality of material is not being proper observed, from the aspect of how it is being used or installed. -Weak quality of inspection. Lack competency of inspection. -Lack preparation of protection towards sun exposure and rain during construction works. -Unstable of site preparation problem happens as the soil is now well compacted. -Others. -Impact of the surrounding developments is something that can’t be avoid. It can gives impact towards surrounds building. USAGE AND OUTER PRESSURE -Misused of existing facilities by the parties for private usage. -Vandalism towards material, building components and elements by irresponsible parties. -Chemical agents being used to clean up the building as it can erode the surface of the building. -Others. OTHERS -Animals -Plant growth -Late repair -Changes in structural element -Others (3).TYPE OF DEFECT -Abraded -Bend
5.4 Building Survey and Analysis
Major defect shows that the defect that can cause serious damage in a short time length if it is not being treated. From the analysis being made, it is shown that the major defect in Aula Timur
As the measurement data’s had been obtained, a surveying process on defect analysis was done. First of all, types of defect were being categorized into four different categories;
is crack. This type of defect can be found in the internal and external component of the building. Crack can be found on the drainage area which is hazardous for the people who walks on it. Without realizing, it can cause fatal accidents and can lead to injury. Besides that, crack weakens the building structure. The management people of the building should take precaution steps before it collapse.
Category 1 (one) - defect that is being categorized in this category is said that it is slightly faulty in certain parts, and it does not need any repair.
Category 2 (two) - defect is in an averagely state, needs to be observe, replace and repair if possible. On top of that, there were several elements being detected involved with the defect faulty. As shown in the pie chart below, elements can be found such as ceiling, window, drain, column, Category 3 (three) - defects are in serious state, needs to be repair as soon as possible floor and others. Others consist of skirting of columns, doors and etc. Drain and window carried out Category 4 (four) - defect in critical state, and must be replace and repair for future purposes. the highest percentage of defect occurred. This is due to the external factor that influenced by outer climate.
From the surveying results, it showed that 44% of the total defect found, is categorized in category 3 (three), this shows an immediate maintenance work is needed so it would not affect the structural elements in the worst part.
O HR TE
CIL G E IN
CTGR 2 A E OY
W DW IN O
DA R IN
CTGR 3 A E OY CTGR 4 A E OY
11% 11% 17%
CLM OU N
FO R LO
Figure 23: Elements of defect Source: Field Study Figure 22: Chart of Categories of Defect Source: Field Study
There are several types of defect that can be found in Aula Timur. As each defect has it own causes, what causes the defect occurred. As listed in the chart below, there five main types of defect which is by consideration of decaying, poor installation, hole, crack, and broken. Meanwhile other consist of several small types of defect. As described previously, crack which is the major type of defect holds the highest number of defect occurred on the elements. Followed by decays on the timber elements and broken on several types of elements. 1 2 3 4 Each element is analysed in a detail way, by examining the material that made up the element, the colour of the element involved, the thickness and size of the element, and etc, as this conclude the building element specification. These specifications helped in deciding what causes defect failures on each element. Each defet failures may be caused by several factors, as it become a contribution to the defect itself. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
5.4.1 List of Defect
REFERENCE NUMBER AT/TMBR/001/J3-1 AT/CEIL/002/J-1A AT/GUT/003/J1-1 AT/WNDW/004/G1-2 AT/DRN/005/E-1 AT/COL/006/D2-1 AT/FLR/007/B3-3 AT/DRN/008/E2-1 AT/TMBR/009/E-2 AT/WNDW/010/B-4C AT/DOOR/011/K2-6C AT/WNDW/012/J-9 AT/WLL/013/I1-9 AT/CEIL/014/F1-7 AT/SKT/015/F1-2 AT/LMP/01/J-2 AT/FLR/018/K-3A AT/SKT/019/K-4B TYPE OF DEFECT Decay Sagging Corrosion Vandalism Crack Crack Hole Crack Decay Decay Crack Split Broken Poor Installation Broken Poor Installation Hole Broken
Figure 24: Types of Elements Pie Chart Source: Field Study
It is found the major defect which is crack occurred on external compounds. Crack is said to be the major defect because it can cause severe damage to the structural compounds. Cracks in column, either vertical or diagonal, are common symptoms of structural instability.
ELEMENT 1 DRAIN
REFERENCE NUMBER AT/DRN/005/E-1
CAUSES OF DEFECT(S) Selection of site and location: Impact of the surrounding developments is something that can’t be avoid. It can gives impact towards surrounds building Durability of materials: Absorption of water Building design: Changes of temperature cause crack and building materials contract Selection of site and location Vibration causes crack on any part of the buildings Building construction: Lack preparation of protection towards sun exposure and rain during construction works. Building Design: Humidity can affect the stability of the building structure; can cause the growth of algae, fungi and plant growth on buildings.
Where the routines of building inspections and maintenance have been neglected, the rainwater goods can be easily exposed to all sorts of defects.
CAUSES OF DEFECT(S)
Durability of Materials: Corrosion happens as the materials are being exposed to sun, rain without no anti-corrosion coating Building Design: Increase of water level causes dampness on building walls, weakens the strength of a building as corrosion occurs, and spoils the paint of a building.
Corrosion can be found on the external component. It occurred on gutter. This is due to the exposure of outside climate which is rain and sun. Common problems associated with the defective rainwater goods is corroded or broken galvanized iron down pipes; or leaking rainwater heads. There are a few possible causes to the defective of rainwater goods. Lack of proper fixings of the wall, particularly by means of projecting lead ears or lugs can cause instability to the down pipes. Timbers are widely used in many historic buildings and that applies to Aula Timur.Some of the timbers are badly abused with serious damages on the surface and deteriorated; leading to
further structural problems and unsafety of occupants. The main causes to the deterioration are insect and termite attacks.
REFERENCE NUMBER AT/TMBR/001/J31
CAUSES OF DEFECT(S) Durability of material: Insects and fungi on materials timber based easily attacked by insects. Building design: Rain causes humidity, rot, and leakage Durability of materials: Insects and fungi on materials timber based easily attacked by insects Building Design: Humidity can affect the stability of the building structure, can cause the growth of algae, fungi and plant growth on buildings. Durability of materials:
Short term of usage and easily spoil as the strength of material is low and sensitive towards outer environment
5.5 Summary of Findings
Overall from the surveying process of analyzing the defects in Aula Timur, it is found that Aula Timur is in a severe condition. It needs a proper maintenance on regular check, as this will holds the length of the building age. Other than that the historical usage is being persevered.
TIMBER WINDOW FRAME
Defect on earlier stages which is being categorized in category 2 (two) and 3 (three), must be observe and replace if needed. This is to prevent severe damage occurrence. Meanwhile, defects that had been categorized in category 4 (four) should be taken serious action as it can be hazardous to people who may not know about it.
A proper scheduled maintenance should be done and manage by a professional team in repairing the building for restoration. It may be cost in terms of finance as can be seen that Aula Timur had not have its proper maintenance for several years.
Extra attention is needed for severe defect such as crack. It is found that crack is one of the major defects in Aula Timur and can cause structural damages and be hazardous towards people.
Each defect has their own main cause, what causes them to occur. This may due to the factor of climate changes, the rain and sun causes corrosion as it is being exposed externally. Other than that, durability of materials is another concern that causes defect failures on elements such as timber. This causes the timber to decay when there are growth of mould on it. This defect is also caused by humidity. With the existence of humid air around the timber, it provokes the growth of mould. Meanwhile for defect of poor installation is caused by lack of responsibility by the management team of Aula Timur. Each defect failures need to be observed and report quickly as earlier precaution steps.
With the findings of overall defect failures in Aula Timur, it is advised precaution steps need to be taken by responsible parties. As defect failures can cause severe damages, this will lead in giving bad reputation of the building image as the building holds a historical record for ages.
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