RESEARCHES INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS OF THE

GREEKS, PHOENICIANS AND

BABYLONIANS.

\

%'

/
BESEABCHES
INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE

PRIMITIVE

CONSTELLATIONS
OF THE

GREEKS, PHOENICIANS AND

BABYLONIANS
Br

ROBERT BROWN,
AUTHOR OP
'

Jun., f.s.a.
'

POSEIDON,' THE GREAT DlONYSIAK MYTH,' LANGUAGE, AND THEORIES OF ITS ORIGIN,' 'THE UNICORN,' 'THE LAW OP KOSMlC ORDER,' ERIDANUS, RIVER AND CONSTELLATION,' 'THE MYTH OP KIRKE,' 'THE HEAVENLY DISPLAY OP ARATOS,' 'TELLIS AND KLEOBElA,' 'SEMITIC INFLUENCE IN

HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY,'

ETC.

'

Hitch your wagon

to

a

star.'

Emerson.

VOL.

II.

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,
14,

HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON and 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH 7, BROAD STREET, OXFORD.
;

j

1900.

PRINTED BY
NEILL AND COMPANY, LIMITED,

EDINBURGH.

202

V,

1

STo tlje

JEemorg
OP

FRANgOIS LENORMANT.

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.
General results arrived at in the
first

volume

List of

Cuneiform

Tablets selected for translation

Notice of certain criticisms

The

transliteration

of

names by Greek and Barbarian

Question of the identification of Greek and Euphratean Constellations The work unconnected with matters religious xi

CHAPTER
The Constellations
The Fifth Tablet
Tablet
Sin.

IX.

in

the Babylonian Creation-Scheme.
Creation Legend

of the

Account in Diodoros

162
94

Tablet No.

83-1-18,

608

Tablet

No.

81-7-27,

Sumero-Semitic names of the Months

The Te Tablet
obtained

Euphratean Constellation-names already Other Euphratean Constellations Restoration of the Scheme of the 36 Constellations
.

.

.

.1

CHAPTER
Constellation-Subjects in
Stones of Nabukudurra-utsur
I.,

X.

Euphratean Art.
of

and

Maruduku-Baladan

I.

Composite Creatures RepresentaThe Signs of the tion of the Divisions of the Universe

Other engraved Stones

Zodiac

Extra-zodiacal Constellation-subjects

connexion of Mithraic Art

Euphratean 28

CHAPTER
Section
I.

XI.
Stars.

The Tablet of the Thirty

59 Introductory 67 notes with Translation of the Tablet, Section II. explanatory Lunar Zodiac Archaic The Sub-section I.
.

.67
.

Sub-section

II.

A further list

of Star-names

Sub-section III.

The Epilogue

....
.

95

98

Vlll

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
The Tilm-Tikpi Stars Section II. The Lu-mdsi Stars Section III. The Mad Stars
Section
I.

XII.

Some Stellar Groups of Sevens.
. .
.

.106
110 138

CHAPTER
Account of the
Celestial

XIII.

The Celestial Equator of Aratos.
Equator in the Phainomena

Agreement

of the description with the position of the Equatorial Constellations as viewed from the Euphrates Valley, B.C. 2084

The Bam,

Bull, Orion, Water-serpent, Bowl, Grow, Claivs, Khu-zaba Eagle, and Horse, all Euphratean Constellations the Kite the Classical IHinos-Miluus . . .143 (' '),

CHAPTER XIY. Further Consideration of the Euphratean Celestial Sphere. Section I. The Dilbat Tablet 150 Section II. The Twelve Stars of the West 159 Section III. The Fields of Anu, Bel and Ea 161 Section IY. The Pole-star and his Companions 176 Section V. The Tablet W. A. I. III. lvii. No. 5 191 Section YI. The Obliquity of the Ecliptic 201 203 Section VII. The Seven Rivers
.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

CHAPTER XV.
The Euphratean
Northern
Constellations
Star-list.

Constellations

Southern Constellations and some Planetary names Comets, Meteors, Colour-names of the Seven Planets Names of Unknown
Zodiacal

Stars

Some

other Star-names

Euphratean Cities

Patron Stellar Divinities of 206

CHAPTER XVI.
The General Concepts Underlying the Constellation-figures.
Unity of the
simple

Human Mind Early observation of the great and Phenomena of Nature The web of Anthropomorphism Solar The Law of Reduplication Dyads and Triads Activities and Personifications Darkness The Moon The
actual Configuration of the Stars, as a rule, quite unlike the

Constellation

Forms

.

.

.

.

.

.

.220

CONTENTS.

IX

CHAPTER
The Formation of the

XVII.

Primitive Constellations.

Illustration from Heraldry Solar reduplication in the Signs of the and Stars Application Spaces of the Ecliptic to the

Figures of the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac
Constellation-figures

The Northern
227

Conclusion

.........
The Southern

Constellation-figures

ILLUSTRATIONS.
1.

The Sumero-Semitic Euphratean Planisphere (by the
Author)
Frontispiece
Celestial Sphere

2.

The Babylonian

Map

of the Principal

Stars near the Equator for the Equinox, B.C.

2084
148 198

(by the Author)
3.
4.

Idkhu-Aquila (Stone from Babyl6n)

.

5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

The The The The

Ptolemaic Aries (by the Author) Ptolemaic Taurus (by the Author)
.

229 230

Lunar Bull (Hamath Inscriptions, No. 5) Great Twins (from a Cylinder) Istar-Fi'n/o with Spica (Terra-cotta from Nineveh)
.

230
231

232

Scorpion and Circle (from a

Gem)

.

.

.

232

10.

Scorpion and
utsur
I.)

Lamp

(from Stone

of

Nabukudurra
233 234 235
235
239
('

11.

12.
13.

14. 15.

The The The The The

Scorpion (by the Author)

.

Archer (from a Boundary Stone) Euphratean Goat-fish (from a Babylonian Stone)

Dog (from a Boundary Stone) Centaur and the Wild-beast
')

Scarabee Scarabee

de

Cornaline
16.

241

The

Centaur
')

and
.

the

Wild-beast

('

de

Cornaline

241

Additional Notes

243
247

Index

ABBREVIATIONS.
Brown, Robt.,
Jr.,

P.=Poeeiddn, 1872. G. D. M. The Great Diony siak Myth, 2
1877-8.
U.

vols.

- The Unicorn : a
tion,

Mythological Investiga-

1881. of Kosmic Order, 1882.

L. K. 0.

- The Law
:

E.

= Eridanus

R. = The Myth H.D. The Phainomena or Heavenly Display*
l

River and Constellation, 1883. of Kirke, 1883.

1886 (Yorkshire Part Archaeological Journal, xxxvi.). 30 S. = Remarks on the Tablet of the Thirty
V.
Stars,

of Aratos, 1885. The Zodiacal Virgo,

1890 (Proceedings

of the Society

of Biblical Archaeology). Z.

= Remarks
Names

on the Euphratean Astronomical

of the Signs of the Zodiac, 1891

(Proc. Soc. Bib. ArchaeoL).

E. S. R.

I.-V.,
C.

Euphratean Stellar Researches, Parts 1892-6 (Proc. Soc. Bib. ArchaeoL).

E. A.

= The Celestial Equator of Aratos, 1892 (Transactions of the Ninth InterC.

national Congress of Orientalists).
0.

N.

= The

Origin of the Ancient Northern

Constellation-figures,

1897 (Journal of the

;

Royal Asiatic Society). Sem. = Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology,
1898.

W. A.

I.

Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vols. I.-V.

K. = Kouyunjik Collection of Cuneiform Tablets (British Museum). Ak. = Akkadian.

= Arabic. = Assyrian. Bab. = Babylonian. = Egyptian. Eg. Et. = Etruscan.
Ar.
As.

Ph. = Phoenician.

Sem.

= Semitic. = Sk. Sanskrit. Sum. = Sumerian.

INTRODUCTION
TO VOLUME
In the
first
II.

volume of

this

work

I

have treated at

length of the ancient constellations as they appear in Greek literature from the earliest times to the days of

Ptolemy, paying special attention to the Homeric I have also noticed, in references to stars and Signs.

very considerable detail, how the constellation-forms, with hardly an exception, reappear as coin-types, and how nearly all the most prominent of the heavenly
Signs are familiar subjects in the early unnumismatic art of Asia Minor and of the Aigaion seabord. Lastly,
considered Babylonian astronomy subsequently to the age of Alexander, and with particular reference
I

to the question

whether the Euphrateans had an independent scientific astronomy of their own, or whether they were wholly indebted for this to Greek
found reason unhesitatingly to believe that throughout the earlier intercourse between Hellas and the Euphrates Valley, the former was the borintellect.
I

rower

;

and that the main foundations of the science

were laid in the country of the Two Eivers at a period when the Greek was an uncultured, although
I also noticed doubtless highly intelligent, barbarian. that many of the ancient Greek constellations were

and had actually identical with those of Babylonia, been introduced into Hellas through the medium of
the Phoenicians, and of the mixed peoples of Asia

Xll

INTRODUCTION.

Minor.

Further, I adduced a variety of reasons in of the view that the constellations named in support early Greek writers, such as Homer and Hesiod, did

not represent the only Signs known to them at the time and that others, equally familiar, were not
;

mentioned, simply because the subject did not require any reference to them. It remains for me, in the
present volume, to trace back, by illustrative instances, the employment of the constellation-figures in the Euphrates Valley to a very remote period, and
to explain, if possible, the mental process pursuant to which these familiar forms first came into existence.

The mass
stellar

Euphratean literature upon and even is, enormous. The subjects was,

of early

catalogued Tablets in the iT. collection of the British Museum alone number 14,230, the far greater portion of which are more or less astronomical. But the vast

majority of them are of

little

or no service in the

present enquiry, as they merely repeat familiar starnames in connexion with actual terrestrial occurrence,

on the cum

hoc, ergo propter hoc principle, or else record only simple astronomical observations which

were continually being made, such as The moon and star x the in its is fixed.' Here and rose, place
'

we come upon Tablets of the highest such as value, give lists of stars or constellations connected with different months, or with special portions
there, however,

of the heaven, and we also meet with occasional very useful explanatory glosses. Out of the mass of

cuneiform evidence available,
for translation
Tablets Sm. 162;

I

have specially selected

and comment

:

83-1-18, 608; and 81-7-27, 94, being three surviving fragments of the Sumero-Semitic Euphratean Planisphere.
.

INTRODUCTION.
The
'

Xlll

Sign '-Tablet of the Months (Te Tablet), No. 85-4-80, 15 (Vide Vol. I. 9).
of the Thirty Stars (W. A. Archaic Lunar Zodiac.
I.

The Tablet The

V.

xlvi.

No.

1),

or

Lists of the Tiksi-Tikpi, Lu-mdsi,
II. xlix.
' '

and

Mad

stars

(W. A.

I.

10-13; III. lvii. No. 6). The Tablet of the Proclaimers (Dilbat Tablet, 81-7-6, 102).

The

List of the

'Twelve Stars

of the

West' (W.A.I.

II. xlix.

No.

1).

The

List of the Stars of the Fields of 82-5-22, 512).

Ann, Bel and Ea (Tablet

The Tablet W. A.

I.

III.

lvii.

No. 5 (Notices of Centaurus,

Sagittarius, etc.).

These I have supplemented by numerous extracts from other Tablets, and have illustrated by several maps and figures. The result enables us to compile a very fairly complete list of Euphratean stars and constellations, although, as previously

noticed, a great
still

amount

of cuneiform literature

is

unpublished.

That much more will be accomplished in the future in these studies I do not doubt but, meanwhile, I think
;

be admitted that considerable progress has been made. The outcome of Euphratean astrological science may be thoroughly studied in M. Boucheit

will

Leclercq's very learned

and exhaustive work, L'AstroThe Tablets above mentioned logie Grecque, 1899. cover altogether a period from about B.C. 500 to the third millennium B.C., a fact which implies that the mapping out of asterisms and constellation-figures had

commenced long
In the
careful
first

volume of
which,
I

prior to the latter epoch. this work I pleaded
so
far,

for

criticism,
;

I

have

generally

received

and

have to thank many kindly writers

for their notices, especially since the subject is intriIn one or two incate and off the beaten paths.

XIV

INTRODUCTION.

stances my critics have been hostile, but I regret that I have not been able to profit much from their strictures on account of the vagueness of the charges

One writer, however, is rather brought against me. more definite. Thus, he says (quoting no passage) that I really ought to know that there is no h either
'

I happened to mention in Assyrian or in Akkadian/ this dictum to the first of living English Assyrioloat once replied that it was a heresy.' The gists, who
'

same writer
'

is

both shocked and amused because
'
'

(fol-

lowing various high authorities) I write Samas and not Shamash,' etc., a form with which, however, my critic might have noticed that I must necessarily be
familiar,
I

inasmuch as

it

occurs in various works which

have quoted.

if I

don't use a form I

it; just as if

But, according to some oj^ponents, must necessarily be ignorant of I refer to a book written twenty years

ago,

it

follows that I can have read no more recent
subject.

This sort of thing, however, is but rather savours of malevolence, criticism,' and betokens an inability to construe a written document. And I would ask my reviewer, Is it not a

work on the
'

not

'

fact that, in proper

=a Heb.

4

names, an As. s (Shin) frequently (Samech) V In a letter to the paper in

which these remarks appeared, I suggested that the reviewer, in addition to such and several other equally
valuable strictures, should say something about the constellations, as they formed the subject of the book.

he (no doubt judiciously) absolutely declined ' to do, merely observing that he entirely dissented the of matter. Let the real expert from my view

But

this

'

me reprove me
smite
the

it
it

shall

be

a

kindness

;

and
oil
;

let

him
so

shall be

an excellent

but from

anonymous

reviewer,

who

feigns

to

know

INTRODUCTION.

XV

much, and yet is found to be wanting, or to keep his wisdom carefully to himself, I can derive no benefit. Another reviewer really seemed to be very angry
because I write
'

'

Darayavaush

instead of

Darius.'

He was
1

specially aggrieved at the reason I gave, inasmuch as that was his name,' and fiercely taunted

me

with writing

'

Alexander/

As

I

'

observed,
'

Severe

logical uniformity in this matter Had I rashly written attainable.'
critic

not at present Alexandras/ my might have suffered from a rush of blood to the
is

head.

With regard

to the suggested derivations of various
'

proper names, my judges occasionally write that this or that is incorrect or absurd/ but specify no reasons As far as I can gather, they for their opinions.

appear to confuse two things which are entirely distinct namely (l) the established laws of letter:

the rough and ready

change in connected languages and dialects and (2) way in which people endeavour
;

to express in speech or quite unfamiliar to them.

writing words

and names

are dealing with the attempts of Greeks, in the early historic period, to express Semitic words, or even non-Hellenic Aryan

When we

words in a Greek form, there is no Grimm's Law to When the Great King, Khshaydrshd, guide us. invaded Hellas, the Greeks, making the best they could of it, turned his name into Xerxes but how
;

impossible it would be, by any rules of Aryan letterIf* we change, to recover the former from the latter. had no historical knowledge on the point, I can

imagine the scorn with which several modern

critics

would
to

treat the suggestion that these

two names were

really identical.

Or, again, when a Babylonian had grapple with the difficulties of such a Greek name

XVI
as StratonikS,

INTRODUCTION.

did he express it? He wrote Asta-ar-ta-ni-ik-ku=Astartanikku. Here, too, we hav< no regular laws of letter-change which would lead to

how

To take another instance. We know name of the chief Assyrian god of later times was Assur, and we read in the A.V. that Sennacherib
this
result.

that the

was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god. Can there be any connexion between the words Assur and Nisroch ? Undoubtedly there is. As Mr. Pinches has shown (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soc, April, 1899, pp. 459-60), Assur=the Gk. forms 'E<ropa X and Nao-a^oa^, which consist of Assur + the ending -ah, which appears as -uk in the full form of the name of Marduk, namely, Amuruduk.' Bearing such and
1

many

other similar instances

in

mind,

it

will

be

is nothing impossible, or, in the even abstract, improbable, in my suggestion, based on a variety of connected circumstances that such a name

observed that there

as the Gk. Aleos (Vol.

I.

232) represents an original
else-

Sem. 'Elion, 'Eliun, which we find admittedly where in Hellas in the form of Elieus. Aleos

may

possibly be a variant form of akeeivos ('hot'), and Hesychios gives the equation a\e6s=$idTrvpo$ (' red-

hot

')

;

and,

if so,

Aleos

('

the Red-hot

')

is

a fitting
'

son of Arkas, le (' '), dieu-soleil,' as M. Berard justly calls him. But, be this as it may, the equation Elieus=Aleos may well
the Unsparing
stand.
''EiXiovv

son of Apheidas

If a

Greek met with such a form as 'Eliun
i.

(San.

ally regard it

'Most-high'), he might very naturas an accusative of 'EXfeJ? (' Zeus at
5,

there be anything to prevent him from reading the name Alieus, Aleos, considering such a Phoenician form as Alonirn, 'dii
Thebai,' Hesych.).
'

Nor would

pr.

Superi

(=' the High-ones ').

I trust, therefore,

INTRODUCTION.

XV11

that the reader will not hastily accept the off-hand dicta of irresponsible persons on such matters.

A

may frequently have a dozen or more works before him, which he has to get through somehow or other and he is aware that unless he poses as
reviewer
' '

;

having, years ago, gone all through the subject and come out at the other side, some people will probably
regard

him

as unequal to the emergency.

Another circumstance which may frequently have occurred in places where many languages met together, e.g., Krete, is the formation of words compounded of

more than one form

of speech.

Thus,

I

have sug-

gested that the phrase 'the Lord T4n' (IIoWlTai/os) Sem. became Hoo-eCSav, and that Amaltheia may

=

Ammd + Gk.

Oela The ordinary (Vide Vol. I. 221). a is hostile type reviewer of invariably filled with contemptuous horror at such ideas but neither he
;

nor anyone else has ever been able to explain these names satisfactorily, or to urge any conclusive reason

Innumerable why my suggestion is impossible. instances occur in which two words have been firmly welded together into a single name, e.g., Uru-Salim
('

The City

of the

god of Peace ')=Jerusalem.

as in the cases I mention,

we

Here, have the combination

god-name and another word. If, then, in border regions we meet with divinity-names which neither
of a

Semitic nor
pret,

Aryan languages can

satisfactorily inter-

we might perhaps do worse than

try the effect

of a combination of the two.
is practically a second part of In Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology. my and that work I sketched in outline the principles

The present study

standpoint of the

mythologists

;

Aryo-Semitic school of Hellenic and combated, with his own weapons
b

XV111

INTRODUCTION.

of banter

and pleasantry, what seemed

to

me some

absurdities of a certain brilliant writer on folklore,

totemism, and the savage.
c

This afforded extreme

opponents an opportunity of asserting that duct was unmannerly,' and also of somewhat
pretending that

my

con-

my

required no reply. who sent my book to Mr.
is

meanly arguments were mere jokes which I do not think, like those editors

the best judge of his point has been approved of
Miiller

Lang to own cause

;

review, that a man but, as my standas

by such savants

Max

and Renouf, whilst

my mode

of treatment of

the subject has entertained men of Froude and Ruskin, I am quite content that one or two 'Higher Critics' (Vide inf. p. 100), or some
of letters of the grade

belated totemist of the school of Aguchekikos, should Let the galled jades wince. pelt me with his roses.

repeat that I have never attacked Totemism but only the absurd effort to introduce it at any cost,
1

may

;

facts or

Egypt, etc. Anyone who continues to hold that the Greeks either received or invented the majority of the constellation-figures in comparatively late times, cannot fairly pass over the arguments and evidence to the

no

facts, into Hellas,

contrary which

I

have brought forward.

The

fact

is,

as I have frequently been informed, very few scholars in recent times have closely studied the history of

the constellations, both externally, i.e., with respect to literary references to them, and internally, i.e., with
respect to the
stellar

adaptation

of the forms

to

actual

arrangement, and their alteration from time to

They have relied on opinions of the past, founded upon insufficient evidence and examination, and by no means up to date. The question of the identification of stars, asterisms,
time.

INTRODUCTION.

XIX

and

constellations,

is, I

am

well aware, one of extreme

numerous instances. I do not intend to be dogmatic. The identification of the Chaldaean observes M. Maspero, with those of constellations,' Graeco-Roman or modern times has not yet been
difficulty in
'
'

satisfactorily
3).

made out

'

(Dawn, of
e.g.,

Civ., p.

668, n.

Several English writers,

Mr. L. W. King, in

Bab. Magic and Sorcery, refer to Jensen as the principal authority on the question. But even with respect to the names of the planets, Jensen has had at last reluctantly to agree that the
his interesting

view of Oppert was, after
Ibid. p. 669, n. 6).

the correct one (Vide The earlier investigators of the
all,

subject were certain, from the nature of the case, to make many and serious mistakes. Nor is this really

anything to their discredit, since nothing short of inspiration could have avoided all error.
this subject Dr. Morris Jastrow observes 'While it is probable that two or three of our constellations
:

On

are of occidental origin, the zodiacal system as a, whole is the product of the Babylonian schools of astrology. From Babylonia the system made its way to the

particularly through to India and the distant back Greek, influence, again
west,

and through western, more

The number of constellations distinguished by the Babylonian astronomers has not yet been definitely
east.

ascertained.

They

certainly recognized

twelve.

Further investigations
'

more than show that they may

knew most of the forty-eight constellations enumerated by Ptolemy {Religion of Babylonia and Assyria,
It will be observed that this cautious 1898, p. 456). conclusion of an eminent modern authority is, in all with the views and sugrespects, in perfect harmony in the forth set present work. gestions

XX
Lastly, I

INTRODUCTION.

may

observe that the subject of revealed

religion in general,

and of Christianity

in particular,
;

does not come within the scope of these pages but, remembering that some kindly religionists are always

ready to assume that a
able

man who
and
to
;

does not obtrude his

faith is destitute of any,

draw divers
and,

charit-

conclusions

accordingly

moreover,

not

being ashamed of any of my opinions, I would add, in the words of the illustrious savant to whose

memory
. . .

I

Ma

dedicate this volume, Je suis un chretien foi est assez sol idem ent etablie pour ne pas
'

etre timide.'

PRIMITIVE

CONSTELLATIONS.

CHAPTEE
The Constellations

IX.

in the Babylonian Creation-Scheme.

The

learned scribes of Assurbanipal, king of Assur (Assyria), compiled, cir. B.C. 650, from far older
that
is

sources

account of
familiar
to

the

beginning

which

now

students

as the Creation Legend.

composition states
1

The that some divine personage

things of Assyriology Fifth Tablet of this

of

He He

prepared the mansions of the great gods ; fixed the stars, even the Lumdsi, to correspond to them ; ordained the year, appointing the Signs of the Zodiac (Mizrdta
yumazzir. Miz?rita=TLeb. Mazzdroth, Job xxxviii. 32) over it of the twelve months he fixed three stars (Ap. Sayce).
'

;

For each

Lumdsi, the twin stars (Eel. Anct. Babs. p. 389), and there are two (Ak.) words mas, one meaning twin,' the other hero.' As Mr.
Prof. Sayce renders
'

'

'

'

Sayce notices
'

(lb. p. 49), the earlier
I

meaning of the
'

term, and the one which
'

prefer to adopt here, is the Sheep of the Hero,' the Ak. lu meaning sheep,' " " hero of the astronomers, flocks.' Mdsu, the
*
'

Hence we see could only have been the sun (lb.). that the stars are further described as the Sheep
*
' '

of the

Hero' (Vide Vol.
II.

I.

p.

287); and, as noticed
1

VOL.

2

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
I.

[iX

(Sup.

means
3
'

16-17), the term JcaJckab (' star '), Ak. mul, either star or constellation/ according to
'
'

'

the context.
'

The divine Arranger,
' '

therefore, fixed

stars

or

constellations

for each of the twelve
is

months.
as the
'

Which
'

of these terms

intended

?

Now,

12 zodiacal constellations are named, if we read stars we must understand the scribe as saying either that (1) the are 3 stars in each 3 stars
* '

zodiacal constellation, or (2) that the 3 stars are 1 N. of the Zodiac, 1 S., and 1 zodiacal. The first alter-

and, moreover, would show an incomplete scheme of the heavens whilst the second would show an inconsistent scheme for

native

is

vastly improbable,

;

;

why

should we have zodiacal constellations and no

and merely a mention of separate stars except in the ecliptic ? The forming of star groups is a natural process by no means coufined to the limits of
others,

the ecliptic.

On
we

sage, therefore, scribe refers to a

a careful consideration of the pasarrive at the conclusion that the

scheme of 36

constellations, each

with

its leading 12 zodiacal.

star,

12 northern, 12 southern, and

to the Creation Tablet,

This view of the scheme of the heavens, according is abundantly confirmed when
to the general evidence available. Thus, the in a familiar to (ii. 30-31), passage

we turn

historian Diodoros

Assyriologists, gives a resume of Chaldaean astronomico-astrology as it existed in his day and, how;

ever fantastical
of Babylonia,

may
it
is

be his account of the early history

very clear that this statement, probably mainly derived from Berosos, is perfectly The five planets, he says, were called accurate.

and under, ('Ejo^w-f?, Sum. Kinmi) Interpreters were marshalled in to, these, i.e., subjection Thirty
* ;
'

'

ix]
Stars,'

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.
which were styled
'
'

*

j
'

Divinities of the Council
'

(/3ov\alov$ Oeous).

And

they say that the Chiefs of
'

the Divinities

'

[I.e.,

of the

Counsellors

previously

number, to each of whom they a month and one of the 12 Signs of the assign Zodiac' Through these 12 Signs sud, moon and And with the zodiacal planets run their courses. Circle they mark out 24 Stars, half of which they say are arranged in the north, and half in the south.' In
mentioned.] are 12 in
'

scheme, therefore, there were 12 protagonistic, central and zodiacal stars, each connected with a Sign of the Zodiac and constituting, so to
this
celestial

speak,

its capital.

The existence

of such a head-star,

however, did not negative, but rather implied, the existence of the constellation of which it was the
head, just as Yorkshire is the natural complement of York. These 12 zodiacal stars were flanked on either
side

by 12 non-zodiacal

stars,

of 12, or 36 stars in
arbitrary, for the
stars

all.

thus making up 3 sets And this number was not

12 northern and the 12 southern

were reduplications of the 12 central zodiacal stars ; and the number of these, again,

and was

moon during

not arbitrary, but depended upon the cycles of the In the same way, therefore, the year.

that the 12 central stars were respectively the heads of the 12 zodiacal constellations, so were the other 24
stars the

heads of the northern and southern constel-

Whatever may have been the lations respectively. practice of the ancient Arabians in the matter, it is
perfectly clear that the
early Euphrateans grouped
stars in constellations, e.g., the instances of the

Wain
The

(Sup. Vol.

I.

266) and the Archer

(lb.

78).

northern and southern constellations were the paranatellons of the zodiacal Signs.

4

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[iX

Thirty Stars,' the Divinities of the Council/ are those referred to in W. A. I. V. xlvi. No. 1 (Inf.

The

(

'

Chap. XL).

These, as

I

have shown elsewhere (30 S.;

E.S.R.
Lunar

Pt. v.), constituted the original Euphratean Zodiac, the parent of the seven ancient lunar

zodiacs which have

come down

to us, namely, the
'

Persian, Sogdian, Khorasmian, Chinese, Indian, Arab and Coptic schemes. The Ak. phrase, The Watch of the Thirty (Stars) is rendered in Sem. Bab. by Vide the Matstsardti (' The Signs of the Zodiac.' W. A. I. IV. xv. Col. i. 4), inasmuch as the fields of the 30 Stars and the 12 Signs are practically identical. As Sumero-Akkadian had ceased to be a spoken language for many hundred years prior to the time of Assurbanipal, and as the great mass of archaic stellar lore had been borrowed by the Semites from their
'

Turanian neighbours,

it

celestial Sphere, the latest edition of

follows that the Euphratean which we find

in such compositions as the Creation Legend above quoted, is the venerable mother of all planispheres,

star-maps and astrolabes belonging to Western Asia
or to Europe.

Three Fragments of this Sphere have
;

been discovered, and are now in the British Museum and a careful examination of these will further confirm

the results arrived at from a consideration of the

passage in the Creation Legend, as illustrated by the account of Diodoros. The first Fragment, Sm. 162,
is

thus
'

described

Tablets K. Collection

by Dr. Bezold (Cat. Cuneiform B.M.'w. 1385)
:
-

Portion of the section of a sphere or astrolabe,
in.

2T

%

by 2
of

in.

;

in.

high.

The

flat

side

is

in-

scribed with the names of the months, names and
figures

certain

degrees/

This

and numbers of certain Fragment was discovered by Geo.
stars

IX]

BABYLONIAN CREATION- SCHEME.
'

5

Smith,

by him
rally

in the palace of Sennacherib,' and is described in As. Discoveries, 1875, pp. 407-8. Natu-

at that period he only understood it imperfectly, thinking, e.g., that some of the numbers were errors in the Assyrian copy,' whereas, as we

enough
'

they are all quite correct, a circumstance which warns us that one of the last hypotheses in
shall see,

interpretation should be that the record before us is erroneous. Smith further thought that two stars in

Scorpio and two in Sagittarius were named, which is not the case. The Fragment was subsequently discussed with great ability by Messrs. Bosanquet and Sayce (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astron. Soc. Vol. XL. No. 3, Jan. 1880), in connexion with the
question of the division of the
it:
circle.

They

translate

Month Marchesvan
Star Lighat

Month

Cislev

Star Nibatanu

140 degrees
Star Girtab

120 degrees Star Utucagaba

70 degrees

60 degrees

'

They do not touch upon the general question of I the reconstruction of the Euphratean Planisphere. read the Fragment in Sum.-Ak. as follows
:

[Liu] Apin-dH-a

Idu Gan-gan[-na]

Mul Ligbat
lJfi

Mul Mul

Kisal-bat-a-la

120
Ud-gu-du[-a]

Mul

Gir-tab

70

60
it

In Bab. -As.

reads

:

[Arkhu] Arakh-samna Kakkab Kalab-mituti
ljfi

Kakkab Aqrabu
70

Arkhu Kislimu Kakkab Kisallu-labiru-a-nu 120 Kakkab Yumu-nahri 60

6

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[iX

The
'

translation of the Ak. version
Opposite-to-the-Foun-

is

:

[Month]
dation.

Month

The

Constellation

Very-cloudy. The Ancient-

Constellation
140.

The Beast-of-death,

altar-below,

120.

Constellation
70.

The

Scorjrion,

Constellation
sun-face,
60.'

The

Smiting-

The

translation of the

Sem. version

is

similar, ex-

cept that the months are the 'Eighth-month' (=OctThe word ala is Nov.) and Kislev (=Nov.-Dec).

rendered by a usual reading of the characters, anu, which makes the epithet difficult to understand

;

and the name of the fourth constellation
lated
'

is

trans-

by a paraphrase meaning the Day-of-dawn,' It will thus which probably=' the Dawn-of-day.' be observed that the Fragment relates to the 8th and 9th Signs of the Zodiac and months of
the year, and to constellations situate in that region of the heavens. The 8th month being called (Ak.) Foundation(^4pm)-in-front [duo), it follows that
'
'

the foundation or commencement of the Calendar

when

the

Sum.-Ak.

month-names were

bestowed,

was the month opposite to it, namely, that which is now the second, and which was called (Ak.) Gutsisa Our the Sem. Airu-Iyyar. (' the-Directing-bull '), a to thus takes us back Planisphere by implication period prior to B.C. 2540, and when the sun was in Taurus at the vernal equinox. In agreement with In Accadian times the this, Prof. Sayce observes, commencement of the year was determined by the
*

position

of

the

star

Capella

[a
"

Aurigae],
also

called

[and Dilgan, "the Messenger of Light 'the Goat,'=Aix, vide Vol. I. 130], in

Askar,
to

relation

IX ]

BABYLONIAN CREATION- SCHEME.

7

the
p.

new moon

The 402). Vol. I. 71 et seq.), Ligbat ('The Wild-beast, (Vide vide Vol. I. 110 et seq.) and Udgudtta ('The Archer'
'

at the vernal equinox (Herodotos, The Scorpion constellations Girtab,

'

'

vide Vol.

I.

77

et seq.)

have been already referred

to.

The fourth

constellation, Kisal-bat-ala, called

by the

other translators Nibatanu, remains for consideration. Now Nibatanu, or rather Zalbat-anu (Vide Vol. I. 347-8) is a name of Mars and it is clear, alike from
;

the account of Diodoros and from the general circumstances of the case, that no planet could form one of

the 36 special stars connected with particular months, inasmuch as no planet is specially connected with any
particular
stars.

month

in at all the

According to

same way as are fixed the Fragment before us, we have

the stars or constellations of the Scorpion, the Wildbeast and the Archer as appearing in this portion of the heavens, and these three forms are familiar to us

Hence the inferin Euphratean constellational art. ence is irresistible that the fourth star or constellation
question must be some familiar adjoining figure south of the zodiacal cincture.
in

No
we

other figure except the Altar is available, and therefore have to examine the Ak. name in this

there any difficulty in the interpretation proposed, for, amongst the various meanings Vide Sayce, of the first sign is Kisallu (' altar.'

connexion.

Nor

is

Syl. No.
('altar'),
'

139), a

word derived from the Ak. Kisal
'

('

oil

or

'

compounded of The altar, anointing ').
is

which

on Assyrian gems and upright post or column, sometimes with an exThese columns corresponded tinguisher-like top.
. . .

hi (' place') -\-sal so often depicted bas-reliefs, consisted of an

to the

"
sun-pillars

"

and asherim, or symbols of the

8

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[iX

goddess Asherah, so frequently alluded to in the Old Testament' (Sayce, Eel. Anct. Babs. pp. 410-11).

The Ak. bat means

'

old,'
('

fore obtain Kisal-bat

As. labiru, and we therethe Old-altar ') as the name of

the fourth constellation of the Fragment. Although nu is the ordinary reading of the last sign in the

name, yet

it

may

also

Class. List, p. 100).
'

The Ak. ala
al,
il

be read la (Vide Briinnow, will be connected
'

with the Turko-Tatar root

('

below,'

under,'
all

what

is

beneath

'),

whence

comes the Uigur
:

This root al explains ('under'), and similar forms. the following well-known Ak. words alal (=al + al, i.e., al intensified), abraded to ala (a 'demon'), i.e.,
a creature which belongs to and comes up from the Under- world alad (=ala + da, the 'individualising
;

affix'), a 'colossus'; Alala ('the Sun-god'),
'
'

i.e.,

the

great spirit who daily rises from and descends into the Under- world. therefore find that the full

We

name

of this constellation

is

the Ancient-altar -below.

A

passage from Aratos

will assist us in appreciating
:

the significance of this appellation
'

Now

The Scorpion, near the And this you note but

'neath the glowing sting of that huge Sign south, the Altar hangs.
little

time aloft

;

For opposite Bear-watcher doth it rise. And, whilst his course is wholly high in
It quickly speeds

air,
'

beneath the western sea

(H. D. 402-7).

Proctor refers to

from the old

the statement of Aratus, quoted astronomers (for every page of the

'

Phaenomena shows

that Aratus was not himself an

observer of the heavens), that Ara is to be seen above the horizon for as many hours as Arcturus remains

below the horizon.
filled

This relation has not been
ago,

ful-

since

some 3800 years

when

the

star

IX]

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.

9

Arcturuswas 50 from the North Pole and the middle of Ara 50 from the South Pole. If, as is probable, the whole of Ara is meant, then the epoch must be These passages placed four centuries farther back.'
illustrate the position of
beloiv,

Ara
I

as the Ancient-altar -

and confirm what
Jr.,

have shown elsewhere

(Vide R. B.

H.

I).

;

C. E. A.),

general celestial description

namely, that the contained in the Phaino-

Euphratean in origin. A careful examination Sm. 162 thus leads to the highly interesting conclusion that the ancient Euphratean constellations in this part of the Sphere were those of our modern

mena

is

of Tab.

star-maps.

Another

fact disclosed

by

this Tablet is that the

was divided into 120; for the Scorpion marked 70 and the Archer 60, the Bull, the being commencement of the circle, will be 10, and the Tivins, its termination, 120. Similarly, the outer or southern the Wildcircle had double the number of degrees beast being marked 140 and the Altar 120, the constellation below the Bull would be 20 and that below the Twins 240. It is further obvious from
zodiacal circle
;

the

Euphratean Sphere must have contained a third, inner, or northern
foregoiDg

considerations

that

the

consisting of 60, viz., of half the degrees of the central or zodiacal circle.
circle,

number

of

We

thus

meet again (Vide Vol. I. 332) with the all-important number 60, and with the zodiacal circle of 120.

The second of the three Fragments
:

of the Euphra-

tean Planisphere (No. 83-1-18, 608) is thus described by Dr. Bezold (Cat. p. 1904) Portion of a sphere or astrolabe, 2| in. by 1^\ in.;
'
-

The flat side appears to have been inhigh. scribed with the names and figures of certain stars.
in.
'

IO

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[iX

The two star-names

to the left are perhaps too
;

much
two

but, fortunately, the other star-names are certain. In the inner or

mutilated for restoration

northern division

Kakkab Sarru (' The outer or zodiacal division contains below, '35.' Mul Gir[_-tab\ The Constellation of the Scorpion,'
'

(Ak.) Mul Lugal, (Bab. -As.) The Constellation of the King '), and

we read

and below,

'

70.'

Each zodiacal division of the Plani-

sphere evidently contained the figure 0, which, I presume, as alike in the Egyptian hieroglyphs and in
this case

our modern almanacs, is the symbol of the sun, in connected with each zodiacal sign and its

particular stars.
if it

The

circle in the

northern divisions,

was originally in each, probably indicated the

chief star of each.

The constellation of the King represents the solar hero and sun -god Gilgames sarru gitmalu dainu

Annunnaki}

Gilgames, giant king, judge of the As Mr. Pinches has Masters-of-the-Under- world.'
'

'

pointed out to
styled

me, Maruduku (Merodach) is also and he and Gilgames are King-of-the-gods
'

;

But is par excellence Gilgames, whose favourite attitude on the monuments is kneeling upon one knee,=Engonasin, the Phoenician Harekhal ('the Traveller '),=Gk. Herakles, and the Phoenician Melqarth (' King-of-the-City '),=Gk. Melikertes. The huge
really identical, this constellation

as

two variant

solar phases.

stature of Herakles constantly appears in art, witness that most comic of vase - representations, Herakles

Agreeably with slaying Busiris and his attendants. this identification we find that amongst the names of
1

From

by Mr.

W.

a Tablet given in Haupt's Nimrod Epos, and translated St. Chad Boscawen, in the Bab. and Oriental Record,

February, 1894.

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.

II

the constellation HerahUs-Engonasin, which is just over the Scorpion, are Melicartus (=Melikertes)
,

Malica (=Ph. Melekh, the King,'=Bab. Sarru,= Ak. Lugal), Palaemon (=Paiaimon,==Baal-Hamon,= 1 Melqarth), and Maceris (=Makar,=Melqarth). As these two Fragments of the Planisphere each
'

give the Scorpion, one with

its

northern, the other

southern, paranatellon, fortunately possess a complete segment of the circle, one-twelfth of the

with

its

we

whole (Vide Frontispiece). Apparently the diameter of the whole Planisphere was 7 inches or thereabouts, and the circumference 21 inches.

The Third of the three Fragments of the Planisphere (No. 81-7-27, 94) Bezold (Cat. p. 1803):
'

is

thus described by Dr.

Portion of the section of a sphere or astrolabe,
in.

3

by 2^

in.;

1

in.

high.

The

flat side

appears to

have been inscribed with the names of the months,

and names and
it

figures of certain stars.'

In Akkadian

reads

:

Idu As-a-an

[Idu] Se-ki\-sil\

Mul

Sila-da-klia-bi

Mul

(lacuna)

80

In Bab. -As.
Arhliu Sabddhu

it

reads

:

Kakkab Nun-suki
80

[Arkhu] Addaru Kahlcab (lacuna)

The

translation of the Ak. version

is

:

'Month
Canal.

The

Curse-of-rain.

[Month]

The Sowing-qf -seed.
{lacuna).''

Constellation

The Fish-of-the-

Constellation

The months
1

are

the xith, Sehat (Jan. -Feb.), and
les Cultes,
iii.

Vide Dupuis, Origine de Tons

125.

12

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
;

[iX

the xiith,

Adar (Feb. -March) and the Fragment to the southern or outer circle of the Planibelongs sphere, which had the month-names marked on it.
is

Eighty

the proper

month

in this circle.

number of degrees for the xith The month-name Curse-of-rain
'

alludes to the fact that

Babylonia

is

reduced to an
'

impassable marsh by the rains of January (Prof. The xith month Sayce, in Trans. S. B. A. iii. 164).
is

that of Aquarius, and the Story of the Flood was The Ak. conthe legend specially connected with it. stellation-name preserved on this Fragment supplies

an interesting illustration of the Sum.-Ak. language. Sila ('canal') -{-da (individualising affix) 4- kha ('fish')

+ hi
of.'

(enclitic

demonstrative)=' Canal-that-the-Fishhi

The readings kha and

(Vide Briinnow, Class.

List, pp. 353, 6) are

both sufficiently common, and in

this case are obvious,

inasmuch as the only constellation below Aquarius is the Southern Fish, into whose mouth the stream (=' the Canal ') from the Urn
enters at the bright star Fornalhaut

(=Ar. Famm-

Thus, a careful al-Hut, 'the Mouth-of-the-Fish '). examination of these three Fragments discloses a
perfect harmony and single scheme between them in and also an exact agreement relation to each other
;

between them and the scheme of constellations which
are

now

in use.

The Sea-goat, the Dolphin, the Water-pourer, the
Southern Fish, the Sea-monster, the zodiacal Fishes,
the Sea-horse (Pegasos, the demi-horse, just rising from the springs of Ocean), all belong to that watery
'
'

the part of the celestial sphere which was called Eegion of a' (Vide Vol. I. 84), who reappears west-

'

ward
K. B.

first as

Jr.,

Dagon and ultimately as Poseidon (Vide P.; 0. N. C. p. 209 Sem. 192 Vol. I. 357),
;
;

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.
lord of the Horse, the Dolphin, the Fishes, Monsters of the deep.
result of a very important part of the

and the

The Euphratean Planisphere, then, represents the
idea of the

Babylonian Creation-scheme round the outer margin of

;

and we observe that
the

Planisphere

were

marked the names
well
1.

known from

of the months. These, which are other sources, are as follows
:

Ak. Bara-Ziggar

('the

Upright

Altar'),

Sem. Nisannu.

2.

March-April. Ak. Gut-sidi (' the Directing Bull May. Otherwise Gut-sisa.

'),

Sem. Airu (Iyyar).

April-

3.

Ak. Mun-ga
June.

('

the

Making

of Bricks

'),

Sem. Sivdnu.

May-

4.

Ak. Su-kulna ('the Seizer-of-seed

'),

Sem. Dtizu (Tammuz).

5.
6.

June-July. Ak. Ne-ne-gar (Tire- making- fire'), Sem. Abu. July- August. Ak. Ki-Ginglr-na ('the Errand of Istar'), Sem. Ululu (Elul).

7.

August-September. Ak. Tul-ku (' the Holy Altar
tember-October.

'),

Sem. Tisrttu

(Tisri).

Sep-

8.

Ak. Apin-tMa ('Opposite to the Foundation'), Sem. Arakhsamna (Marchesvan). October-November.

9.

Ak. Gan-ganna ( the Very - cloudy November-December.
Abba-e ('the
As-a-a?i
'

'

'),

Sem. Kislimu

(Kislev).

10.

Cave

of

the

Rising'), Sem.

Dhabitu

(Tebet).

December-January.
11
.

(

the

Curse
.

of

Rain

'),

Sem.

Sabddhu

(Sebat).

January-February
12.
Se-lrisil

('the

Sowing

of

Seed'),

Sem. Addaru.

February-

March.

Proceeding

in

the

reconstruction

of the

Plani-

next consider the Signs of the Zodiac. sphere, The Brit. Mus. Tablet No. 85-4-30, 15 written in
will

we

the Bab. cuneiform gives the 12 months and a lead-

Mr. ing star or constellation connected with each. Pinches dates it 'about 500 B.C.,' and observes that

14
of course
it

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[iX
tablet.

may

be

a

copy of an

earlier

This

I

do not doubt, as

in the reign of constellations.

quite certain that no one Darayavaush I. invented a scheme of The Tablet is thus unaffected by
it is
;

and we therefore observe that the division of the ecliptic into 12 zodiacal parts was a I call this the Te genuine Euphratean product.
Greek influence
Tablet,
('star,'
'

because in

each

case,

instead
tc
'

of

KakJcab
lit.

'constellation'),

the
I.

form
57),

('sign,'

foundation-stone,' vide Vol.
is

i.e., chief star or Sign, follows
:

used.

The Tablet reads

principal point,' as

Month.
1.

Star or Constellation.
l

Meaning

of name.
'

Nisannu.

Agaru.

The Messenger
'

(= Aries).
'

of the Signs is the messenger of the as to the meaning of new year (Vide Vol. I. 54 vide Class. List, p. or Briinnow, Aggaru, Agaru
;

The Leader

432
2.

;

Muss-Arnolt, As. Diet.
Temennu and
Alap-same.

p. 15).
'

Airu.

The Foundation (=the
'

Pleiad) and

'

the Bull-

of-heaven' {Taurus).

In Tablets Sp. 128 and 129, dated respectively 111 and 123 B.C., the form Te-te occurs in connexion with
this

ago, the doubled
'

month and Sign. As I conjectured some years and as now actually appears from this Tablet,
form shows that two constellations,

are included in the Bull.' originally distinct,
3.

Sivdnu.

Ri'u-but-same and

'

The

Shepherd-spirit-of'

Tudme

rabuti.

heaven

and

'

The

Great Twins' {Castor

and Pollux).

As

to

Riu-but-same, Ak.

287-8, 338; inf.

Sibzianna, vide Vol. pp. 132-138.

I.

IX]
4.

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.
Duzu.

1

5

Namgaru.

'The Crab.'

This constellation, the ordinary Ak. name of which is Allah or (Vide Vol. I. 360), is also called

AIM
'

Nagar-asarra (' the Workman-of-the-River-bed,' lb. The sun-place,' of which it is called a voice 60). Voice (lb. 360),=the ecliptic, and the expression
* '
'

'

frequently occurs in Ak. star-names, the stars being the voices (proclaimers) of the heaven.
5.
6. 7.

Abu.
Ululu.
Tisritu.

Aril rabu.

Sim.
Zibd {lacuna).
('

'

The Great Lion.' 'The Ear-of-corn (=^Va). The Claws.'
' '

Zibdnitu=Av. El-zubend
Librae.
8.

The Claws

'),

a and

/3

Arakh-samna

('

The
').

Eighth-month
9.

Aarabu.
'

*

The
'

Scorpion.'

Kislimu.

(Ak.) Papilsak.

Winged-fire-head (= Sagittarius. Vide Vol. I. 78).

It is probable that the Bab.-As.

name

of the constella-

tion

was Qastu

('

the

Ar. Qaus, whence the for the Archer,
10. 11.

Bow '), Ph. and Heb. Qesheth, names Alkus, MJeusu, and Kaus
E7izu.
<

DhaUtu.
Sabddhu.

The

Goat.'

Kd.

'

The Urn.'

From Kd
the Gk.
12.

are

formed the Ph. and Heb. Ka-d, whence
(Vide Vol.
I.

kJlSos

84).

Addaru.
is

Riksu.

'The Cord.'
it

This star-name

much

defaced, but

seems to read

(Ak.) Dur-hi (' Cord-place '), in allusion to the Cord which fastens the two Fishes together (Vide Vol. I. 87). The above is the Sem. rendering of the Tablet, as in B.C. 500 Ak. had ceased for many centuries to be a spoken language but the reader will observe
;

that

these

constellation-names

are

merely

Sem.

1

6

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
of the

[iX

renderings

ancient
1
:

Ak. names, which read

syllabically as follows
1.

2.

Ku-e,=Sem. Agaru, and Kusariqqu ('Ram,' primarily anystrong horned animal), whence the late astronomical abbreviation Ku. Dimmenna, abbreviated to Te, and Gut-anna ('Bull-ofheaven
').

3.

Sibzianna, and Mastalla-galgal nomical abbreviation Mas.

('

the Great-twins

').

Astro-

4.

Allah
1

('

The

Hero,' vide sup. p. 15).
'

Cf.

Turko-Tatar root
('

al,

great,'

high

;

Koibal-Karagass, Alep

Hero

'),

Altaic

ulu-la, etc.
5.
6.

Lik- or Ur-gula ('the Great-dog,' i.e., the Lion). Ab-nam (' The Proclaimer-of-rain ').
Ziba[-anna].
heaven,'

7.

This

name probably

means
'

'

Life-maker-of[solar] Altar,'

and would be applied

to the

Holy

Kakkab Nidub (' Lofty-altar,' month (Vide Vol. I. 68-70).
the
8.

the original sign of the

Girtab

('

the Scorpion
').

').

Also called Gir-anna

('

Scorpion-of-

heaven
9.

Papilsak (Vide Vol.

I.

78-9).

10.
11.

Muna-kha (' The Goat-fish '). Gula (' The Urn.' Vide Vol. I.
Directing-urn.'

85).

Also called Gusisa

('

The

Vide

inf. p. 67).

12.

Durki

('

The Cord-place

').

have now reconstructed the Planisphere to the extent of the month-names, the names of the Signs of the Zodiac, and the four constellations Hercules,

We

Lupus, Am, and Piscis Australis. We thus obtain an assurance that the principal constellation-figures of the Euphratean celestial sphere were mainly those
of our own.
I
'

say mainly,'

for, as

already shown, the

constellation-names Draco,

Cassiepeia, Cepheus, originated on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean

Ursa Maj., Ursa Min., Andromeda, and Perseus

(Vide Vol.
1

i.

in voc).
names

To complete the formal scheme
generally, vide Vol.
I.

On

these

Cap.

iii.

IX]

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.

1

7

of the Planisphere we still require 11 Northern and 9 Southern Stars or Signs. Although the stellar host
is

not ranged in regular rows of threes, either of stars or of constellations, we shall have not much difficulty

in

supplying the majority of these remaining constellation-names from the materials which have been

In already noticed (Vide Vol. I. Chaps. III., VI.). treating of the constellations of the Hipparcho-

Ptolemy
following to:
Margidda
Sibzianna
('

Star-list

and of the Homeric Poems the
Euphratean
Signs

(Ak.)

were

referred

the Long-chariot

'),

the Wain.

Shepherd-spirit-of-heaven'),=the Ploughman, and at times the star Bear-watcher.
('

Id Jehu

Raditartakliu ('the Lammergeier '),=the Lyre (=Vultur). the Eagle '),=the Eagle. ('

Gar (' the Chariot '),=the Charioteer. Sibzianna (the Southern Shepherd), =Ningirsu-Duzi
Orion.

(Tammuz)=

the Dog,' Sem. Kalbn), Canis Maj. Palura other wise Pallika, ('the Crossing-of-the-Water-dog
('

Lik

=

,

),

= 6 am'8
f

Min.
Tsir ('the Snake
(a
'),

Caput Hydrae,

or,

more

specially

Alphard

Hydrae).
5

Iyndugudkhu (' the-Great-storm-bird '),=the Crow. Gudelim (' the Horned-bull ).=the Centaur.

To these we now add
Lugal
('

:

the

King

'),= Hercules.

Ligbat (' the Beast-of -death '),=the Wolf. Kisalbatala (' the Ancient-altar-below '),=the Altar. Siladakhabi (' the Fish-of-the-canal'),=the Southern Fish.

The following names, almost
tional,

certainly

constella-

were also mentioned

:

Maganda-anna
Lut Tsirna
('

('The Ship-of-the-canal-of -heaven '),= (probably) Navis Argo.
the

Kumar

('

The Bowl-of-the-Snake '),=the Dusky '),=the Sea-monster..

Boivl.

VOL.

II.

2

1

8
If

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[iX

we were arranging a scheme
paranatellons
of

of 36 constellations

in three rows of 12,

we should probably
the

northern
follows
:

dispose the zodiacal Signs as

Ram
Bull

Cassiepeia.

Charioteer
inf. p. 114).

(=Ak.

Gar.

Vide Vol.

I.

338

;

Ak. Sugi.

Vide

Twins
Grab Lion

Cepheus. Lesser Bear.

Bear (=Ak. Margidda). Virgin Ploughman (=Ak. Sibzianna).
Snake-holder, including the Snake.

Claws

Scorpion

Hercules

(=Ak.

Lugal).

Archer Goat
Fishes

Lyre (=Ak. Raditartalihu). Eagle (=Ak. Idkhu).

Waterpourer Horse. A ndromeda.

In such an arrangement there would not be included Perseus, the Bird, and the smaller constellations the Arrow, Dolphin, Crown, and Triangle.

We,

therefore,

still

require Euphratean paranatellons

representing Cassiepeia, Cepheus, Andromeda, the Lesser Bear, Snake-holder, and Horse and, as of
;

course,

the

star- groups

which

form

these

three

human

figures

may

have formed human figures in

In the present limited the Euphratean Planisphere. state of our knowledge on the subject, many things
are very obscure or perplexing which a single tablet, or even line, might make perfectly clear but, at the same time, we must do our best with existing
;

materials.

To

begin with
itself

group

lends

This starCassiepeia. naturally to the formation of

a distinct constellation, and most of those who know anything about stellar matters can, on a clear night, formed by its principal stars. In point out the

W

IX]

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.
I. III.

1

9

W. A.

lxix.

No.
'

5,

the

second

column

of

we have
as
I

which, except the word Ditto,' has been broken off, a list of god-names primarily solar. Now,

have frequently shown elsewhere, the
of the
are

great

majority

reduplicaconstellation-figures tions of simpler phenomena, a large number of them 1 And we must also bear in being solar in origin.

mind that

in

Euphratean mythology we have a sun-

Several of the names goddess as well as a sun-god. in this list are of much interest. Thus we find
(1.

63)

Pa-su-du=Gk. Parsondes, 2
;

a

name explained
I.
'),

as

Mi-it-ra=M.itm (Mithras)

and, as noticed (Vol.

102),

Maganda-anna

('

Ship-of-the-Canal-of-heaven

=(primarily) the Sun, and, by reduplication, a conIn 1. 67 we have an stellation, probably Argo.
ideograph, the pronunciation of which
is

explained to

be Kas-se-ba, or possibly Rak-seba

=the

Fertilizer,

primarily the
potentialities.

(' Lady-of-corn ') Sun,, as combining

male and female

It

would be

strictly

numerous similar examples, if the female-sun-name Kasseba had been reduplicated in a and the Semite would, when it constellation-figure reached him, alter, mould, and understand the name in his own way and according to his own language
in accordance with
;

(Vide Vol.

I.

38).

'

accept Kasseba in the Euphratean Planisphere. According to Tab. K. 3464, 18, Kasb&, apparently a goddess, is to be invoked with the goddesses Istar and Nana.

Provisionally, therefore, we may as the northern paranatellon of the

Ram

In
1

W. A.

I.

II.

xlix.

67 mention

is

made

of the

Vide E. x., xi. ; Sem. 176-7; inf. Chap. xvii. Vide the Persian Legend of Nannaros (Ak. Nannar, the Moon-god) and Parsondes (the Sun-god) recorded by Ktesias (Ap. Duncker, Hist, of Antiquity, v. 298 et seq.).
2

20

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
;

[iX

and constellation Ua-lu-zun ('the Numerous-flock ') Hyde remarks, Constellatio ilia, quae a Cepheo de'

ex Orientalium sententia est Al Rdi, i.e., Pastor, et Ganam, i.e., Pecudes, quae etiam OlugBego vocantur Stellae gregis' (Hist. Rel. Vet. Per.

nominate

.

.

1760, pp. 128-9). Cepheus,' says Smyth, was an asterism of note among the Arabians as al-Aghndn,
edit.

'

'

the sheep

while 7 was Ar-rdi, the shepherd Kelb-ar-rdi, the shepherd's dog (Celest. Cycle,
;
' 1

;

and p
500).

ii.

For Ar-rdi read Al Rdi, the Errai of old star-maps. Cephei is known as Alphirk, and Ficares, from the

B

Ar. kawdkib-al-firk, stars of the flock, which a, f3, n were supposed to represent (Ibid. p. 504). ' that les Babysome old Dupuis quotes authority

and

'

(Origine, Tappeloient [Cepheus] Phicares idea of the Ar. iii. earlier Firh. i.e., Thus, 82), and and his Flock of a Shepherd Cepheus was that
loniens
;

'

many, other instances in the Ar. Sphere w e probably see early Bab. influence. The Arabs afterwards adopted the Gk. name under the form Kikaiis.
here, as in
T

We

bracket Cepheus with the Twins, not strictly as a paranatellon, but in default of any other constellation,

the region immediately north of the Tivins and Crab being occupied by the dark part of Auriga, Lynx and Camelopardalis. The Shepherd (Ak. Siba) is akin
to the King, a frequent title of Cepheus ; and we may provisionally pair the constellation Ualuzun with the

Twins,

Excepting a part of the Great Bear, there is no constellation of importance north of the Crab until

we
of

reach the Lesser

Bear and

the Pole.

The

7 stars
a
is

Ursa Min. are such an exact reduplication on lesser scale of the 7 stars of the Wain, that it
difficult

to suppose that the former, as well as the

IX]
latter,

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.

21

were not early united in a constellation-figure. The Great Bear implies a Lesser Bear, and I think
that the Long-chariot (Margidda, sup. p. 17) equally implies a Short- or Small-chariot (Ak. *Marturra). This name I have not yet found in the cuneiform

(Vide Vol.

what

I

I. but, in further illustration of 269) have already said respecting the Bears and
;

Chariots as guardians of the Pole, we may remember that the star a Ursae Min. has always been known
as the

the Alrucaba of the Alphonsine Tables, otherwise Errucchaba, Arrucabatho, etc. All probability points to the Chariot (Bab. Rukubu, Heb.

'

Chariot

'-star,

Rekhev) as being originally like Margidda, the name, not of a single star, but of the constellation. At
present, therefore, I

would bracket *Marturra with
12 mention
('

the

Crab}
1.

In Tab. K. 2894, Ob.
called in Sem.

is

made

of
'),
'

the constellation Nutsirda

Prince-of- the- Serpent
2
').
'

Namassu

('

the Keptile
of,

Its stars

(kakkabdni-su) are spoken it with the Snake-holder.
the asterism Tsir
('

and we may identify

In

W. A.
,

I.

V. xlvi. 29

the

appears as a lunar mansion.
various celestial Snakes. 3
in
1.

Snake/=>7, There

Ophiuchi)
of course,
'

are,

Nutsirda is also mentioned 44 of the same Tablet, and is explained as the
inf. p.

1

Vide

189 in voc. Antasurra.

Here, as in very exact translation.

2

many

instances, the

Sem. equivalent

is

not an

3 very interesting Tablet (81-2-4, 224) treats of Tsir Anim, Tsiru Msu, Tsir makhkh sam% Tsir Ea, etc. (' The Serpent of Ami, the Double Serpent, the Great Serpent of heaven, the Serpent

A

of Ea,' etc.).

Nabukudurra-utsur III. erected
'

'

bulls of bronze

and

huge serpents at the thresholds of the gates of Babilu {India House Ins. of Nebuchadrezzar, Col. vi. 16-18), as daimonic warders and celestial guardians (Vide Vol. I. 361).

22

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[iX

god Sagimu' (Vide inf. p. 96). It will be remembered that the more important stars and constellations
were also regarded as gods. In W. A. I. V. xlvi. 20 we find the asterism Kakkab

Ansu-kurra (' The Animal-from-the-East,' i.e., the Horse) which Prof. Hommel (Astron. der alt. Chal. der Pegasus/ Ansu-kurra is iii. 16) explains as certainly a lunar asterism, but there may be two stellar Horses and, if so, we have here the Horse as the paranatellon of the Water-pourer. Of course a southern Horse no more excludes a northern Horse than a, southern Fish or Crown a northern Fish or Crown. The Pegasus was well known in the art of western Asia (Vide Vol. I. 215, 308 inf. p. 48). In W. A. I. III. ]iii. No. 1, 1. 71 mention is made of the-constellation- of -the- Pregnant -ivoman,' and the star Double-eye (Vide inf. p. 115). Here, Eritu the Pregnant-woman ') a name of Istar (Vide Muss('
'
;

;

'

'

'

109)=the constellation Andromeda. Istar- Aphrodite was called MvXirra (Herod, i. 131), i, e. (Bab.) Mulidtu (' the Bearer'), and she would be the original female figure afterwards called
Arnolt,

As.

Diet.

p.

Adamath (=Andromeda. Vide Vol. I. 50) by the Phoenicians. The star Sibi ('Double-eye') will be
Algol (Ar.) Al-Ghul ('the Ogre') or demon-monster of the waste,=/5 Persei. A star of the second
'

magnitude during two days and thirteen and a half hours, it suddenly decreases, and in three hours and

Then its a half descends to the fourth magnitude. brightness regains the ascendant, and at the end of a
fresh interval of three hours

and a half attains

its

(Guillemin, The Heavens, 7th edit., This p. 307). darkening of the Ogre's eye reminds us of the world-wide story of Polyphemos. The

maximum

'

ixj

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.

23

cause of the apparent changes in Algol is the intervention of a dark body between it and the Earth.

Thus, the single starry eye
or

is

duplicated.
is

The Ak.

form of the Bab.-As. Eritu or Eratu
Erne.

probably

Ama

We may
:

now, therefore, complete the

grouping of the zodiacal and northern constellations as follows

Ram

(=Ak. Kasseba). (=Ak. Ualuzuri). Grab Lesser Bear (=Ak. *Marturra, otherwise Glaws Snake-holder (=Ak. Nutsirda). Water-pourer Horse (=Ak. Ansu-kurra). Fishes Andromeda (=Sem. Eritu).
Gassiepeia

Twins

Cepheus

Antasurra).

An
Ram
Bull

zodiacal Signs
Orion

arrangement of the southern companions of the would probably be as follows
:

Stream (=Ak. Pur-edin and Hid-ili-Ningirsu). 1

(=Ak.

Sibzianna-Duzi-Ningirsu).

Dogs (=Ak. Lik and Pallika). GrabArgd (=Ak. Maganda-anna). Lion Water-snake and Bowl (=Ak. Tsir-gal and Grow ( Ak. Imdugudkhu). Virgin
Glaws
Scorpion

Twins

Lut-tsirna).

Gentaur
Altar

(=Ak.

Gudelim).
Ligbat).

Wolf (=Ak.

Archer

(=Ak.

Kisalbatala).

Goat%
W,ater-pourer Southern Fish (=Ak. Siladakhabi). Fishes Sea-monster (=Ak. Kumar,
1

Nin-girsu

('

the Lord-of-the-Bank.'

Vide
p.

S. 1366,

Ob.

1.

3, 4)

=Tammuz
'river,'
river').
cf.

(Vide Sayce, Rel. And. Babs.

244).

Hid means

Hid-deqel (Gen.
'
'

ii.

14),=(Ak.) Hid-dagal ('Great-

The River

of

Ningirsu-Tammuz, therefore,

= the 'fiptWos

7roTafxb<s of

Hipparchos,=the 'H/oi8avos,=Sem. ErU-edinu. In Tab.
of the

Sm. 1510 'the River
with Allab
(

= Cancer)

god Ningirsu' is mentioned, together and other stars. Unfortunately the whole

of the Tablet is not before me.

As

to Pur-edin, vide inf. p. 96.
'),

Pur-edin=($Qm.)
Euphrates.

EriL-edinu

('

Strong-one-of-the-Plain

i.e.,

the

24

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[IX

As regards the Sea-monster,
'the
is
;

75 Vide Vol. 1. god (Ak.) Bis-gaV ('Great-dragon.' 90) mentioned and in W. A. I. IV. xxi. 65 Bisgal is
I. III. lxix.

in

W. A.

explained
'

as

(Sem.)
'

Mamluv

('

Sea- monster

').

As

Bis also means
Great-hero
'

is

Hero,' in a solar point of view the the Sun ; but in a constellational

As aspect the (star) god Bisgal=tha Sea-monster. the I am unable to what star or Goat, regards say
constellation

bounded

it

scheme.
brighter
are

If a star, it

on the south in the Euphratean may have been y Grids, for the
continually

stars of

the Crane would be

beneath the horizon as viewed from Babylonia.

We

in a position to reconstruct the Euphratean Planisphere of 36 stars or constellations in accordance

now

with the Creation Tablet and the account of Diodoros

;

and, after making due allowance for the uncertainties in some instances, we nevertheless obtain a very
reliable

general
:

result,

which

appears

in

full

as

follows

I.

The 36

Constellations

Sum.-Ak. Names.
i

1.

Kasseba

[Ku'e
\

Pur-edin

Lulim

\
(

Hid-IU-Ningirsu
Sibzianna

2.

(Gar
\

j
I

Sugi

Gutanna GutdHa

<
(

DHzi
Ningirsu

3.

Ualuzun

Mastabbagagal
j Nagarasurra \ Allab
{

(Lit Lik-udu Pallika \Pa

*Marturra Antasurra
5.

1

Maganda-anna
(

Margidda
I

Lik-gula

Lih-makh

\
(

Tsir-gal Lut-tsirna

6.

Sibzianna

Abnam 2

Imdugudkliu

1

Khusemakh
Vide
inf. p. 27.

1

Otherwise Nagarasagga.

2

IX]
7.

BABYLONIAN CREATION- SCHEME.
Nutsirda
J
\

25

Ziba-anna

Nidub
Girtab

{

8.

Lugal
\
i

Giranna
Papilsak

Ligbat

9.

Raditartakhu

Kisalbatala

\

Udgudua

10.

Idkhu
Ansu-kurra
(

Munakha
Gula

1

11.

Siladakhabi

12.

4ma
II.

Durki
(?)

(

Kumar
Bisgal

Kha

\

Meanings of the Sum.-Ak. Constellation-names
Strong one -of- thePlain J \ River -of- the god1

-

(

1.

Fertilizer
\

Messenger

Ram

\

Lor d-of -the- Bank
Shepherd-Spirit-ofheaven
Son-of-Life

M
3.
{
'

Chariot
Chariot-yoke

(

Bull-of-heaven

\ Bull-in-front

{ Lord-of-the- Bank
I

Numerous-flock

Great-Twins

<
(

Dog-of-the-Sun Crossing of theWater-dog
Ship of

,

*'Small-chariot

Workman
Hero
Lion

-

of- the

River-bed

the- Canal -

\

High-in-Hsing

of-heaven

Great-snake
Bozvl-of-the-snaJce

5.

Long-chariot

Great-storm-bird
6. 1

\

3 tt of-Heaven
.

Pro claimer-of-rain

\

Bird - of seed

the- great-

'

heaven
\

Horned-bull

pent
(

Lofty-altar

8.

King
Lammerqeier *
T

\

Scorpion Scorpion-of-heaven
Winged-fir-e-head

Beast-of-death

ft

f

9.

{
\

bmitmg-sun-face

/

*

Ancient-altar-beloio

26
10.
11

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
Eagle
Goat-fish
(

[iX
?

Horse

Urn
Fish-of-the- Canal

\ Directing-urn
12.

G
Pregnant-woman {
I

-Pish

^V^e

Dusky-one Great-dragon
Bab.-As. Names.

III.

The 36

Constellations

1.

Tsalamu
Narkabtu

J Agaru
\
(
|

Lulimu
Kusariqqu Alap-same
Tudme-rabuti
(

ErU-edinu
Ri'u-but-same

2.

\
(

DHzu
Kalbu Kalab-me
Elipp-nagabi-same

3.
.
'

T^^ze
J
\

* RukHbu-zakhru
'

I

Tsuppur-sa-libbi

Namgaru
I

5.

Ruk4bu-seru

Aril-rabit

Tsiru-rab'fiL

\ Karpat-tsiri
[
|

Ztt {'Storm
'

-

wind/

6.

Ri'u-but-same

Siril

{

Vulture ') Ramdnu - ikabbid
l

(
[_

Ra?ndn-is-ter')

WftZe
7.

NamassvL

Zibdnitu

Kusariqqu
Kalab-mutdni

8.

am2
Karib-Barkhdti
j

Aqrabu
-

9. <
[

('

Antelope t acker ')

at-

(?)

Kisallu-labiru

10.
11.

Nasru
/S&tf

Enzu

%

Kd
Riksu

NUn-nagdbi

12.
(

Mulidtu

Nunu

Mamluv {Kumaru
Gk. Names.

IV. The 36 Constellations
1.

Kassiepeia

K?ios

Potamos {Eridanos
Oridn

2.
3.

Heniochos

Tauros

Kepheus
Arktos Olige

Didymoi
Karkinos

Kuon
Argo

4.

IX]
5.

BABYLONIAN CREATION-SCHEME.
Arktos

27

Meg ale

CHAPTER

X.

Constellation-Subjects in Euphratean Art.

researches have revealed to us an important fragment, although only a fragment, of Euphratean
as Hellenic coin-types show us constellation-subjects in astonishing numbers and in remarkart,

Modern

and just

able variety, so similarly do these representations, including actual and obvious constellation-figures,

appear plentifully in the surviving remnants of the art of Babylonia. Without attempting any exhaustive

treatment of Euphratean art in this connexion,
suffice for

it will

my

present purpose to notice a

number

of

instances chiefly supplied by boundarycontract The reader stones, Tablets, and cylinders. will observe the general harmony in the matter
illustrative

between Euphratean literature and Euphratean art, e.g., as the Signs of the Zodiac appear in the former, so likewise are they found in the latter. I do not
intend to enter on

many

doubtful and difficult points
of constellation-

connected, but merely to indicate clearly the general
result.

Amongst

other instances

subjects on the monuments we have I. Stone of Nabukudurra-utsur J., not later than b.c. 1150 (Figured in W. A. I. V. lvii., etc.). The

representation on the Stone
6

is

divided by lines into

compartments, one above another.

The

first

or

uppermost compartment contains the Crescent-moon in the centre, with the Sun on one side of it and the

X]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

29

planet Venus on the other (Vide inf. p. 32). head over the Crescent-moon and its its

With
body

stretching down by the side of the compartments to the 5 th of them, is a Great-serpent (=primarily,

the Milky-way, and (2) Hydra, vide VoL I. 105). The 2nd compartment contains 3 Altars, each sur-

mounted by a
50-52),

and

conical stone (Cf. the Triangle, Vol. I. each placed under one of the above-

mentioned heavenly bodies. The 3rd compartment contains a Demi-monster (cf. Ligbat-Therion, sup.

whose body is half concealed by a kind of altar and a Demi-goat (=Capricom), similarly half The 4th compartment contains (1) the concealed.
p.

5),
;

head and upper part of the body of a crested Snake, which exactly corresponds to the head and upper part of Ophis as held by Ophiouchos; (2) a Twy-headed-dog with serpentine body, which is not a constellationfigure but

a symbol of Tutu, the Death-god, and which reappears westwards on coins of Kyzikos (Vide Vol. I. 177) (3) a Horse's head and neck (Cf. Hippos)
;

upright on a sort of
(Cf.

altar

;

and

(4) a

Crow

or

Korax) perched upon an upright stone.

Eaven The 5th

compartment contains the figure of the King seated, with a kind of Gryphon-greyhound by his side. In him stands his front of Guardian-genius, human to the a and waist, drawing bow, with the body and tail of a scorpion and the legs and feet of a bird of prey, in fact a combination of Toxotes, Skorpios, and Aetos, the whole forming what Classic art would style a
gryllus.

These symbolical combination-figures, e.g., man-headed bulls or lions, form perhaps the most

familiar feature in

Euphratean art. The potencies of the Archer-, Scorpion-, and Eagle-gods are united in The 6th and last compartment the King's protector.

30

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

of the Stone shows (1) an Ox, Bull (Cf. Tauros), or Cow, couchant, above whose back appears a huge and con-

ventionally drawn Ear-of-corn (=Stachys, Sirica) (2) a Tortoise (=Cancer) (3) a Scorpion (=Scorand (4) a Lamp on a pedestal, almost grasped pios
;

;

;

by the claws of the Scorpion (Vide Fig. x. p. 233). Of this last combination I have treated at length in Z, and in C. E. A., sec. viii., and will, therefore, only here remark that amongst the technical

names of the Signs of the Zodiac we

find (Ak.) bir ap-

plied to the 7 th Sign. Upon this Strassmaier observes that bir (' die alte Form fiir ud ')=nuru (' light '), and

that in fitting the Bab. constellation -figures on the monuments to the Signs of the Zodiac we have die
:

Lampe als Nuru (Astron. aus Babylon, p. 171). the Lamp, then, we have one variant form of
'

In
the

original 7th Sign (Vide Vol. I. 68-71). The Stone of Nabukudurra-utsur I. is a Charter of

freedom and certain privileges bestowed by him on a friendly city, but we are not here concerned with the
historical aspect

of the matter.

We

observe

that

these uranographic Euphratean Charter- and BoundaryStones,
incorrectly
'

called

by

MM. Epping and

Strassmaier

Thierkreise,' for they are not Zodiacs, of constellations and other combinations display
e.g.,

figures,

sun

and

moon,

portrayed

in

their

character of daimonic guardians, and not according The figures are generally to astronomical position. and with considerable called, although not absolute
'

correctness,

emblems of the

gods.'

From

their

thrones on high the host of heaven look down with myriads of burning eyes, and behold the evil man

removing

his neighbour's

field to field,

landmark that he may add and are prepared to punish and avenge.

x]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

3

1

The

stars are gods, and, to a considerable extent, the
stars.

gods are

tion which

is a combinaon the monuments frequently appears From an unpub(Vide C. E. A., Fig. vii. p. 11.

The Ox

or Bull with the Ear-of-corn

lished Tablet in the Berlin

Museum).

A

Cylinder of

in Perrot
ii.

black marble in the National Library, Paris (Figured and Chipiez, Hist, of Art in Chal. and As.
145), shows

two Oxen, one behind the

other, with

the great Ear-of-corn behind each.

MM.

Perrot and
its

Chipiez remark, this

'

cylinder which, from

style,

M. Menant does not
wheat.'

hesitate to ascribe to the first
field of

Chaldaean monarchy, represents two oxen in a

It is quite erroneous thus to interpret cylin-

der scenes, which, like the scenes on Greek vases, are very rarely taken from the incidents of actual life.

Oxen were not turned
in

ancient
is

There

into high-standing wheat-fields Babylonia any more than at present. only one Ear-of-corn to each Ox, which, as

a delineation of a heavy Bab. wheat crop, would be absurd and the duplication of the Ear-of-corn and
;

merely a matter of pattern, and not intended to represent numbers. No one, I presume, would say that the Bull or Ox with the Ear-of-corn
of the
is

Ox

on the Stone of Nabukudurra-utsur, represents an and the same design, when found agricultural scene
;

elsewhere, must be uniformly

interpreted.

This same

Cylinder

is

also

reproduced in Maspero,
'

Dawn of CivilOxen.'

ization, p. aspect of the matter is that off-hand

766, and styled

the

Farm way
'

This

of looking at

things which first suggests itself to the mind, and which people are fond of dignifying as the common
sense view.'

However, in dealing with symbolism, which, go back into the past as far as we may, we

32
still

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
find in full force,
it is

[x
sense

rather

uncommon

which is required. The Host of Heaven, as depicted on boundary stones, etc., are naturally generally
headed by representations of the sun and moon, and a third star-figure which is usually supposed to por-

Thus we find c. 1100 B.c. tray the planet Venus. Upper part of a black boundary stone. Nippur.
'

Disc of the sun, crescent, Venus (Hilprecht, Bab. Ex. of the Univer. of Pen. 1896, Vol I. Pt. ii. p. 67, PI. xxv. No. 69). In this repre-

Upper

section

'

:

sentation the solar star

is

half enclosed

by the

cres-

cent ,=the

Sun

is

in the

arms of the Moon, a

fruitful

origin of mythological stories about sun-nurturing goddesses. By its side is the second eight-rayed star, of

nearly the same size, which may possibly also represent the sun as distinct from and independent of the

moon, although the opinion that Venus is very likely correct.
is

it

symbolises Istar-

Thus, on this Stone of Nabukudurra-utsur, which a usual specimen of the kind, we find representa-

tions of an Altar,

Triangle, Wild-beast, Serpent, Goat, Snake's head, Horse, Raven, Bidl or Ox, Earofcom, Tortoise (=Cancer. Vide Vol. I. 207-11),

Scorpion, Lamp (=lighted Altar), Archer, and Dog. Also two Dogs' heads, united together on the body of a snake (demi), and rather reminding us of
the
close

link

between Sirius and Procyon.

In

short, every figure upon the Stone, except those of the King, Sun, Moon, and Venus, is either a conSuch a stellation-form or else is closely akin to one.

proportion excludes accident, and implies a general principle of representation.
II.

Stone of

MarMuhu-Balddan
p.

L,

cir.

B.C.

1325
This

(Figured in Geo. Smith, As. Dis.

236,

etc.).

x]
*

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

$3

large white stone, about 3 feet high/ bears an inscription 'of 115 lines giving an account of a field

of which this

was the boundary or memorial stone,' and which had been given by the king to one of his
servants for State services.

In Col.
'

iii.

curses are

invoked on any remover of the Stone, the gods Aim, Bel and Ea, Ninip and Gula, these divinities, and all
the divinities on this stone tablet whose emblems are
seen, violently may they destroy his name.' know the divinities of the Signs to some extent

We may
from
:

the divinities of the months, which were as follows Nisannu, Anu and Bilu Airu, Ea Sivanu, Sin (the
;

;

Moon-god)
wearied
');

;

Duzu, Ninip
i.e.,

the-mighty-land,'

Abu, Ninkigal (' Queen-ofHades), Sem. Allat (' the Un;

Ululu, Istar (=Parthenos)
;

;

Tisritu,
;

Samas

;

Arakh-samna, Maruduku Kislimu, Nirgal Dhabitu, Papsukala (Vide B, B. Jr., L. K. 0. p. 33) Sabadhu, Ramanu and Addaru, the Seven Great-gods (=Ph.
;
' ' ;

The pictorial portion of the stone is Kabirim). divided into three compartments, the uppermost of
which contains representations of the Crescent-moon,
Sun, Venus, a

Lamp, Scorpion, Bird

of

some kind,

Eagle, Dog, Dog-headed-demi-snake, perhaps Demi-snake with a nondescript head, and lighted Altar. The centre compartment contains a Bird or [Eagle Raven) Ox, Bull, Cow, or Calf, couchant, surmounted by the Ear-of-corn (the Istar symbol) a Wild-beast of some kind another nondescript creaand a Ziqqurdt or ture of somewhat similar type
;

an

;

;

;

^tor-temple -tower in stages (Vide Vol. I. pp. 69, 327), a symbol of Samas, the Sun-god, lord of the
7th month.

The 3rd compartment contains
Wild-beast,
figures.

a Great-

serpent, Goat-fish, VOL.
II.

apparently

winged,
is

and two other dubious

Thus there
3

a

34

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

general, although not an absolute, agreement between this Stone and that of Nabukudurra-utsur, showing

the widespread use on
certain
all
list

monuments

of the kind of a

of well-known symbols or emblems, nearly
constellation-figures.
.

of
III.

them

from Bdbilu recording sale of land. 1100 (Figured in W. A. I. III. xlv. No. 1). This circular black Stone shows near its apex the Moon both full and crescent, the crescent being a segment of the full orb the Sun, and Venus (if it be Venus), the patterns of both being almost identical with those on No. II. The Great-serpent is drawn
Stone
Cir. b.c.
;

T right across two-thirds of the circle, w ith its tail As I have observed elsehanging down outside.

where (Academy, Jan. 9, 1892, p. 43), this position very fairly represents the TaXa^lag in November, when it stretches overhead between Gemini and Auriga on one side, and Orion and Taurus on the
other,

through
us,

Perseus,

Cassiopeia,

and

Cygnus

I descending westwards through Aquila. have already referred to the connexion between

above

Hydra and

the Via Lactea (Vide sup. p. 29). Near the Serpent's head appear the Scorpion and Lamp
;

whilst in the outer circle, with several other figures, occur the two Dogs' heads (Vide sup. p. 32), the

Wild-beast, Ear-ofcorn, TorThis latter toise, fire (planetary) Altars, and a Yoke. in the more than once Thus object appears Sphere.

Dog, Eagle, Raven,

*

the Ecliptic

is

heaven
popular

;

and Niru

regarded as a yoke thrown across the Yoke ') was apparently a ('

name for the Goat-fish (Vide Vol. I. 81). On this are IV. The like (Figured Ibid. No. 2). shown the Moon (as in the last instance), Sun, Venus,
1

two Dogs heads

(Cf. Sirius

and Procyon), the Dog,

x]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

35

a

Eagle, Raven (the birds, as frequently, are drawn in conventional manner), Wild-beast, Ear-of-com,

Scorpion,

Lamp, and Demi-goat

The Great-serpent

stretches along the circumference of half the circle, a

position which exactly shows the TakaQas in May, when it nearly skirts the horizon from east, by north,
to west, disappearing in the west below Canis Minor. Alike in Nos. III. and IV. the Hyena is shown, which

we

meet with in the lunar Zodiac (Vide inf. p. 68). The Michaux Stone (Figured in Maspero, Dawn of Civ. pp. 762-3 described and translated by MM. Oppert and Menant in Records of the Past, ix. 89
also

V.

;

et seq.).

An

ovoid basalt stone, 17 inches in height

and 24 in circumference, found by M. Michaux in 1800 near the ruins of Ktesiphon, and now in the
Cabinet des Medailles, Paris. On the top are represented the Crescent-moon and the Sun then follow
;

four Altars and the kneeling Demi-goat (Vide No. IV.), two more Altars, a Triangle, the Wild-beast, the

Hyena, Scorpion, Eagle, Raven, Lamp, Dog, Greatserpent, and a downward pointed Arrow,' with several other figures. The Inscription relates to a field near the town of Kar-nabu,' and contains the usual
'

'

imprecations upon anyone the Boundary-stone, etc.
VI. Stone of the

who

shall interfere

with

House of Ada
of the

(British
is

Museum).

The general design

figures

the same as

that of No. V., the Altars, Eagle, Raven, Goat, Dog,

Scorpion, Great- serpent, and Wild-beast being shown, and also a kind of Lyre.'
'

VII. Another British Museum Boundary-stone. This stone shows the (1) Dog (Vide Fig. xiv. p. 239) in the exact position described by Aratos, i.e., salient, This attistanding on both hind feet (H D. 327).
'
'

36

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

tude has ever since been preserved in good delineations of the constellation-figure when grouped with
others.

Thus, the
in
Cicero's

Dog

Globe,

so appears on the Farnese Ardtos, in the Planisphere of

Geruvigus, in the interesting sheet of constellationfigures appended by Sherburne to his edition of Manilius published in 1673, in the Oxford Aratos of 1672, in Flamsteed's Atlas, and generally in

modern

representations. (2) The kneeling Bull, Cow, or Calf, with (3) the Ear-of-corn (Figured in H. D. p. 82). (4) The Water-snake (Figured in lb. p. 83),

near which (5) the Scorpion. (6) Head and neck of crested Snake (Cf. Ophis vide No. I.). (7) Tortoise
;

or Turtle (Yide No.

human

figure with
*

(8) a winged armless An serpentine legs interlocked.
I.).

And

figure placee sur chacune des faces d'un socle triangulaire, de bronze, qui a du. servir de base

Etruscan

a un candelabre

No.
to

15)

is

(Lajard, Culte de Venus, PI. xxiv. the only other similar instance known

'

me.
VIII.

This

singular

design reminds us

of

the

Ophioneus-Boreas myth (Vide Vol.

I. 304-5). Creatures. These, like the ChimComposite aira (Vide Vol. I. 216), are often formed or partly formed

of constellation-subjects, e.g., (1) the Scorpion- Archer in No. I. (2) An armless winged human headed

scorpion
lions'

-

bodied creature with feet something like

god, Ea-Oannes.

paws (From a Boundary-stone). (3) The FishThe monsters men(4) primeval
i.

tioned by Berosos [Choi.

4),

such as hippocentaurs,

man-headed

bulls, satyrs, fish-tailed dogs,

horses, horse-headed fish (sea-horses), etc.

dog-headed (5) Various
bulls,
tails

forms of gods and genii,
bulls
;

e.g.,

man-headed, winged
lions
;

man -

headed,

winged
figures,

winged

eagle-headed

human

men

with horns,

X]

CONSTELLATION- SUBJECTS.
hoofs, etc.

tf

and

Amongst
e.g.,

this

division

may

be in-

cluded divers evil genii,

those with leonine heads,

human

bodies, and

birds' feet, the

Tiamat-monster,

the Dragon-of-the-deep, the

Demon

of the south-west

wind with deformed human body, goats' horns, wings, and birds' claws. (6) Fantastic animals, some more or less symbolical, others perhaps chiefly the outcome of Such are (a) the Gryphon, a winged sportive fancy.
eagle-headed lion
(b) the Winged-horse (Pegasos. Vide Perrot, Hist, of Art in Chal. ii. 171, Fig. 89) (c) the Unicorn, whose combat with the Lion (Vide
;

;

K. B.

Jr., U.), is

duly shown on the monuments (Vide
165,
Fig.

Perrot,

Hist.

ii.

83);
;

(d)

a

composite

Creature (National Library, Paris
Hist.
ii.

figured in Perrot,

168, Fig. 87) with a bull's head, ram's horns, body, tail, and fore paws of a lion, hind legs, feet, and wings of an eagle, and mouth of an unnatural forma-

With the connected symbolism in all these I merely note instances we are not here concerned.
tion.

that in the case of the Composite Creatures, as in that of the Boundary and Monumental Stones, constellation-subjects on the whole greatly predominate. IX. Ordinary representations of animals, etc.

the Homeric
all

As Poems and the Greek Coin-types contain

or almost
I.

Vol.

all of the constellation-subjects (Vide V. chaps. VI.), so does ordinary Euphratean art.

The Ram, Bull, Crab, Lion, Virgin
Scorpion,

(Istar),

Altar,

Archer, Goat, Urn, Urn-bearer, Fish, Horse, Serpent, Dog, Crow or Raven, Boivl, Centaur,
Lyre, Lammergeier, Wain, Eagle, Ploughman, Crown, and Hare all Triangle, Arrow, appear upon the monuments, under which term I do not here include
Ship,
Wild-beast,
Charioteer,

Bird,

Kneeler,

seals

and cylinders.

Specific references are unneces-

3&
sary, as

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

works of and to others Layard, Rawlinson, Perrot, Maspero,
to turn to the familiar

we have only

find representations of all these constellation-subjects. The god Ningirsu (=0ridn, vide Vol. I. 93) appears

on a brick from Lagash (Telloh), of which place he was the patron-divinity (Vide De Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee, PI. xxii. No. 5). The Bear appears on a bronze bowl (Vide Canon Kawlinson, Anct. Mons.
i.

528).

X. Bronze Plaque showing
i.

the four divisions

of the

Universe (Figured in Perrot, Hist, of Art in Chat. The divisions of the Plaque are separ351, etc.).

Heaven.

ated by bands, and the first and highest represents It contains the familiar emblem of the

Winged-disk enclosing a human figure, which the Assyrians appropriated to Assur; the Sun and Crescent-moon, Seven Stars (which possibly=the Wain), and several other symbols of the celestial
powers.
Air,
is

The second

division,

which represents the

occupied by 7 genii, 5 of whom are lion-headed and the other two have heads of some other animal or
bird.

They
left

are the

Powers of the Air and follow each

other in
the

line, each with the right hand uplifted and held down. In the third division, which

represents the Earth, a dead body is shown on a bier, at the head and foot of which stands a Fish-god (the

Behind one of these, two lion-headed type). genii are shaking hands, and behind one of the latter

Cannes

stands another figure apparently bull-headed. The last, lowest, and largest division represents the Underworld.

At the bottom

of

it

in which 5 fish appear. On which is indicated by a raised line,
reeds, three of

flows the river of death, the left bank of the river,

grow shrubs

or

which are shown.

'

A

hideous monster

X]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

39

advances on the river bank.

Its semi-bestial, semi-

human head is flat and scarred, with a broad upturned nose and a mouth reaching to the ears. The upper
part of
its all

body
.

seamed

that of a man, although over with short vertical lines
is
.

its

skin

is

meant to

indicate hairs.

.

His

those of a bird, and shoulder. ... small boat glides down the stream So far we (Perrot, Hist, of Art in Choi. i. 352-3).

upturned, his feet are his wings show over his left
tail is
'

A

Under- world as painted by Polygn6tos in the Lesch6 at Delphoi (Vide Paus. X. xxviii.)
earlier delineation of the
:

have exactly an

1

The dim stream

of Acheron, with its reeds

And

gliding ghosts of fishes indistinct.

Nigh the dim

river, gnashing hateful fangs Crouches the fiend Eurynomos. He eats, The Delphians told us, flesh from dead men's bones.'

(R. B. Jr., Tellis

and

Kleobeia).

bent, as if with the

a Horse, its right fore-leg of the monstrous goddess weight Allat, queen of the Under- world, who kneels upon one knee on its back. She has the head of a lioness and
is

In the boat on the river

lion-cubs spring towards her breasts, one on each side. Her body is like that of a huge hairy ape and she has
eagles' feet
;

in each

the throat, and

so

is

hand she grasps a large snake by an Ophiouchos. M. Maspero
snake 'a real ani-

(Dawn of
mated

Civ. p. 691) calls each

javelin.'

In front of the goddess and in one

is shown a group of objects conof a horse's foot, bottles, etc., which are supsisting posed to be funeral offerings.' Lastly, between the Here we legs of Allat a Scorpion is dimly shown.

corner of the division
'

have an

illustration of the pre-constellational aspect

4-0

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

of the Snake

and the Scorpion,

as connected with

death and darkness.
gallu
('

A
like

kind of monster, the Usum*

Monster

-

viper,'

King

;

Solitary

-

monster,'

Sayce) was supposed,
'

Eurynomos,

Sarkophagos, corruption's hideous tooth,

Which

fastens on these vestures of decay.'
(R. B. Jr., Tellis

and

Kleobeia),

to devour the corpses of the dead (W. A. I. II. xix. In this scene, as so frequently in No. 2, Rev. 1. 12).
Classic
art,

the Horse

is

a creature connected with

death and the grave. We next approach the highly important group of Cylinders, and will first take zodiacal subjects (Vide

Lenormant, Les Origines, i. 237-8). XI. The Zodiac Aries. Lenormant gives the following instances of the zodiacal Ram or Ibex from xvii. 6 Lajard, Culte de Mithra, viz., PI. xvi. 1
;

;

xxvii. 1

;

xxix. 6

;

lii.

6

;

liv.

A

12.

Whilst

I

by no

means dispute this view, I think it is not exhaustive As in Ak. times the comof the facts of the case.

mencement

of the year

was regulated by the position
'

of the Goat-star (Capella) moon at the vernal equinox so

in relation to the

new
;

'

some of these representations

(Sayce, Herod, p. 402) of the Ibex-ram in all

probability originally referred to Capella, and were transferred to Hamal (' the Ram,' a Arietis) when in
process of time that became the leading star of the In W. A. I. III. lii. year (Vide R. B. Jr., Z. p. 4).

No.

3,

Rev.

1.

8,
('

we

read, Mitkharti ris sandti sa

kakkab Dilgan

The appearance
i.

at the beginning of
').

the year of the star Messenger-of-light

This Lenor-

mant {Les

Origines,

263) regards as a Arietis,

and

so perhaps it may ultimately have been when the year began in Aries ; but originally it would be Capella,

X]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

41
in

in connexion with a

year-commencement

Taurus.

Anyone who

has studied the Cylinders will have no

doubt respecting their general character, and will have no difficulty in recognizing various constellationfigures.

Thus, we find frequent representations of Sun, Moon, and the Seven Stars (perhaps=the Wain) of the Sun-god and the Moon- god, of the Air-god
; ' '

the Very-glorious,' Sem. Ramanu, (Ak. Mermer, the Exalted '), and of various other divinities of the heavens, standing with and between certain celestial

symbols, emblems, and forms, amongst which it is easy to recognize the Signs of the Zodiac and various
other constellation-figures.

above referred

to,

we

in Lajard, PI. xvi. 1 have at one end of the cylinder

Thus

(l) the 7 Stars, (2) below which, a large 6-rayed Star, (3) below which, an animal rudely drawn, Ibex, Goat, or Ram, apparently standing on a star and the
;

symbol of Capella, Hamal, Aries, or of in (historical) succession. The Ibex-ram

all
is

of

them

also well

shown
a

scene

in Lajard, PL xxxvi. 11, where it appears in with several other constellation-subjects,

amongst which are

Istar ( Virgo) with her Ear-ofcorn (Spica), the Eagle, etc. In PL lvi. 8 the Ram appears with the Bull. PL xxxv. 7 presents a curious

combination of Signs. Eamanu (Aquarius) holds an Urn, from which water flows in a double stream. By
one of the streams are the two Fish.

Two human

figures (Gemini) of the Gilgames-type stand together in corresponding attitudes over an Eagle. Next

comes

Grilo;ames bearing

over his ri^ht shoulder a

Crab

or Turtle at the end of a stick,

and holding

in

his left

hand a pair of Fish.

Next stands the Ibex-

ram, with reverted head, an attitude usual to Aries, which is now, as in past ages, so depicted. To pretend

42

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

to give an exhaustive explanation of such a combination would, considering our present state of knowledge or ignorance, be absurd.
as in

What is obvious,

is

that here,

numerous other examples, we have nothing but divine personages and constellation-subjects and we
;

may
the

provisionally regard the design as representing Sun in connexion with the Signs, whilst the

details are probably based the real meaning of which

on some archaic legends, had long been forgotten,
of the contest of Herakles
I.

such as the Kretan

myth

with Crab and

Hydra

(Vide Vol.

145).

XII. Taurus. Cylinder representations of the Bull are very numerous. The first group consists of those

which show him standing or crouching with the Airgod on his back, or led by the Air-god, or by some
other divinity (Vide Cullimore, Oriental Cylinders, Nos. 97, 107 Lajard, Quite de Mithra, PL xvi. xviii. 1, 2). This combination forms the 1, 2, 3
;

;

prototype of the description of Aratos, the horned Bull fallen near the Drivers feet (H. D. 167). In the second group of representations the Bull is simply
'

'

as a constellation-figure in the heavens E. B. Jr., Z. Figs. 2, 3, 4 (Vide Lajard, PL xxxvi. 5, lviii. 6, where the BidVs crouching legs,' H. D. 517,

delineated

;

'

are well shown).

XIII.

Gemini.

The Twins, generally

a

pair

of

small

figures, appear repeatedly. that the pair originally represented sun and moon is shown by the two figures being frequently drawn one

human

The

fact

above the other, head to head or feet to feet (Vide Fig. vii. p. 231), i. e., when one is up, the other is down.

The moon

rises as the
;

Nos. 65, 70, 95
Fig. 7, p. 8, I

sun sets (Vide Cullimore, 0. In Z. Lajard, M. PL xxvi. 1).

C

have shown how this treatment of the

X]
figures

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

43

was adapted to the stars of the constellation It affords an excellent illustration of the way in which constellation-figures came into existence.
Gemini.

In Lajard, M. PL side by side. In
(Vide Vol.
I.

xl.

9

;

xlix. 7, etc.,

the Pair stand

PI. liv.

B
is

7 they embrace.

XIV. Cancer. The Crab, a variant of the Scorpion
60,

210),

frequently figured in
It

a

somewhat
PI.

similar manner.

appears in Lajard,

M.

In PI. liii. 3 it p. 32), and liii. 4. is difficult to say whether two Crabs or Scorpions in art, vide Z. are intended. to the Crab (As

xxxv. 7 (Sup.

sec. iv.)

The Lion very frequently appears on the Cylinders and other monuments. The Pre-constellational Lion. The two most 1.
Leo.

XV.

ordinary phases of this aspect of the (originally) solar Lion are (l) his contest with the Unicorn, Bull, or

Ox,=the

contest between

Sun and Moon

;

and

(2) his

contest with the Sun-god (Vide Vol. I. 34). Instances of the latter occur in the familiar representation of Gilgames holding a small lion in his left hand (Lajard,

M. PL
No.

xxiv.)

97),

fighting with a lion (Cullimore, 0. C. holding up a lion by the hind leg (lb.
;

No. 102), or, as Herakles-Engonasin, holding up a lion over his head (lb. No. 39), or, again, on one knee

These combinagrappling with a lion (lb. No. 41). the feats of not some tions do early hunterrepresent

The group of le lion devorant le taureau is king. also a very favourite subject in art, of which numerous
examples are given in Lajard, M. 2. The Const ellational Lion. The Sign Leo also Thus Lajard, frequently occurs on the Cylinders.

'

'

PL

xxxviii.

coming

the

4 represents the solar Gilgames overlunar Bull, a combination afterwards

44

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

reduplicated in the familiar group of Mithra and the Bull. Figured, apparently in the air, and by the

head of Gil games is his beast the Lion. In PI. lii. 6 the Lion appears with other constellation-figures, such
as the

Ibex-ram and the Hare.

In PL

lvi.

3 the

is shown with the Lammergeier (=Lyra). XVI. Virgo. Istar-Parthenos and her Ear-ofcorn very frequently appear on the Cylinders and on con-

Lion

nected works of art (Vide K. B. Jr., V. Figs. 6, 7, 9, 10, Thus we meet with Istar as a warrior11, 14, 15).

goddess (Figured in Maspero, Dawn of Civ. p. 670), despoiled of her garments in the Under- world (lb. p.

and holding Duzi (=Tdimmuz- Orion) on her The pre-constellational character knees (lb. p. 697). of the goddess is (l) lunar, and (2) as the planet
695),

Venus.

XVII.

Ara (otherwise

'

Chelai,

the Claws

').

Altars

innumerable occur on the Cylinders, as well as the
pre-constellational Altar, i.e., the solar circle. good in xlii. 13. occurs M. PL The Claws Lajard, example In Lajard, M. of coarse appear with the Scorpion.
xxviii.

A

11

the

Altar appears guarded by the two

Scorpion-men (Vide inf. p. 55). XVIII. Scorpio. The Scorpion often appears on
the Cylinders,
e.g.,

Lajard,

M. PL

xxvii. 10

;

xxxi. 2

;

xxx vii.
eastern

6

;

liii.

3, etc.

Sometimes a pair of Scorpions

are shown.

These primarily represented Darkness,

and western (Vide Vol. I. 67). XIX. Sagittarius. The Archer is represented on the monuments (1) As a man with a bow; (2) as a Centaur; and, according to Lenormant, (3) by an Arrow (Vide sup. p. 35), on the principle, familiar
to symbolism, of a part for the whole.

In Lajard

M. PL

xiii.

8,

he appears as a seated

X]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.
.

45
kneeling

Bowman

In

PL

liv.

A

12 he

is

a

Bowman

on one knee near a

star.

a Cylinder, a copy of which was sent me by the Earl of South esk, he appears in the usual type of Sagittarius, except that his wing ends in a Gryphon's

On

head, crowned, with

bow drawn and arrow on the
an Ibex or Goat (pos-

string, galloping in pursuit of

sibly

Capella on the opposite side of the heavens), which near a Bird is perched over a doorway. On another Cylinder (Collection de Clercq, No. 363) he appears similarly in pursuit of an Ibex, but
instead of a Bow, holds a sword in his right hand, and his tail is that of a Scorp>ion.

This last instance naturally leads us to the consideration of the Sagittarius depicted on a Stone, cir.
B.C.

1100, found at Babilu and
Tlie

now

in

the British

Museum.

Archer

in this instance is a

man-horse with bow and arrow drawn.

winged Behind his
tail is
its

human head
of

is

the head of a Gryphon, his

that

him, towards the genitalia, as in Mithraic representations of the Bull and Scorpion, is a large Scorpion (Figured in Perrot, Hist, of Art in Phoen, ii. 204).

a

Scorpion, and

beneath

with

claws

Another instance from a Boundary-stone now in the British Museum (Fig. xii. p. 235) shows the man-horse in a similar position, but with a human head only, and a horse's tail.

XX. Capricornus.
quite
so

Perhaps no

stellar

figure

is

prominent as that of the Goat, which is with the Goat-stav (Capella) and connected equally
the 6roa-constellation (Capricornus). The numerous class of Cylinders whose subject is the Goat-sacrifice

(Vide Collection de Clercq, Nos. 151-75) are almost whilst the certainly connected with a Capella-v\t\m\
;

46

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[:

word

The Goat-Jish (Muna-Jcha) is also a frequent figure. itself is a cuneiform ideograph representing this
creature (Vide

compound
1.2).

W. A.

I.

V.

xlvi.

No.

1,

Rev.

In Cullimore, 0. C. No. 29, Capella and Capricorn appear together, the former, held as usual on the left
arm, as the Aix Olenios (Vide Vol. I. 221) of the Greek Sphere, the Goat on the arm of the Charioteer
in our

modern

star-maps.

Capella opened the year

(Vide sup. p. 40), and Capricorn is the last of the Ak. lunar asterisms so that the two together either represent the annual round in its totality, or indicate some special ceremonies connected with the end and
;

Other instances of the the beginning of the year. Nos. 31, 32, 93, Goat-Jish occur in Cullimore, O. des in Archives and Menant, Missions, 1879, p. 115,

C

where
In

it

appears on an

altar.

3, Capricorn appears in Lajard, connexion with the crouching Bull, the human figure

M. PL

xvi.

on which, partly destroyed, is probably connected Other with the Auriga, and hence with Capella. in which instances Capricorn is shown are PI. liv.

A

where the Goat-Jish, a nocturnal Sign, appears immediately under the Crescent-moon and next to the Urn, the adjoining constellation.
1,

and

PI. liv.

B

7,

'A Babylonian
E.
S.

agate'

(Figured
p.

Sabaean Researches, 1823,
R.
Pt.
i.

by Landseer, and 288, reproduced in

Capricorn, a perfect the Crescent-moon, of the beneath Goatjish, example a like ladder and above an object placed lengthways,
the 6 rungs of which
represent degrees,
circle of

20) shows

make

5 divisions,

which probably
being -^ of a of a circle of

either

6

x

5=30,
being

360,

or 5 x
p. 9).

2=10,

^

120

(Vide sup.

x]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

47

This Sign, as Lenormant notes, is represented either by the god Kamanu, or simply by an Urn (Vide No. XX.). Instances occur in
Lajard,

XXI. Aquarius.

M. PL xxx.

4

;

xxxv. 3

;

liv.

B

7

;

liv.

A

12

;

Cullimore, 0. C. Nos. 130, 131. XXII. Pisces. The two Fish are shown in Lajard, M. PL xvi. 5 xxxi. 5 ; xxxv. 7 1. 2 Cullimore,
; ;
;

0. C. No. 88, etc.

A

single Fish, perhaps the Piscis
instances.

Notius, appears in

many

XXIII. Extra-zodiacal constellation-subjects the Wain. It is probable that the 7 stars which are shown on some Cylinders=the Wain. In Lajard, M.

PL xxxv.

4,

they appear in a similar arrangement of

4 and 3 in a nocturnal scene, where the Crescentmoon, the Air-god, a large star (probably Venus), and

xxx. 7 they again In PL xxix. 6 appear next to the Crescent-moon. an above Ibex-goat standing on a star they appear

the Twins are shown.

In

M. PL

(=Capella), the Crescent-moon being also shown. Other instances are PL xxix. 5 xxxii. 1 1 liv. 5.
; ;

In the Collection de Clercq, No. 344 bis, the same combination of Crescent-moon, Seven Stars and Ibex-

goat

is

shown.

Vide also Cullimore, 0.
Rneeler.

C

Nos. 19,

20, 21.

XXIV. The
(Vide Lajard,

Instances of a figure kneel7; xlix.

ing upon one knee are frequent on the Cylinders

M. PL

xxxi.

4,

5;

liv.

B
;

14).

It is a usual attitude of

Gilgames-Herakles,

e.g.,

in

his great contest with the Lion (lb. PL xix. 6 xxv. 3 ; xxvi. 5), or when watering the celestial Bull

(Collection de Clercq, No. 461).

XXV. The
1.

Birds.

The Eagle is frequently represented. Aquila. a Thus, Cylinder (De Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee,

48

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
(

X

No. 13) shows him carrying the ancient hero Etana to heaven. Tn Lajard, M. PL xxxiii. 7, he
bis,

PL xxx.

appears with the Lion. In M. PL xxx v. 7 he appears with the Water-pourer, Fishes, Twins, and Crab.
2.

The Lammergeier (=Lyra.
xviii. 7,

Appears in Lajard, M. PL
xxxvi.

Vide Vol. I. 35). and again in PL
etc.
e.g.,

Many

11, with the Virgin, Ear-of-corn, Ram, late representations of the constellation,

the Oxford Aratos of 1672, show a Lyre on an Eagle displayed, thus combining the forms.

The Bird (Swan). Appears in Lajard, M. PL xxxii. 7, with the Water-pour er and the Bucranium
3.

(==Taurus).
in

Also in

PL

xxxiii.
;

1

with the

Urn

;

PL
4.

xxxiii. 5
3.

with the Twins

and

in Cullimore,

0. C. No.

10

;

5.

The Raven, Appears in Lajard, M. PL xxxvi. and in PL xi. 1, with Capella, the Hare, etc. The Fight between Samas-Gilgames and the

Tempest-birds (Vide Vol. I. 234-5). In Lajard, M. PL liv. B 11 is shown a fight between the Archersun and a huge Bird of night and. tempest, above

whom
In

is

the Crescent-moon.
lxi.

PL

7

Samas contends with the Triad

of

Storm-birds, grasping one by the neck, another by This is the the leg, and trampling on the third.
of the constellation-group pre-constellational aspect of Hercules, Sagitta, Aquila, Lyra, and Cygnus.

Another Cylinder, a copy of which was sent to me by the Earl of Southesk, shows a personage holding up a

huge bird, evidently subdued; and a Tablet (Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, p. 609) shows four-winged,
divinities holding

up huge

birds.

XXVI. The Winged-horse
tire des sculptures

(Pegasos).

A

'

sujet

d'un des palais assyriens de Nim-

I

x]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.
'

4$

roud

shows a four- winged personage holding with hand a winged-horse by the mane. The horses stand one on each side of him on their hind legs For another instance (Lajard, M. PL liv. C 5).
either

vide sup.

p. 37.

on a Hittite seal (lb. PL xliv. 3a), which has of late been frequently It is galloping with wings outspread, reproduced. one below and the other above it. In the field are
also appears

The Winged-horse

the Crescent-moon, a Bull's head and 3 stars (Vide
Vol.
I.

308).

In a later instance of West Asian art Pegasos appears in his exact constellational form, as a winged
demi-horse, in the field the Crescent-moon and a star
(Lajard,

M. PL xliii. 27). XXVII. The Snake-holder.

The goddess Allat

holding a snake in each hand (Vide sup. p. 39), with a wild boar and dog at her breasts and standing on a
horse (Lajard, Culte de Venus, PL xvii. 1). Decouvert dans les ruines de Babylone.' Personage holding with both hands a large snake
'

in front of

him (Collection de Clercq, No. 131). In Lajard, M. PL xii. 18 a seated personage is holding up what may be intended for a large snake. A Hittite Cylinder (lb. PL lviii. 6) is of great

one of those rare examples of their passage between the on constellation-figures Euphrates Valley and Hellas. Before the god Tarku, who is bird-headed, winged, and on one knee, in the Engonasin attitude, stand 3 human figures, one of
interest, as affording

whom

Behind holds a large snake in his left hand. him is the crouching Bull (Taurus), below which are two other human figures, striking hands (=Gemini).
is

Near them
VOL.
II.

a Dog, on a line with which are two
4

50

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x
of the

Lions, facing each other.

At the upper part
script,

Cylinder

is

an inscription in the Hittite
'

which

Lajard refers to as caracteres inconnus.' The cylinder thus supplies positive proof that many, and therefore probably most, of the Euphratean constellation-figures

were adopted by the Hittites, who would pass them on through Asia Minor, so that they

ultimately reached Hellas by land as well as by sea through the Phoenicians and others.
I

may

here appropriately notice a Phoenician repreof
this

sentation

constellation-figure (Figured by Canon Spano, Mnemosine Sarda ossia Ricordi e memorie di varii Monumenti Antiche con altre rarita delV isola de Sardegna, Cagliari, 1864, and

In the reproduced by me in C. E. A. p. 31, Fig. 25). Mulu-bat Tablet of the 30 Stars, Ophiouchos is called
('

The Man-of-death
: '

'),

and

in describing the

Phoeni-

cian design I said

fights with the dark monster, dragon, serpent, appears in most mythologies and as
;

The Light-god who

the Euphratean Sun-god grapples with the lunar Bull and with his own Lion, so does he seize the Serpent

This he does daily, or Dragon of darkness and chaos. and especially when he becomes " the Man-of-death,"
i.e.

when he descends into the Under-world. In this [design] we see the winged and blinded Sun-god, as

Helios-Ophiouchos, grasping the Snake of darkness in the same manner, and with its head in a correspondThe ing position to that of Serpens on our globes.

god

is

guided by a Kabeiric dwarf, and the student of

Hellenic

mythology

will

remember that the myth

reappears there in the persons of the blinded Orion and his dwarf guide Kedalion of Lemnos, whose name
signifies

one who takes charge of the dead (Vide

xj
Eustathios, in
fitting

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.
11.

5
is,

1

xiv. 294),

and who

therefore, a
'

guide for the man devoted to death (C E. A. Such an 31 vide G. D. M. ii. 276 et seq). p. instance as this shows that it is merely our loss of the
;

works on the Phoenician constellation-figures (Vide Vol. I. 149), which makes it somewhat difficult to fully demonstrate the identity of the Greek and

Had we the Hittite, Phoenician, Euphratean Signs. and archaic Greek representations, the matter would
be obvious at a glance.
In Lajard,

M. PL

xvi.

4

is

given the

Cylinder

representing a tree with a human figure seated on either side of it, behind one of which figures, possibly

woman, a large Snake is standing upright on its tail. The design, as of course, strikingly reminds us of the Biblical account of the Fall of Man. XXVIII. The Charioteer. A remarkable and rudely-engraved Cylinder (Lajard, M. PL xli. 3 Culthat of a
;

limore, 0. S. No. 6) shows a human figure seated in a large four-horse chariot, the horses being drawn one In front of this are two horned above another.

animals joined together, and thus practically making one, standing on their hind legs in the position called
in heraldry counter -salient.

Behind them

is

another

animal, very rudely drawn, but showing distinctly Below these creatures head, horns, tai] and four legs.
are

two

the other.

pairs of small human figures, each pair facing It is, of course, easy to fall into error in
;

attempting to explain such occult groups

but, at the

same time, we are bound to suppose that the engraver had a definite meaning, and the Cylinders generally

up with celestial phenomena. Reasonable conjectures on such lines are therefore I have shown elsewhere (U. permissible. p. 18

are very largely taken

;

52
L.

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

24-5) that the Unicorn -ibex-goats, counter-salient, in the well-known Cylinder of the Sun-gc-d and the Moon-god arranging for the preser-

K.

0.

pp.

vation of kosmie order (Figured in Smith and Sayce, Choi. Ac. Gen. p. .112), represent the 'monthly
cycling progress of the
ter-salient) animals in
;

moon

there and back

'

(coun-

and

I

would similarly explain the two

horned lunar
star

one of this Cylinder as the two, yet one, Bulls. The other animal is the Goat-

The the Charioteer=Auriga. Twins may be the Great-twins of the lunar Zodiac, i.e., the Pleiades and Hyades, and the Great Twins of the solar Zodiac (Gemini), i.e., Castor and Pollux. Should this view be correct, we have here
(Capella) and

two

pairs of

a very complete picture of this portion of the heavens. In modern representations the Charioteer is generally without his chariot,

but never without his Goat

;

and

this

seems to be equally true in the case of

Euphratean representations of the constellation-figure. In numbers of instances the Goat is carried on the

who is probably Auriga or connected with him (Vide sup. p. 46), but who is without a chariot.
arm
of a personage

XXIX. The

Triangle.

Deltoton
PI. xl. 5

is
;

shown

in various

instances, e.g., Lajard, No. 22.

M.

Cullimore, 0.

C

cylinders a stream of conventionally represented, viz., as a row of coils of similar pattern. Thus in Lajard, M. PL xvi.

XXX. The Stream. On many
is

water
5

shown with a Fish above it and another Fish In PL 1. 3 it is placed next to two Hares, below it. Potamos adjoins Lepus. In PL lii. 6 it is as the just next the Ibex-ram, and similarly we notice that the Potamos is near Aries.
it is

X]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

53

XXXI. The Hare.
monuments.

This animal often occurs on the

In Lajard, M. PL xxxvi. 13 a horned personage holds up a Hare, near which is a LamIn PL xl. 7 two Hares are placed next mergeier.
the Stream, as in another instance The design in PL (Vide No. XXX.). chased by a Dog=Lepus and Sirius.
instances vide R. B. Jr., E. pp. 10-11

above noticed
xli.

2

is

a
1.

Hare
4 the

In PL
Vol.

two Hares again adjoin the Stream.
;

(For other
I.

97).

XXXII. The Dogs.
on the monuments.
age,

This animal also often occurs

In Lajard,

M. PL

xv. 1 a person-

weapon of the Sun-god, seizes a rearing Unicorn by the ear and Above the Unicorn is the Crescentrestrains it.
moon, and beneath
sejant.
its

armed with the

Jchereb or sickle-shaped

The subject

of the cylinder

forepaws a very large Dog, is apparently the
;

triumph of the Sun-god over the Moon-god and the Dog, which is taking no part in the contest, and
therefore
is

not a solar dog,

may

possibly represent

Canis Maj. or Sirhis, as the star-king. In PL xxxviii. 1 a large Dog is represented with the Olenian Goat
In PL xxxix. 4 a large Dog appears sejant, on an Altar (Vide also No. XXXI. ). In PL xl. 2 by the side of the Crescent-moon is a large

and Crescent-moon,

etc.

6 -rayed star, beneath

which

is

a large Dog, sejant,

apparently being invoked by a votary who stands If this does not before him with right hand raised.
refer to the Dog-star, it is impossible to explain the

combination.

In

PL

liv.

B

15 the large Dog, sejant,

appears with the Goat (Capella). I may here mention an Etruscan Mirror (Gerhard, Etrushische Spiegel, ccxliii. A. No. 3), which shows
Orion, Canis Maj. and Lepus not in correct celestial positions, for the Hare is over the
(in figures)

54

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
the Crescent-moon, and

[x

Dogs head
Hamal,

the following
(/3

stars correctly placed,

Aldebaran, Nath

Tauri),

Pollux, liegulus,

Menkalinam

(fi

Aurigae),

and Capella. It may or may not be the result of Greek influence, and is a rare instance of an ancient

The details star-map (Figured in E. S. R. Pt. i. 9). of the long historical intercourse between the Phoeniand the Etruscans are even now almost entirely unknown. XXXIII. The Ship. In Lajard, M. PL 1. 8 there is a representation of Gilgames and Aradea navigating The ship of any famous mythical or their vessel.
cians

legendary voyage

is

naturally translated to the skies.

XXXIV. The Water-snake. Merodakh attacking the Great-serpent is shown on a cylinder belonging to Dr. S. W. Williams (Figured in Smith and Sayce, Choi. The same design is reproduced on Ac. Gen. p. 90).
an engraved stone said by Lajard (M. PL xii. 2) to be of the Sassanian period (Vide also Cullimore, 0. C.
Nos. 124-5).

The Bowl or Cup naturally appears on the cylinders and other monuments (Vide Cullimore, 0. C. Nos. 120, 165; Lajard, M. PL
Bowl.
xxxiii. 11).

XXXV. The

XXXVI.

The

Centaur and

Wild-beast.

This

constellation-group has developed out of representations of the contest of the Sun-god and the Darkness-

and also, perhaps, of the contest between friend of Gilgames, who has the horns, the Eabani, legs, and tail of a bull, with a wild animal, lion, bull, xxvii. 10 Vol. I. etc. (Vide Lajard, M. PL xv. 6
monster
;

;

;

110-12; Fig. xv. p. 241). XXXVII. The Altar (Vide No. XVII.
cellent instance of the Altar-censer (Vide Vol.

An
I.

ex-

117),

X]

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

55

guarded by the Scorpion-men of darkness, eastern and western, appears in Lajard, M. xlix. 2. A
slightly variant representation of the given in Cullimore, 0. C. No. 160.

same scene is The Southern

of course a reduplication of the zodiacal Altar, and the two form one of the many celestial pairs, such as Bears, Wains, Goats, Bogs, Shepherds,
is

Altar

etc.

XXXVI II.
89) overcome

The Sea-monster.

Tiamat (Vide Vol.

I.

by Maruduku frequently appears on the In Lajard, M. PL cylinders and other monuments. xxv. 1 the Sun-god, armed with his bow and arrow,
delivers the

darkness and chaos.
in PJ. xxv. 5

Moon-god from the Tiamat-dragon of The same contest is represented and in PL xxxiii. 4 (Vide No. XXXIV.).

of the personages on the cylinders is extremely doubtful, I do not at present attempt in detail to connect any of them with

As

the identification of

many

Bootes, Kepheus, Kassiepeia, Perseus, meda, and Oridn of the Greek sphere.

the

Andro-

XXXIX. The

Mithraic Group.

The

early Euphra-

tean designs, both constellational and pre-constellational, continue to be repeated on numberless stones,

gems,
Asia.

seals, coins,

and other works of art in Western Writers such as Lajard and Imhoof-Blumer
;

but with supply almost any amount of instances I may, howthese we are not at present concerned. one of to the refer ever, striking example reappearance of Euphratean ideas and designs, namely, the group of figures, the centre of which is formed by

Mithra and the Bull. Mithraic representations have been exhaustively collected by Prof. Cumont in his
great
et Monuments Figures relatifs aux de Mithra, the second volume of which Mysteres

work Textes

56

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

I shall, however, here quote an appeared in 1896. instance or two from an earlier writer. Leonardo

Agostini Senese, Gemmae et Sculpt. Antiq. 1694, PL i., gives the following Mithraic scene, which in many of its incidents is repeated in innumerable In the centre of the upper part of the examples.
design stands Mithra, as the Sun-god, with large outspread wings, and encircled by the Time-serpent, the

At his right are 3 Ophiouchos. and the Sun-god radiate in his car planetary Altars, At his left are the with four horses (=an Auriga).
thus an

Kampe He is

slain

by the

solar

Dionysos (Vide Vol.

I.

302).

remaining 4 planetary Altars, and the Moon-god-

To the right goddess in a biga drawn by two horses. of the representation stands the Genius of morning with uplifted torch, below whom is the Genius of
The remaining and Evening with reverted torch. principal group shows Mithra stabbing the Bull, near whose head is a Bucranium, and whose tail at the end This Mithraic Bull, is divided into two Ears-of-corn.
so far as art

concerned, is a reduplication of the Euphratean Bull, the Amar-uda (Vide Tab. 79-7-8,
is

312), with whom Gilgames and Eabani or whom Gilgames waters (Vide sup. 47)

;

contend, and the

peculiar artistic treatment of his tail is a reduplication of the Bull and Ear-of-corn of the Euphratean monu-

surrounded by hostile creatures in the Mithraic representation, a Dog, which

ments (Vide No.

I.).

He

is

a large Serpent, which springs up to lick his blood a Scorpion, which seizes on his genitalia. bites him
; ;

them is a small Lion, and above One Cylinder (Lajard, M. PI. a Raven.
Beside

in the air
xxvii. 10)
Bull,

shows the combat between Eabani and the
is

who

also

apparently threatened by a large

Scorpion.

X]
I

CONSTELLATION-SUBJECTS.

57

not here concerned with the explanation of all this complicated Mithraic symbolism, or with the
history of the concept of Geus-urva (' Soul-of-theCow '), the Iranian primeval Earth-cow, or of the

am

Iranian primeval Bull, both of whom were slain, like the Mithraic Bui] of the monuments. It is only the
artistic

connexion between Babylonia and Persia in the matter to which I call attention. The Mithraic
Bull
the

a descendant in art of the Euphratean Bull, as Man-bulls of Persia are of the Man-bulls of
is

Nineveh and Babylon. The Eagle also at times appears on Mithraic monuments (Vide Senese, PI. ii.) as do the two Palm-trees, one at each side of the representation (lb.), and which symbolize the two Groves of the Under-world, one at the far East and the other at the far West. These two Palm-trees appear on the Cylinder already noticed which gives the league of the Sun-god and the Moongod (Sup. p. 52) and they are conventionally introduced on a Persian Cylinder (Lajard, M. PI. xxv. 6)
5

;

In regions depicting Darayavaush I. lion-hunting. westward the original Palm is often represented by
the pyramidal Cypress and the Poplar. Two such Cypresses are also shown on the design in question and the Poplar meets us in the Homeric Grove of
;

Persephone (Vide P. B.

Jr.,

K. pp. 106-7), an Aryan

goddess, the analogue of the Euphratean NinkigalAllat (Vide sup. p. 39).

Another Mithraic group (Senese, Pt. ii. PL xxxiii.) gives the Sun and Moon, represented both as human
heads and as stars
stars
; ;

the five Planets, represented as

and besides the usual figures of Mithra, the Bull, two Genii, Dog, Scorjiion, and Crow, there are also shown the Ear-of-corn, Eagle, Arrow, Tortoise,

58

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

and Dolphin, of which latter I do not remember a Euphratean representation. The Thunderbolt, which also is shown, is a familiar Euphratean weapon of Bel in his contest with Tiamat. Other Mithraic representations show the Bowl
(KavOapo?), close

by the Serpent and the Lion (Vide Grand Bas-Kelief de Heddernheim,ap. Cumont, ii. 363),
agreeing with the celestial positions of
lb.
ii.

374, Fig. 283). appears in Mithraic art (lb. p. 428, Fig. 363) and the Fish (lb. Fig. 366). Another instance (Jos. cle

and Leo (Vide

Hydra, Crater The Ram also

Hammer, Mithriaca, 1833, PL iii.) shows the Pegasus, It is therefore sufficiently obvious Eagle, Swan, etc.
that

the greater part
in origin
;

of

the Mithraic imagery
illustrative

is

Euphratean

and the

examples

given in the present chapter will show that Euphratean art, like that of the earlier coin-types, and like the
early unnumismatic art of the Aigaion seaboard and of Asia Minor, is simply crowded with constellationsubjects.

CHAPTER XL
The Tablet of the Thirty
Section
I

Stars.

I.

Introductory.
1,

Tablet

W. A. L,

V. xlvi. No.

from the Birs-

Nimroud, written in the Babylonian cuneiform and copied from an older tablet, is of very great interest
and importance in connexion with archaic astronomy and stellar mythology. It is divided into three parts. Part L, lines 1-38, including the obverse and the two
first lines

of the reverse,

is

in

two columns, the
Part

first

of which gives the

names

of 31 stars or asterisms,

and
II.,

the second shows their regent-divinities.
lines 39-53, is also divided into

two columns, the

first

which gives a further star-list, including also planet names, and the second adds some remarks and explanations. Part III., lines 54-64,
of

several

consists of text, not in columns, but in

two

divisions,

and the second of five lines. This some observations on the position of the contains part moon during the months Kislev, Tebet, and Sebat.
the
first

of six,

The

point of special interest in connexion with the Tablet is that it supplies the list of the 30 stars
first

In his spoken of by Diodoros (Vide sup. p. 3). account of the Chaldaean celestial scheme, after having Y7ro Se tw mentioned the planets, he continues
f
:

tovtwv (popav Xeyovcri Tera^Oai TpiaKOVTa 'Ao-re^oa?, ovg 7r poo- ay opevovcrai BouXa/ov? OeoJ? (' And under the orbit
of these [the planets]

they say that Thirty Stars,

60

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

which they denominate " Divinities of the Council," have been marshalled'). As noticed previously, the Chiefs of the Thirty were 12 in number, to each of

whom

This last a sign of the Zodiac was assigned. arrangement was a practical combination of a rough
lunar Zodiac, consisting of 30 or 31 moon-stations, The lunar Zodiac, with the familiar solar Zodiac.

moreover, was specially Sumero-Akkadian, for in W. A. I. IV. xv. we read (ap. Sayce) of certain
spirits
:

Ak. 'In the watch Sem. 'In the Signs

of the Thirty (Stars) of the Zodiac

was

their office.'

was

their office.'

to that of the

So that the sphere of the Thirty Stars was equivalent Twelve Signs, and the former concept
latter Semitic,

was Sumero-Akkadian, the
Semitic.

or

more

In a combination of the two divisions and

systems. Twelve of the Thirty necessarily became 'Chiefs.' Although the number 30, as that of the

days of the month,
the lunar
stars

is

connected with the

moon and

month

do not
;

of 29 days, 13 hours, yet these 30 very accurately represent the lunar

they merely mark out these in a vaguely approximate manner. From what has been said it

mansions

follows, as of course, that the

30 (31) stars of the

Tablet are
ecliptic.

all

either in
this fact

And

was

or comparatively near the clearly seen by that able

Assyriologist the late Geo. Bertin, who first drew my attention to it, and kindly assisted me in its study.
also, it is highly probable that these 31 stars, inasmuch as they mark the successive steps of the moon during the month, would be named in the

In the abstract,

Tablet in correct celestial order.
also is confirmed

This circumstance
;

by

its

internal examination

and

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY

STARS.

61

the Tablet therefore supplies highly important material
for a correct reconstruction of a large portion of the

Euphratean
last star

celestial sphere.
'

Moreover the 31st and
or
'

(=also

Asterism

'

Constellation,' as the

may require) of Part L, that is, of this most ancient Lunar Zodiac, the parent of all other lunar
case

the Goat-fish (Muna-kha), one of the 12 Chiefs of the Thirty, a Sign which, without any doubt
zodiacs,
is

or question

=Capricorn. Hence the year indicated by the Tablet commenced in Aquarius, and the 30 Stars must be traced round from Aquarius to
Capricornus.
This represents a year which, like the
Boiotian, Delphian, and Bithynian years, commenced at the winter solstice, a very natural point of beginning.
full

Thus,

moon

find that the appearance of the first after the winter solstice is still celebrated
'

we

as the chief annual festival of the Dravidians [like the Sumero-Akkadai, a non- Aryan and non-Semitic race]

of southern India, where

the year

'

(J.

F.

marks the beginning of Hewitt, Early Hist, of Northern
it

A list of Tamil (Dravidian) lunar India, pp. 551-2). and solar-lunar months, given by Mr. Hewitt, is as
follows
:

Tamil Lunar
1.

List.
1.

Tamil Solar-lunar
7

List.

Tai.

2. 3.

Maussi.

2.
3.

Panguni.
Chittri.

Kumbha ('the Watering-pot'). Minam (' the Fishes ). Mesham (' the Ram ').
Rishabam ('the
Bull').
').

4.
5.
6.

4.

Vayasi.

5.
6.

Midhunam
Kartakam

(' ('

the Twins

Auni.

the Crab').

7.

Audi.

7. 8.
9.

Simham
Kauni Tulam

('the Lion').

8.
9.

Auvani.
Purattasi.

('the Girl'). ('the Balance').

10. Arpesi.
11. 12.

10.
11.
12.

Vrishakam ('the Scorpion').

Kartikai.

Margal

i.

Dhamsu ('the A rcher'). Makaram ('the Goat-fish').

62
This order
Tablet

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
is

[xi

in

of the

exact agreement with that of the Thirty Stars, a circumstance which
it

confirms the inference that

was a widespread and The archaic arrangement amongst Turanian nations.
Greeks Signs of the Zodiac reached India through the (Vide Vol. I. 17), and duly appear in the Tamil Solarlunar
the
list
;

but they are placed in

a-

non-solar order,
'

Urn

of

Aquarius

first,

the Goat-fish

last.

Lunar

chronology,' says Prof. Max Midler, 'seems everywhere to have preceded solar chronology {Rig- Veda'

Samhitd, Vol. IV., 1892, Preface, p. 67); and the Euphratean Lunar Zodiac, as I have elsewhere shown
(Vide Vol. I. 17) lunar schemes.
is

the source of

all

other existing

The Tablet of the Thirty
length by

Stars has been treated at

me
iii.,
'

(30 S. 1890

;

E. S. R., Pt.

v.

1895-6),

and more
Chat. Pt.

briefly

by

Prof.

1892, pp. contains a Mondstationenliste,' but supposes that the list begins with the Pleiades, and that lines 12-26 form an Excursus, relating to the Pole-star, Aries, In Pegasus, Deneb (a Cygni), Cassiepeia, etc.

Hommel (Astron. der alt. He agrees that it 15-16).

E. S. R. Pt.
far as I

v.

pp. 6-7

,

I

criticised this view, but, so

am
Prof.

aware,

my

arguments have received no
services to the

reply.

Hommel's learning and

it

cause of literature and historic truth are so great that would be uncourteous to pass over his opinion in
silence

tions

and I therefore reproduce here the considerawhich seem to me to be absolutely fatal to his
;

theory.
I.

These are mainly

:

The testimony of Diodoros, above mentioned, and the argument derived from other schemes, such Of these circumstances Prof. as the Tamil List.

Hommel

takes no notice.

Xl]
II.

THE TABLET OP THE THIRTY
If the list ends

STARS.

6$

with the Goat-fish (which he

admits), and the asterisms are mentioned in actual celestial order (which, except as regards the alleged

Excursus, he also admits), Pleiades could be No. I. ?

how

is it

possible that the

In this case there would

be no moon-station for the heaven-space occupied by Aquarius, Pisces and Aries, which is absurd. Bertin,
for

reason, supposed that Asterism No. I., that of Even this view would the Foundation? was fi Ceti.

some

leave the Aquarius-space unaccounted for, and /3 Ceti, a smaller second magnitude star, is a long way from

the ecliptic

;

but

still

this opinion is better than Prof.

Hommel's III. At

theory.
first

sight Prof. Hommel's explanation of the leading asterisms of the Tablet seems to be abso'

lutely conclusive,
1

i.e.,

the Foundation

'

(=Pleiades),
Tauri),
Little'

the Jackal
'

'

(=Aldebaran),
'

Gam (=/3 and

1

the Great-tivins
'

(=Castor and Pollux), the

(=Asellus bor. et aust. in Cancer), and the King (=Pegulus). But, unfortunately for this view, we are informed in 1. 49 that the Ram is saku-sa-risi kakkabi Gam (' the uppermost part of the asterism Gam) and thus Gain cannot be ft and Tauri, nor can it come after the Pleiades and Aldebaran, and so the chain is at once and fatally broken. Moreover, as noticed (Vol. I. 338), /3 Tauri was 'the northern -light Tauri the Southern-light of of the Chariot', and
twins
; '

Chariot

(Ak.

W. A.
the

I. III.

and in Gar, Bab. -As. Narkabtu) lvii. No. 9, 1. 70, the constellation of
;

Chariot

is

distinguished
it
(1.

from

Gam, which

is

named next

to

71).
fi

evidence, error in the scheme

Gam

cannot be

Thus, also from external and Tauri. This fatal

more

in detail.

I

unnecessary to examine it may, however, add that whilst the
it

makes

64
Pleiad
is

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
*
'

undoubtedly a foundation star, it is the Foundation-star of the solar, not of the lunar, Zodiac,
whereas and, as such, is called Te (Vide sup. p. 16) the Foundatio?i-3iSterism of the lunar Zodiac of the
;

Tablet

is

not called Te, but, both here and elsewhere,

Apin.

The important piece of information respecting Gam and the Ram [Aries) given by the scribe, as above noticed, shows that he was well acquainted with two The Ram was a solar sets of figures, lunar and solar. It must be constellation, Gam a lunar asterism. remembered that the solar Zodiac was, if I may so express it, placed upon the lunar Zodiac, and covered the same space in uranography. Mr. T. W. Kingsmill, in an important article, full of learning and suggestiveComparative Table of the Lunar Asterisms {Journal of the China Branch of the Koyal
ness,

entitled

A

Asiatic Soc,
'

Dec, 1892), observes

:

Notwithstanding the wide extension of the lunar mansions, which at one time must have been popularly
received from China on the one hand to Greece on the
other, the
'

system cannot have prevailed for many
(p. 78).

centuries
1

however, the completion of the series of lunar stations, and the astronomy to which they gave rise,
If,

cannot be dated before 2350

B.C. [?],

we
.
.

find that the

system cannot have had more than two centuries of unchallenged existence. Evidence goes to prove
.

that
solar

when the astronomers of Chaldea adopted the signs, and marked the beginning of the year by

the solar culmination of the constellations, the Pleiades still occupied the place of honour, marking a date not
later than

2150

B.C.' (p. 79).

been the case in

But, whatever may have other countries, in the Euphrates

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

65

Valley the lunar scheme had probably, either solely, or jointly with the solar scheme, a reign of many centuries. Lacouperie's researches resulted in the conclusion that amongst other elements of West

Asian civilization acquired by the ancestors of the Chinese, through their relations with the Euphrates
Valley and Nummaki (Elam), were four seasons in the year, the winter solstice as beginning of the calendar
'
'

(Western Origin of the Early Chinese Civilization,
p. 378).

Prof.

Hommel's

error, in

my opinion,

consists

in treating the lunar, as if it were a solar, scheme, beginning, naturally enough, in Taurus.
It will doubtless

be asked,

What

is

the basis for

Hommel's idea that lines 12-26 of the Tablet form an Excursus, and refer to stars some of which are far from the ecliptic ? The answer to this is
Prof.

Asterism No. XVIII. is 'the Horse' briefly as follows: and No. XIX. Lu-lim ('the He-goat or Ibex ') and these are supposed by Prof. Hommel to represent Pegasus and Ai'ies. Now the Horse is not necessarily Pegasus. The heaven is full of duplicates, two Bears,
'

'

Wains, Lions, Dogs, Goats,
not
necessarily mean observes, The full name
'

*

Lulim, again, does Thus, Prof. Sayce of Saturn was Lubat-sakus,
etc.

ram.'

which
II.

given as a synonyme of Lulim in W. A. I. Now lulim signified both " king " and 48, 52.
is

"stag"

(Trails.

Soc.

Bib.

Archaeol.

iii.

169),

in

I. II. support of Anct. Babs. vi. 8, 31, 41 also Pel. p. 284). Sayce, (Vide Bertin was inclined to render lulim by gazelle,' which
'

which statement he quotes W. A.

in Ak. is elim
'

probably

lulim, according to Prof. Sayce, being a re-duplicated form of the same word.'
;

But

lu certainly

means

'flocks' (of small cattle,
5

-

i.e.,

sheep and goats) Sem. tsene,
vol.
11.

and the meaning 'king'

66
is

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

derived from the idea of the leader of the flock.
shall see

We

when we c6me

to Asterism No.
is

XIX. that

the animal there mentioned

not the zodiacal Earn,
;

vide which when referred to in this Tablet (1. 49 sup.) is called, not Lulim, but Lu-nit (' Male-sheep ').

would indeed be strange if the scribe having begun at the Pleiades, and gone on regularly for some time, should suddenly introduce Aries in the middle of his list. Again, Asterism XXII, Entenamasluv, which is rendered by (Sem.) Siru 1 Etsen-tsiri (W. A. I. II. xlix.
It

Limb Tip-of-the-tail/ Prof. Hommel considers Deneb [i.e., Ar. Dzeneb or Zanab, the Tail of a I know of no reason for the the Bird), Cygni.
47), 'the

to be

'

'

identification

with a

*

tail,'

except that both are thus connected but not necessarily with the same tail.

And

the utter baselessness of this identification well

appears from we read
:

W. A.

I.

III.

lii.

No.

1,1.

17-18, where

Kakkab Lubat ina arakh Diizu innamar. Kakkab Entenamasluv ina atsu-su kakkaba itammikh ('The The planet Jupiter in the month Tammuz is seen. asterism Entenamasluv at its rising the planet holds ').
This asterism, therefore, as Jensen (Kosmol. in der Nahe der Ekliptik perceived, must be
p. 54),
'

;

and

cannot therefore be the
is

tail of the Swan. Such, then, the general character of the Tablet, and such are some of the principal reasons for not accepting Prof.

I will next give a Hommel's view of it. literation and translation, accompanied by

transnotes,

of such parts of enquiry.
1

it

as are connected with the present

A

word placed as a Determinative Prefix before parts

of the

body.

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

6J

Section

II.

Translation of the Tablet, with

Explanatory Notes.
sub-section
i.

the archaic lunar zodiac.
Asterism No.
I.

1.
1

Kakkab Apin. Ilu Sar. The Asterism of the Foundation.
\ |

The god

Sar.'

In deciding upon what stars constituted 'the Asterism of the Foundation] our choice, as will be observed from

what has been already said, is necessarily restricted to the region occupied by Aquarius. That Apin was in or near the ecliptic we learn expressly from Tab. S. 375; Kakkab Apin kharran Samsi iksud ('The Asterism of the Foundation the path of the Sun
took
').

My

late friend Dr.

his death sent

me

Lacouperie shortly before a corrected list of the Chinese Siuh
'

(Lunar Mansions) and it is remarkable that the 25th of these is Wei, anciently Gui (Cf. Ak. Gi, foundation '), and consists of a Aquarii and It is Pegasi.
;

also to

be observed that the Fortuna Maior of Dante, Chaucer, and other mediaeval writers, consists of the
*],

stars a, y,

ir
,

Aquarii and

Pegasi

;

and

it is

very

interesting to notice

how

the later greatness of these

comparatively inconspicuous stars depends upon early

Euphratean ideas (Vide R. B. Jr., in the Academy, We have seen (Sup. p. 16) that the Jan. 12, 1895).

name
('

of the xith zodiacal constellation

was Gu, Gula
No.
'

the

Urn

9

),

and in W. A.
'

I. III.

lvii.

5,

1.

2

it

called Gu-si-sa (or -di), the Leading or Directing Urn,' just as the second month of the year, once the the Directing-bull.' first, is called Gut-si-di (or -sa),
is
'

'

at

Such a name points to the Urn having been regarded, some time and in some way, as the head and first

68

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
;

[xi

of the chain of year-asterisms just as it appears at the head of the Signs in the Tamil solar-lunar list.

We may
tion
'

'

consider, then,

the Asterism of the Foundaa, y,
,

as probably including the stars

rj 9

0,

X

and S Aquarii, with perhaps some others adjoining.
In W. A. I. III. liii. No. 1,1. 2 we read Kakkab Apin ana siri surri (' The Asterism of the Foundation portends the foundations of a gate '), a good illustration of a senseless prognostication based merely on the

name, at a time when the original meaning of the name had very likely long been forgotten. The regent divinity of the Asterism of the Foundation
'
'

appropriately the god Sar,' (Ak.) An-sar, the power of the Upper-expanse, who is named in the Creation
is

'

Legend, and whose name
a deity
for the

*

is

generally read Assur as
'

in later

supreme

times, being an ordinary symbol god of the Assyrians (Smith and

Nisroch

Sayce, Chal. Ac. Gen. p. 61). (Is. xxxvii. 38).

Assur =Gk. Nao-a^^,

Asterism No.
2.
'
\

II.

Kakkab Lik-bar-ra. Ilu A-nu. The Asterism of the Hyena, The-god Arm.* The Lik-, Lig-, or Urbarra (' Striped-dog '), Sem.
j

Akhu, Heb. Oakh,
alist

is

the late Rev.

Wm.

rendered by that eminent naturHoughton hyena,' but more
'

commonly

'jackal.'

In W. A.

I.

II.

xlix.

No.

3,

1.

38, the asterism Likbarra is explained as A-khu, the Okhim being the doleful creatures of the A. V. in
'
'

Is. xiii.

21.

This asterism was in some

way

specially

connected with the planet Mars, a fact which appears from W. A. L III. lvii. No. 6, 1. 2, where the first of
the seven names of the planet is given as Ul Manma kakkab Akhil (' The luminary reigning over the star

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY
Hyena.'

STARS.

69

[asterism] of the

Sem. Zibu ('the Wolf) Hyena or Jackal and in Anu, the divinity ruling over the asterism, we are again reminded of Z'albat Anu
;

Sayce.). Mars as seems related to the

Numma,

In W. A. I. II. xlix. No. 4, 1. 1 the (Mars). asterism Likbarra appears in a list with the stars of the Lion, Dog, etc. The Urbarva, if only by play

on words
clined),
is

(to which the scribes evidently much inthe animal appropriate to the Horizon- and

Foundation-god Ur, and hence is suitably placed next to 'the Foundation! As noticed (Sup. p. 35) the

Likbarra appears in Euphratean uranographic art. Jensen (Kosmol. p. 147) makes the curious mistake of
supposing that the line
is

to be read as

an equation,
'

Urbarra=Anu. This and his peculiar view i.e., about Anu, 'Anu ein Pol des Himmels (lb. p. 19), have misled Sir Norman Lockyer, who writes
:

.

get the jackal in Babylonian astronomy ? Jensen refers to the various readings "jackal" and "leopard," and states that it is only doubtful whether
.

'

Do we

.

god ANU or the pole of the Ecliptic ANU is meant' (The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 362). As I have said elsewhere, 'the theory which makes "Anu Nordpol d. Ekliptik" and " Bil Nordpol d. " is not really borne out by the InscripAequators tions (Academy, March 31, 1894, p. 272); and the Jackal or Hyena (not Leopard') is neither Anu nor a planet. Jensen (Kosmol. pp. 120, 524), by a further As mistake, identifies the Urbarra with Mercury. the reader will observe none of the 30 Stars (aster-

by

this figure the

'

'

isms) are planets nor could they be planets, since they form a lunar zodiac. Planets are named after;

wards in the next division of the Tablet. There is no asterism of the Fishes amongst the 30, for Fomal-

JO
liaut

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

seems to have been too far to the south to have
;

been included
whilst

and Pisces

is

a dark constellation,

Okda

(a

cluded in* the

Piscium), next asterism.
,

as

we

shall

The

was inUrbarra will
see,

a, and y Pegasi. Pegasus is a paranatellon of Aquarius and Pisces, and its stars form the 26th and 27th lunar mansions of the Arabians etc. (Vide E. S. R. Pt. v. 10). The Horse occurs elsewhere in this Lunar Zodiac (Vide inf. p.

therefore consist of

84).

It is noticeable that a Jackal appears in the

circular zodiac of Tentyra (Denderah) in a position which would correspond with the stars of Pegasus.

The dog
with

frequently a point of departure in idea Thus, with the respect to animal names. Sumero-Akkadai. as the Hyena is the Striped-dog
is
' '

the Wolf
dog.'
'

Greedy-dog and the Lion the BigSo, with the Eskimo, the Polar-bear is the Whiteis

the

*

'

'

'

dog

;

and,
'

in

the

Vendiddd {Fargard,
with the prickly back.'
'

xiii),

the

Hedgehog
Likbarra
is

is

the

Dog

The Ak.

by (Sem.) Barbaru, which As with respect to generally translated Leopard.'
is

also rendered

colours, so in reference to animals, there

is

often a

great vagueness of terminology in ancient literature.

Asterism No.
3.
1
|

III.

Kakkab Gam. Kakku sa qdti Maruduki. The Asterism of the Scimitar (or Sickle '). Theweapon of the hand of Merodakh.' Lenormant {Repertoire des Caracteres de VlUcriture
'
|

Cuneiforme,

No.

18)

gives
'

revenir periodiquement {Pro. S. B. A. Nov. 1889, p. 11) compares the Ak. " GAM, GIN, " to bend," bow," with the Chinese " " " to to bend a bow yin, (cp. Cantonese Team,
;
'
'

'gam, aller en circle, and the Rev. C. J. Ball

1

v

XI]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

But the comparison may be greatly extended, and we see here an instance of the advantages arising from the identification of Sum.-Ak. as a
lean over").'

member of the great Turanian family of languages. For, when we turn to the Turko-Tataric dialects, we
find at once the root horn, komb, kun,
'

round'

etc.,

whence the Uigur Kom-av,
is

'

amulet,'
'

i.e.,

that which

round
'

bul,

the Tchagatai kom, camel's hump,' komAs in the Turanian languages m-final knob,' etc.
;

at times changes into n {e.g.,
Jc

into j, the Ak.
*

gam

kun), n into r, and and Turko-Tataric horn, komb,
'
'

kom

reappear in the

Magyar
'

gor-be,

Laponic jo-r-ba, rotundus,' and the curvus (Vide Budenz, Magyar- Ugor
;

Oss. Szotdr, p. 61)
'

and so we find the Magyar gomb,
'

a sphere,' gomb-olyu,
bent,' etc. etc.
is

round,' the

Zyrianian gor'

byltny, of Merodakh,'
'

Gam,

therefore,
'

the
'

weapon
or

that which

is

round,'

bent,'

curved,' namely, the saparu, sickle-shaped sword or 'Scimitar,' which 'is always represented both in the

a weapon of BelMerodach' (Smith and Sayce, Choi. Ac. Gen, p. 109), in his war against the dragon Tiamat. As, of course, this same weapon the khereb-harpe, the portentous
sculptures
inscriptions
as
'

and

Hes. Theog. 179) with which the solar Kronos assails Ouranos, is employed by the
sickle
(TreKwpiov apirriv.

'

solar

Barsav-Perseus

in

his

fight

with the Sea-

monster, the reduplication of Tiamat. Again, Gamis the Ak. name of the Ostrich, As. Sakatuv, gam

which

'

may be compared with

declicavit, deflexit a via recta,"
'

the Arabic saka, "abiit, and may allude to the

circles
S.
'

well-known habit of these birds of always vanning in when hunted (Kev. Wm. Houghton, in Trans.
B. A.
viii.

101).

Gam-gam

(i.e.,

Gam

intensive),=

the Circler,'=the Ostrich.

Whether

this

weapon of

J2

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
is

[xi

the solar Merodakh

the lightning or the crescentmoon is immaterial to our present purpose. It is here reduplicated in an Asterism and, as noticed
;
'

*

is

(Sup. the

p. 63),

the uppermost part
'

of this Asterism

Ram.

This most important statement locates
'

beyond a doubt. Its uppermost part is therefore a, /3, and y Arietis, which thus form the handle of the Scimitar, the blade of which will extend southwards to Ohda (' the Knot/ a Piscium). The weapon is thus suspended just over the head of the Seamonster, its handle not being very far from Perseus. In this connexion we observe further that two lists of asterisms, solar and lunar, were familiar to the scribe

Gam

who

inserted glosses in the latter part of the Tablet.

He thus carefully points out the connexion between the lunar asterism of the Scimitar, which does not appear in the solar list, and the solar asterism of the
Ram, which does not appear in the lunar Kakkah Gam is mentioned in W. A. I. III.
6, line 4
list.

A
No.

lvii.

and

in No. 9, Front,

1.

12.

These two

Gams

are not necessarily identical with each other, or with There may be two the Asterism of this Tablet.

Scimitars

(Cf.

the Sickle in Leo), just as two Bears,

Dogs, Twins,

etc.

Asterism No. IV.
4.

Kakkab

ner-ra u
'

Mas-tab-ba-gal-gal-la. ilu Gal-lam-ta-ud-du-a.
of the Great-twins.
*
|

Ilu
\

Lugal-

The Asterism

of-the-ecliptic

(lit.

yoke

')

The god Kingand the god Bull-of-the-

Rising-sun. Ilu Sin u ilu Nergal. 5. The god the Moon and the god the Great-hero.' There are many great and little twin -stars in the
|

'

|

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

>]

$

heavens.

The Great Twins of the solar Zodiac are Castor and Pollux, but here we traverse the same
;

region, the ecliptic, from a different starting-point and as we know exactly where we have now reached,
i.e.,

immediately to the east of Aries, we have no difficulty in recognizing the Great Twins of the lunar
Zodiac as the two famous asterisms of the Pleiads and

Hyads,
Vol.
I.

the

perhaps, more strictly, of the Pleiad (Vide of 57, 134) and Aldebaran ('The Follower' Pleiad), the pair Te-Te (Vide sup. p. 14), so
or,

constantly coupled by the classic writers, from the In nXiyiaJa? 0' 'YdSag of the Iliad downwards.
5-6, Lugal-nerra and Gallamta are explained as Guttav {Jupiter) and Zalbat [Mars). In K. 2407 Lugal-nerra is repre7,
1.

W. A.

I.

III. lvii.

No.

Rev.

is

sented as asking the gods to solve a riddle. Jupiter thus patron-planet of the Hyads and the red Mars
of the red star Aldebaran.

The Moon-god

is

also

appropriately the patron-divinity of both, that is of the peculiarly lunar constellation Taurus. Nergal,

Nirwal ('the Great -hero') lord of the Under-world and god of the planet Mars, is also
otherwise
naturally a patron-divinity of this nocturnal Sign, specially connected with Mars. Nergal, the Death-

god, called
lxvii. 70),

'

Nergal of the Apparitions

'

(W. A.

I. III.

was

also patron-divinity of the
'),

Ak. town
of Kuth,'
'

Gudua
when
1

('

the Resting-place

Sem. Kutu, where was
still

a famous
'

Hence, 'the men necropolis. transplanted into the land of Israel,
their special

made

Nergal
kidli
'

twin,' tabba,

god (2 Kings, tamma, comrade.' Gal
'

xvii. 30).

Mas=

(Cf.

the Turkic
'

great

')

+ gal (intensive)=' very great. La=the
;

emphatic prolongation. The great stars are also gods so in IF. A. I. III. lxviii. 68 we find the god Mastabba.'
'

74

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XI

Asterism No. V.
6.

Kakkab Mas-tab -ba-tur-tur.
\

Iiu

Amar-ud u

ilu Nin-sar.

The Asterism of the Little-twins. The god Oxof-day and the goddess Lady-of-rising.' 1 2 The Little-tivins=\ and Orionis. This (p
'
|

(f)

,

asterism

affords a striking illustration

thrown upon

of the light the Tablet of the Thirty Stars by the

seven existing Lunar Zodiacs, namely, the Persian, Sogdian, Khorasmian, Chinese, Indian, Arab and In Coptic schemes, all of which are derived from it.
each of these arrangements of the heavens these three

Hyads as the next lunar mansion (Vide E. S. R. v. 16). They 1 are situate so close together that (p is overlapped by
A,

small stars of Oridn follow the Pleiads and

and they thus form a pair of

little

twins immediis

ately in line with the Great-twins.

The Ox-of-day

Sun (Merodakh. Vide Sayce, Eel. Anet. p. 106), and is then reduplicated in the planeThe simile is the sun tary Merodakh (Jupiter). The Lady-of-rising is the ploughing ecliptic-path.
primarily the

Bobs.

the planetary Istar- Venus. Jupiter and Venus are thus the two patron-planets of the Little-tivins.

Asterism No. VI.
8.
'

Kakkab Lugal.
Asterism

llu Maruduku.
\

The

of

the

Mighty-man.

The
\

god

Merodakh.'

W. A. I. III. liii. No. 2, 1. 11 we find that Merodakh, who is primarily the Sun, was reduplicated in various stars in different months, and in the month Dhabitu (Tebet) was Lugal (' The Mighty-man '), otherwise Un-gal (' Man + great '),=Sem. Sarru
In
'

'

Xl]
('

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

75

the ruling-divinity of The name the Asterism of the Mighty-man or King.

King '). Now the Tablet of some special connexion with months Kislimu, Dhabitu and accordingly, we find Merodakh

the Thirty Stars has the three particular

Sabadhu

;

and

here,

Mighty-man is practically repeated in numerous later names of the constellation Oridn and the Asterism
;

in question will be either Betelgeuse (a Orionis) alone, or with some other portion of Orion. Lacouperie

observes that Orion appears as a
in

*

military chief alike
p. 340).

Babylonia and China' {Western Origin,

In the General Sphere Lugal, as noticed, was the name of Herakles (Sup. p. 10), and Regulus also is

the King-star (Vol.

I.

62).

Asterism No. VII.
9.
'

Kakkab Khi-gall-d. Ilu Gibil, Samsu. The Asterism of the Canal-of-water. The god
\
|

the Fire, the Sun.'
Prof.

Hommel says,
?

'

Chegalai (Frucht-barkeitstern)
(ft
'

wahrscheinlich Denebola

Leonis).

Oder

a

im

f$ virginis (Die Astron. der alt. Choi. iii. In other words, he has completely lost the 16). But there is little real uncertainty when once clue.

Becher

oder

the proper order has been obtained.

The Asterism

in question consists of r\, \l, v, y, Geminorum, situate in the Milky and the Canal-of-water, called

Way
'

;

by the Egyptians
the
I

the inaccessible Stream

'

(Book of

Dead,

do

cap. xcviii.), primarily refers to the Galaxy. not in this Section refer to the derivative lunar
all

schemes, which are
Pt.
v.

treated in detail in E. S. R.

would merely remind the reader that in most cases, as in the present instance, they throw great light backwards and illustrate the explanations
I

J6

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

of the Sum.-Ak.

Lunar Mansions here given. The ruling-divinity of the Canal is the Fire-god, so fre-

quently identified, as here, with the Sun-god (For the reading samsu, vide W. A. I. II. xxxi. 83A).

The name
Givil,

of the Ak.
('

Fire-god
fire
'),

Kibir,

Sum.

Gibil,

Mongolian ghel

according to Lenormant,

reappears in the

name

of the

Emperor

Ela,-gabal-us.

Asterism No. VIII.
10.
'

Kakkab Pal-ur-a.
\

Liu Nd-na-a.
\

The Asterism The- Crossing-qf-the- Water-dog.
'

The goddess Nana.'
lik=(Sem.) dog d=(Sem.) mu, plu. me, water.' The star is Proeyon (a Can. Min.), and the title alludes to a myth also found subsequently in many variant phases, and also told of other stars, that the Little-dog had crossed the Canal or Stream of the Milky Way, which separates him from his brother the Great-dog.
' ' '

Pa=(Sem.)
;

eberu,

to cross'; ur or

Jcalbu,

Hence Proeyon, who thus crossed before-the-Dog\ is the wet, weeping, watery-eyed, canis ululans Mera Nana (' the Lady ') was in origin (Vide Vol. I. 279).
'
'

a phase of Istar.

Asterism No. IX.
11.

Rubii
'

Kakkab Su-pa Beli sa pan mdtdti i-sim-mu. beli, Maruduku. The Asterism the Lustrous-one of Bel which
The prince
of lords,

before the regions rules.
akh.'

Merod-

In
trous

1.

52

'),

Supa is explained as Namru (' the Lusand the name affords an interesting instance
and the

of the close connexion between the Sum.-Ak.

Turko-Tataric languages.

The Bab.

translation pre-

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY

STARS.

JJ

vents any possibility of doubt respecting its meaning and Sapa is at once seen to be akin to the TurkoTataric root sub, suv, su,
' *

;

'

'

water,'

lustre,'

honour,'

Uigur and Pollux
sub,
in

lustre,' etc.

This Asterism will be Castor

(a

and

the solar Zodiac.

Geminorum), the Great-twins of Supa is mentioned in K. 6507 and
ft

K. 12,690.
Asterism No. X.
12.

Kakkab Gu-sir-kes-da Hi Anim,
Yoke-of-the-enclosure

Rab-u sa
\

sam-e rabL The Asterism
'

of-the-god

Arm, prince of the great heaven.' According to Prof. Hommel, at this point in the Tablet we enter on an Excursus,' and the scene, for
'

some reason unknown, is suddenly shifted to the North Pole. This Asterism, the name of which he
reads
'

Musir-sar-da, (sprich Musir-sadda) or he the Grossen Gott states, Musir-kisda,' is,
as
'

'

'

Anu
*

Joch des Himmels,' the Himmels,' the the Pole-star, which cir. B.C. 3000 was Nord-pol,' and
des

'

a

Draconis [Die Astron. der alt. dial. iii. 1,5). So, Stern mu-sir-sadda (Nord polar-stern) Gott again, Anu' (lb. 12). In W. A. I. V. xviii. 24 Gusir kesda is explained as Ni-ru sa sam-e (' the Yoke-ofheaven
('
')
;

and in lb. V.
').

xlvi.
II.

47,

as

Niru rakisu
16,

Yoke-binding

In

lb.

xlvii.

which

is

practically a quotation from the present passage, it is styled, similarly, the Yoke-of-the-enclosure' Hi Anirti
'

with the mimmation] rab-u sa sam-e (' of Anu, prince of heaven '). It is thus clear that neither but they the Yoke,' nor the Enclosure,' is Anu
[a genitive,
' ' ;

are said to belong to him, nor can we easily imagine how any single star could well be described as a

78
*

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

Nor, in all this, is there anything about the Pole or the Pole-star North but, on the contrary, as
yoke.'
;

Prof. Sayce observes,

'

the ecliptic was termed

"

the

yoke of heaven

"

'

(Eel.

And. Bobs.
Pidnu
('

p.

perfectly natural

and comprehensible.
called

48), an idea Thus Alde-

baran was technically

the

Yoke

'),

in

archaic Chinese Pit, the ecliptic being regarded as a yoke laid across heaven, and its name being techni-

That kescla cally transferred to its first great star. Eel. And. Babs. means enclosure (Vide p. 154,
*
'

n.
'

1) further appears
'
'

from

the Ak.

'

Jchas,
'

to

cut,'

1

to cut,' division,' and the Turko-Tat. root kes, kec, to cut up,' narrow,' i.e., that which is cut small,'
off;

up or cut
'

whence such words

as the Tchagatai
'

kes-ek,
'

apiece.'
i.e.,

destiny,'

Hence, too, the Kirgish kes-u, lot,' that which is cut off for and appointed

to anyone (Vide

Vdmb^ry, Etymol.
its

p. 98).

This also

explains

why

the

common Crane was

called in Ak.

Kesda,

i.e.,

on account of

sonorous and (supposed)

fatidical voice.

That the name Yoke-of-the -enclosure (=primarily the ecliptic) should be applied with a secondary reference, to the stars of Cancer, is both natural and appropriate, (l) because Cancer has always been
regarded as a beginning or highest gate of the ecliptic and (2) because there are no particular stars in this,
the Dark Constellation,' to suggest at As noticed (Sup. special stellar name.
'

;

first

sight a

p.

15),

Allab

(=Cancer)
i.e.,

is

Voice-of-the-Snn-place,' the ecliptic; and the 4th antediluvian king, who equated with Pollux just at the beginning of
is

is

explained as

'

Cancer

Umun-an

('

Girdle-of-heaven.'

Vide Vol.

I.

The Yoke appears with other lunar zodiacal 333). emblems on the monuments and the stars which com:

Xl]

THE TABLET OP THE THIRTY STARS.
8,
rj,

79

pose this Astcrism are y,

6 and ^drurj Cancri.

The name

of 'Yoke'

even in Classic times.
*

was connected with the Crab Thus Manilius
:

Nunc

cancro vicina canam, cui parte sinistra
'

Consurgunt iugulae

(Astron. v. 174-5).

Asterism No.
13.
'

XL
\

Kakkab

Tier -as

mal makh.

Hit Ddnu.
|

Asterism Son-of-the-supreme-temple. The the god Divine-judge.' The identifications of the xth and xiith Mansions

The

Alphard (' the Solitary,' a Hydrae) for this. The name implies a single star. The archaic Chinese name of this star is Tah,=Ak.
Tur.

leave

the

notable star

Asterism No. XII.
14.

Kakkab

Gis-bar,

namru, sa pan Mul-mo-sarbrilliant,
|

ra.
I

Ilu Nuzku.

'

The Asterism Wood- of-light, the
before

which

(is)

the

Lord-the-voice-of-heaven.
'

The god

Brilliance-of-the-day break.'
Prof. Sayce observes, Fire was produced in Babylonia, as in other countries of the ancient world, by

rubbing two sticks one against the other.
stick,

The

fire-

ignited by the The friction, was regarded with special veneration. " " was expressed by two ideographs idea of fire
therefore,

whose point was

"

(GIS-BAR and GIS-SIR) which signified literally " " the wood of light." This wood of lio;ht was exalted

into a god' (Eel. Anct. Babs. pp. 180-1), sometimes identified with Gibil, the fire-god, sometimes adored

separately under the

Heb. Shaool, Eng. Saul.

name of Saval, Sem. Savullu, The ideograph bar repre-

80

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
;

[xi

sents the two sticks laid across each other

and the

combination read phonetically Gisbar represents, as Bertin has observed, a kind of weapon, or disk, which was thrown at the enemy.' In a Hymn to Merodakh
'

the god
'

Anu
right

is

made

to exclaim

:

In

my

hand the god who binds the hosts
of fifty faces, the falchion

of the

firmament
as

I .bear.

The Sun-god

which proclaims me
1.

Anu

I bear.'

(TT. A.

I.

II. xix.

No.

2,

Eev.

8, 10, ap.

Sayce.)

The sun

is

the original disk hurled at darkness by

the heaven-power. But, further, another partly circular weapon of the Heaven -power and of the Sun-god in the great contest against chaos and darkness is the

Bow,

called in

W. A.

I.

II.

xxxix. 31

Gisme, and
is

explained as the Sem. qastu.
crescent.
'

This
is

bow

the lunar-

the lightning, and the weapon god Gisbar is explained as Bil-gi (=Gi-bil), the Fire-god (Vide Briinnow, Class. List, p. 95), one of
third
7

A

We have here, whose potencies is the lightning. some disk-like then, curved, weapon of the Lightpowers, reduplicated in an asterism and the faithful stars present us readily enough with an answer in the
;

shape of
'

n,

y,

,

/m, e,

^ Leonis, known with a Leon, as the

Sickle, in which, again, we have a reduplication of the Mulmosickle-shaped sword of Merodakh-Perseus.
'

sarra=ihe
Leo.

7 Wain-stars,

which are immediately above

Nuzhu, primarily the Fire-god (Vide Eel. Anct. and hence his lordship over this p. 119, n.), was afterwards a solar dawn-god, and subAsterism, the Lord of the Zenith (Mat same, the sequently height of heaven '), and, technically, the zenith itself.
Bobs.
'
'

'

ii

XlJ

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

81

Asterism No. XIII.
15.

Kakkab Gub-ba(ra)

mes-su-tu J&-kur.
\

Ilu Sin

u ilu Nergal.

The Asterism Fire-flame, ruler (?) of the TempleThe god the Moon and the god of-the-hosts-of-earth.
'
|

the Great hero.'

Gubarra Fire-flame,' and observes that the Sum. Gubarra is an older form of
Prof.

Sayce renders

'

the Ak. Mubarra, and that the form Gisbar (Sup. p. 79) shows that the original name was Gusbarra gus, 'the sky,' gus, 'fire,' and gus-qin, 'the yellow
'

;

Kibir-ra and metal' (gold) being connected words. With gus forms of Gubarra.' Gibil are dialectal

compare the Uigur
'

'

'

ids,

kiz,

fiery,'

warm
'

' ;

the
the

Tchagatai
'

kizi,
'

warm,' the Kazan

kisil,

red,'
'

Aderbijan gold,' Kirgish kizil, red,' the Osmanli te-mak, the Koibal-Karagass kezel, As Gubarra is practically a variant of red,' etc.
kizil,
'

beautiful,' the

Gubbara may be expected to be with the K. Gisbar, and is Regulus connected closely (a Leonis), the King in the late Bab. astronomy, the House-of-thehandle of the Sickle. J^-kara, lit.
Gisbar, so the K.
'

mountain,'=temple. For the rendering above, vide Le e-kur cosmique Sayce, Rel. Anct. Bobs. p. 362.
'

est la terre et la region souterraine'

(Lenormant, Les

Origines,

ii.

232,

n. 1).

Asterism No. XIV.
16.

Kakkab Hi Ku-a mes-su-tu E-kur.

Ilu
\

A-nu

u Belu. 'The Asterism of the Oracle-god, ruler (?) of the Anu and Bel.' Temple-of-the~hosts-of-earth.
\

Kua=Marudukh
VOL.
II.

(Vide Briinnow, Class. List,
6

p.

82
434).
*

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

Bertin was inclined to read mes-satu e-mad

(instead of tl-kur) here

and

in

1.

15,

and

to render it

The reader will remember the change (who) fixed.' that this Tablet is archaic, and in parts extremely The Asterism will consist of difficult to translate.
$

and 6 Leonis:
Asterism No. XV.
17.

Kakkab Lamas-su,
ilu Gu-la.

mikid-isdti Hi Ba-u.
\

Ilu

Ur-ma-akh-u, The Asterism the
*

fire

of the goddess Bahu.

Flaming-one, the burning-ofThe god the Great-lion,
|

the goddess the Great-one!

The customary rendering
*

of lamina, lamas, Sem.

lamassu,

colossus,' itself a word of unknown and merely a paraphrase, the lamassi etymology,
is

being the colossal statues at the entrance of temples, of the personifications of the propitious guardian Genii
place.

But lamas is translated by the scribe the and we are able to prove the correctburning-of-fire
' ;

'

ness of his rendering by comparison with the corresponding words in certain dialects connected, though
distantly, with the

Sum.-Ak. Lam,
'

Lamma, lamas

=

the

Magyar lang (=Lat. flamma

ignis),

'strong-flame/ loimua, to flame.' dialects do not employ an initial I, but replace Thus, the Magyar lelek, soul,'=Osmanli jel,
'

Finnic loimu, The Turko-Tatar
it
'

hyj.

wind,'

Ostiak

Ijil,

As. lildtu,

ghost,'=Sum.-Ak. HI, 'ghost,' whence Heb. lileth. Hence, a Sum.-Ak. lam, lav,
'

becomes in Turko-Tat. jav, jar, jal, to gleam,'
'flame,'
etc.,
e.g.,
'
'

'

'

burn,'

Tchagatai jalau, 'flame.' The and the the Burning-ones are Lamassi, therefore, name is equivalent to the Heb. Seraphim, who have
;

been incorrectly explained by certain modern writers

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

83

as dragons

Hebs.

p.

(Vide Goldziher, Mythology among the Baku, the Bohu of Gen. i. 2, the 197).
'

Phoenician Baau, the Void,' was the equivalent of the Ak. Gurra ('the Watery-deep'), and was called

The first ruling-divinity of the Asterism (Ak.) Gula. of is I have said that the principal great interest. stars are also called gods, and the Ak. Ur- or Lik-makh
Great-dog '), in Sem. form Urmakhu or Urmakhkhu =th.Q Lik-gula (Vide sup. p. 16), i.e., the Lion, who thus appears as the ruler of this Asterism, which
'

(lit.

y

will

be Denebola (=Ar. Zanab-al-asad, the-Tail-ofthe-Lion '), ft Leonis. Here, then, we find the zodiacal Leo unmistakably connected with this point in the

'

Tablet, a circumstance which adds another conclusive proof of the correctness of the principle employed in

The connexion in idea between Fire explanation. and the Lion, and between the Lion and the hottest pathways of the sun' (H. D. 149), I have often had
its
*

occasion to notice.

Asterism No. XVI.
18.

Kakkab Nin-sar u

ilu Ur-ra-gal.

Hu
\

Nergal

u Akh-bi-tum.

'

The Asterism Lady -of-heaven and the god of the The god Great-hero and Akhbitum! Great-city. We now come to Ist&Y-Virgo. Urragal=Nergdl. A punning etymology connected his name with " the
'
|

(uru-gal), as if it had been Ne(r)-uru-gal, great city " " the Ner-of-Hades (Sayce, Eel. Anct. Bobs. p. 195).
'

"

Akhbitum, a name which
explain
bitum.
Istar' (Pinches).

I

am
'

with certainty, is Thus, Ninsar (practically )=Akh-

at present unable to evidently the same as
as

ruling-divinities, reduplicated in the star-group,

The

which

frequently, are will consist of

84
*j,

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

7, $,

and

e

Virginis.

In

W. A.

I.

III. lvii.

No.

6,

1.

59, Ninsar and Urragal are mentioned one of the 7 groups of Twins (Mdsu).

as forming

Asterism No. XVII.
19.
1

Kakkab Sakh,

Hit

Da-mu.
\

Eu

A-nu.
of the

The Asterism of Prosperity, god furrow, The god Anu.'
|

Skyhero,

In
the

W. A.

I.

IV. xxx., Rev. 2
ecliptic, to

we read

of
l

'

my
;

god Damu,'=a

Virginis (Spica).

furrow '=the

which Spica
is

is

The Skyand close

Daonos, the 6th antediluvian king,
'the Hero,' or 'Mighty-one,'

Dun (=Dannu),
of the star,

equated with Spica

The Eg. (Vide Vol. I. 66). the Governor Lord,' (' '),
'

name
is

Repa
in

somewhat

similar

signification.

Asterism No. XVIII.
20.
'

Kakkab Ansu Kur-ra. Ilu Im-dugad-khu. The Asterism of the Animal-from -the- east. The
\

\

1

god the Great- storm-bird. On the Stone figured in

W. A.
-

I.
')

V.

lvii.

the Horse the

(=

c

the

Animal from the
-

east

and

Crow

(=Corvus) are depicted next each other ; just as here the one is the patron-divinity of the Asterism of the
other.

The

stars in question are a,

ft 9

y, S, e

Corvi.

Imdugudkhu, Sem. Ramdnu ikabbid (' the Storm-god is terrible') and Zu (Sup. p. 26), appear in a stellar aspect in W. A. I. III. liii. No. 1, Ob. 1. 26-7,
where we read
'

'

is thus a close conand tempest is the lunar Zodiac asterism of the between nexion

That star [true There (Sayce).

to its

name]

for mist

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.
constellation Corvus, the K.
as
identified,

85

Horse and the
K. Imdugudkhu.

Kurra

being ultimately identical,

with the

Asterism No. XIX.
21.
'

Kakkab Lu-lim.
\

Mul-mo-sar-ra.

The Asterism of the He-goat.
7
'

The
|

Lord-the-voice-

of-heaven. For the meaning He-goat,' vide sup. p. 65. This Asterism=*, k, A Virginis, and is called in the Persian and Indian schemes the Good-goer/ i.e., the leading
'

Goat of the flock in the Sogdian scheme the Leader in the Khorasmian scheme the leading He-goat of the flock and in the Ar. scheme the young Ibex.' We
; ; *
'

'

'

'

;

see, therefore,

how

the Derivatives confirm the view

of the original here taken. Mulmosarra is the Wain,

As we saw (Sup. p. 80), and the tail-stars of the

Bear almost extend over the Asterism.

Asterism No.
22.

XX.
Ilu Sin u
\

Kakkab Mulu-izi u

ilu La4a-rak.

ilu Nergal.

The Asterism Man-of-fire and the god Latarak. The god the Moon and the god the Great-hero.' This Asterism=(probably) m Virginia and ^ Librae
*

|

;

and with

it

unknown
;

associated the god Latarak, a name of meaning. As appears from the Planisphere
is

K. 8538, Latarak was connected with this part of the heavens and in K. 9741 he is mentioned with (As.) Eu Nis dispi (' the Honey-god '). In W. A. I. IV.
lviii.

59 he

'

is

styled

the divine king of the desert

(Eden)/

86

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

Asterism No. XXI.
23.
1

Kakkab

Belit.
\

Emuk
Lady,

Tin-tir-ki.
|

The Asterism
*

the

Might of the Grove'

of-lifc'

The Lady

is

Beltis of
fi

Babylon

(=Tintirki), and
zodiacal constella-

the Asterism a and

Librae.

The

tion of the Lofty-altar (Vide sup. p. 33),=the Tower of Babel, is particularly connected with Babilu
.

(Babylon).

Asterism No. XXII.
24.
'

Kakkab

En-te-na-mas-luv.
\

Liu Lp.

|

The Asterism Lord-of-the-foundation-of-brickwork. The god the Creator.'
This Asterism
is
1.
'

also called 55),

III.

lvii.

No.

6,

Entemasmur (W. A. L. and the name refers to the
'

famous Ziggurat or terraced tower of Babel-Babylon, the original Altar-tower of the 7th or Libra month (Vide sap. p. 25). Masluv=A$. apparrii, Heb. OpJior Morter '). As a lunar Asterism Entenamasluv (' Clay,'
'

=20

Librae and the stars adjoining (Vide R. B. Jr., 30 Stars, pp. 32-3) but it is also a constellation, and,
;

wholly or in part. The connexion between the famous Tower, Babylon, and the autumnal season, the 7th month, explains the position of this
as such

=Hydra,

Asterism at the base

of

the

Constellation Chelai-

Libra

;

and further

light is

thrown upon the matter

by the name
sisting of
a,

of the 16th Chinese lunar asterism, con/3,

y,
('

Librae, and the archaic

name

of

which

is

L-shi

the Foundation
(

').

Entenamasluv
L. II. xlix.

was
1

called (Sem.) Siru-etsen-tsiri

W. A.
is

47),

Tip-of-the-Tail/ of the Ak. name, but an explanation of the position of the Asterism, as being at the end of the tail of

the

Limb

This

not a translation

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY

STARS.

Sj

Hydra.
'

As Jensen saw,

it

Ekliptik (Kosmol. p. 54), the Great Bear, or of the Swan (Hommel), nor, again, is it the tail of the Lion (Hommel), Antares (Bertin),
or of

must be in der Nahe der and cannot be the tail of
'

Aldebaran (Oppert). This double or triple aspect Entenamasluv gives rise to various statements concerning it which, except under most careful investigation, appear to be contradictory. Thus, we are told- that in the month Tammuz, with which it is specially connected, at its rising it raises the waves of
the sea'
is

(W. A.

I. III.

lvii.

No.
'

1,

1.

12).

This idea

connected with Hydra, as the strong serpent of the sea* (lb. II. xix. No. 2, Ob. 1. 8). As an eclipticasterism

17-18)

;

'holds' Jupiter (lb. III. lii. No. 1, 1. and is particularly connected with Tisri, the
it

Its connexion with 7th month (Tab. 81-1-6, 102). Tammuz, the 4th month, is illustrated by the fact that, as Hydra, it extends right up to Cancer (=Allab.

Vide W. A.

L

III.

liii.

No.
is

1,

1.

74).

divinity of this Asterism

the god Ip.

The patronIp and
'

Nin-ip were two primaeval deities who in Accadian kosmology represented the male and female principles, but the genderless character of the Accadian Nin, " " " lord or lady," caused the Semites to change NIN-

IP into a god and identify him with IP, that

is

"Anu

who

listens
;

to

"

'

prayer
I.
II. liv.

(Sayce,
35).

Eel.

Anct. Babs.

151-2, n.

W. A.

Asterism No. XXIII.
25.

Kakkab Gis-gan-gusur kakku sa Hi
;

Ja
\

saina

libbi-su absi iskun
'

The Asterism
'

weapon of

of the Tree-of-the-garden-of -light, the god Ea, which in the midst of the
|

abyss he-placed.

88
26.

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

Mul-mul-la kakku sa qdti Maruduki. The spear, weapon of the-hand of Merodakh.' wood is It may be that gis, Sem. etsu, tree,' as a determinative used here prefix to show merely some wooden object that gangusur was (originally) and the name could be read Light-of-the-hero (Ak. (7ttswr,=Turkic ghazi, hero '). The stars in question
\

1

|

'

'

'

;

'

'

'

are

/3,

The of Maruduk in his fight with the dragon Tiamat. The reader will observe the constant principle of the
reduplication
in
special
inf.

Scorpionis, which form a spear of light. mul-mullum (light-ray) was one of the weapons
$,
ir

stars

of

familiar

natural

phenomena (Vide
etc.

Chap. XVII. ), which, anthrorise to

pomorphically regarded, gave

myths

of battle

Asterism No.
27.

XXIV.
Bilu
\

Kakkab Dar-lugal.

sa

ziri

:

arakh

Tisritu, ilu Lugal-tud-da.

The Asterism of the Great-one, the King. The Lord of seed month Tisri, the god the Lusty-king.' This mansion consists of Antares (Cor Scorpionis),
1
|

:

represented as a stellar reduplication of the god Lugal-tudda (Vide Sem. pp. 74-7) ; and the lord To understand of seed in the 7th month (Sept. -Oct.).
is

which

these complicated allusions the reader must remember that the 7th month was originally represented by

an Altar, often circular

photosphere) of the Claws the grasped by Scorpion (Vide Vol. I. The 67 et seq.). original golden seed of heaven is the
Sun, which, as in various mythologies, is seized and swallowed by the darkness in monstrous and dracontic
form.

(=the

solar

This

is

the primary meaning

;

and

it is

in the

month

Tisri that the waning

autumn Sun begins

to

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.
to his foes.

89

succumb

There may, or

may

not, be also
;

but a secondary reference to agricultural operations archaic these do not form the basis of symbolism,

inasmuch as man's observation of nature long preceded any regular agricultural course. Lugal-tudda, Sem. Zu, was also the thief and god of the lightning, and the giver of fire to man and the ideograph gir,
;
'

'

pictorially representing to strike,' tail,' means
'
'

blade,'
'

sting,'
*

or

'

pointed

scorpion,'

plough/

and

the torment of a scorpion, when he lightning,' ' striketh a man (Apoc. ix. 5) being compared with the burning of lightning. The Zu-bird is the divine
' '

we have seen (Vol. I. 333) with the 7th antediluvian King equated Euedoranchos (' Day-heaven-bird ').
Storm-bird,'
is

and,

as

Antares

Asterism No.
28.
'

XXV.
a-sig.

Kakhab Mulu-bat.
\

Pa-gar,
|

The Asterism Man-of-death.
'

The

corpse,

the

fever.'

The name might mean
of the Asterism are
e

the Old-man,' and the stars

and As we have Ophiuchi. seen (Sup. pp. 21-22), the Snake-holder is called Nutsirda and in 1. 44 the constellation Nutsirda is
* '

;

connected with

'

the god Sagimu,' apparently the lord

of invocation, whose

name is

by 'mouth' and 'invoke/
;

ideographically expressed The Asterism has no

but the Man-of-death presides over ruling-divinity dead bodies and disease. Asterism No.
29.
'

XXVI.

Ilu Nin-ki-gal. The Asterism of the Snake. The goddess Queen\
|

Kakkab-Tsir.
'

of- the- great-region.

90
30.

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
Ilu

[xi
ilu

Nabiu u

ilu

Sa?\
|

Ilu

Samas u

Ramdnu.
The god the Prophet and the god the King. The Sun-god and the Exalted-god.' 6 Ophiuchi, and the Snahe= This Asterism=>7, The regent-divinity is Ninkigal, Sem. Allat Ophis. the Unwearied also called Nin-lil (' Queen-of-the( '),
\

1

,

c

ghost- world ') and Nin-ge (' Queen of the UnderI Great-region,' being Scheol-Hades. world'), the have noticed (Sup. p. 39) a representation of Nin'

kigal snake in hand.

As Gladstone has pointed out

(Horn. Synchronism., p. 235), Ninkigal possesses the prominence and dread character of the Homeric Persephoneia, a phase and aspect which the latter goddess has borrowed from her eastern sister. As noticed
104-5), the Ak. Okeanos is sometimes comto a snake ; and the Eiver of the Snake is pared
(Vol.
I.
*
'

the Eiver of the Sheepcote of the Ghosta line of thought which connects the Snake world,' with the Under- world and its goddess-mistress. But the Snake has so many aspects in the thought of early
also called

'

man, beneficial and honoured, as well as malignant and dreaded, that it is not surprising to find various and highly different divinities connected with it. The 'Prophet' is Nebo, the 'King' Merodakh, and the Exalted '-one the Air-god (Ak.) Mermer.
'

Asterism No. XXVII.
31.
'

KaJckab Gir-tab.
\

Ilu Is-kha-ra tam-tim.
\

of the Scorpion. a god.] Iskhara-of-the-sea.' 32. Ilu Sar-ur u ilu Sar-gaz.
'

The Asterism

The goddess [Also

The god Director -of-fire and the god Director -of-

sacrifice'

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

91

The Asterism consists of 9, t, k, X and v Scorpionis. Iskhara is a name of Istar (W. A. I. II. xlix. 14), apparently when, like Ea, in a piscine form and character (Jcha means 'fish'), as a Derketo (Vide Sem. p. 102). The Classical writers were acquainted with a myth to
this effect which, I think, has not yet been discovered in the monuments. Thus Hyginus connects Pisces

with

giving a legend that Venus (=Istar, Derketo) and Cupid took the form of fishes
the

Euphrates,
'

in that river.
cisse, et ibi

Venerem cum
I.

filio

in flumen se proie'

flguram piscium forma mutasse
115).

(De
'

Sig.

xxx.

;

vide Vol.

Bertin thought that Sar-ur might of-the-Dog,' in which case the name

mean Leader-

may

contain a

reference to the setting of Cams Maj. after the advent of Scorpio (Vide 30 Stars, pp. 38-9). These divinities
are star-gods (Vide inf. p. 140).

Asterism No. XXVIII.
Liu Kur-gal. Ligbat, ilu Ku-su. The Asterism Beast-of-death the god Sunset, god of the Great-country'
33.
'
\

Kakkab

;

Prof.

Hommel

supposes

that Ligbat,

otherwise

Urbat, which he calls the Jackal, is Antares (Astron. der alt. dial. iii. 16). Such a conjecture is merely a guess and, as we have seen (Sup. pp. 7, 23), Ligbat is no part of This Asterism consists of a, /3, Scorpio. S The Wolf, called in As. Akiluv ('the Lupi. y, Devourer'), is very generally a type of Darkness
;

which swallows up things and the ruling- divinity of this creature of night and death is Kush (Vide K.
;

10,038), an Ak. god of sunset and night, and hence a god of the Under- world or Great-country.'
'

92

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

Asterism No.
34.

XXIX.

A-nu-ni~tum h kakkab Si-nu-nuturn. Ndhru Mas-gu-gar u ndhru Ud-hip-nun-na. The Asterism of the Great-goddess and the aster|

Kahhab

'

ism of the Swallow.
|

The

river the

Current and the

river Light -of-the-gr eat-plain'

The Ak. divinity Antina (~An-nuna, 'the Greatgod') of Sippara was made by the Semites into the female Anunit (' Great-goddess '), and identified with Istar. She is described by Nabunahid (Nabonidos) as the mistress of battle, the bearer of the bow and who made omens favourable at sunrise quiver, and sunset' (Vide Sayce, Rel. Anct. Babs. pp. 182-4) and this represents her in a planetary phase, as Venus, star of the morn and eve.' But she is further re'
. . .

;

*

duplicated in a stellar form as the Star of the Tigris, In W. A. I. the Current being the rapidus Tigris.'
'

II.

li.
'

58

'

'

the Star of the river

Masgugar

is

explained

as

the goddess Anunitum.'

in question will be X, p Sagittarii vide Vol. I. 78), a constellation naturally (=Papilsak, connected with 'the bearer of the bow.' Sinunutum
('

The Asterism

the Swallow
'),

'),

also called (Ak.)

Nam-khu

('

Destiny-

bird

Sem. Sinuntuv, Rabbinical Heb. Senunitha, in a stellar aspect=y, S, e Sagittarii. The two Asterside, like the Tigris

isms are side by
to

and Euphrates,

which they are respectively dedicated. A Bird, which may be the Swallow, appears with other lunar

figures on migrations of the

zodiacal

monuments. Swallow connect
the

The annual
it

alike

with

destiny (as a prophetic bird), and with the autumn The river Udkip-nu7ina=ihe (Sagittarius) season.

Purattu (Vide K. 3316, the Curving,' thus peculiarly

'

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.
with
the

93

connected

bow), Heb. Perdth, Uprato, Old Per. Ufratu, Gk. Euphrates.

Median

Asterism No.
37.
1

XXX.
Kakkab Nun-ki.
|
|

Kakkab

Gu-sir-a-ab-ba.

The Asterism The- Yoke-of-the-sea. The Asterism the Lordly -city.' This is the first hne of the Rev. of the Tablet, 1.
no
35-6 in the printed, form are only spaces and contain text. The Asterism consists of the stars er, -k
, *
'

Sagittarii, which form a
ecliptic

yoke

thrown across the

of the great Sea Vol. thence to Aries GusirI. 84). extending (Vide abba is identified with Nunki, pronounced Nunpe,

near the

commencement

according to Tab. 82-8-16, 1 Ob. 21, and referring to the city of Eridu, a most ancient centre of the Ea-

mouth of the Euphrates and on the edge of the Persian Gulf (Sayce, Rel. And. Babs. p. 135), and thus a 'Yoke of the Sea.' Hence
cult,

and once

'

at the

the role of Gusirabba as the patron asterism of the The ecliptic thus appears as seaport town of Eridu. a Yoke at Cancer (Sup. p. 77) and at Capricorn.
'
'

Asterism No.
38.

XXXI.
Muna-kha.
\

Kakkab Ma-gur,
ilu TJr-me-tum.

kakkab

Ilu

Nabiu u

'The Asterism Ship-of-the-bond, i.e., the asterism The god the Prophet and the god the He-goat-fish. the Her o-voice-of-fear.'
\

Here, as in No.

XXX. we

see that a star, asterism

or constellation had frequently more than one, and This asterism is of course often even many, names. Capricorn, which thus indubitably marks the end of

the Lunar Zodiac.

The other name

for

it

Makhar

or

94

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

Magur, and which I have compared with Makara, name for Capricorn (30 Stars, p. 13), to mean appears Ship-of-the-rope, the Okeanos-stream
the Indian

being at times compared to a rope wound round the earth (Vide Sayce, Rel. Anct. Bobs. p. 116). The
old Ak. rope-god

Innina became connected in idea
lb. p.

with
first

Nabu

(Nebo.

117)

;

and thus

Nabu

is

the

patron-divinity of the Asterism, the second being
'

apparently a Thunder-god, whose name would, also mean the Lion- voice-of- fear,' the roaring of the lion

being naturally connected with the sound of thunder. The god Urmetum is also mentioned in K. 1273. The
Goat, it may be remarked, is a figure frequently connected with storm (Vide Vol. I. 218); and the 10th

month, that of Capricorn,

'

was stormy and wet

'

(Sayce, in Trans. S. B. A. iii. 164). have now made the circle of the

We

Lunar Zodiac,

and reached the end of the first part of the Tablet. As previously stated, great light is thrown back upon it by the lists of the 7 derivative and daughter
schemes (Vide E.
tions
S.

R.

V.),

which

it

is

not

my

purpose to treat of here.

The foregoing

identifica-

make no pretence
;

respects

to mathematical accuracy in all but, as a whole, they speak for themselves.
will

The learned reader
difficulties of

be well aware of the immense

the task.

As the Greeks did not adopt
;

a lunar zodiac, the great majority of these asterisms are unknown in the West but we observe amongst

them some
familiar,

constellations with

which we are already

namely, Pallika or Palura (=Procyon), Mulu-bat (=Serpentarius), Tsir (=Serpens), Girtab (=Sco7yio), Ligbat (=Lupus), and Munahha (= Other familiar names appear differently Capricorn). Such are Mastallag algal, Lugal, Ansuapplied.

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.
Tsir,

95

Kurra,

set of stars in the

and Lulim, which are bestowed on one Lunar Zodiac, and on another in

the general Euphratean Planisphere. Imdugudkhu (Vide sup. p. 17) appears as a god, not as a constellation
;

and a circumstance such

as this, coupled with

other similar indications, tend to show that a higher antiquity is to be attributed to this Lunar

many

Zodiac than to the Solar Zodiac as we have
lunar
list

it.

The

presents us with a series of highly archaic Sum.-Ak. asterism-names and, very ancient as the Tablet is, it was compiled by Sem. scribes from a lore
;

then long since grey-headed, and their glosses and attempts at explanation frequently reveal quite an
inadequate understanding of the system as a whole.

SUB-SECTION

II.

A FURTHER LIST OF STAR- NAMES.

having completed the list of asterisms forming the Lunar Zodiac with their patron-divinities, next proceeds to add a supplementary list of
scribe
stars.

The

It is impossible to detect

any

definite principle

in this latter compilation. It includes planets, stars which had been previously named, and
;

some some which had not but it is neither a zodiacal nor an extra-zodiacal list. The names are accompanied by
certain explanations, which doubtless imported much more to the Babylonians than they do to ourselves.
39.

Kakkab

Sak-vi-sa.
|

Na-as, tsa-ad-du da-da-

me.

The raiser, hunter of- men.' The-planet Mercury. For the names etc. of the planets, vide Vol. I.
1
|

345-8. iVas=(lit.) 'raising' Cf. the rising of Mercury. of

'

the Sun, i.e., the heliacal Zaidu, catcher of men
'

the

Gilgames

Epic (Chal. Ac.

Gen.

p.

208).

96

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

be said to
40.
<r

There are various ways in which a Morning-star mayhunt men/
'

Kakkab

Dil-bat.
\ j

Na-ba-at.

Kak-ka-bu.

She-announces Fhe-planet Venus, claim er ']. star(-name).'

[='the

Pro-

A

41.
1

Kakkab

Lu-bat.
\

Mas-ziz bu-lim.
\

The- planet Jupiter. Protector of-cattle.' This planet, Nibiru (' the Strider-along ') is a special
guardian of the heavenly, as well as of earthly, flocks
(Vide Maspero,
42.

Dawn

of Civ.

p. 545).

Kakkab

Zal-bat-a-nu.
\

Mus-ta-bar-ru-u mu-

td-nu.
'

The planet Mars.

|

The

Keveller-in-death.'
\

43.
1

Kakkab Ud-gu-du-a.

Yu-mu

na-ah-ri.
\

The Constellation Smiting -sun -face. Day-oj Dawn' (=Dawn-of-day). Vide sup. Vol. I. 78
sup. p.
44.
{

5.

Kakkab Nu-tsir-da.
\

Ilu Sa-gi-mu.

The Constellation Prince-of-the- serpent.
p. 89).
\

The
\

got

of Invocation' (Vide sup.
45.
e

Kakkab Pal-ur-a.

Kak-kab Pcd-tuv (Baltum).
\

The Asterism the Crossing-of-the- Water-dog. The star of Fertility.' 46. Kakkab Pur-edin. Ba-na-at ri-khu-tuv. The Asterism River (Strong -one)-ofthe-plain. It\

'

\

creates riches.'

Pur-edin (Vide sup.
Asterism Sinunutum
sacred
'

p.

23)

is

connected with the
92), the

(Sup.

p.

star-group

to
;

the
is

Euphrates,
also

plain 114.
47.
1

and

'Light-of-the-greatmentioned in Tab. Rm. 2,

the

Kakkab
1

Gu-sir-kes-da.
\

llu Ni-ru raki-su.
|

The

Asterism

Yoke- of-the- enclosure.

The

god

Yoke-binding.

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.
p.
is

97
star

Vide sup.
or star- group
48.

77.

A

good instance of how a

generally also a divinity.

Kakkab

bu-tu cdini.
'

Kha-ba-tsi-rd-nu, ilu Nin-gir-su, ikhIlu A-nu.
Lily, the

The Asterism the

god Lord-of-the-bank,
47 the

The god Anu.' sprout of the plain. In W.A.I. II. xlix. No. 3, 1.

Kakkab

Entenamasluv (Vide sup. p. 86) is rendered by the Sem. Kliabatsirdnu, which as Prof. Sayce observes, 'grows up like a tail.' He remarks, It was probably as Nin-Girsu that he [Tammuz] became the patron and lord of the green marsh plants which flourished
'

in the

neighbourhood of Tel-loh (Rel. And. Babs. p. In Tab. Sm. 1925 Ningirsu appears as a star244).

'

god, and, being
'

Tammuz, probably=(3r2on.
'
'

Edin
-

means plain as well as planted 'in Eden' {Gen.
49.
1

desert
8).

;

the

Garden was

ii.

Saqa-sa-rlsi kakkabi Gam. The Constellation of the Ram. =The uppermost
Lu-nit.
\

Kakkab

\

part of the Asterism of the Scimitar.'

Vide sup. p. 63. Lunit ('Male-sheep') is Aries, and not Lulim (Vide sup. p. 66), which latter does not form any part of the Scimitar (Vide sup. p. 85). This very needful and most useful gloss is introduced by the scribe in order to prevent any confusion between the solar and lunar Zodiacs. 50. Kakkab Dil-gan. Kakkab Ma-a-tu : Ma-a-tu
|

Tin-tir-ki.

The-Star Messenger -of-light. =The Star pest : Tempest of the Grove-of-lifeJ
'
\

Tem-

Dilgan=Askar, Sem. Iqd
also called
'
'

(the Star of the

'

Gate

'),

Dilgan Bdb-ili, being the patron-star of the Gate of the gods (Babilu), the city also known
'
'

as the

Grove-of-life
II.

(Vide sup.

p.

86).

Askar
7

VOL.

98
(Vide sup.

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
Vol.
I.

130)

Capella (a Aurigae). been the agent of vengeance against mankind at the Flood, and tempests had destroyed the Tower of
Babel.

'-star, Aix, Matu, the Tempest-god, had
is

the

'Goat

Hence, the Tempest-star, the stormy Goat, sacred to him and to Babylon.
51.
1

is

Kakkab Kak-si-sa. The Star the Leader.

Kakkab
\

mes-ri-e.

|

=The

Star the Leader.'

This very important star, the name of which may also be read Dusisa or Kaksidi, is by Prof. Sayce,

M. Halevy, the

late Geo. Bertin,

and others

identified

with Sirius. Dr. Oppert, at one time, thought it was the Little Bear, whilst Jensen incorrectly identifies
it

with Antares.

Prof.

Hommel

regards

it

as Procyon,

and the sole question is between the rival claims of Sirius and Procyon (Vide inf. pp. 120-31). Prayers
are addressed to Kaksisa, as a male divinity (Vide Tab. D. T. 65) and the star is identified with Ninib,
'
;

prince of the great gods
52.
'

'

(K

9490).

Kakkab Su-pa.

Kakkab Na-am-ru.
\

The Asterism the Lustrous.
|

=The

Asterism the

Lustrous.'

Vide sup. p. 76. 53. Enzu, Be-lat bi-ri The Goat (Ak. Uz). Lady of sight.' Apparently a mystical title of the
I

1

\

Goat-star,

Capella.
sight,

Mistress of sight, vision

;

hence, of mental

knowledge, intelligence.
SUB-SECTION

III.

THE EPILOGUE.

The
six

lines
:

First Part of this (Vide sup. p. 59) consists of (54-59), the first three of which are as

follows

Xl]
54.

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.

99

Arakh Kislimu arakh Dhabitu, arakh Sabddhu.
itsabbat, -va itti as-ri.

Qaran Hi Sin sumelu
'

The-moDtli Kislev, the-month Tebet, the-month Sebat. The horn of the Moon the-left-hand occupies,

and with the-stations.' 55. Nu-ukh-khu-tu u-di-e.
'

A-leading-back is-shown.'

The Euphratean North=our N.W., and the right hand being towards the East, the left would be towards the West, our S.W., Ak. Mer-martu (' the Point-of-the-road-of-sunset '), the S.W. and S.E. being the part of the heaven occupied by the Moon. Lit. 'seizes.' The same expression is Occupies.'
4

applied to a planet
for 'planet,'

when

entering a zodiacal Sign.

Such passages explain the meaning of the Hindu term
i.e.,
'

Grdha

('

Seizer').

Asri, Ak.
to

ki,

place,' etc.

This word gives the key
'
'

the meaning of the passage. The places are obviously the moon-stations or lunar mansions preIn K. 48 the star-god Muhnoviously enumerated.

sarra (Vide sup.

85), the Wain, is called 'the [asri), as a king of the nocturnal For the translation heaven, placed high above them. of udie, vide 30 Stars, p. 42.
p.

Lord of the Stations

'

56.

Set salsu

arkhi an-nu-ti

yumu 15

ilu itti ilu

Id

innamar.
'

Sit.

Sa yumu 30

Id khaldbu.

For these three months on the 15th day god with god is not seen. Ditto. For the 30th day (god with

god
1

is)

not clouded.'
god.'

God with

In Ak.

An

ki an,

i.e.,

the

of lines

(sun-)god with the (moon-)god. 54-6 is: Observations
1 '

The general made during

sense
three

The moon completes its course particular months. there and back through the various moon-stations.

IOO

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi

the 15th days of these months, sun and moon were not seen together ; on the 30th days they were seen
together.

On

These three

lines are

on astronomy (Vide
;

W. A.

quoted in the great Bab. work I. III. lxi. No. 2, 1.

is

and therefore the Tablet of the Thirty Stars 23-4) older than the former compilation. The passage in

the

Enu

great
'

Bill immediately before the quotation is of interest, and enables us to some extent to
It reads
:

determine the age of the work.

The Umman-Manda comes and governs the

land.

are taken away. Bel goes to Elam. It is prophesied that after 30 years the exiles shall be restored, (and that) the great gods shall return with them (Ap. Sayce).
'

The mercy-seats of the great gods

The labours and

discoveries of Prof. Sayce, Prof.

Hommel and
to

Mr. Pinches have at length enabled us
passage.
'

understand this
L.

The Umman-Manda

('Tribal hordes.'

Nod

{Gen. iv. 16. days of the early greatness of

W. King.) dwelt in the land of Nomads '), and in the I.e., of the

Nummaki (Elam)

were

They joined in the capture amongst its vassals. and plundering of Babilu by the Elamite king Kudurand their king Tudkhula, the Tid'al, nankhundi l of the king Goyyim (' Barbarians '), of Gen. xiv., was
;

in

an ally of the Elamite Kudar-Lagamar (Chedorlaomer) his western campaign against Sedom (Sodom).

The reign
2

xiv.,

is

Khammurabi, the Amraphel of Gen. placed by Bertin (Bab. Chron. and Hist.
of
is

1

The goddess Nakhundi

mentioned in K. 11255.
'

reviewer of Sem., and one who, to use an expression of Mr. camp-follower of the Higher Criticism,' Lang's, is evidently a
'

2

A

'

is

upon the general system

extremely angry because I notice (pp. 94-6) the doleful effect of Wellhausen of the remarkable dis-

Xl]
p.

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.
39) from
B.C.

IOI

2259 to 2214
125), with

;

but by

Hommel
with

B.C.

(And. Heb. Trad. p. The 1947-1892.

greater probability,

terrible events connected

the capture of Babilu and the carrying off of the statue of the god Bel by the Barbarians are evidently
fresh in the

finu

Bili.

mind of the writer The god's statue

of this portion of the
is

naturally taken
;

by

the Elamite conquerors to their own country but the reverses inflicted on Babilu were subsequently fully

avenged by Khammurabi, who overthrew Kudarlagamar, and evidently recovered, amongst other things, certain statues of goddesses which had been
carried off
1

(Vide

Hommel, And. Heb. Trad.
it

78-9).

Without entering here further
is

pp. into historical

and other connected questions,
foregoing instance,
covery,

not

to

speak

plain from the of the general
xiv. is a strictly

from the cuneiform records, that Gen.

remarks, rudely enough, that my observations are singularly silly,' a tone which shows the depth of his own annoyance. What is really ' singularly silly ' is the standhistorical narrative.
'

He

still

point of Wellhausen and his school in the matter. asserts that the incidents recorded in Gen. xiv.
'

He
'

himself

are sheer

impossibilities (Vide on the face of it, is

Hommel, And. Heb. Trad.
an unprovable statement.

p. 200),

which,

Other

critics of

the school, unable to

Kudur-Lagamar, Eri-Aku (Arioch),
for

disprove the accuracy of such names as etc., have hastened arbitrarily

to invent the ridiculous theory that some post-exilic Jew, who, some unknown purpose, desired to write a historical romance,
'

searched the Bab. archives, found the names in question, and then, for some reason,' says Meyer, which ive are unable to fathom
c

[They

can't even suggest a reason to bolster

notion.], mixes up (Vide lb. p. 162).

Abraham with

up the preposterous the history of Kudur-Lagamar
'

All this kind of nonsense

is

humbly

repro-

duced ad nauseam in manuals and text-books by certain English devotees of the Wellhausen School, and is spoken of, as if, like the fall of the image of Artemis from heaven, it could not be doubted
for

an

instant.

T02

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xi
;

of very high antiquity and consequently that the Tablet of the Thirty Stars must belong at least to the third millennium B.C.

evidence, that the

$nu

Bili

is

57-64 an eminent Assyriologist the opinion to me that it would be recently expressed It is, however, long ere we could translate them. desirable to make a beginning and I therefore append

Speaking of

lines

;

the following
57.

:

Kakhab a-na mes-khu izarr-ikh a-dam-ma-a kunnunu. Duppu.
1

:

na-mas

(/?)

The

star

(i.e.,

the

Moon)

for

a measure rises

:

beast (and)
quotation).

man
'

crouched-down.
'

A

tablet'

(i.e.,

a

Nammassu,
p.

beast

(King,

First
*

Steps in As.

The latter 369). reptile/ creatures are probably included. Adamd. The Black race (Cf. the Aithiopians of
Sometimes translated
'

'

Poseidon-Ea), used in a general sense for mankind. Prof. Sayce, having observed that the precise mean*

ing
is
'

of the expression the black-headed race,' frequent in the hymns, is uncertain,' adds
:

'

'

'

which

Dieulafoy's excavations on the site of Susa have brought to light enamelled bricks of the Elamite

As M.

period on which a black race of mankind is portrayed, it may mean that the primitive Sumerian population of Chaldaea was really black-skinned' (Rel. Anct.

Bobs.

p. 99, n. 4).
is

Line 57

probably some quotation from an archaic

told, in simple language, how at night, the sway of the moon, man and other animals during It rather reminds us of K. 2836, a are wont to rest.

hymn

which

order of Assur-bani-pal on the manoccasion of an eclipse of the moon,' in which " the people of the black heads, the kind are called
'

hymn composed by

'

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS,
god Ner, the
reptiles "

IO? o

cattle of the

(nammasse) [whom]
'

thy [govenance] has overlooked
58.

(lb. p. 198, n.).

Uu

Balddhu-bal-ti.

Su.

Ilu Apin-barra.

Eu
1

Ip.

The god

Life- of -fertility.

Ditto.
1

The god Founda'

The god the Creator. the Cf. Apparently names of the Moon-god. precious things put forth by the moon (Deu. xxxiii. As the god in his monthly progress marks out 14).
tion-divider.
'

the lunar mansions, he divides the ring of the ecliptic. Ip has been previously mentioned (Sup. p. 86). 59. Musar-u ana zikar-u hipri simti balddhi.
An-inscription for a-memorial of-the-region of-thefoundation of -life.'
'

This region appears to be the ecliptic. We now A reach the last portion of the Tablet, 1. 60-4. thicker line than ordinary divides lines 59 and 60,

and

this indicates the

commencement

of a

new phase

It would perhaps be premature to of the subject. a detailed translation, as various ideographs attempt

may

be read in several different ways.

But the

general sense is that the foregoing Tablet, which is said to be connected with the ecliptic (' yoke '), was
also connected with,

E-zi-da

ana

ilu

and was probably deposited in Nabu, rub nuri (' the Firmly -estab' '

Nabu, the lished-temple for Nebo, lord of light '). the maker of writing,' creator of the written tablet,'
patron-divinity of Barsipki (Borsippa), had there a famous temple called Ezida (' the Eternal-house.'

Maspero,
1
'

of Civ. p. 675) and he had also a chapel of the same name in the great temple of Merodakh at Babilu. Tablets were placed for safe keeping in the inner chamber of Ezida' (Vide Sayce,
;
'

Dawn

Rel. A?ict. Babs. p. 520), the library being

under the

104

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[]

Both particular protection of the god of learning. Ezidas were splendidly restored by Nabukudurrautsur III.

But the Bab.

'

temples were miniature

reproductions of the arrangement of the universe. " The " ziggurat represented in its form the mountain of the world (Maspero, Dcnvn of Civ. p. 674).
'

The ziggurrdt
was called
'

('

temple-tower

')

of

Nabu

at Barsipki

and

earth,'

House of the Seven Bonds of heaven and was in 7 stages, severally painted with
the

the different planetary colours (Vide Sayce, Rel. Anct. These 7 planetary bonds combine in Bobs. p. 115). bond or yoke of the ecliptic they make the forming
;

the zodiac, solar and lunar. Ezida is the Eternal- house
*

And
'

the true and original where the bright lights o o

fulfil their deathless destiny. As. Cylinder of great interest (Figured in Smith and Sayce, Choi. Ac. Gen. p. 112) exactly illustrates the circling lunar course. At each end, i.e., in east

of heaven

An

and west, is a Palm-tree, representative of the Grove of the Under- world, eastern and western, and reduplicated in the Homeric aXcrea Uepo-efovelrjs (Od. x. 509 vide K. B. Jr., K. pp. 106-7). Next to the eastern Palm-tree, on the back of a Leopard, which, as it
;

could be trained to hunt, was a Hunter-sun, stands the Sun-god

fit

symbol for the Merodakh, armed

with bow and arrow and the saparu (sickle-shaped
in

weapon, vide sup. p. 71), and lifting his right hand solemn oath. Above his head is the solar star,

which explains the symbolism. In front of him stands the unarmed Moon-god, also lifting his right

hand

in oath

;

for the

two are making a solemn

covenant to preserve kosmic order against the demons of darkness and storm. Behind the Moon-god, and
standing on their hind legs, are two Unicorn-goats,

Xl]

THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS.
;

IO5

counter -salient, with their heads regardant and, in the air, between them and the Moon-god, is the lunar
crescent, the

key to the symbolism, and divided into
of the

three parts, illustrative

three

parts

of the

month and the by what seem

triple lunar aspect (Vide R. B. Jr., U.), The Unicorn, or any to be handles.

animal represented with one horn only, is, as I have shown, a lunar symbol and the remarkable position counter -salient, clearly of the two Unicorn -goats
;

indicates the

monthly cycling progress of the moon

Such, then, is the general scope and import of the Tablet of the Thirty Stars.

'there and back.'

CHAPTER
Some
Section
Stellar
I.

XII.

Groups of Sevens.
Tiksi-Tikpi Stars.

The

The importance and sanctity so frequently by man to the number seven is a feeling
from the heavens themselves.
There
roll

attached
reflected

the Seven

Wanderers, constant objects of curiosity, reverence and dread. There shine in sevens the stars of the

two polar Chariots, of Orion, and of the Pleiad, But, distinct from these, the early inhabitants of the Euphrates Valley had grouped together certain other and in Tab. W.A.I. III. Ivii. No. 6, stars in sevens in addition to the seven Planets and the seven phases
;

of

Mars, we have the seven and the seven Mdsi.

Tiksi, the seven Lu-mdsi,

The TSsi-stars

also

occur in

W. A.
'

I.

II.

xlix.

Tik-si appears 10-13, where they are called Tikpi. to me to be a Sum.-Ak. name meaning Those-lying'

in-front

(tik).

Tikpi

is

not, I think, a variant
'
'

form

;

but a Sem. word suggested by the form of the Sum.Ak. name, and meaning strong (Cf. Heb. Touqeph,

Dan.
iii.

xi.

17).

Prof.

Hommel
"
'

"

tekaph,
12).
all

machtig sein Jensen (Kosmol. p. 57) abandons in despair
stark,

compares the syrisch (Astron. der alt. Choi.

'

attempts to explain the name or to identify the In a research so difficult we should not, Tikpi-st&rs. clamour to use an expression of Prof. Max Muller's,
*

for

mathematical accuracy

'

;

nor, on the other hand,

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.

IO7

need we give up the investigation as hopeless. The names of the seven Tiksi-staxs, several of which can be read in different ways, as the ideographs have
various

phonetic
(2)

renderings,
;

are

as

follows:

(1)

Gam

;

Lugal, Sem. Sar
Gis-li-e,

(3) Khu-sin, otherwise

Khu-sibain; (4) Katsir-nindM or Gumnsh-ni-nagi

(Hommel)
*

;

(5)

determinative prefix, wood,' and hence denoting some wooden object or and (7) Bildara (Pinches), otherarticle; (6) Tsir
;

gis being here probably a or tree primarily meaning
'
'

wise

Nidar
has

(Hommel)

or

Issi

(Sayce).

Prof.

Hommel
stars,

endeavoured to identify these seven and in two instances I have arrived at the same

conclusions.

We

being Regulus, There is not the least reason to think that Herakles,
a constellation also called

both regard the King {Lugal) as and the Bird (Khu) as Corvus.

intended

Lugal (Vide sup. p. 10) is there any other Bird except Corvus in this part of the heavens. These identifications a considerable to determine, extent, the celestial
;

nor

is

in question. may expect to find the Tiksi star-group in the neighbourhood of Leo, near the centre of the ecliptic, and thus in the front of
locality

We

The Ak. word Sibain, evidently meaning some sort of bird, is curiously like the Mongol
the heaven.

Schiabon, Schowoon, Buriat Subung, which has the

meaning of bird generally. The first of the seven Tiksi-st&vs, Gam, Prof. Tauri (Vide sup. Hommel identifies with f$ and
p.

'

'

63).

As we have

seen, the

Gam

of the Tablet of
;

the Thirty Stars cannot be any part of the Bull and Prof. Hommel regards the two Gams (' Scimitars ') as
identical.
case.

This, however, I think,

is

clearly not the
/3,

The

Gam

of the lunar Zodiac=a,

y Arietis

108

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
stars
'

[xil

and a Piscium,
here.

which are out of the questioi
'

Gam

is

the

circular

'

weapon

of

Merodakh

'

(Vide sup. p. 71), and the Gam of the Tiksi-st&rs will be identical with Gisbar (Vide sup. p. 79),
1

which

'

is

before
rj,
'

heavens,

i.e.,

Mulmosarra,'=' in the front of the and X Leonis, which, with m, y
f
,

the Sickle,' a stellar reduplication of Thus Gam and the circular weapon of the Sun-god.

Regulus, form
lie

Lugal The

together. third Tiksi-st&r
('

Katsir-nindke

is Corvus, and the fourth, The Mouth-of-the-Snake-drinks '),=

Caput Hydrae, the
Milky Way.
Prof.

head of the Water-snake as near the

allusion apparently being to the canal of the
'
'

Hommel

doubtfully identifies

this star with Spica.

The
calls
*

fifth Tiksi-stsiY is Gis-Li-e,

which Prof.

Hommel

Stern des Mnstrumentes," das ist wahrscheinlich des Joches (bzw. der Wage).' I do not, how-

"

Libra are intended. The Ak. li=Sem. lilisu (Sayce, Syl. No. 61), and the Rev. C. J. Ball {A Bab. Ritual Text, in the Journal of
ever, think that

any

stars in

the Royal Asiatic Soc. 1892, p. 849) observes, 'The Accadian liliz appears in As. as lilisu. The general
sense of our text requires that it should mean some kind of vessel or receiver.' And, having instanced
several cases in which
lis
'

seems to denote a
li

vessel,'

he

a tripod or incense " caldron," concluding, Perhaps the lilis was a brazen laver." I therefore conclude, on the whole, that the
is
'

adds that

'

the Chinese
'

"

Li-e-sta,r=Crater.

The

sixth Tiksi-st&x

is

Tsir

('

the Serpent
afield

')

which,
it is

according to Prof. Hommel, quite needless to go so
is

=a
far

Serpentis.

But
at

when

there

a

suitable

star

comparatively close

hand,

XIl]
i.e.,

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.

IO9

Alphard, Ak. Alia (Vide Vol.

I.

360; sup.

p. 79).

The seventh Tiksi-st&r is Bildara, which Prof. Hommel- supposes is /3 and S Scorpionis, because we read in W.A.I. 111. liii. 28, Ilu Iz-si 1 (the same
cuneiform combination as Bildara) kaklcab Gir-tab qa-bi, The god the Fiery -one, the constellation of the
'

The fact is that this same Scorpion addresses.' cuneiform combination is applied both to a planet
and
to a fixed star.

In the former case

I

think with

Prof. Sayce, that the name is to be read Izsi ; in the latter case I would read Bildara, with Mr. Pinches.

Thus, in K. 2894, Ob.
'

1.

4

we

read,

Kakkab Gir-tab

ilu Iz-si yub-bu-ur, The constellation of the Scorpion the god the Fiery -one crossed.' Here Izsi must be a planet, and we may have an instance of the close

connexion between Scorpio and Mars (Vide Vol. I. Line 5 states, Ilu Iz-si yu-ta-ma-al, The god 73).
'

the Fiery -one goes slowly.' Here, again, the observation refers to a planet, not to a fixed star ; and in

each of these three instances Izsi

but ilu

('

the god

'),

not kakkab, which here implies a planet, as
is

called,

distinguished from fixed stars. But there are no planets amongst the Tiksi, Lu-mdsi and Mdsi. The Tiksistar

Bildara

('

White-fire

')

is

therefore a fixed star
star near at

;

and the remaining remarkable
'

hand

is

Denebola, which, as we have seen (Sup. p. 83) is called the Burning-of-fire,' and which, moreover, like
Polaris, Regulus and Fomalhaut,
1

is

a

'

white

'

star.

As

a god-name, this cuneiform combination, whatever
is

may

be

its

correct transliteration,

applied to Ninip,

who

is

specially conis

nected with the planet Kronos- Saturn ; to Nabu, connected with Mercury ; and to Sin (the Moon.
Class. List, p. 202).

who

specially

Vide Briinnow,

IIO

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil

Thus we locate the seven Tiksi-Tikpi stars under the Bear, in the front of the heaven and near each other ; three in the Lion, and the other four in the
Water-snake and
the
its

closely associated constellations

Bowl and the Crow.

Section

II.

The Lu-masi

Stars.
I.

After the Tiksi-staYs the Tab.

W. A.
'

III.

IviL

No. 6 gives the seven Lu-masi

stars.
(

In Sum.-Ak.
;

lu=

sheep,' mas, Sem. the planets were styled

mdsu,=
*

hero

and just
'

as

seven Old Sheep,' so seven ' star in the particular fixed stars (I use the word known as the Sheep usual wide general sense) were
'

of the Hero,'

i.e.,

the

Sun (Vide Sayce,

Bel. Anct.

Bobs.

As Prof. Sayce observes, 'Jensen has p. 49). shown that mdsi in this combination was further used
in the sense of "twins," the stars
"

composing the lumasi being grouped as twins. It is an example of the obliteration of the original signification of an
"

"

The sheep of the hero," epithet by a secondary one. the Accadian lu-mas, became the Semitic lu-mthi, " " " the twin oxen," lu being an Assyrian word for ox
(lb. n.
1).

Thus, the stars are regarded as a flock of
;

or, again, as sheep, which the Sun drives before him oxen, some of which plough the ecliptic. So, similarly, would the western Aryan churl, looking up to the

ChurVs (=Charles') Wain, view its Septem Triones (' the Seven Draggers ') names of the seven Lu-mdsi-sta,rs are
or
;

stars

as

the

or oxen. as follows

The
:

Shugi (2) Udgudua, otherwise Udka(l) Sugi gaba (3) Sibzianna (4) Kaksidi, otherwise Kaksisa
;
;

or

Dasisa

;

(5)

Entemasagar

or Entemasluv, other-

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
;

Ill

wise

In-tinnina-bar-shigga (Hommel) (6) Idkhu, I Iru or Eri-gu and (7) Papilsak or Pabilsag. will first notice the conclusion at which Jensen
;

(Kosmol.) and Hommel (Astron. der arrived at respecting the Lu-mdsi
here, as

alt.
;

dial.) have

and although

on some other occasions, I may have reason to differ from these illustrious scholars on various points, it must not be supposed that I do not
entertain

deep

respect

for

their

great

achieve-

ments.

As regards Sugi, Udgudua, Entemasluv and Idkhu,
Jensen contents himself with observing that they are
all

in the neighbourhood of the ecliptic' With respect have seen (Vol. I. 78 to the first three I agree.

We

;

sup.
as

tion, =Sagittarius

Udgudua, and when regarded with Papilmk or of a one forming pair of twins, probably=e and
p.

5)

that

in its broader significa-

;

Sag., whilst Papilsak, in this latter connexion, prob-

ably=X and m Sag. (Vide
'

sup.

p.

25).

Jensen
'

suggests (P. 538) that Papilsak may be the Archer, and Hommel observes of the Pa-bil-sag-Stern,' etwa

mit Mira

ceti

im Walfisch oder aber mit einem zwischen
'

6 Ophiuchi und ir des Schiitzen zu suchenden Stern As I place zu identifizieren ist (Astron. iii. 12). 7r and between Sagittarii, there Ophiuchi Papilsak
is

a practical agreement respecting it. Why Hommel should suggest that Papilsak may possibly be o Ceti, called Mira ('the Wondrous') 'on account of its

remarkable variation in

brilliance,' I
p.

am

not aware.

As we have seen (Sup.
ecliptic star of the 9th

15) Papilsak

month.

Hommel

was an places Ud'

ka-gaba' (=Udgudua), which he renders 'Throatopening-beast,' either in the region of Lepus, or in the comparatively starless space occupied by the

I I

2

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
constellation the Unicorn,

[x]

modern

between the two

Here, again, the question is decided by Tab. Dogs. Sm. 162 (Sup. p. 5), so that nothing more need be
added.

Entemasluv, in
trarily
splits

full

Entenamasluv,

Hommel

arbi-

in two.

When

it

is

spoken of as an

he regards it as Denebola (Vide sup. p. times he supposes it to be Deneb (i.e., at other 87) ' Zanab, the Tail,' a Cygui). In the abstract there
ecliptic star
;

may

be two stars of this name, just as there are many But such a fact is not to other celestial duplicates.
*

be assumed
to this

a priori the probability is against it (As Idkhu, as we have star,' vide sup. p. 86).
;

seen (Vol.

I.

45

;

Sup.

p.

18)

is

Aquila with
der

its

Eagle-star Altair.
noticed,
Ekliptik.'

To
places

this

Hommel
'in
is

agrees, but, as

Jensen

Idkhu

Nahe der

His reason

for this

view

upon
14.
'

such passages as the following
:

probably based (W. A. I. III. lii.

No. 2)

Kakkab Id-khu ana kakkab Lu-bat dikhu:
constellation the
' :

The

Eagle to the planet Jupiter
libbi

(is)

opposite

17.
'

Kakkab Id-khu ina
is fixed.

Sini nazuz

:

The constellation the Eagle over the place of the

Moon
18.

The

constellation the

Eagle over the right horn
is fixed.

(ina qarni imni) of the

Moon

19. The constellation the Eagle over the left horn (ina qarni sumeli) of the Moon is fixed.'

The preposition ina has the meanings
'

'in/ 'upon,'
;

(Vide Muss-Arnolt, As. Diet. p. 66) and, in the above passage is obviously to be rendered over,' inasmuch as no bright star is ever seen actually
near,' etc.
'

impaled, so to speak,

upon a horn

of the

moon (Vide

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
i.

11$

R. B. Jr., E. S. R. Part

17).

I

have often noticed
*

Luna and
in
'

Altair in the exact combination referred to
'

The Ak. lib, Sem. libbu, means within,' the middle,' and the heart,' as that which is in the midst of the body. But the phrase ina libbi has one or more special astronomical meanings. Thus, a star
1.

18.

'

'

said to be ina lib-su (Tab. K. 2310, Rev. 1. 14), 'in its (own) place,' i.e., its proper place in the heavenly array, in accordance with kosmic harmony
is

and
is

order.

Again, in

W. A.I.
('

III.

liii.

No.

1,

1.

18,

we read Guttav ina
fixed
;

libbi izzaz

Jupiter in the midst

stated

and elsewhere (Vide Vol. I. 269) it is ') 'the star Tiranna (' Judge - of - heaven, '=

Polaris) over-against (i.e., opposite to, itti) the midst is bound.' whatever star may Here, the Pole-star, then have been Polaris, is represented as being fixed

immovably, opposite to
Pole-star

'

the midst

'

of the heavens.

It is possible that (Ak.) ki

here=ma, and

that the
;

may

be regarded as also a heaven-centre

but from such passages it is sufficiently clear that, as a rule, 'the midst '=the ecliptic and this interpretation,
;

which

is

in itself sufficiently obvious,

is

confirmed

when
:

we turn
1

to Aratos, who, speaking of the

Ram,

says

The Cto-tips and
'

In midst of the vast heaven he moves, just where Orldrfs head revolve (H. D. 231-2).
'

Just where

'

means

in

the same division of the

heaven, i.e., the ecliptic; and the Bab. ina libbi=the Gk. lULea-a-oOt. But, further, 'the midst' may also

mean, not the
portion of
time.
it,

ecliptic generally,

but some particular

the special subject of observation at the
in

K. 2310, Rev. 1. 3, where Sagittarius is under observation, we read Lu-bat an-a libbi dikhu The planet \Jupiter~] to the midst is opposite.' This ('
VOL.
II.

Thus

8

114
does not

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil
*

that Jupiter, like Polaris, is overagainst' the midst; but that he was opposite to that part of the ecliptic which being then under special consideration, was, for the time, 'the midst' par excellence.

mean

According to Hommel, Shugi=Orion.
that
1

He

states
'

Sum. Shugi=Sem. Shibu, Shaykh (lit. Elder '), that it reappears in the Eg. Sech l (=0rion), and that the word Shibu, meaning Orion, occurs in
the

'

W. A.L III. liii. No. 1, 1. 71. In W. A. I. II. xxxii. 62 we find Sugi explained as (amongst other things)
Sebu (Vide Briinnow, Class. List, p. 300). He draws a further argument from a Tablet 'aus dem Jahr 138 v. Chr.,' which speaks of the stars Shugi und Kakban (Sirius) from a of their consideration and, risings and settings, concludes that the former must The statements of the Tablet do not be Orion. appear to me to be conclusive on this point (Vide
'
!

;

quotations from other Tablets respecting Sugi inf. ) but we will first examine the passage in W. A. I. III.
liii.

;

The

of great interest and importance. translation here given is based on that by Prof. Sayce {Trans. S. B. A. iii. 191) and, as I understand

No.

1,

which

is

;

it,

the Tablet reads as follows
71.

:

Kakkab

Eritu

'The constellation the Pregnant- woman (is that) ina u birit kakkab Si-bi which in conjunction- with the-star Double-eye and kakkab A-nim izu-zu.
sa
the-constellation of- Ami is-fixed.'

Then
(Vol.
I.

follows the important gloss, already quoted 54), 'the constellation of Anu=the Ram.'

In commenting on the astronomical Tablets we must

always remember that most of them are
1

still

unknown

Sahu

is

the ordinary Eg.

name

for the constellation Orion.

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
;

i

15

and therefore on many points we have to The present passage speak subject to correction. of this fact. illustration For some an supplies apt reason unknown to me Prof. Hommel identifies Eritu
to us

(probably ma in Ak., vide sup. p. 23), a name of Istar, with the Pleiad. To this I do not agree, because (1) I
of no evidence in support of the theory and (2) there is nothing to show that Eritu was in the ecliptic, whilst (3) we already know several (other) names for
;

A

know

Again, Sibi is not a Sem. word Sebu, meaning Shaykh/ but a Sum. word meaning, as the ideographs show, Eye + two '=' Double-eye,' a curious appellation which receives an exact explanathe Pleiad.
'

'

tion

from the characteristics of the

singular

neighbouring star Algol (Vide sup. p. 22). name Sibi is not contained in a gloss, and when the
tablet- writer has occasion to refer to Sugi, as in
1.

and The
74,

he
is

That Sibi=Algol Sugi, not Sibi or Sebu. not capable of anything like mathematical demoncalls it
;

stration

here,
life.

guide of
72.
1

everywhere, probability is the It will be instructive to continue the
as
:

translation of the Tablet

Kakkab Ma-a-su The constellation the Twins D.P. 1 A-nim izu-zu.

(is

sa ina-pdn which before that)

Anu is-fixed.' Anuv kakkab Gloss
:

'

Al-lul,

Anu

(extends to)
sup.

the constellation the Hero, '=the
p. 16).

Crab (Vide

First let us see
line.

how
to

According
'

Hommel explains this him Anu=the North Pole
Prof.

('Nordpol'),

so that the

Twins 'before Anu'
Sterne des
viz. ilu ('

are

probably
1

die

beiden helleren
Determinative Prefix,

Kleinen

I.e.,

god

').

Il6

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
"
is

Baren (die " zwei Kalbchen der Araber),' that and 7 Ursae Min., Ar. El-fer-kadain ('the
Calves.'

Vide

'

inf. p. 188).

Lastly,

hier ist

Two Anu der

This last remark of the Stern Allul (sonst Delphin).' Anu and 'Glossator' anent Allul, Hommel observes we are not now able to understand. Most true. On
these lines the changes and transformations of Anu are indeed incomprehensible. One moment he is the

North Pole, the next he
next he

is

the Dolphin, and what

may
also
is

be

it
it

is

Vainly
Pole,

may

impossible even to conjecture. be asked, If Anu be the North
his

why

the

Ram
is
is

special
I

constellation

?
;

Why

the Dolphin

introduced
useful, as it

but his appearance

cannot imagine enables us to dis-

prove Hommel's theory, for, as we have seen (Sup. p. 16), Allul, otherwise Allah, is not the Dolphin, but is an ecliptic constellation of the fourth month ,=
Cancer.

There

is

no

real difficulty in the passage,
'

and

Prof.
it.

Hommel

stand
lately

has himself helped us to underProf. Sayce remarks, Prof. Hommel has

4-7, 1892) that the " of the three spheres great gods," Anu, Bel and Ea, into which the Chaldaeans divided the sky, corre-

shown (Ausland, Nos.

sponded to thirds of the

Ecliptic, the sphere of
.
. .

Anu

The Twin -stars were extending to the Crab. "the Great Twins," Castor and Pollux in Gemini'
(The Higher
Grit,

and

the

we

see that

Anu=the

inclusive,

region from having the ecliptic as its centre. the Ram, at the beginning of this region,

Anu,=a

Thus n. pp. 69-70). or special region of sphere the to the Crab, both
Mons.

Ram

Hence
is

the

special constellation of

the glossator respecting Castor and Pollux (a and before Anu

=

Anu and hence the note of The Twins Anu and Allul.
;
'

/5

Gem.);

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.

117

and we can leave the North Pole, the Two Calves and
the Dolphin in peace.
73.
'

Kakkab
constellation

Eritu
the
-

sa

The

Pregnant woman which
sadi
side
si-kid,

ina-pdn
before

Bil Bel

si-id

rukh

a-na
to

on the east

declines,

kahkab

Su-gi

i-qab-bi.

the constellation the Chariot-yoke speaks.'

Mylitta (=the constellation Addmdth- Andromeda), which fronts Ursa Maj., which latter is above the Bel-sphere of the ecliptic, is opposite (=' speaks ')
to Sugi. The Ak. (Gis) Gar- su-gi is translated " the " front part of a chariot (Sayce, in Trans. S. B. A. iii. and Mr. Pinches renders Sugi by Chariotn. 173, 2),
'
' '

Now

yoke,' a meaning which, for several reasons, I follow. Kakkab Su-gi in K. 2894 Ob. 1. 15 we read
:

tarbatsa.

.

.

.

Sin ina

libbi

kakkabi Su-gi tarbatsa

ipakhkhir.

The Moon
Chariot
-

constellation the Chariot-yoke sets. in the place of the constellation of the
'

*

The

yoke sets (lit. disappearance makes '). Again, in W. A. I. III. Ivii. No. 4, 1. 11, we read Dil-bat ina-pdn ilu Su-gi izzaz. Venus before the
'
:

'

god the Chariot-yoke
No. 10, Sini
.

is fixed.'
:

Again, in lb.

III. lix.

1.

.

.

1-2, we read -va illak ana

Kakkab Su-gi ana
Sin
erib.
'

subti

libbi.

The con-

stellation the Chariot-yoke to the seat of the
. .
.

Moon
In the

and goes to the midst.
of such statements as

The Moon
these

sets.'

face

how can Sugi=
It
is

Orion?.

The Moon could not

set in Orion.

true that Orion adjoins the ecliptic, and, according to the boundaries of constellations in our modern star

maps, a small fraction of the constellation is actually within the ecliptic, but none of its bright stars are so
situate.

Taking the evidence as a whole,

it

seems

Il8

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil

impossible that Sugi can=(5rftm, at all events in for, we must remember, that, in the early times
;

course of ages, the same names were applied in more than one instance to different planets, and the same
incident

may

also

some of the fixed
go far

stars.

have taken place in the case of But further we have not to
:

afield to find suitable stars for Sugi,

an

ecliptic

It is very constellation, as Jensen note3 (Sup. p. 1 1 1). probable that the original Taurus consisted of the

Hyads only (Vide Houghton,
469)
;

in Trans.

S.

B. A.

vi.

fi Tauri, the Al-ndtih, Butting'), is said to be in the right foot of the Charioteer (Vol. I. 55). Hence it is named (Ar.) Kabdhi-l-indn (' The Heel-

and even

in Ptolemy's List the star
'
'

called

Nath (=Ar.

'

of-the-Kein-holder
*

').

Sugi,
will

the

'

'

Chariot-yoke

southern
ecliptic
;

Front-part-of-a-chariot,' stars of Auriga,

thus

probably = the

or

which extend into the
ilu

and the somewhat singular expression
1

Sugi (Sup. p. 117), 'the god' (not kakkab) Sugi, or the god of the Chariot-yoke, will refer to the
'

divinity originally represented by Auriga (As to the This view also ecliptic Chariot, vide Vol. I. 338). explains the remarkable connexion between Sugi and

the

Moon above noticed not merely because the Moon could be in Sugi as an ecliptic constellation, but
;

also because of the

connexion between the Moon, the

New Year and

Capella, the principal star of Auriga In considering 1. 73-4. (Vide Map, Vol. I. 119). Hommel is compelled to assume that there is a second
constellation called the

Pregnant-woman, a circumvery improbable.
in
1.

stance

in

the

abstract

He

also

holds Entenamasluv to be
sup.
p.

112);

and, as

Deneb (a Cygni. Vide 74 we read: Kakkab
gloss which,

Entenamasluv kakkab Allah, a

on

his

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
(Vide sup.
'

II9

principles
interpret,

p.

115),

he
'

is

compelled to
y

landed in

Entenamasluv=Allab {=Allul) we are the dilemma Deneb=the Dolphin (Vide
I
(1.

sup. p. 116), which is absurd. useful gloss as I did the former one

interpret
'

this

72)
1

;

Entena-

masluv (=Hydra) extends to Allah

(=Cancer).

In the passage W.A.I. III. liii. No. 1, 1. 71-4, therefore, the scribe appears to be considering the Anu-portion of the heavens, and to refer to

Andromeda
Cancer
(Sugi),

(Eritu), Algol

(Allul,

otherwise

Aries (Lulim), south Allah), Auriga
(Sibi),

Castor and

Pollux

(Mdsu),

and

Hydra

(Entenamasluv).

The two remaining Lu-masi stars are Kaksidi and Both are protagonists of the heavenlySihzianna. and both have already occasioned a great amount host,
of controversy.

Jensen holds that Kaksidi=Antares,

and that Sihzianna=Regulus,
in

The

positive evidence

favour of this theory

is

nil,

the negative over-

whelming. Thus, although the references to Kaksidi are very numerous, not one of them speaks of it as an and, as we have seen (Sup. p. 98 ), it ecliptic star
;

does not appear in the list of lunar Mansions, but, on the contrary, is mentioned in the second part of the This circumstance, howTablet of the Thirty Stars. is not conclusive that Kaksidi is not ever, absolutely

another

name

for

Palura (=Procyon)

i

but even

loose

Procyon is not really within the ecliptic, although a and ill-defined ecliptic included it. Regulus,
again,
is

not called Sihzianna,

but,
'

as

we know

positively from Classical sources (Vide Vol. I. 62) was named Lu-gal (Sem.) Sarru, the King/ Nor, again, was Sihzianna merely a single star (Vide Vol.
I.

288).

I will

now proceed

to consider Kaksidi,

120

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
p. 98), is

[xil

which, as observed (Sup.

either Sirius or

Procyon.
First,

as to the

names Kak-sidi and Kak-ban.
is

In certain 6k. -Bab. tablets mention

made

of a star

which Epping and Strassmaier call Kak-ban, and which, by astronomical calculation, they identify with Sirius. Jensen and Hommel agree, and let it be
I would, however, observe that kak being admitted. the construct state of the Sem. kakku (' weapon'), we ought to read the second syllable not (Ak.) ban

bow '), but (Sem.) qasti (' of-the-bow '). Thus the Kakkab Kak- qasti is the star Weapon- of-the-boiv,'
('
'

Bogenstern.' Further, I am not aware that this name occurs in any early tablet it seems to be a late

the

'

;

and purely Sem.

title

of Sirius.

Here, of course,

I

In Z. (p. 26) I made a speak subject to correction. the name Kak-ban which I suggestion respecting
I pointed out that think worthy of mention here. the ideograph for kak is at times rendered in As. by

kal (Vide Sayce, Syl. No. 138), and that ban also and v are interappears as bam, that in Bab. -As.

m

changeable, as frequently are u and v (Vide Sayce, As. Gram. pp. 46-7). The result of this is that
instead of kak-ban
kal-bav,
it is

possible that
*

we ought
Sirius.

to read

kal-bau, kal-bu,

dog/
let

i.e.,

How-

ever, be this as it

may,

us assume so far that
for Sirius.

Bow-star was a
turn
to

late Bab.

name

We now
the

the

name

Kak-sidi.
the

In
of

Sum.-Ak.

the compass point connected with Akkad K. (Vide 8484), was specially Mer-sidi the called (' Directing-point '), just as the

North

(=our N.W.),

Bull, once leader of the Signs, was called Gut-sidi As Sirius is south of Pro('the Directing-bull ').
cyon, and as the latter has been styled
'

the Northern

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
'

12

1

and as kak in Kak-qasti means weapon/ it has been assumed that in Kak-sidi we have WeaponWaffe des Nordens,' as Hommel styles northern,' On this view Sirias and Procyon were Procyon. two Weapon-stars. Sirius the Bow, Procyon some
Sirias,'
'

*

rather singular circumstance. are, however, certain rather grave difficulties in the way of this view of the meaning of the name

unnamed weapon, a
There

Kaksidi is a very ancient Sum.-Ak. name. Hence, kak, which can also be read ru and du, has here nothing to do with the Sem. kakku to make but is an Ak. word meaning (' weapon '),
Kaksidi.
First,
'

'

The Ak. for weapon not mean north/ but
etc.
'

is

gudhu.
'

'

directing

;

Next, sidi does and hence Mr.
:

Pinches wrote to
'

me upon

this star-name as follows

rendered in As. as kakkab mesre, but what this means is difficult to say. Mesritu (plu.)

Du-sisa
"

is

means
tors
"

" " " leaders or direclimbs," understood as " The Ak. da-sisa [otherto direct "). (eseru,

wise

Kaksidi]
'

means

"

(the

star)

which

makes

Hence, this star-name, whether read one directing." or the other, means, not the Northern-weapon, way but the Leader (Vide sup.
a
title as
p. 98).

Of course such

the Leader naturally reminds us of Sirius, brightest and chief of the fixed stars, and who, in the Persian scheme, so closely connected with the Baby-

lonian,

occupied
.

this

position.

Thus

Plutarch
(T

:

'Qpo/uLafyg

.

.

ovpavov a&Tpois

eKo'cr/x^o-ey,

eW

acrrepa

kcu 7rpo 7iravTwv oiov (pvXaKa
Is. xlvii.).

irpooirTviv eyKarecrTrjcre,

tov

it is

aware, Xelpiov (Peri to be observed that just as the name Kak-qasti only occurs in late documents, so the name Kaksidi

Next, so far as I

am

only occurs in ancient documents
1

;

K 260,

1

as quoted
No.
3,

Only

a portion of K.

260

is

given in

W. A.

I. II. xlix.

122

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
pp. 49, 52)

[xil

by Jensen (Kosmol.
exception
strongly
identified.

may

to

this,
it,

and
the

there,

be a possible although Jensen

denies

two

stars

appear

to

be

Kaksisa (the form of the name which I prefer) was one of the twelve stars of the West (W. A. I. II. xlix. amongst which were Dilgan (Capella), 4), Bartabba-galgal (Castor and Pollux), Sugi, Lugal
' '

(Regulus) and Allul
the days of variable Mike bronze' (lb. I.
xlix.

(Cancer).
xxviii.

Kaksisa rose
heat,'

'

in

storms (and)
14).

and was
II.

In

W.A.I.

15 we read Kakkab Kak-si-sa.
:

Asar rob sami :
|

1

The star the Leader. damaku.

Station great of-the-heaven

:

prosperous.'

Asru, as noticed (Sup. p. 99), is a technical term applied to special and important celestial localities,
e.g.,

to the lunar Mansions.

In the Proc.

S. B.

A.

March 1888, Dr. Bezold published what he
'

called

Text concerning the Star Kak-si-di! This Tablet, K. 2894, Ob., a translation of which I gave in the Proc. S. B. A. May, 1893, was not specially about
Kaksisa, which read
:

A New

is

not mentioned until

1.

18.

We

18.
'

Kakkab Kak-si-sa The star the Leader
makes
47)
is
:

ana
for

rukhi
a

iltdni

north wind

innamiru-su sak-nu :
its-appearance
where Kaksidi
(1.

explained,

if

the reading be correct, as

(Sem.) Suhunu, which
brightly blazing star.
less,' i.e.,

would compare with the Heb. ShekMn, an 'inflamed ulcer or boil,' a simile which might be applied to a
I

But another reading

is

Sukudu,

*

the Rest-

eager, impetuous blazing.

XIl]
19.

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.

1

23

20.

Ina yu-mi innamar ; rukh iltdnu illak. a north wind blows. At daybreak it-is-seen mdta khaldbu: Kak-si-sa Kakkab land the The star the Leader (is) misty
;
:

kha-ru-bi-e ikkalu.
locusts
21.

devour.

Ina
In

arkhi
the

Duzu
Id-khu

kakkab

Kak-si-sa

month Tammuz the
the Eagle

star the

Leader

(u)

kakkab
the star

ikassidu:
are-in-the-ascendant
esiri
(is) flourishing.
:

and

samassammu
the sesame (Gk.
22. Kakkab~]
crrja-a/uLov)

u kakkab Id-khu Leader the and the star the star~| Eagle a-kha-mis innamaru,
Kak-si-sa

The

2310, Ob. contains some similar lines. Akhamis (lit. Like-brothers ') is here used of time, not of space. The Sesame, associated in legend with
'

together Tab.

are-seen.

K

Schamir, Sassafras (=Saxifrage),

etc. is

a plant which

plays a prominent part in mythic tales, and in original idea is connected with the lightning (Vide Sir G. W. Cox, Myihol. of the Aryan Nations, 2nd edit. pp. 95,

440 et seq.). When we analyse the evidence contained in the foregoing quotations, we shall find that it seems, on the whole, to point strongly towards
Sirius.

But not with absolute
'

conclusiveness.

Thus

with (ertl), and, agreeably Sirius I. Vol. this, Ptolemy styles viroKippo^ (Vide 98). But at present Sirius, as Mr. H. Sadler observes, is

Kaksisa

is

like

bronze

'

'

one of the whitest stars in the heavens
'

'

;

and Prof.

Schjellerup has suggested that the attribution of the colour in question to Sirius arises from the error of a
copyist.'

This, again,

is

easy to suggest, but by no

124

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil

means very probable.
vicoKippos here

Why

should a copyist insert
Sir

p. 23) gives Lockyer founded on Mr. the colours of certain large stars, Ennis's observations/ The red stars are Aldebaran,
'
'

apropos of nothing ? {Element. Les. in Astron.
'

Norman

Antares and Betelgeuse

marked
Sirius,
said to

(rightly) in v-n-oKippog (' reddish-yellow ') Ptolemy's List. Deneb are Atair the and Eagle '), Vega, ('
;

and each of these are

but this is doubtless the green stars result of careful astronomical observation. They do be
;

'

'

not appear
(Vide Vol.

to the naked eye. Thus, I have no hesitation in calling Vega, as we see it, steel-blue

'

'

green

I. Procyon, Capella, Rigel, Bella35). and Spica are said to be blue stars and Regulus, Denebola, Fomalhaut and Polaris, white

trix

'

'

;

'

stars.'

Arcturus, as anyone
' '

may

see, is,
*

par

excel-

lence, the

yellow

star.

Smyth

states,

Mr. Barker,

in the fifty-first

volume of the Philosophical Transactions, considered that Sirius has changed colour, from red to white, in the lapse of ages and quotes Aratus, Cicero, Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, Horace, and Ptolemy, in proof. The ancients, however, used the names of colours with the utmost latitude.' As a Mr. Barker's rule, this last remark is very just. evidence for the mutation has more learning than
;
'

point

;

but Seneca has an admission that the redness

of Sirius

was

Ptolemy These witnesses [are] both men of character and trust' (Cycle of Celest. Objects, ii. 160). Smyth also adds Arcturus and that correctly Ptolemy styles
Pollux
v-n-oiappos,

so strong as to exceed that of Mars and says it was the same colour as Cor Scorpii.
;

stars are,

kiope

('

These as they now actually are.' on the whole, of the same colour as Chalthe Bronze-faced Moon) who, in Gk. myth'
'

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
is

I

25

ology,
air).

the

Thus,

we
of

spouse of Phrixos (the Unsunlitare unable to arrive at certitude
colour-description
*

by
the

means

expression general way of a star burnished.

like

bronze

'

is

perhaps in a used merely
;

and

glittering

and shining as

if

But Kaksisa is also specially connected with the West, the North Wind, the month Tammuz (JuneJuly) and the star the Eagle (=Altair, a Aquilae. Vide Vol. I. 45). Kaksisa, then, is a star of the
west (Sup. p. 122), and, remembering that the Euphratean W. is the S.W., this is perfectly true of Sirius,

which with us
a
S.

is

a S.E.

(=Euph.

S.) star in

January,

(=Euph. S.W.)

star in

February and March, and
referred to broadly
'

a S.W. star in April. divides 24 stars into

The Tablet
'

Stars of

Akkad (=E. and

N.),

and
these

'Stars

of the

West'

(=W. and
apply

S.).

But
to

positions

practically

equally

well

Procyon. Kaksisa
(and) heat.'
rising)
is

is

and July, and

further specially connected with June is said to rise in the days of storms
'

Its rising at

daybreak

(i.e.,

its heliacal

connected with the commencement of a
;

north wind

and the

heliacal rising of Sirius in con-

familiar.

nexion with various ancient religious observances is The final formal Euphratean scheme or chart of the heavens had been compiled prior to B.C.

2000

and, to take a particular date, on July 10, B.C. 2000, Sirius, as seen from Babylon, rose heliacally
;

and was only
a

visible

commonplace

in

It is shortly before sunrise. the Classics that the fiopem

irqa-iai,

the aquilones etesiae, the 'periodical'

N.W.

(=Euphratean
clays

N.)

winds

blow

for

so

many

from the rising of Sirius.

Aratos, speaking

126

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil

of the days of the Lion, the sign of the

month Duzu,
'

says

:

1

These are the hottest pathways of the sun
'

;

the

*

days of heat
*

of the Tablet,

On

the wide sea then fall with sudden force

Whistling Etesian blasts. Then do broad ships best

suit the deep,

and then

May helmsmen

keep the rudder to the wind.' (H. D. 149, 152-5.)
'

days of storms of the Tablet, and the Star of July, reminds us of the Homeric Kaksisa, Star of Summer that above all others glitters bright

These are the

*

'

than Canopus, the second in splendour of the starry host], when he hath bathed in the Ocean-stream.' So Aratos says of Cants Major
[Sirius
is

far brighter

:

His portentous jaw Bears at the end a star which scorches most,
Eesplendent
;

'

so

men

it

the Scorcher

call.

When he, growth-checking, rises with the sun, No more do vineyards cheat with leaves alone
In his swift course throughout the rows he With ease ; some strengthens, others quite

;

sifts

destroys.'

(H. D. 582-5.)

And Hesiod

speaks of

'

the season of toilsome sum-

mer' when 'goats are

fattest,

wine

is best,

and men
'

weakest, since Seirios parches head and knees (Vide The north-west wind, though accounted Vol.1. 144).

stormy and dangerous in Hellenic, is, in many respects, favourable and refreshing in Euphratean regions (Cf. Cant iv. 16), and comes from the Euphratean north.
'

The greater part

*

of the Antients,' observes Sherburne, the Dog-Stars rising to the time of the Sun's assign

first

entering into Leo, or as Pliny writes, 23 days

:

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OP SEVENS.

\2J

after the

Summer
this

Solstice, as

Varro

29, as Columella

day with us, according to Vulgar the computation, rising and setting of the said Star is in a manner coincident with the Feasts of St. Mar30.

... At

garet (which
this

about the 13th of our July) and St. Laurence (which falls upon the 10th of August), as
is

common

verse expresses
est,

it,
x

Margaris Os Canis

Gaudavi Laurentius

affert.'

In the Eisagoge eis ta Phainomena of Geminos the Rhodian, cir. B.C. 77, occur the following memoranda under the heading Xpovoi twv ^coSIcop (cap. xvi.)
:

1

The Sun passes through the Crab
(eyo?).

in 31 days.

On On

the 11th, according to Eudoxos, Orion rises at

daybreak

the 23rd, according to Dositheos [who made observations B.C. 200], in Egypt the Dog stellar some
appears.

On the 25th, according to Meton [cir. B.C. 430], the Dog rises at daybreak. On the 27th, according to Euktemon (Vide Vol. I. According to Eudoxos, the Dog 125), the Dog rises.
rises at

Etesian

daybreak, and during the 5 following days the Winds blow.

On

the 28th, according to Euktemon, the Eagle

rises at

stormy weather at sea begins. The Sun passes through the Lion in 31 days. On the 1st day, according to Euktemon, the Dog
daybreak
;

is

conspicuous. On the 5th day, according to Eudoxos, the Eagle
sets at daybreak.'

Other Classical Calendars have similar entries. So, in a Latin translation from Ptolemy, giving the Iner1

The Sphere of Marcus Manilius, 1675,

p. 32.

128

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil

rantium
'

Stellarum

Significationes,
:

we

find

(Ap.

Petavius, Uranologion, p. 98)

Julius. Id. Canicula exoritur. Etesiae inualescunt. XVII. Orion exoritur, et violentus flat Aquilo. Cards exoritur. XIII. Sol in Leone.

XII. Etesiae

cum

aliis

ventis per

unum

et viginti

flant dies.

X. Aquila occidit. IX. Leo cum Sole exoritur et Cane.
VIII.

Canis emergit.

VII. Aquila occidit. VI. Canicularis sestus.

V. Vehementer calores. Etesiae valenter spirant. Aquila occidit matutino, aerque turbidus fit.' The other remarkable constellation at this season,
III.
it

the Eagle, which was connected Thus Aratos with stormy weather.
will

be observed,

is

:

*

Lesser in

size,

And nigh [the Bird] a second hut dangerous to come
night
flies
;

sails

From ocean when

the Eagle

named
(H. D. 313-15).

The Lion comes;

those [constellations] setting with the Crab
'

Pass wholly, and the Eagle
'

{Ibid. 590-1).

Egyptiorum annum magnum,' says Censorinus,

quern Graece kwlkov, Latine canicularem vocamus, propterea quod initium illius sumitur, cum primo die eius mensis, quern vocant Aegyptii OcovOol, caniculae
1

(De Die Natali, xviii.). B.C. 45 the 1st Thoth=27th August, B.C. 1422 it=20th July (Vide
sidus exoritur

'

Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians,
B.c.

2000 it=30th June.

iii. 103), therefore Classical authors also,

therefore, point strongly towards the identification of

Idkhu with Aquila, or rather with

Altair.

The

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.

1

29

astronomical point of view confirms this conclusion, for, at the date and latitude in question, i.e., July 10,
B.C.

2000

down

at Babylon, Altair occupied a position low in the N.W. horizon, exactly opposite to Sirius,

and they would be visible together for a short period. Hence we see the force of line 22 of the Tablet. These two stars are never visible together in England. 1 But Procyon and a portion of Aquila are seen together here in April and May. All these considerations, however, whilst pointing strongly to the identification of Kaksisa with Sirius
are nevertheless not absolutely conclusive.

They do

not necessarily exclude Procyon, although the circumstances generally by no means fit so well with the latter star. But, next, a fresh difficulty arises with
respect to the Boiv-stav
;

for,

although, as noticed,

Kak-ban (=Kak-qasti)
(simply)
is

not.

unfortunately is taken from observations of the stars' Kaksisa, Gil (=Sem. Agu, the Crown,' possibly the Croivn of
'

a late name, yet Ban K. 2253 (the text of which not before me) we have forecasts
is

Thus, in

'

Istar- Ariadne,
'

vide Vol.
').

I.

33),

and

Ban (=Sem.
seems to

Qastu,
clear

the

Bow
;

This,

at first

sight,

may perhaps be at once suggested that Kaksisa=Procyon, and Ban=Sirius. But, for this we learn in W. A. I. solution, unfortunately
it

up matters

II.

xxxix. No.

5,

1.

58 that

Kakkab Ban [Qastu)=

i.e., Boiv-star=Jupiter. Suppose, however, we hold that Jupiter, chief of planets, is

Ilu Lubat,

the

the i?OK;-planet, just as Sirius, chief of fixed stars,
1

is

Mr. E. B. Kjoobel has supplied
:

me

relative to stellar position

B.C.

2000.

with the following figures Sirius ; Right Ascension
Altair; Eight Ascension

57

25' 52",

Declination

248

54' 37", Declination

-19 +7

31' 1".

28' 31".

VOL.

II.

9

130

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

the Bow-star.
over.

Even then our
K. 2310,
1.

difficulties

are

not

Thus, in

1-2,

which are unfortu:

nately
.
. .

much

mutilated,

we read

ris

Hi innamar-va ina

libbi

Kakhab Qastu ... The-con*

stellation the

Bow
.

.

.

.

and

in the-midst

.

.'

Now

the-head of-the-god is-seen, it would seem that the

is Sagittarius, which, simiAratos (Phainom. 623, 664-5) calls simply the larly, Bow (Tooi/) or, if not the whole of Sagittarius, then
;

constellation in question

the iiow- stars.

For,

it

will

be observed that

*

the

head of the god/ a reference apparently to the humanheaded figure of the Archer, primarily the god Nergal, is spoken of, and that in connexion with the
ecliptic, in

which
star,

it

actually
1

lies.

If the

Bow
*

here

were a single

how could
I

the expression

head of

the god' apply to it
;

Thus, we have

(l) the

Bow-

(2) the ifow- constellation, Sagitplanet, Jupiter tarius (3) Kakqasti, the Bow-weapon-st&r, Sirius and (4) a star or constellation, called simply the Bow
;
;

[Ban, Qastu)

;

and which may

at times be one, at

times another, of these, or even at times something different from any of them, since e.g. Herakles-

Engonasin
the stars

is

a bowman.
2

In K. 12,099 we meet with

Kha

('

the Fish
it,

Ban.
scribe

On

the face of

Idkhu (' the Eagle '), and '), we should imagine that the

was observing the constellations the Archer, and Eagle Dolphin, which lie together. In K. 12,136 Ban is mentioned with Khi-se (=Spica ? Vide Vol. I.
In W.A.I. IY. (2nd edit.) lii. Col. iv. 11, where the Kakhab the Kakkab Kaksisa are, with other personages, implored to deliver, Prof. Sayce understands the former as Sagittarius, and
1

Ban and

the latter as Sirius (Rel. And. Babs. p. 509). 2 For this reading vide Briinnow, Glass. List,
Piscis.

p.

339.

It is not

the usual form of the word, and that used to denote Pisces and

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
It is clear that

131

h.eve=Sirius, then Kaksisa=Procyon. In K. 12,654 Qastu {Ban) is mentioned with Sukadu (Kaksisa, vide sup. p. 121
;

65), Entenamasluv and Kaksisa. and Kaksisa are distinct and if

Ban

Ban

n. 1)

and Aqrab (Ak. Girtab,
is

l

the full text of these Tablets

the Scorpion'). But not before me, and as

the astronomer-scribes are wont to range very freely over the heavens, we gather but little from the mere association of names. In Tab. 81-7-6, 102 the

Kakkab Ban

styled Dilbat (an ordinary name of Venus) in Ab, the fifth month. This might mean that it was then a special Proclaimed' On
is
'

the whole, however,

Ban

mentioned

;

and

if it

somewhat

surprising.

is comparatively but little be Sirius, this circumstance is On the other hand, Kaksisa is

constantly mentioned in the Tablets, just as we should expect Sirius, brightest of stars, to be a very prominent subject for observation. Thus, e.g., we find
it

mentioned
In Tab. K. 6507 with

Supa (=Castor and
Sup.
i.e.,

Pollux.

Vide sup.

p. 77), Li-e (=Crater.

p.

108) and

Sar (=Regulus).
In K. 7661 with

Mul ('The

Star,'

the Pleiad

;

archaic Chinese Mol.)
or in part).
'

and Girtab (=Scorpio, wholly

old

In K. 7931, which states that it is copied from documents in Babilu with Girtab, Idkhu (' the
'

Eagle '), and Kha (' the Fish. Probably the Dolphin. Vide sup. p. 130). In K. 10719 with Tsir (=Alphard. Vide sup. Vide Vol. and But I. Urgula (=Leo. p. 109) 62). all this is inconclusive, and we must await more
1

light.

make

the judicious reader to his choice between Sirius and Procyon.
I,

therefore,

leave

Y3^

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
last of

[x
is

The

the seven Lu-mdsi stars

Sibzianna.

We have seen reason to believe that the double Hellenic
is a reduplication of a double Euphratean Sibzianna (Vide Vol. I. 287-8), a fact further illustrated by the circumstance that, as noticed (Sup. A p. 110), the Lu-mdsi were also grouped as twins.

Bootes- Orion

careful consideration of the evidence, so far as

known

to believe that there were a pair of Shepherds of heaven in the Euphratean sphere, one in the northern, the other in the southern hemito me, induces
' '

me

sphere.

As

single stars this pair were

Arcturus and

Betelgeuse (a Orionis), respectively 4th and 9th in order of brightness of the 20 first magnitude stars.

As

constellations the

'

'

Shepherds

were Bootes and

Orion.

Bellatrix (7

In the latter constellation, Betelgeuse and Orionis) also form a pair of twins.
is

Betelgeuse

near the ecliptic and Gemini, and there-

fore forms part of the Sibzianna alluded to in K. 1551, where Jupiter is said to enter ana libbi Sibzi-

anna,

the place or 1 Thus, too, when in a Tablet 'region' of Sibzianna. Vol. I. Geminorum is defined as 'the (Vide 338) 7

which

may

be rendered

'

to

'

of the Shepherd,' the Shepherd in question is either Betelgeuse or Orion, the latter being also called

Twin

'

'

Euphratean parlance Duzi or Duwuzi (=Tammuz) and Ningirsu ('Lord-of-the-i&er-bank'), the River in question being constellation ally the Eridanus,
in

which, in origin,=the Euphrates (Vide sup. p. 23). But, in addition to the excellent astronomical argu1

In Vol.

I.

288, I have translated ana

'

libbi,

to the midst,'

but

the rendering above suggested is preferable in this passage. At the same time, it is, of course, impossible to say what was the exact Even at present the northern boundary of the Euphratean Orion.
constellation extends into the region of the ecliptic.

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.

1

33

ments of Mess. Sayce and Bosanquet, founded on K. 8538 (Vide Vol. I. 287), there are other passages which mention a Sibzianna which cannot well be referred to Orion or to any part of it. Thus, in W. A. I. III. liii. No. 1, Eev. 1. 26-7, after mention of Vide 'the Star of Maruduku' (=Dilga7i- Capella.
Tab.
Vol. I. 221), we read Kahhab sa arki-sn nazu-zu, Jcakkab Sibzianna, ilu Papsukala, rukha raba e-ku The star which behind it is fixed, the star Shepherd('
:

-heaven, spirit- of

[Pap=
*

f

'

male,'

god the Guardian-messenger sukala= mesyouth/ to depend
'
' ;

the

Now this portends wind'). great description cannot be applied to Orion, which is not fixed behind Capella but is, practically, parallel with it. On the other hand, Arcturus is fixed behind Capella nor is there any other first magnitude star
senger'],

a

'

;

;

between

them.
*

And

the further defining of this
is,

Sibzianna as

the god Papsukala,'

I

think, in-

tended to differentiate between Sibzianna-Papsukala

and

Sibzianna-Ningirsu. Papsukala, the tutelary of the tenth month, Dhabitu (Tebet), is divinity
described as the
of
'

'

attendant of
earth,'

Aim and
'

'

Istar,'

lord

bliss,'

lord
'

of the

the
'

Falchion,'

and

husband

(=Istar-KyprisIn the iii. 170). Aphrodite. legend of the Descent of Istar to the Under-world, it

of

Vide Trans.
'

the Queen of Copper S. B. A.

is

Papsukala,

the messenger of the

mighty

gods,'

who, being evidently in some special way a guardian

and particularly during the absence of the sun, informs the Sun-god of the woe wrought by the departure of the goddess. Thus, whatever Papsukala may have primarily represented, it is clear
of the earth,
that, in a stellar aspect,

he

is

identical with Sibzi-

anna- Arcturus, the heavenly shepherd-guardian and

134

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil

In W. A. I. II. brightest star north of the ecliptic. 8 Papsukala is styled Ul-mi ('the Sign-ofevening'), an appellation which further tends to
xlix.

identify him with Arcturus, often so conspicuous an and, in a stellar aspect, a object in the evening sky Istarfor Venus. husband suitable very
;

is described as being actually a weapon, and one of the chief Falchion.' Sayce.) Ugur ('the weapons of Merodakh in his battle against Tiamat is

Papsukala

;

the

sajparu, khereb, harpe, 'sickle-shaped sword/ 'scimitar' (Vide Vol. I. 180; sup. p. 71), whilst
is

another
'

the mul-mul-lu

('

Spear.'

L.

W. King.

Club.'

Sayce.), a
(i.e.

Star + Star
basis

word compounded of the ideographs The intensive)=' the Very-light.'
is

of this apparently singular symbolism

that

the stars, and especially the greatest stars, are important weapons of the Light-powers against DarkAnd this line of thought brings us to an interness.
esting historical development of the idea.
I.
'

We

have

seen (Vol. 285) that the names Arktouros and Bootes were at times used interchangeably, as if the great
star

were a compression of the constellation, and the and we observe constellation an expansion of the star
'

;

that the star spoken of as a weapon. When, therefore, the star and constellation are personified in
itself is

a

human

figure, this figure is naturally represented as

armed with some weapon. A Sem. name of Sibzianna was Sa ina kakki makhtsu (' He who fights with Sayce, in Trans. S. B. A. iii. 173) and weapons.'
;

is Hastatus, Lanceator and is Arktouros (=Mulmullit)> (Ar.) Simdk-alRdmih (' The Prop-of-the-Lance-holder '). The Shepherd-spirit-of-heaven becomes in Ar. Hdris-al-Samd ('The Guardian-of-heaven.' Vide Vol. I. 285).

hence in Classical times Bootes

/

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
this stellar

1

35

The importance of
is

Guardian- of-heaven

remarkably attested

The following (K.

by certain special invocations. 2801 + K. 9490), of the age of
'

Assurbanipal, contains a prayer to be recited on the occasion of an eclipse of the Moon,' and is thus translated
I.

by Mr. King

:

'0
.

Sibziana

...
...

2.

Thou

that

changest
before

the
3.

.

.

In the heavens
.
.

4.

They bow down
.

thee
5.
9.
*

.

The great gods beseech thee At thy command mankind was
. .

named (==

created
10. II.
'

')

!

Give thou the word Give thou

.

.

.

my judgment, make my

decision
'

V

is to object of the prayer/ says Mr. King, induce Sibziana to remove the evil spells, bewitch-

The

ments, spectres etc., that have followed in the train of the lunar eclipse' (Bab. Mag. 115). The passage
affords a

good

illustration of

what

Prof.

Max

Miiller

has termed Henotheism,

(Selected Essays, ii. the divinity for the time being invoked looms so large before the mental eye of the votary, that all

i.e., 'a belief in single gods' 137), a state of mind in which

others are practically excluded from his homage. This phase of religious thought, which constantly appears
in the Rigveda, theism. Here,

must not be confounded with Monoe.g.,
;

Sibzianna

is

credited with the

creation of

mankind

for, to the Semitic mind,

naming
exist-

and creation are
ence.

identical acts.
is

No name, no

implored by 'the great gods/ who, for the time being, are quite in the background of the worshipper's mind. But, it is also to be remembered that just as the star Kaksisa
is

Sibzianna

identified with

I36
the god

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XII

Ninip (Vide sup. p. 98), so, doubtless, Sibzianna represented another of the great gods in
'
'

hymn to the god Sib (' the and K. 2803, an inscription of the time Shepherd ') of Assurbanipal, relates to the temple of the god Sib K. 9000 contains incantain the city of Kharran. tions, prayers and the ceremonial connected with the cult of the god Sib, sar musi (' king of the night '). In K. 9003 Samas, the Sun-god, is styled king of the the Moon-god, king of the night.' It clay,' and Sin, is therefore possible that the 'Shepherd' of K. 3256, 2803 and 9000 is the Moon, especially since the cult of Sin at Kharran (Haran) was of remote antiquity (Vide Hommel, And. Heb. Trad. p. 73). But, never;
'

a stellar reduplication. Tab. K. 3256 contains a

'

theless,

considering that Sib, Sem. JRi'u, does undoubtedly stand for Sibzianna (Vide Vol. I. 338) in some cases considering further the importance of the
;

position and

cult of Sibzianna,

and that Arcturus

is

the brightest star of the northern hemisphere, I think, on the whole, we shall be right in applying these
passages to that
district

had

divinity. star of Babilu,
;

Each Euphratean town and special and peculiar patron stellar Thus, Dilgan (Capella) was the patron
star.
its

own

(Nippur) and, Sibzianna- Arcturus would have occupied a similar position at Kharran, and, with the Moon and Mercury,

Margidda (the Wain) of En-lil-ki if we are correct in the above opinion,

would have formed a special celestial Triad there. A passage above mentioned (Sup. p. 133) connects Sibzianna with a great wind.' This reminds us of the passage in Geminos where he states that on the
'
'

day of the Fishes, according to Euktemon, Arktouros rises in the evening and Protrygeter [Lat.
xiith

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
:

1

37

Vindemiatrix, e Virginis] appears moreover a cold As north wind blows' (Ap. Petav. Uranol. p. 68).

we have

seen (Cf. Vol. I. 324), the early Greek star and weather calendars were largely based upon Semitic
originals.

But other cuneiform passages apparently refer to the southern Sibzianna. Amongst these is that in
>

Te Tablet above quoted (Sup. p. 16), which connects Sibzianna with the stars of Gemini and the
the
third month.
of the

Geminos says that on the xxivth day
'

Twins

according to

Euktemon the shoulder
to

of

Orion

rises,

and according

Eudoxos, Orion
'

begins to rise.' Betelgeuse (Vide sup. p. 132), according to the Hipparcho-Ptolemy Star-list, is at the
right

shoulder'
I.

of

W A.

Orion (Vide Vol.
Kev.
1.

I.
:

91).

In

III.

lxiv.

8,

we read

Ina arkhi

Adari kakkab Sibzianna ina lib-su izzaz (' In the month Adar [=Feb. -March] the constellation Shepherd- spirit-of-heaven in
all

its

place

is

fixed').

This, in

Eudoxos particuprobability, applies to Orion. larly mentions Orion in connexion with the xiiith day of
In W. A.
I. III.
li.

the Fishes.
that the

No.

9,

1.

18,

we read

Moon is declining ina gag-gar [Heb. kikor\ kakkab Sibzianna (' In the region of the constellation Sibzianna '). Here the reference is probably to Orion, as Arcturus is so much further from the ecliptic. In Tab. Sm. 1154, 1. 4-5, we read: 'The constellation

(the

(the Fish) to the constellation Zibdnitum Kha to Sibzianna is Claws) is opposite.

Kha

opposite.'
certain,

As

the

identification

of

Zibdnitum

is

whether the Fish here be Pisces or not,

it is

almost certain that Sibzianna in this passage must mean Arcturus, which is in the neighbourhood of the
Claws.

The range of observation of the

scribes

is

so

138

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xil

several stars

wide that the mere mention in the same Tablet of by no means proves their proximity, even

when
it is

there

is

far distant

from each other.

no indication that they occupy positions But, at the same time,
all

obvious in certain cases that

the stars under

consideration are in the same quarter of the heavens. Thus, in K. 6227 Sibzianna, Lulim and Sugi are

mentioned, by which we may understand Orion, Aries, and the southern stars of Auriga (Vide sup. p. 118). In another instance Ban, Mul, Kaksisa and Sibzi-

anna, that

is

to say, Sirius, the Pleiad,

Procyon and

Orion, together. In K. 11,099 Dilgan, Mul, Sibzianna and Kaksisa, that is to say, Capella,

appear named

the Pleiad, Orion and Procyon, are the subject of observations. Tab. Sm. 1262 + Sm. 1271 takes a

wider range, and mentions Ban (Sirius), Sibzianna, Girtab (Scorpio), Sutul (=Sem. Niru, 'the Yoke/

=Muna-kha,

Capricorn.
t

Vide Vol.

Sukudu (=Kaksisa-P7 ocyon). haps=^4 returns or Bootes. In. K. 7621 Sibzianna appears with Sugi, Wulmosarra (=the Wain. Vide Vol. I. 267), 'the Star of the River Masgugar'
(=A,
fx

81) and Sibzianna here perI.

Sagittarii.

Vide sup.

p.

92), etc.

Here,

again, Sibzianna probably=i?od^s, including Arcturus. Such is the principal evidence at present

available respecting Sibzianna,
fairly supports the conclusion

and

I think that

it

above suggested.

Section
In

III.
lvii.

The Masi
No.
or
6,
'

Stars.

W.A.I.
list

III.

1.

57-61,
'

we have the
:

following
57.

of the

Masi

Twin

stars

Kakkab Mas-tab-ba-gal-gal, kakkab Mas-tab-

ba-tur-tur;

XIl]
1

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.

1

39

The asterism
;

of the Great Twins, the asterism of

the Little Twins
58.

Kakkab Mas;

tab

-ba sa ina

Km -it

hakkab

Sibzina nazu-zu

'The asterism of the Twins which in the neighbourhood of the constellation Shepherd - spirit - ofheaven are fixed 59. Kakkab Nin-sar, kakkab Ur-ra-gal ;
; 1

The
;

star

Lady -of-heaven,
ilu

the star of the Great-

city
1

60.

Kakkab

Nabu, kakkab Sar-ur
;

(u)

Sar-gaz;

god Nebo, the star Director -of-fire (and the star) Director -of sacrifice
star of the
61.

The

Kakkab Zi-ba-an-na,
'

sibu Ma-a-su.

'The constellation Life- maker -of -heaven, seven Or the seventh Twin.' The Great Twins=Castor and Pollux (Vide Vol. I. 59 The Little Twins are not the sup. p. 14). Little Twins of the Lunar Zodiac (Sup. p. 74), but y and S Cancri. Sibzina=Sibzianna, and the Tivins near Sibzianna will, in all probability, be 8 and e This appears inasmuch as the next pair of Virginis. Ninsar and Urragal, we have already (Sup. Twins, 8 and e p. 83) seen reason to identify with y and n, and nearly all the Twins belong to the Virginis region of the ecliptic and several of them to this Hence, the Sibzianna referred particular part of it. to will be Arcturus. The star of Nebo,' i.e.. Mercury, is a Twin of his two phases, Nabu and virtue by Nuzku. As Sulpa-uddu (' The Messenger-of-theVide Vol. I. 343), Hermes -Mercurius Bising-sun.' is a Morning-star and Nuzku, the Evening-Mercury, Now Hermes reappears in a familiar Homeric scene called forth from the halls the souls of the wooers,
Twins.'
;

;

'

;

'

;

140

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
in his

[xil
is

and he held

hand

his

wand

that

fair

and

golden, wherewith he lulls the eyes of men, of whom so he will, while others again he even wakens out of
sleep' (Od. xxiv. 1-4, ap. Butcher
is

to say,

Hermes the Evening-star
'

the Morning-star wakens.' of the Homeric Hermes as a shepherder of the shades the mesof the dead, finds a prototype in Nuzku
'

and Lang). That lulls,' and Hermes This character and office
'

senger of

And.

the lord of the ghost world" (Sayce, Rel. Even the magic wand of Bobs. p. 119).
is

"

'

Hermes

earlier

found in the hand of Nebo,
of power'

*

the

holder of the
i.

sceptre

(Vide Eawlinson,

And. Mons. 141). as with met already
90).

Sarur and Sargaz we have and \ + v Scorpionis (Sap. p.
Twins, Zibanna, was identified

The

last of the

with the Sem. Zibdnituv, origin of the Ar. Azzubdnay the two Claws of the Scorpion ')=<* and ft Librae ('

But the Ak. name Zibanna (' Life(Vide Vol. I. 70). maker-of-heaven ') was, in origin, unconnected with
any word meaning claws.' was applied to Nidub (' the
'

It is a solar title

which

Lofty-altar'), the original

Sign of the seventh month (Vide lb. pp. 70, 217).

But

it

was

also further applied to the planet

Saturn

(lb. p. 346), between which and the sun there has always been a special connexion in idea. Thus, a Gk. name for Saturn was 6 rod rjXlov ao-ryp, and at times
it
'

was simply

Apud

called Helios (Diod. ii. 30). So Servius, sacrorum Bel dicitur ratione Assyrios quadam
*

Even Sir Saturnus et Sol' (Ad. Aeneid, i. 729). The planets had, doubtless, G. C. Lewis observes, been named by the Babylonians and the Egyptians, He probably before they received names in Greece.'
et

means, Before they received the Greek names which we know.' People in Greece, as. else where, must have
'

XIl]

SOME STELLAR GROUPS OF SEVENS.
such

I4I

splended appearances as Jupiter and Venus by some names from the remotest age. He The name of the sun, which was somecontinues,
called
'

Saturn, was of Chaldaean origin' Elsewhere he notes (Astron. of the Ancts. p. 290). the statement of Platon that the planets were first

times

given to

*

observed and
(lb.
p.

first

received names in

Egypt and Syria

'

merely means that the bulk of the knowledge respecting them reached the Greeks
144), which

through the Phoenicians. It will be observed that the two star-gods the
'

Directors

'

*

smiting,' sting, of Scorpio.

and sacrifice,' or perhaps of form the end of the tail, including the
of
fire

'

'

'

76) the sting of a scorpion is closely connected in idea with the stroke of lightning, Ak. enum-gir (' heaven-smiter ').
(Vol.
I.

As noticed

Hence

this pair of

of smiting
sacrifice.

Twins are lords of (heaven-) fire, divine blow from heaven) and of (=the The Euphrateans, so observant of the
;

signs of heaven, would not neglect to take the phenomenon of lightning into careful consideration and
its

importance in their eyes is reflected, e.g., in the famous legend of the god Zu (Vide K. B. Jr., Sem. II.
xxiv.).

Lightning certainly never obtained with them
like such

anything
religious

importance as

it

possessed in the

system of the Etruscans.

But

it

is

certain

that lightning-portents occupied a place of their own in the vast list of Euphratean ominous circumstances.

Thus Tab. 79-7-8, 311 treats, on these lines, of the and directions in which flashes of lightning travel various tablets treat of omens connected with the Gir, under which heading lightning was, in all probaThe Scorpion itself was a divine bility, included. and terrible creature, specially connected with several
;

142
divinities,

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xii

and afforded great subject for omens (Cf. and into such minute elaborations Tab. K. 3956) was the science pursued that Tab. K. 11,746 actually treats of omens to be derived from the stings of
;

scorpions

upon any particular toe of
stellar

either foot. in obtaining

Such are the seven
fairly accurate

Twins, and

identifications of the Tiksi,

Lu-mdsi

and Mdsi stars, we materially increase our knowledge of the members of the heavenly host as viewed and
catalogued by the early Babylonians.

CHAPTER
The
Celestial

XIII.

Equator of Aratos.

In H. D. Appendix III., and subsequently more fully in my Paper C. E. A., read at the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists, held in London in 1892, 1 have

shown that the account given

in the

Phainomena

of

Aratos of the constellation-figures lying on or near the celestial equator, was, owing to the precession of the
equinoxes, quite incorrect At the same time age.
poet's

when
I

applied to his

own

demonstrated that the

statements were perfectly applicable to the latitude of Babylon, B.C. 2084 ; and thus astronomy seals the testimony of history and archaeology in designating the Euphrates Valley as the birth-place
of the Signs of the Zodiac and of divers of their Aratos, as we paranatellons (Vide Vol. I. 14-15). have seen, was innocent of astronomical knowledge,

and was merely the versifier of one or more of the works of Eudoxos (lb. p. 121) and the astronomical
;

knowledge of the latter, despite the praises lavished on him by various classical writers, was evidently but
of a rudimentary description. It has been remarked that Eudoxos, as cited by Hipparchos, neither talks
'

like a geometer,

nor like a person

heavens he describes.

A

who had seen the bad globe, constructed some

centuries before his time, might, for anything that

Hipparchos, appears, have been his sole authority.' a practical astronomer, was surprised at the apparently

144

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

obvious and gross mistakes of his predecessor. He that the not statements of assumes, unnaturally, to intended to Eudoxos were that apply wholly
writer's

own

age,

and embodied

his personal observa-

In the interests of science, therefore, he protions. But although the statements ceeded to correct them.
in the

Phainomena may,
;

in

some

instances, be

diffi-

cult to understand
ally

be

very

although they may hard to reconcile with

even occasion-

any

true

presentation of the actual facts, and may at times suggest the idea that they are the outcome of the
investigations of various observers working in different localities, yet we should not on this account cast them
aside as being arbitrary or inexplicable, an evasion of the difficulty which has frequently been resorted to

The very fact that these statements are, as a rule, precise and definite, and form an elaborate whole or general scheme of the heavens and, further,

by

scholars.

;

that

they are recorded by an unscientific person,
the

renders

question

of

their

actual

origin

well

worthy of the most careful investigation.
I.

As noticed

14), Aratos always speaks of the constellation(Vol. figures as of unknown antiquity, and he thus describes the celestial equator, the particular feature of his

scheme
1

at present

under consideration
1

:

In midst of both, vast

as the

Milky Way,

A

circle

And

trends 'neath earth like one in twain; on it twice are equal days and nights,

At summer's close and when the spring begins. As mark there lies the Ram, and the Bull's knees The Ram along the circle stretched at length,
But the Bull's crouching legs alone appear. And on it is the bright Orion's belt, The Water-serpent's gleaming bend ; the Boiol
1

;

I.e.,

half-way between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

XIIl]

THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR OF ARATOS.
But
small, the Grow,

1

45

some few

stars of the Glaios

;

The

Serpent-holder's knees are in it borne. It does not share the Eagle, messenger
flies

Of might, who

nigh to the throne of Zeus
'

:

On

it

the Horse's head and neck revolve

(H. D. 511-24).

of

In illustration, then, of the archaic character, and the Euphratean connexion of the observations

recorded

by Aratos
I will

in

reference

to

the

celestial

the equator, poet in order, and compare his statements with a Star-map of the principal stars near the equator,

take the constellations

named by

compiled for the vernal equinox B.C. 2084, a date when the Euphratean formal scheme or chart of the

For that great astronomical work of the Babylonian savants the J&nu Bill (Vide Vol. I. 331), which consisted of at least 72 books, in its earliest form is as old as the
days of king Sargina ( the Established ') of Akkad, B.C. 3800. On comparison with the map it will be observed that in every instance except one (Vide inf. p. 146), the description of Aratos exactly agrees with
the position of the constellation-figures in the Babylonian heaven at the era indicated. commence
(

heavens had been already completed.

We

with the

Ram

'

along the circle stretched at length,'

Aries, (Ak.) Lulim (' Earn '), called (Sem.) Kusariqqu the Strong - horned - one '), the name Lulim also ('

being given to Hamal (' the Ram/ a Arietis). come the Bull's crouching legs (Vide sup.
'
'

Next
p.

42),

Taurus, (Ak.) Gut-anna=(Sem.) Alap-same (' Bullof-heaven '), containing Mul (' the Star'),=the Pleiad, also called To (' the Foundation.' Vide Vol. I. 57),

and Pidnu ('the Furrow.' Vide lb. p. 338),= Aldebaran. We now come to the single instance in which the
VOL.
II.

10

146

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
2084.

[xill

text differs from the facts of B.C.
'

Says the

the bright Orion's belt.' In B.C. 2084 poet, the Belt-stavs were not on the equator, but about 12
it is

On
;

below

and at the present time S, Mintaha (' the Girdle ') is immediately below it. Hence, at the era of Eudoxos these stars were more than 6 below the Supposing Aratos to have written tfivrj, equator. which he almost certainly did, it must be concluded that we have here an attempt on the part of Eudoxos to correct the ancient statement, and so bring it up
it

to

for it is exceedingly improbable that the account should be so exactly accurate in original
;

date

every other instance, and so very incorrect in this. But even this correction on the part of Eudoxos, an
unskilled
inaccurate.

astronomer,

still

left

his

Nor
;

is

it

difficult to see

how

account very the error

might

arise

for,

whilst any one would

know

the

Belt of Orion,

A, the nebulous stars in the Giants head might well escape attention. Consequently the revised version would mention Zfivr}, whilst the archaic

account would mention
1
'

not, be it observed, Kecpakrj the bright head of Orion,' for the head is comparaIn tively dim, but the (dim) head of bright Orion.' archaic the account we therefore may restoring

read

:

iv Se

re

01

KE^AAH

evcpeyyeog 'Qplwvos.

We
bend,'

next come to 'the Water-serpent's gleaming

and observe that the
I.

and

also a Crateris, a star

and y Hydrae, common to the two constars a,
yu,

stellations (Vide Vol.

upon the equator. The nected with these and the other equatorial constellations have already been referred to (Vide sup. The equator passes through the Bowl and pp. 24-26).

106), are all almost exactly Sum.-Ak. and Sem. names con-

Xlll]

THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR OF ARATOS.

1

47

Crow, and some few stars of the Claws (Chelaithe Serpent-holders and next reaches Libra) knees/ r\, the star at the right knee (Vide Vol. I.
; *
'

43), being almost

Eagle? but 'on
Thus,
e

it
'

It does not share the upon it. the Horses head and neck revolve.'

*

Pegasi,
is

the one in the muzzle

'

(Vide lb.

p.

47), is a very little

way below the
the

equator.

Such,

then,

between the poet, a astronomer, and in matters astronomical merely a copyist, and the actual astronomical facts of 1800
years before his time.
follows.

truly remarkable agreement learned literary man but no

But,

mark what
of

necessarily

These
to

very

constellation-figures,

which,
poet,

according

the

literary

judgment

the

belonged to a remote antiquity, must have existed at the period B.C. 2084, and must have then been described as occupying the positions assigned to them
in the

one would or could say that the Water-serpent's gleaming bend was on the

poem

of Aratos.

No

equator at a period not been formed.

when the

constellation itself

had

And

so with the rest,

and when
remote

we turn from the necessary deduction of the case, we find in the literature of
period and
figures.
I

to the facts
this

also in its art these

have

very constellationreferred to them in previous places
in

have given pictures from the monuments of the Bull, the Water- snake,
in this work,
I

and

H. D.

the Crow, the Claws, the Serpent and the Horse. In E. S. R. Pt. iv. I have given two pictures of the

Eagle (Vide

inf. Fig.

iii.

p. 198),

one of them show-

ing how the stars in the constellation were accommodated to the figure of the bird. 1 It, therefore, follows
1

On

this subject, vide generally sup.

Chap. X.

;

inf.

Chap.

XV1L

I48
that in the

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
third millennium B.C.

[xill

the Euphratean Sphere contained our familiar Signs of the Zodiac, and also various other of the extra-zodiacal constellations

now marked on

our globes.

For, in

this

list

of

equatorial constellation-figures, Signs, the Ram, Bull and Claws evidently occupying the same relative positions which they do to-day
;

we have

three zodiacal

same remark equally applies to the extraHydra, Crater, Corvus, We Chelai, Serpentarius, Aquila and Pegasus. had already arrived at this conclusion by the aid
whilst the
zodiacal constellations Orion,

of independent

literary evidence

(Sup.

Chap. IX.)

entirely unconnected with the results of precession or any other astronomic law. But it is well that the

great clock of the universe which cannot deceive, and whose unerring and untiring hands point alike the

years and the ages, should add its striking testimony in confirmation of historical, archaeological, and
linguistic research.

There

is

one constellation -name on the
has

Map

(Fig.

II.) previously mentioned, Khu-zaba, which is found in W. A. I. II. xlix. 39. Khu (' Bird ') occurs in each of the names of the three

which

not

been

constellations which represent the three Demon-birds, opponents of Marduk-Herakles, the other two being

Id-khu

the Eagle ') and Raditarta-khu (' the mergeier Vol. I. 35 Sup. p. 25). The Ak.
('
:

;

LamZaba

=Sem.
p.
i.e.,

Qistu (' Forest.' Vide Briinnow, Classified List, 482), the full name being the Bird-of- the- Forest,'
*

the Kite, which, like the other two, is a fierce bird and habitually builds in forest trees. As noticed (Vol. I. 126), this constellation was known to the

Athenian astronomer Euktemon, B.C. 432, as Iktinos the Kite '), Lat. Miluus, Milvus. The use of ('

XIIl]

THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR OF ARATOS.
vague
;

1

49

the
*

name

Omis

is

thus

explained

by

Hyginus
Olor.

appellant quern historiam communi Mis, complures proptes ignotam genere avium Ornin nominaverunt, de quo memoriae
:

Hunc

Graeci

Cygnum

prodita est causa {Poet. Astron. ii. 9). In the Map (Fig. II.) the Sum.-Ak. names are in

'

the Bab. -As. in ordinary type and in brackets, and the modern Lat. names in Roman type
letters,

Roman
and

in brackets.

CHAPTER

XIV.

Further Consideration of the Buphratean
Celestial Sphere.

Section

I.

The Dilbat Tablet.

The

am

Tab. 81-7-6, 102, for acquaintance with which I indebted to the kindness of Mr. Pinches, may be
cir. B.c.

dated

500.

It

is,

however, undoubtedly copied
for,

from
of

documents, occasion to observe (Sup.

earlier

as I

p. 14),

have already had no one in the reign

Darayavaush I. was engaged in bestowing starnames and mapping out constellations. The Tablet is of very considerable interest, and gives, but, singuin their regular order, the 12 larly enough, not quite months with 12 special stars, each one of which has a

peculiar relation to

some particular month. It did not, however, end with these 12 stars and months, but
continued
(1.

13)

:

Kakhab Mar-gid-da (=) kakkab Dil-bat ina samsieribi.
1

The

constellation

the

Long-chariot=ihe

star

Ancient-proclaimer at sun-set/ Now it is one thing to translate a cuneiform

in-

scription correctly, and it is another to understand it rightly when it is translated ; nor are these two pieces

One of the most of knowledge always combined. of obscure departments Euphratean astronomy and
astro-theology and the stars
is

the connexion between the divinities
here, as usual, I use the

;

and

term star

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

151

in its comprehensive meaning, as including alike constellation, asterism and planet, as occasion may require.

Numerous

inscriptions contain parallel columns, and, in these cases, the line in the second column has

usually a special relation to the line in the first. Sometimes it contains an exact Sem. translation of

a Sum.-Ak.

name

or word,
(*

e.g.

(Ak.)

Ka-edinna
it

=(Sem.) Annabu

Hare

').

Sometimes

contains

not an exact translation, but an equivalent. Sometimes it contains the name of a divinity, who
frequently is not identical but only specially connected with the subject-matter of the first column. Sometimes, again, the subject-matter in the second column is either entirely independent of, or only remotely

first

connected with, the subject-matter contained in the column. It is, therefore, necessary to discriminate
carefully in each instance
;

as otherwise stars

and gods

get jumbled up together in hopeless confusion, conclusions obviously absurd are arrived at ; and, finally, the

times accused of having made mistakes in their statements. Now, as of course,
scribes

are at

cuneiform literature, like other human productions, is not free from imperfection nor need we suppose that
;

the entire astral system of the Euphrates Valley was absolutely harmonious and free from a certain amount
of variance

and even of contradiction. But the theory of a mistake in a document which we are endeavouring
to construe, should always be the last hypothesis of explanation ; and it will be safe to assume, except in

the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, that a Babylonian savant possessed a knowledge of his subject equal, if not superior, to that of even the

youngest modern

critical investigator.

In order to

give a lucid presentation of the matter to the general

152

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XIV

reader, I will illustrate the foregoing principles

by

examples

:

Dr. Briinnow's Classified List is a work as admirable as it is laborious, and of the greatest value to all But there are always spots on the sun, Assyriologists.

and thus on
1

p.

3,

we

find
'

'

Marduk

:

planet Jupiter.'

Also='iT. Su-gi.' gut-tav.' It is seen (Sup. p. 40), is not Jupiter, but Capella. also not Sugi (Vide sup. p. 118). How, then, came

Dil-gan explained as K. Dilgan=K. Lu-batNow Dilgan, as we have

'

Briinnow to make these

extraordinary equations?

Simply, as his references show, because in W. A. I. IT. lvii. 46 we have 'Dilgan,' and, in the parallel

A

column (B), we have Ditto,' which refers to a statement above it, in 1. 44, Nur Hi Lubatguttav or Lubatgud, as some read it, A light of the god Jupiter.* That is to say, there is some special connexion, according to the Bab. theory of the matter, between the planet Jupiter and certain stars of which Capella is one. They are not Jupiter, but, in some special sense, are lights of Jupiter. Next, as to Sugi, Briinnow
' ' ' '

arrives

at
I. II.

the

W. A.
is

equation Dilgan=Sugi, because in xlix. 3, to which he refers, Dilgan and
parallel
?

Sugi appear in

columns (C and D).

But what
list

the Tablet about

Why

it

contains a

of

'

12

Stars of the West,' their names in parallel columns, 6 in each. Dilgan heads the first column, Sugi the If I were to give a list of 12 kings of second.

England, similarly arranged and beginning with William I., and were to interpret on similar principles, we should arrive at the equation William I.

=John.

The

scribe is simply filling
;

up

his

tablet

with star-names
nected with the

the
first

second column
in

is only conthe same general way as,

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE. John
is

1

53

in a historical aspect,

with William

I.

This

may fall into singular is unless a errors, adopted at the outset right principle and I lay stress on the question of the real connexion
;

shows how easily even experts

between parallel columns, because any hasty or malignant critic (and such unfortunately there are) may be
eager to assert that I have overlooked this or that text, which shows that such and such a star was only a name for some planet or planet-divinity.

To take another
as clear as the last

instance.
;

Not

all

examples can be

we are moving amongst singular and intricacies, endeavouring to wind a very tangled In W. A. I. II. xlix. skein, but we must do our best.
11-13,

A

B,

we

find

:

KaJckab Dil-nu.

Hu

Is[tar.

Kakkab Kakkab

A-nu-ni-tum.
A-ri-tum.

Ditto,
Ditto.

InK

4195 we find:
Kakkab A-nu-ni-tum. Kakkab A-ri-tum. Kakkab Is-kha-ra.
Dil-bat.

Ditto. Ditto.

It will

be remembered that Dilbat

(= Venus)

is

the

chief planetary
dite).

name of the goddess Istar (=AphroK. 4195 goes on to place Girtab and Iskhara
If,

in parallel columns.

then,

we

treat all these as

mere equations, we shall be happy e.g., in such a result as Girtab=IsJchara but IsJchara=Dilbat, and Dilbat=Istar. But Istar=Anunitum, .'. Girtab= Anunitum. But, referring to the Tablet of the 30 Stars (Sup. pp, 90, 92), we see that Girtab and Anunitum are absolutely distinct and found reason to hold that v X and Girtab=0, i, *, Scorpionis, whilst Anunitum= X, Sagittarii, and neither of them=the planet Venus. The Kakkab Anunitum, as we saw, means
; ;
jul

154
'

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
'

[xiV

the Star of the Great Goddess/
is

The Great God-

dess '=Istar, and Venus
star.

her special and particular

Yet has she others
/x

also,

and amongst them are

X and
in

Sag.

We

gather, therefore, that this location

columns by no means necessarily signifies an equation, and, at the same time, certainly indicates a

Istar, goddess of Dilbat (Venus) special connexion. is, in some way, specially connected alike with Dilnu,

Anunitum, Aritum, Iskhara,
Let us now return to
1.

etc.

13 of the Dilbat Tablet.
;

We

have seen

(Vol.

I.

266-9

sup. p. 17) that

Marscribe

gidda=ihe Wain,

whilst Dilbat

Venus.

The

= Venus, which
'
'

cannot, therefore, intend the bald equation the
is

Wain

absurd.

He

evidently means that

at sunset,' for it is of that particular time

he speaks,

when night starts from heaven/ as Homer says, and the bright TFam-stars almost at once become visible, Margidda, the ruler of the ghost- world, acts as an
ancient proclaimer of eve, is in effect a Dilbat and, in this sense, the Wain=Venus. Line 13 is followed
;

of which similarly identifies another star with Dilbat, after which the

by

5

'

doubtful

'

lines,

the

first

text

Bearing the above-mentioned principles in mind, let us proceed to consider the 12 stars of the 12 months as given by the Tablet
is

broken.

:

1.

'The sta,rNinsianna=Dilbat
(Vol.
')

As we have seen

I.

the month Nisan.' Ninsianna (' Lady346),
in

of-the-garden-of-heaven
planet Venus (W.A.I.

is

a

name

of Istar as the

II.

lxix. 20).

mencement
styled

of the year, then, Istar proper planet, is the Proclaimer.'
'

At the comherself, in her own
Venus
is

often

Ninsianna

;

thus

W.A.I.
name

III. lxiii.

contains an

account of twelve ancient observations of the planet

from Babilu, in which

this

is

employed.

It

was

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

1

55

usual also for a planetary divinity to have different names for different months. Thus, according to

W.A.I.
styled

III.

liii.

No.
('

2,

Marduk (=Jupiter) was
'),

Dunghaduddu
name
;

also at times a

of

the Hero-of-the-rising-sun Nabu- Mercury (Vide Vol.

I.

Utultar (' the Light-of-the-heavenly345), in Nisan in spark ') Iyyar Dilgan (' Messenger-of-light ') of
;

Babilu in Si van

;

Dapinu

('

the Circler
'

')

in
in

(the visa ('the Face-voice-of-light Nibiru of Mercury, in Elul
;

Dir

'

Dim,' or perhaps the
'),

Blue

')

Tammuz Ab Sak;

;

also a frequent

name
')

('

the Strider- along
;

in

Tisri;
*

(the in Tebet

('the Mighty') in Marchesvan Guardian-spirit ') in Kislev Sarru (' the
;

Rabu

Alam
King
')

;

Gal

('

the Great

')

in Sebat
')

;

and

Kha

Hi

a
2.

('

the Fish of the god !Ea
*

in

Adar, the month of

the zodiacal Pisces, originally Piscis.

The

star

Aritum=Dilbat

in Iyyar.'
is

We

have seen that this star

closely associated

with Istar (Vide sap. p. 153). Jensen (Kosmol. p. 71) connects the name with the Heb. Yoroh (' to throw,'
'

cast

')

Istar,

and regards Aritum as the goddess of the bow. Assuming,
;

'

Bow '-star

of

as

seems prob-

able, that

Aritum
with
Cf. 1

necting
('

it

a Sem. word, I agree in conYoroh, whence is derived Yoreh
is

Archer.'

Chron.
to
'

x.

3).

But
is

the
'

meaning of
to shoot
'

Yoroh here applicable
1
'

Aritum
lay

not
'

'

or

cast

arrows,
;

but

to

foundations
;

(Cf.

Gk.

Job xxxviii. 6 Who laid the fidWeo-Oai aa-Tv) corner stone thereof?' The star Aritum, the Proclaimer of the second or Taurus- month, is not the
as in
'
'

Boiv-st&r, which, as

we

shall see, is the
('

'

Proclaimer

'

of the third month, but the Pleiad, Te
tion.'

the Founda-

Vide sup. p. 14), the foundation and startingof the archaic year. If, however, as is possible, point

156

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
like the great majority of

\:

Aritum,

Euphratean

star-

names when read syllabically, is an Ak. word, then we must go to the Turko-Tatar languages for an explanation of it. Nor is one far to seek. The root ar
(whence such forms as ara, art, etc.)=' company,'
whilst
tarn,
torn,

tum^ heap/
;

*

collected

'

(Vide
'

whence Aritum Vambery, Etymol. pp. 17, 165) would mean the Collected-company,' Heap,' Clus'

*

ter/ which, as

meaning

of the

we have seen (Vol. I. 272-4), is the name Pleiades. The result, therefore,
;

in either case

and is, moreover, in exact is the same accordance with previous instances. Thus, in the Te Tablet (Sup. p. 16) Te, Sem. Temennu, the Pleiad,
is

one of the two protagonistic stars of the second month, Airu-Iyyar. In the second month, therefore,
the Pleiad, Mul (' the Star '), succeeds NinsiannaVenus in the special dignity of the Dilbat or Pro'

of the course of the year, and therefore also of divers other weighty matters therewith connected.

claimer

'

3.

'

The

star

Ban=Dilbat

in Ab.'

have seen (Sup. p. 120) that Ban (' the Bow '), the Star of the Bow, is, in all probability, Sirius. The regular order of the months is here abandoned,

We

and we pass from Iyyar, the second, to Ab (=part of July and August), the fifth. Assurbanipal calls the
'

month Ab, the month
the

of the appearance of the star of

how during his war against of Teumman, king Elam, Istar appeared in a dream She held a bow in her hand,' to one of his seers.

Bow/ and

relates

'

and promised victory to Assyria (Vide Geo. Smith,
observes Prof. 'This,' Assur-bani-pal, p. 117). which is the in fashion Assyrian ordinary Sayce, Anct. art portrayed the warlike goddess (Bel.
'

'

Bobs.

p.

277).

I

think that

the

Tablet

of

the

XI v]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
some way

I

57

Dilbat-st&rs, all in

specially connected with

point from the regular order of the months in order to give the next highest place of honour after the Pleiad to Sirius, brightest of fixed stars, thus so specially connected with the warIstar- Venus, departs at this like

The Gk. phase of Istar as goddess of the bow. calendars, as of course, connect the Dog with this same

Euktemon placed its appearance period of the year. on the first day of Leo, and it indicated the beginning
of

summer
4.

(Cf. Vol.

I.

144, 157

;

sup.
'

p.

127).

The

star

Nuwpe=Dilbat

in Elul.'

We

have previously met with

the Asterism of the

Lorally -city,'
(Vide sup. took
.

i.e., Eriduga (' found reason to identify it with

the Good-city'), and have
,

0-

and

-k

Sagittarii
'

p. its
;

93).

Prof.

Sayce
its

states that

Eridhu
'

.

.

name from

bow-like shape

(Bab.

Lit.

p.

93)

or rather, perhaps, the sound-connexion

between Ari-tum and Eri-du suggested the idea. We can see, however, the line of thought which connected this asterism with the goddess of the bow.
5.

The

star

Entenamasluv
the
'

= Dilbat
'

in Tisri.'

This

asterism,

Proclaimer

of the

seventh

month, has already been identified with 20 Librae and the stars adjoining (Sup. p. 86). 6. The star Rap-pit Dilbat in Arakh-samna
c

=

'

the Mighty '), (' which as we have seen (Sup. p. 155) was a name of Jupiter in this month and Jupiter may be intended
;

(Marchesvan). This star-name has been read Ra-bu

The name, however, may certainly be also by read Rappu, a word derived from the Ak. raba, and from rappu is deweak,' shade-of-the-dead
it.
' '
'

;

rived in turn the Heb.

Rephaim

(Cf.

with the same meaning.

Should

Ps. lxxxviii. 10), Rappu be the cor-

I58

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xiV
'-star,

rect reading, the

meaning

will

be

'

the Ghost

with a probable reference to Antares, the ill-omened star (Vide Vol. I. 73) connected with Mars, the
planet of death.
7.

If

Gir-anna=Dilbat Rappu=Antares, Giranna
'

The

star

in Kislev.'
('

heaven
sists

')

will=the

lunar

asterism

the Scorpion-ofGirtab (' the

Scorpion') which, as we have seen (Sup. p. 91), conof 0, i, k, X and v Scorpionis. The patronIskhara of divinity of this asterism was, as noticed,
'

the sea'; and

we have observed (Sup. p. 153) that Therefore Iskhara, in some way, =Dilbat and Istar. Girtab is a star peculiarly connected with Istar. The
'

divinity Iskhara- Istar appears to have combined male and female potentialities, for Iskhara is said to be a

male deity whose wife was Almanu. Phoenicians also knew of a male Istar
cated
'

.

.

.

That the
wife

is

perhaps indi254,
n. 1, 2).

by the Greek myth which made Europa the
(Sayce, Eel.
is so,

of Asterios

And. Babs.

p.

This doubtless
in

and the male Istar further appears the Ashtar-Chemosh of the Moabite Stone. The
is

androgynous concept of divinity

further illustrated
;

by Baal being styled
;

goddess (LXX. in Hos. ii. 8 whilst, on the other hand, AsharteZeph. i. 4) was Ashtoreth styled by the Phoenicians king and
' '

'

'

(Vide Schlottmann, Die Inscrift EschIf the star in 1. 6 is Rabu inunazars, p. 143). (z=Jupiter), then Giranna will probably=#corpo.
'

'

sun-god

Gir, as noticed (Vol. I. 76) means lightning as well and throughout the connexion of Istaras scorpion
'

'

'

'

;

Iskhara with Giranna and Girtab there runs the idea

armed with the arrows of lightning, connected by play of words with, and also, to some extent, reduplicated in, the fiery Scorpion.
of the heaven-goddess

XI v]
'

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

1

59

The star Uz (' the Goat,'=a 1 + a2 Capricorni, Algedi and Secunda Algedi. Vide Vol. I. Sl)=Dil8.

bat in Tebet.'

The star Dilgan (' Messenger-of-light.' Capella) =Dilbat in Sebat.' 10. 'The star Kha ('the FA, =part of Pisces) =Dilbat in Adar.' 11. 'The star Sale (Sem. P2sw, 'the Head')=
'

9.

,

Dilbat in Si van.'

We now
the
of
'

return to the third month.
9

'

The

star of

Head' probably=Po^x, the the easterly Twin (Vide Vol. I.
'

star in the

head

338).

12.

The

Cancer.

Nagar-asagga (=the centre of Vide Vol. I. 60 sup. p. 2i)=Dilbat in
star
;

Tammuz.'

We
with

thus obtain a

list

of

1

3 stars specially connected

and the Tablet not only reveals to us in part the peculiar and intricate relations between the planetary divinities and the fixed stars, but also
Ist&r-

Venus

;

assists

in

obtained.

confirming various identifications already The androgynous character of Ist&r-Venus
' '

also fully appears in W. A. I. III. liii. No. 2, where she is described as a female at sunset,' a male at
sunrise,'

and

'

an androgyne

'

etc.

;

but the passage

does not concern the object of this work.

Section

II.

The Twelve Stars of the West.

part of the Tab. W. A. I. II. xlix. No. 1, which contained a list of 12 Stars of the land of

The

first

'

Akkad,'

is

broken
legible,

off;
i.e.,

names

is

and only one of the 12 star'the star Nibiru' called in
5,

W. A. I. III. liv. No. 5, 1. as we have seen (Sup. p.

the god Nibiru,' which, 155), is a name of Jupiter

'

l6o
in the

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xr
lisl

month

Tisri.

We

observe, then, that such

included under the term mul, Sem. JcaJckab, planets, The single fixed stars, asterisms and constellations.

Tablet next proceeds to enumerate 12 Stars of the land of the West (mat Amurru) and, in the case of each locality, the list is, as of course, not intended
'

'

;

to be exhaustive.
list is

Certain stars are selected, and the

remarkable both for insertions and omissions, The 12 stars the reasons for which are now obscure.
are given in parallel

columns as follows

:

Dilgan (=Capella).
Tsir

Sugi (=southern
Auriga).

stars of

(=Alphard.
I.

Vide

Kaksisa (=Procyon).

Vol.

360).

Mastabba-galgal (=Castor and Pollux).

Bir (=Aldebaran)

}

Nin-rnakh
Librae).

(=a and

ft

Lugal (=Regulus).
Allah (=the
Cancer).
centre
of

Zalbat-anu (=Mars).

Khu-se-makh (=Corvus).

Lula

(a
I.

Cancri.

Vide

Vol.

360).

It will be observed that as Jupiter is included among the 12 stars of Akkad,' so Mars finds a place
'

among

the

*

12 stars of the West.'
a

Bir ('the VerA.
I.

milion'),

also

name

of

Mars (W.
In W. A.

III.

liii.

No. 1, Kev. 1. 20), is, in of the Bull' (a Tauri). star Bir-va is mentioned,
This
is

all

probability, 'the red eye
I. III.
'

lvii.
'

1

the

and

is

said to

face

Jupiter.

not necessarily the former Bir, but may be Nin-makh ('the another red star, e.g., Antares.
Great-lady
')

= the

goddess

Belit

(Vide

Briinnow,

Class. List, p. 446) ; and, as we have seen (Sup. p. ' Se-makh is a and /3 Librae. 86), the kakkab Belit

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
appears to
I.

l6l

('Seed-great')

refer

to the

star Khi-se

65). will be the great-seed adjoining constellation Corvus. The stars Dilgan, Sugi, Kaksisa, Mastabba-galgal,

(Spica.

Vide Vol.

The Bird (Khu)-of-the-

Lugal and Allah have been already Each of these 12 'stars' is either in

fully noticed. or adjoins one

of the 6 zodiacal Signs beginning with Taurus.

Section

III.

The Fields of Anu, Bel and Ea.

We now
ance, and

approach a subject of considerable importalso involved in much difficulty and

obscurity, namely, the division of the celestial regions or of a portion of them, including the ecliptic, into

three parts between the three great gods Anu, Bel and Ea. That there was such a division in Bab.

astronomy

is

certain,

of influence

equal or unequal
?

but were these several spheres and what space did
Prof.
'

they respectively cover

Sayce remarks,
. .
.

Prof.

Hommel

has shown (Ausland, Nos. 4-7, 1892) that the Spheres of the three "great gods" corre-

sponded to thirds of the Ecliptic, the sphere of extending from the Bull to the Crab, that of Bel

Anu
from

the Lion to the Scorpion, that of Ea from Sagittarius to Aries' (Higher Crit. and Mons. pp. 69-70). Prof.

Hommel's Map (' Der Sternhimmel Babyloniens um 3000 v. Chr.') in Die Astron. der Alt. dial. iii. 7, marks the space north of the ecliptic as the region of the gods,' and divides it between the three divinities
*

in the

way

indicated

by

Prof. Sayce.

According to

this division,

and Ea 5. was not acquainted with Tab. 82-5-22, 512, which This I do not think has been hitherto published.
VOL.
II.

has 3 zodiacal constellations, Bel 4 I imagine, however, that Prof. Hommel

Anu

11

1

62

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XIV

Tablet, unfortunately now very imperfect, gave a list of 12 Stars of the Fields of each of the 3 gods, 36 in 12 Stars of Akkad' and all, these stars being, like the
'

the

'

12 Stars of the West' (Sup.

p. 160), selections

from the

stars of a certain quarter of the heavens.

In the Bab. uranography the ecliptic was the path or road through the regions of space and, as such, was, as noticed (Vol. I. 361), styled (Ak.) Kas Utu, (Sem.)
;

Kharrdn Samsi
it
it
is

ran through the

As, however, ('Path-of-the-Sun'). fields or regions of the three gods,

naturally became their path; and so, in K. 10,985, called, in its several divisions, Kharrdn su-ud \_Sud
field field

=Heb. Sodeh, 'Field'] Hi Anim (< Path of the Kharrdn su-ud Hi Bili (' Path of the of Anu ')
;

of Bel

')

;

and Kharrdn su-ud Hi
In

a

field of fea').

Bel

is

11,395 the 'path' or 'road' of and Sm. 781, of which unfortunmentioned;

K

('

Path of the

ately I have only 4 lines before me, and which contains observations of Venus, is very important in this

connexion.
1.

We

read

:

Kakkab Dil-bat ina kharrdn su-ud tla ippumat Num-ma-ki emid. kha : mat Martu-ki i-na The planet Venus in the path of the field of Ea
.
. .

'

rose

:

the land of the West (Syria) with (lacuna) of
'

the land of
2.

The
:

Anu
3.

rose

Or is strong.' appears.' planet Venus in the path of the field of a prosperer (na-kha-as) for the land of
lam
field of

'

Num' [-ma-H,=Elam],
'The planet Venus in the path of the
:

Bel rose

the land of

Akkad

in

'
. .

.

connected in special influence at Amurru ('the Land of with the terrestrial West, the Amorites '), Mat Mar-tu (' the Land of the path
is

Here the Ea-path

M

of the Setting-sun

'),

just as in the celestial sphere the

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
is

1

63

Ea-region

in

fche

West,

i.e.,

west of Taurus, the

Thus, the presence of starting-point and foundation. a powerful planet in the Ea-region above is regarded for the Tablet as beneficial to the West on earth
;

some advantage was gained by Syria as against Elam. Similarly, when Venus is in the Anu-path, to the east of the Pleiad and in the
evidently stated that
portion of the heavens, according to this division, the planet becomes a prosperer of the land
eastern
' '

of
is

Elam

in the East.

in the Bel-path, she land of Akkad, which

In the same way, when Venus is a cause of prosperity to the
is

situated between

Elam and

the West, just as the region of Bel includes the central portion of the ecliptic, between the fields of Anu and Ea.
I

may add

that

when the

nected

with nations, the

4 quarters are conreckoning is Akkad N.
E.

(=our N.W.), lam S. (=our S.E.), Gutium Cf. N.E.) and Amurru W. (=our S.W.
8484).

(=our

Tab. K.

Euphratean square pyramidal temples, like their Egyptian daughter at Saqqara (Vide Vol. I. 69), were built with their angles towards the 4 quarters
;

and, hence, their N.=our N.W. From the foregoing text we obtain fresh and inde-

pendent proof of what portions of the
;

ecliptic specially and we are also to each of three the gods belonged reminded that Venus, or any other planet, could be equally one of the 12 stars of the field of Anu, of

We notice, moreover, the archaic connexion between parts of the heaven and certain terBel, or of Ea.
restrial

a principle in full force in the of the In further illustration present time. astrology of the matter, we find a similar statement and similar
localities,

principles in Tab. K. 3601. This is a Bab. document, and appears to have formed part of the Enu Bill (Vide

1

64
I.

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
331),

[XIV

Vol.

and therefore

to belong to a period prior
1.

to B.c. 2000.

We

read (Ob.

1)

:

Kakkab Dil-hat ina kharrdn su-ud tl-a ippu-kha : mat Martu-ki ina khi-is mat Num-ma-ki emid* The planet Venus in the path of the field of Ea the land of the West with the crown (Cf. rose W. A. L III. lx. 17) of the land of lam is strong.'
'
:

this passage it is to be observed, first, that the As. text (Sm. 781) above quoted has obviously, like

On

many other As. texts, been version much older, from which,
very

copied from a Bab.
in this instance,

we

can even supply the lacuna in 1. 1 of the As. copy. Secondly, that the whole system embodied in both

The Bab. text texts ascends to a remote antiquity. may have primarily referred to certain actual hisdo other portions of the JSnu Bili. We are taken back to the period of Kudur-lagamar and Khammurabi, when Elam was at one time so great even in the remoter West, and at another was
torical events, as

defeated by a power which, compared with the land Venus in the of Nummaki, was certainly the West.

Ea-region

is

of ill-omen for the East.

The same general
the important Tab.
'

1551 (Vide Vol. I. 288, where read, The planet Sakvisa to the place instead of to the midst '), which states
'

K

principle

is

further illustrated in

'

:

13.
'

Kakkab Sak-vi-sa {=Jwpiter\ The planet the Face, voice-oj"-light.' 14. Ina kharrdn su-ud A-nim inamm-ir
1

:

abil

sarri aba-su.

In the path of the
'

field of

Anu

is

seen

:

the son of

the king
15.

his father

I-na-ar-va kussa itstsa-bat

Kliarrdn su-ud

A -nim

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

1

65

Will slay, and the throne seizes.
field of

The path

of the

16.

Anu (is) Mat Num-ma-hi
of

'

:

a-na mat Num-ma-hi
for the land of

id-

da-gi-il.
1

To the land

Elam
in

:

Elam

it-is-a-

sign.'

Here Jupiter
terrestrial region.

the field

celestial region, specially

Anu, the eastern concerns Elam, the eastern
of
:

I. III. lix. No. 1.1, L 8, we read Kahkab Dil-bat ina kharrdn su-ud D. P. iJ-a

Again, in
(Vide sup.

W. A.

Most

p. 164). of the next line
:

is lost,

and part of

1.

10,

but

the remainder reads

A-na mat Mar-tu

Here, as before, western celestial region, specially concerns the western In W. A. I. III. liii. No. 1, Eev. terrestrial region.
].

For the land of the West'). the presence of Venus in the
('

15,

where unfortunately the text

is

somewhat muti-

lated,

we
:

find a statement connected with the present

subject

Gut-an-na se-pi-id tarbatsi su-ud Anim, kharrdn
Samsi. [(Kharrdn su-)ud
'

A-nu=Kharrdn Samsi].

The Bull-of-heaven {Taurus) (is) the arbiter of setting of the field of Anu, the path of the Sun.' [(' The path) of the field of Anu=the path of the Sun ']. Here the words in square brackets are a gloss, the scribe explaining that by the field of Anu' is meant
'

in this passage, not the whole field of Anu, but the In 1. 16 path of the field of Anu,' i.e., the ecliptic.

'

the Bull

is

described

as

Ris bit-tarbatsi-su ('The

Head of the house of its setting '), meaning apparently that Taurus is the first of the constellations of the field
of

Anu, the

first

to rise

and therefore the

first

to set.

1

66
In W. A.
17.
'

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
I. III.
li.

[xiV

No.

9,

we read

:

Ina kharrdn su-ud A-nim
field of

In the path of the
Orion.
1

Ann/
kakkab Sib-zi-an-na

18.

Ina gag-gar (Heb.
Vide sup.

kikor)

(=
'

p. 132).

In the region of the constellation Shepherd- Spirit(Sin) it-ta-mar (The Moon) is seen/
'
'

of-heaven,
19.
'

here again find that the field of Anu included Taurus, and that a Sibzianna was identical with
Orion.
of the
field

We

In

1.

Moon with Mercury, which happened
In
'

30-31 the scribe recounts a conjunction in the
'

of Anu.'

1.

26 the scribe states that the
the
:

Moon

the constellation of appeared Chariot (Rukubu, Heb. Rekhev) and proceeds 27. Ina kharrdn su-ud Bili iz-za-az.
'

below

;

In the path of the field of Bel it waxes/ it advanced towards (ana) the constellation of the Chariot,' i.e., it drew closer to the IFam-stars as

'

and

'

it

passed through Leo, which latter constellation thus note was in the field of Bel.'
'

we

No. 3, 18 we read Kakkab Sag-me-gar ina kharrdn su-ud A-nim
I. III. lix.
1.
:

In W. A.

innamar. The planet Jupiter in the path of the
1

field of

Anu

is seen.'

Such, then, generally, is the position of the fields of the three gods, and we will next notice Tab. 82-5-22,

512 (Sup.
list

p. 161).

The

first

paragraph contained a
*

12 Stars of the Field of Bel/ the stars in each case being named in parallel columns, like the 12
of

*

Stars of the

West (Sup.

'

p. 160).

Very unfortunately

the names of the 9

first stars

of the Field of Bel are

xiv]
lost,

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

167

and the names of the 10th and 11th stars only The tenth star is Lik-gu \_-la~], partially preserved. 'the Lion' (=Leo. Vide sup. p. 16). Thus, in W. A. I. III. lix. No. 13, we read 3. Kakkab Lik-gu-la tsalmu ; The constellation of the Lion (is) obscured 4. Lib-bi mati la dhabu. The heart of the land (is) not at rest.'
:

'

'

;

1

5.
1

Kakkab Lugal tsalmu; The star of the King (=Regulus)

(is)

ob-

scured.'

When the central portion of the ecliptic is obscured, the centre of the land and the central land (Akkad)
are supposed to be unfavourably affected.
star
is

The 11th

not Su-gi (Vide sup. It may just possibly be Su-gub-Gud-elim p. 118). Lupi (Vide (' The-Left-hand-of-the-Horned-bull,'=a E. S. R. iv. 7) for, as we shall see, the fields of the
Su.
It evidently
is
;

...

three gods extended to the south of the ecliptic. There is also the star-name Su-pa (' the Lustrous.'

Vide sup.
alten

p.

76),
iii.

which Prof.
is

Hommel
star.

(Astron. der

Chat.
it

16) thinks
to

applied to Spica, as

indeed

might be

any bright

Spica would

suit the passage perfectly well, as it is one of the prinIn 12,690 Supa is cipal stars of the field of Bel.

K

mentioned with Udgudua and Gula (Vide sup. p. 77). The 12th star is Uz, Sem. Enzu ('the Goat'), and this is neither Capella nor Capricorn, but the xixth Asterism of the Lunar Zodiac, the He-goat,'=*, k, X Virginis (Vide sup. p. 85). Here is an illustration
'

of the value of a correct understanding of the Tablet and this identification increases of the Thirty Stars
;

the probability that in this passage Supa is named, and signifies Spica. We thus obtain Leo, Spica and

i68
/,
ac,

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xiv

X Virginis for the 3
9

'

stars

'

of the field of Bel.
:

The other

may

very probably have been

Alia, Sem. Tslru (' the Snake^Aljphard, a Hydrae). Margidda-Wulmosarra (=theWain. Vide Vol. I. 267

;

sup. p. 85).

Sibzianna-Papsukala {=Arcturus-Bodtes). Mastabba sa ina limit Sibzina (' The Twins in the neighbourhood

Vide sup. p. 139). of Sibzianna,& and e Virginis. Ninsar and Urragal (=y, S, e and rj Virginis. Vide sup. p. 139). Imdugudkhu, Sem. Z$ (=Corvus). Nidub-Zibdnitum (=a and /3 Librae. Vide Vol. I. 70 ; swp.
p. 86).

Jupiter,
3fars.

and
Planets were not excluded (Vide inf.
p. 174).

The Field

of Bel, which, as

we have

seen, is specially
'

connected with the Land of Sumir and Akkad, thus comes first. Next follows the list of the 12 Stars of
the Field of Anu.
.

7

These are

:

.

.

.

-makh.
-nitum.

....

Dilgan (= Capella). Mul (=the Pleiad).
Sibzianna

Gut-anna (=Hyads).
KaJc]-sisa

(= Orion).
}

(=Procyon).

Ab-nam.
An-Tvi-a-mes.

Ugaga-Miu (Sem. Aribu, 'the Raven'). Zibdnitam (Zibanna =Satwn. Vide
Vol.
I.

346).

Id-Klm.

As

the Field of Ann, according to Hommel and Sayce, extends from the Bull to the Crab, both inclusive. Whether it also included the
p. 161),

noticed (Sup.

at present somewhat uncertain. the star-list before us presents, on any event, the face of it, formidable difficulties. I am indebted

Ram

appears to

me

But, in

to Mr. Pinches for the names, the correctness of
will be

which

beyond doubt.
1st star, there are various star-names
('

As regards the
ending in

makh

great

')

;

but the star in question,

XI V]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

1

69

cannot be Lik-makh {Leo), Khu-se-makh (Corvits.

Vide sup.

p.

161) or

inf. p. 175), since

Nam-makh (=P Aquarii. Vide none of these are in the Field of

Anu. We may read it Nin-makh (' the Great-lady '), and with Jensen (Kosmol. p. 71) understand this as a title of Istar (Vide K. 4195). Istar, as well as Belit
(Vide sup.
this view,
p. 86),

might be

called 'the Great-lady';

But, on and, in this case, Star No. 1 wou\d=^Venus. what is Star No. 2 ? The only stars I know

whose names end in -nitum are Zibdnitum (' the Claws '), Anunitum (=\ /* Sagittarii. Vide sup. p. 92) and Anunitum, as a name of Istar (Venus. Vide Briinnow, Clas. List, p. 463). But, if Star No.

l=Venus,

Star No.

2

cannot= Venus.

Now, con-

sidering that, as no stars of the

we
it

Ram

shall see (Inf. p. 174), there are included in the Field of Ea, and
is

how improbable

that so important a star as

Hamal

(a Arietis) should be altogether omitted, I incline to the opinion that the was, at all events

Ram

ultimately (i.e., when the year began with Aries), included in the Field of Anu, and 1 suggest that the name of the first star was # Lulim-makh The Great
('

Earn

'),

which would

also serve to distinguish it

from

Lulim, the xixth asterism of the Lunar Zodiac (Sup. The second star-name I would restore as pp. 65, 85).

Anunitum (=Venus).
on to the 5th Star Abnam. This, as noticed (Sup. p. 27), is also the name of an asterism
pass
of the 6th month, which cannot be identical with the

We

Abnam
!

of the Field of Anu.
'

If

Abnam
it

here means
r

Proclaimer-of-the-Sea

or 'of water/

may=A a&-

kab Khigalld (=*i, m, v, y, Geminorum), the 7th Lunar Asterism (Vide sup. p. 75). But Abnam also =Sem. Shashurru (Briinnow, Clas. List, p. 170),

170

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xr

Heb. Shoshar ('Vermilion.' Cf. Jer. xxii. 14); and, the Vermilion 'if we are to understand it here as
'

ipTobably=Betelgeuse (a Orionis), the largest of the 3 first-magnitude red stars (Cf. Bir,
star,
it

will

sup. p. 160).

We
Sem.
is
1

next come to a star-name which
elsewhere, the
('

I

have never

met with

Kakkab Ankiames.
hi

An=

Samu

Heaven '),

Clas. List, p.

399)=Sem.

Irtsitu

and kia (Vide Briinnow, Earth '), and mes ('

the plu. termination, the combination signifying the Asterism-of-Heaven-and-earth.' At first sight

this

may appear to be an almost impossible name for a star-group, but let us examine it carefully. One of the most important asterisms in the Field of Anu
must be Mastalba-galgal and Pollux (Vide sup. p.
('

the Great- twins

'),

Castor

16).

Yet that name does

not occur amongst the 12 stars here mentioned, whilst it is almost impossible to imagine that the Twins can have been omitted. Can this special and peculiar
'

appellation

the Asterism-of-Heaven-and-earth '=the

Great-twins ? We Yes, and most appropriately. have seen (Vol. I. 58-9) that the original Twins were the Sun and Moon, who are reduplicated in the zodiacal Gemini and that the former mutually chase and expel each other from heaven, so that generally when one is up the other is down, and that this
;

feature reappears in Euphratean art when the Gemini are represented (Vide Fig. vii. p. 231). further

We

saw that

this

primary fact

is

dimly, yet undoubtedly,
'

reflected in the

Homeric account of Kastor and Poly-

alive alternately,' i.e., deukes, who are said to be when the one is in the Upper-world of the living, the other is in the Under- world of the dead (Vide Vol. I.

291-2).

Here, then,

we have

the origin of the appar-

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
'

lj\

Asterism-of-Heaven-andently singular expression a and f$ Geminorum. stars to the as earth,' applied

They represent, by virtue of the Law of Eeduplication, two stars (Sun and Moon), which, considered together, Hence, occupied at the same time heaven and earth.
I conclude that

Ankiames=^Mastabba-galgal.

Dilgan, Mul (Vide Vol. I. 357-9) and the southern Sibzianna (Ningirsu-Duzu) require no further notice here and I pass on to Ugaga (' the

The

stars

;

Eaven,' vide Briinnow, Class. List, p. 260), which cannot be Corvus, as the latter is not in the Field of Anu

According to Jensen (Kosmol. 168). If, 152-4), Unagga, as he calls this star, is a comet.
(Vide sup.
the
p.

was compiled, some particular comet was visible in the Field of Anu, it might well be included in the 12 stars of that Field. But, however regarded,

when

list

the question of the explanation of Ugaga is a very At first sight one thinks it ought to be, difficult one.

and must

be,
'

Corvus
raven
'
'

;

and, again,

why

should a comet

be styled a

?

Jensen fully sees the difficulty

in this idea, but facts are facts.

The bird Ugaga

is

explained as the Field of

the Raven/ and

is

stated to be a star of

As

to the link in idea

Anu, and we must make the best of it. between raven and comet, the

raven was also known to the Enphratean Semites as the Eye-picker,' and a horde of Elamites invading
'

Akkad
(Vide

are

compared to an invading
S.

flock of ravens

Trans.

B.

A.

viii.

81).

Ravens

were

amongst the evil brood of Tiamat (Vide Vol. I. 108), and the bird has nearly always been regarded as illomened. A comet might similarly be looked upon as an ill-omened bird of the sky. A somewhat detailed
account of the

Ugaga

is

given in

W. A.

I.

III.

lii.

No.

2,

1.

1-12.

It 'faces

Sulpa-uddua' {Mercury),

172
has
'

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
'

[XIV
'

misty and again is not misty,' and is said to be mi-colour. This word is rendered by the Sem. arku (' green '), and the Ak. Khu-sizi (' Sizi-bird '), the Sem. Rakraku, is the
a halo
it,

p

round

at times

'

is

Black Stork.

'

The whole of the dark plumage

is

varied with purple and copper-coloured and green reflections, so as fully to justify the name which the

Accadians gave to this bird
S. B.

'

(Houghton, in Trans.

A.

viii.

89).

Sizi will be a green yellow, be;
'

tween sulphur yellow and gamboge and Prof. Sayce well translates the term greenish-yellow.' Ugaga is
further said to be
pp.

79-81); and

Gibil (Vide in its midst are '3 stars' (Kakr
fire,'
*

*

like the

god of

Jensen translates, In seiner kabdni) very grey. Mitte 3 Sterne sind sehr grau.' Other renderings of
the passage have been given, but this seems to me to be the correct one and it appears to be conclusive of
;

the cometary nature of Ugaga. it is opposite to the star Nunki

Line 12 states that

(=,

<r,

x

Sagittarii*

Vide sup. p. 93), which places it in the neighbourIn hood of the Bull and in the Field of Anu.

W.A.I.
tend a
read
'
:

III.

liii.

No.
;

1,

1.

4,

Ugaga
liv.

is

said to 'por6,
1.

fixed tariff'

and

in lb.

No.

5,

we

Kakkab U-ga-ga-khu kharrdn Samsi iks-ud. The star of the Haven the path of the sun attained.'
only apply to some heavenly body which moves differently from a fixed star, as the latter is either always in or always
I think,

This statement, again, can,

No one has suggested that out of the sun-path. a is and planet, Ugaga planets also cannot well be
said to attain the sun-path, as they are always in the This statement respecting the attainecliptic region.

ment

of the sun-path

by Ugaga appears again

in

K.

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

I

73

3547, which formed the 56th Tablet of the

nu

Bill

(Vide
B.C., to

Bezold,

therefore,

Ugaga-comet, 542). must have appeared in the third millennium which period also the composition of the Tab.
ii.

Cat.

The

82-5-22, 512, now under consideration, will belong. The account of Ugaga in W. A. I. III. lii. No. 2,

above noticed,

Idkhu
'

('

followed by a notice of the Kakkab the Eagle '), the only reason for placing them
is
'

stars named after together being that they were Observations of the Raven and Eagle birds (1. 21).
also occur in

K. 6194.

In K. 9489
or Aldebaran.

Ugaga
In

is

men-

tioned with Jupiter and Bir (Vide sup.), which latter

may

either be
is

Mars

K

11,816

mentioned with Kaksisa [Procyon), Tsir Ugaga (Alpliard), etc. Both these references appear to point
to the Field of

Anu, but

I

do not assert that the same
to in
all

Eaven-comet

is

referred

notices

of

the

Kakkab Ugaga.
The 12th and
'
'

last star of the Field of

Anu

is

Idkhu
is

('the Powerful'), the ordinary
;

meaning of which

but as Aquila and Altair are far from this Eagle portion of the heavens, we must seek for another Besides meaning nasru meaning for this name.
('

V.

eagle '), idkhu also signifies eru (' bronze/ W. A. I. and the Kakkab Urud (' Star of xxxix. 46)
;

Bronze,' Sem. firu) is named W. A. I. II. xlix. 61. observe by the inclusion of such stars as Procyon

We

and such constellations as Orion, that the Field of Anu was not bounded on the south by the ecliptic. There
is

only one remaining first magnitude star in this He, quarter of the heavens, the star-king Sirius.

surely,

would not be omitted from the list, which, as appears from the case of Ankiames, has rather a parand we may, I think, safely tiality for unusual names
;

174
identify the
(Vol.
I.
'

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
Star of Bronze
'

[x]

with him.
'

As

notice*

98) Ptolemy styles Sirius
epithet which he

reddish -yellow/

the same

applies to Aldebaran,

Antares, and Betelgeuse, the three great red stars of the present time. The question of the colour of

have already discussed (Sup. p. 124), but I will add a quotation from Ibn Alraqqa (Ap. Albiruni, Chronology of And. Nations, ed. Sachau, p. 338)
Sirius
I

in further illustration
'

:

I recognise Sirius shining red, whilst the white.

morning

is

becoming

The night, fading away, has risen and left him. The night is not afraid to lose him, since he follows

her.'

Such, then,
of Anu.

is

the

list

of the

12 stars of the Field

Lastly,

we come

to the
:

'

12 stars of the Field of

Ea,' which are stated to be Vide Vol. Gu-la ('The Urn.'
p.

I.

84-5;

sup

16).

Nu-tsir-da (Vide sup. pp. 21, 89, 96). An-u-gie (=Anu-ge, Lord-of-the-Under-world
'

').

Nunpe
,
.

"

(=(>

*"

Sagittarii.
'

Vide sup.

p. 93).
').

.

an-lugal

(

.

.

.

the god, the

King

Papilsak (=X, m Sagittarii.
sup. 16).

Vide Vol.

I.

78-9

;

Subat, sa ina zumbi
at the
tails.'
l

(' I.

The Powerful-one, which
81).

is

Vide Vol.

Kha(
.
.

the Fish').
'

.

mulu-Tchu

(

.

,

.

lordly -bird

').

\

Nin-makh (Probably=Femts.

Sar-ur and Sar-gaz (=#, i, k, Vide sup. p. 91). Muna-hha (' The Goat-fish,'=(7apWcor^.
Vol.
I.

Vide sup. p. 169). X and v Scorpionis.

Vide

81

;

sup. 93).

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

I

75

The stars Gala, Nunpe, Papilsak, Sar-ur, Sargaz and Munahha require no further notice in this nor is there anything strange in Venus being place
;

also

considered as a star of the Field of Ea.
('

If

we

understand Nutsirda here as=Namass?i
t

tile

Kepdoubtless=Ophiouchos. =Ophis) Anuge The position of Hercules and the Snake-holder, head
i

the

will

to

head,

is

a reduplication of

the position of the

We saw (Sup. p. 39) Twins (Vide sup. p. 170). that the Queen of the Under-world held a huge and it is therefore natural that the King snake
;

of the Under-world should do so likewise.

Lugal ('the King')

will be

Antares, who

is

so

styled in the Tablet of the Thirty Stars (Vide sup. Subat is almost certainly /3 Aquarii, otherwise p. 88).

The Mighty-destiny.' Vide Vol. (' at the tails of Capricorn Subat situated is 358). and the Southern Fish, which, or its chief star Fomalhaut, is probably the next star mentioned
styled
I.

Nam-makh

Part of the name of the next star is lost. (Kha). The Ak. mulu, the primary meaning of which is man,' also means belu (' lord '), and the lordly
1

'

Bird

the Eagle '), a prominent It will be star and constellation of the Field of Ea.
('

'

can only be Idkhu

remarked that the

scribe

who composed

this

list

is

of employing unusual appellations. in It keeping with his use of Idkhu in an quite unusual sense, and his application of it to a star other
is

somewhat fond

than the Eagle (Vide sup. p. 173), that he should not call the Eagle by its usual name. Some of the
obscurities in

astrologico-astronomical and religious documents may be designed in the interest of the

esoteric.

Nam-makh

is

mentioned with the

five

planets and Dilgan in K. 7951.

176

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
are

Such
Tablet.

the

contents

of

this very
it,

interestin

We

learn

much from

and gain the con;

firmation of various previous conclusions but it does not inform us what was the extent northwards and

the whole,

southwards of the Fields of Anu, Bel and Ea. On I gather that they did not include the

mysterious Polar Region of the north, or the equally mysterious region of the extreme south, connected
with the entrance to the Under- world.

Section IV.
'

The Pole-Star and
a certain

his Companions.

star,' says Hipparchos (Vide Vol. ever at the same place. And this 269) remaining star is the pivot (71-0X09) of the Kosmos.' So, with
is
'

There

I.

fine instinct,

Shakspere makes the imperial grandeur
:

of his Csesar assert
1

I

am constant

as the northern star,

Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality There is no fellow in the firmament. The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks They are all fire, and every one doth shine ; But there's but one in all doth hold his place.'

;

No

wonder, then, that all over the world the Polestar has been the subject of an attentive consideration,
is

which has frequently passed into the deepest reverence.

Nor

the cult of the Pole-star extinct to-day in

Euphratean regions. As it remains above 'high in immortal grandeur,' so on earth beneath by the banks of the swift Euphrates humble votaries, a strange

remnant of the long- vanished past, nightly look up to The following is an extract it with awe and homage. A Prayerfrom a singularly interesting article, of the which Star-worshippers/ appeared in meeting
'

the Standard, Oct. 19, 1894:

XIV]
'

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
in

1

77

Sook-es-Shookh, on the Euphrates,
.

the Meso-

looks picturesque and peaceful, potamian villayet as we ride into it in the deepening twilight of a late
. .

The September evening. twinkle overhead, but there

stars
is

are

beginning to

still

sufficient light to

note the strange white-robed figures moving stealthily about in the semi-gloom down by the river side.
.
. .

Their fathers were burned," cries our Persian guide thus delicately hinting that they are in disgust
. .
.

"

and a Jew who accompanies our party, on his way to the tomb of Ezekiel, spits upon the ground, and exclains in pure Hebrew, Obde kokhabim umazaloth [' Servants of the stars and
not followers of Islam
;

And the Signs of the Zodiac' Vide sup. pp. 1, 162]. Hebrew is not wrong. The forms gathering by the " river side are those of Star- worshippers," the last
remnant of the famous magi
the
*
'

[Cf. Jer. xxxix. 3,
'

where

included amongst the princes of Rab-mag the King of Babel '] of ancient Chaldaea, and their
is

followers, the

Babylonian

adorers

of

the

host

of

heaven.
still

of about four thousand they in native their survive land, principally along the
. . .

To the number

banks of the Euphrates.

They

call

themselves
"

Mandaya,
"
living

Manda'ftes, possessors of the
.
.

word," the

word."

.

Moslems

call

them Sabba,

is a remanet of the later and resembles closely the idiom of the Babylonian, and their Palestinian Talmud, liturgy is a compound

Sabeans.

Their dialect

of fragments of the ancient Chaldaean cosmogony with gnostic mysticism influenced by later superstitions.'

The writer then describes how the star-worshippers tabernacle just before the their 'Mishkna or
'

erect
cele-

'

'

bration of their grand annual festival. space is marked out about sixteen feet vol. 11.

'

An

oblong long and 12

I78
twelve broad.

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
.

[XIV

.

.

The

side walls

run from north to

Two south, and are not more than seven feet high. windows, or rather openings for windows, are left east and west, and space for a door is made on the
southern side, so that the priest, when entering the edifice, has the North Star, the great object of their Towards adoration, immediately facing him.
.
.

.

midnight the star- worshippers, slowly down to the Mishkna

men and women, come
by the
river side.
. . .

By

midnight there are some twenty rows of these

white-robed figures, ranked in orderly array facing the Mishkna, and awaiting the coming of the priests.

A

couple of tarmidos, lamp in hand, guard the entry to the tabernacle, and keep their eyes fixed upon the

As soon as these attain pointers of the Great Bear. the position indicating midnight,' a signal is given, and a procession of priests, including the spiritual
'

head

of

the

sect,
'

the

Ganzivro,'
'

moves

to

the

holds aloft the large One Mishkna. deacon wooden tau-cross,' a second bears the sacred scriptures of the Star- worshippers,' a third carries two live pigeons in a cage,' and a fourth has a measure
'

'

'

'

The ecclesiastics file of barley and of sesame seeds.' into the Mishkna, and stand to right and left, leaving the Ganzivro standing alone in the centre, in
'

front

of the earthen

altar

facing

the North Star,
is

Polaris.

The sacred book Sidra Rabba

laid

upon
'

the altar folded back where the liturgy of the living is divided from the ritual of the dead. The high priest takes a live pigeon, extends his hands towards the
*'

Polar Star, upon which he fixes his eyes, and lets the " In the name of the living bird fly, calling aloud,
one, blessed be the primitive light, the ancient light, The worshippers without, the Divinity self-created."
'

XIV]

THE EUFHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
'

1

79

on hearing these words, rise and prostrate themselves upon the ground towards the North Star, on which

The Ganzivro, who they have silently been gazing.' has made a complete renunciation of the world, and is
*

regarded as
in

one dead and in the

realms

of

the

blessed/ after the celebration of a kind of

communion

which small cakes, sprinkled with the blood of the
'

second pigeon are partaken of, recites a further service, ever directing his prayers towards the North
Star, on which the gaze of the worshippers outside continues fixed throughout the whole of the cere monial observances. This star is called Olrna

d'nhoora, literally the world of light," the primitive sun of the Star- worshippers' theogony, the paradise of the elect, and the abode of the pious hereafter.'

"

Such

is

the honour

still

paid to
I.

Dayan-same

('

The
of

Judge-of-heaven.'

Vide Vol.

264) in the land

Sumir and Akkad.
Albiruni (Chronol. Cap. xviii.) gives an interesting, although somewhat confused, account of the Sabians,

who, he says, adopted this name before a.h. 228 themselves from persecution. (a.d. 850), to save
Before that time they were called heathens, idolaters, and Kharramians.' He includes a calendar of their
various feasts and celebrations.
their year
'

In his day, as now,
Tisri,
*

began

in

September (Tishrin, Heb.

As. Tisritu), in which
Tents,'

month took

place

the Feast of

which may have been the ceremony related by Other feasts, etc., menthe writer in the Standard.
tioned are the Feast of Balti (=Beltu, Beltis) the Feast of Tirratha (=Atargatis. Vide Vol. I. 224)
;

;

the the

'

Feast of the Venerable Old
'

'

Man,
the
'

i.e.

Saturn

;

Feast of Hermes-Mercury Living Being of the Moon
'

'

;

Feast of the
of

;

the

'

Feast

the

l8o

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
'

[xiV

the Feast of Dakmysteries of Alsimak (=Spica) dale' (=Tartak, 2 Kings, xvii. 31; Bab. Tartakhu, vide Vol. I. 35) and the commemoration of Tam'

;

'

;

muza (=Tammuz) with lamentation and
It is a truly

remarkable fact that what

I

may

weeping.' call the

Euphratean religion has been

in existence

throughout

the entire historical period. It did not die and make it has continued. no sign And when we return
;

from actual cult to
e.g., in the

literature, it is quite certain that,

Talmud, and

in

many an

unedited Gk.

and Ar. manuscript, hid away in the recesses of great libraries, lies no small amount of Euphratean lore, I do not doubt,' stellar and religious. says Ren an
'

(Nabathaean Agriculture,
. .
.

1862,

p.

92),

'that

an

attentive analysis of Greek manuscripts on astrology, on genethliacs, etc. may show this result, that

our

libraries, in

Greek no

less

than in Arabic manu-

scripts, contain considerable fragments of Nabathaean He further [=very late Babylonian] literature.'

observes
'

:

The writings composed

in

Greek and Arabic on

astrology, magic, oneirocriticism, such as the Cyranides, the works of the false Zoroaster, the books

attributed to Seth, and to Noah, the fragments of Paxamus, of Teucer the Babylonian, and of Lasbas the Babylonian, are frequently copies or translations
of Chaldaean works.

The works

of the sect
St.

Mendaites, Nazoreans,

Christians of

classed generally under the represent to us, to a certain degree, in their method of thought, and possibly in their language, the

must be

known as John, who name Sabians,

remains

of

Babylonian

literature'

(lb.

pp.

3-4).

Again
'

:

This Teukelusha al-Babeli of Arabic and Persian

Xiv]

THE KrPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

l8l

manuscripts is the TevKpog Ba/3iAcowo9, called also Teucer, Zeuchrus, Zeuchus, author of genethliacs, quoted by Psellus, by Antiochus the Apotelesmatist,

and by many

others,

and of
'

whom

extracts exist in

our collections of Greek manuscripts' (lb. p. 95). Of these extracts, one, in the grand astrological collection of manuscripts 2420, 2424 of the Bibliothique Imperiale,' is entitled Tevxpov Uepi twv irapavareWovTwv ('Concerning the extra-zodiacal constellations ') and this work is surely well worthy of the
;

attention of some scholar, and would, in

all

probability,

throw much light on many points still obscure. To give an instance of how Bab. documents explain
matters otherwise unintelligible. is name des Planeten Mars
'

We
bei

find that

Madis
'

den Rabbin en
In Tab. K. 2310,

(Chwolsohn, Die Ssabier, Rev. ]. 13, we read:

ii.

160).

Kakkab Kha-dis
maru. 'The
star

(u)

kakkab Ma-dis adannu innastar Greatly

Gladly (=Venus) (and) the

(=Mars)

at eventide are seen.'

This passage is also interesting as an extremely early instance of that name-jingle in which Orientals, more especially Arabs [and therefore their Semitic
'

kinsmen of the Euphrates Valley,] delight, e.g., Abil and Kabil for Cain and Abel' (Sayce, Herod, p. 138). We are, of course, at once reminded of the Kpwcpi and Muxpi of Herodotos (ii. 38), with respect to which Sir J. G. Prof. Sayce makes the above remark. the same passage, says that at Wilkinson, referring to
the present day Orientals use in joke or in the nursery similar words, the second repeating the sound of the
'

first

"

and always beginning with m, as "fersh mersh" salta malta" And Canon Rawlinson adds, In
'

1

82

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xr

hugger-mugger and pell-mell, we keep to the Oriental usage and employ the m' (Hist, of Herod, ii. 31).

To return

to the Pole-star.

Although

its steadfast-

ness would naturally excite wonder and admiration, yet prolonged observation necessarily revealed the fact that even Polaris, like everything else, after a
certain season abdicated its throne

and moved

on.

The reader is doubtless aware that the attraction of sun and moon on the equatorial protuberance of the
earth, produces a certain rolling of our planet on its axis, with the result that from time to time the axis

of the equator changes its position with respect to the axis of the ecliptic, which remains immovable.

'

And

the ends of these axes, or the points they occupy among the stars, called their poles, will change in the

same way the pole of the equator, round which the heavens appear to move, describing a curve about the
;

pole of the ecliptic and since the ecliptic and equator are always nearly at the same angle, this curve will be
;

very nearly a
99).

'

circle

Hence the Pole-star

(Blake, Astronomical Myths, p. is that (prominent) star

which from time to time is nearest to the pole of the equator, which latter makes a single revolution of its
circle

in

polar circle is

The brightest star of this 25,870 years. which was fairly near the pole Vega,
12,000.

a Draconis was an excellent some 500 years after B.C. 3000. It in turn was superseded by ft JJrsae Min., which, as
B.C.

about

Pole-star for

noticed

(Vol.
('

I.

357),

is

consequently

still

called

Kochab
is

The

Star').

Our present

Pole-star (a Ursae

a.d. 2000 Min.) will be in almost perfect position. In a consideration of the Euphratean Pole-star of an early period it is

an excellent representative, and by

very necessary to bear these really simple astronomical

XIV
I

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
in

1

8J

and before going further we notice B.C. 3500-2000 was a Draconic, situate just between the two Chariots {Bears).
facts

mind

;

that the Pole-star

Amongst other
libraries

treatises

contained

in

the

Bab.

was one upon Ilu Tiranna (' the god Judgeof-heaven') 'which in the midst is bound' (W. A. I. III. Hi. 58). The Ak. tir probably=the Turko-Tat.
tir,

'support,'

'prop.'

As

noticed

(Vol.

I.

285),
'

Arctums and Spica have each been called Al-Simdk the Prop ') and the Pole-star is par excellence the ('
;
'

Prop

of heaven,

and

like

Atlas, Mithra

and Shu

columns of the heavenly(Vide lb,), upholds house. The name appears in Sem. as Dayan-same
the

Judge-of-heaven'), and we may notice that Sem. renderings of the Sum.-Ak. are frequently not exact
('

translations, but equivalents. Rev. 1. 1 a similar reference is
in
1.

W. A. I. III. lxiv. made to Tiranna, and
In

4 the obtaining of corn
it,

and barley

is

in

some

way connected with
In lb.
liii.

and

its

No.

1,1. 7, it is

disappearance is noted. In connected with rain.
is

37 Dil-uri ('The Proclaimer-of-light') explained as Dayan-samc, and in 1. 38 Azdg-a
lb. II. xlvii.

is

similarly explained.

And

this last title brings us to

an interesting passage in W. A. I. IV. xxviii. (PL ii.), 12 where mention is made of 'the god [or goddess,
probably both,] Azdga-siqqa, the mighty goat of Mul-lil.' The Ak. azdga=$em. ellu ('high') and if
;

we read
'

rukiitu,

the latter part of the name sug-ga (=Sem. distant '), the meaning will be the Distant'

pre-eminently does not appear to possess any special suitability and, on the whole, I decidedly prefer to read Siqqa (' the Horned-one '),
'
' '

high -one.' But, although Polaris the High-one,' the epithet distant
;

is

Sem. AttUu ('He-goat').

In

W.A.I.

III. lxvih.

12

184

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
is
'

[xiV

Azdga-siqqa
of Mul-lil-la

('

styled the supreme [ highest '] Siq Prof. the Lord-of-the-Ghost-world ').
'
'

'

Sayce appears to render siq by milch-kid (Bel. Anet. Babs. p. 286, n. 2), and in his Syllabary (No. 313) it Muss-Arnolt is equated with banu (' old-gazelle.').
banu, probably an epithet (As. Diet p. 177) gives The of a wild animal=shining, brilliant of color.' Siq-makh, therefore, appears to combine the ideas of
'

Azdga-siqqa ('the High-and'goat' and 'bright.' Horned-one ')'is the Uz-mahh (' Mighty-goat') of Mullil,

the Elder Bel, Lord of the world of night and darkness. We have seen the extraordinary mythological

prominence of the Goat, and its connexion with the Sun, Capricorn and Capella (Vide Vol. I. 80-1 130-1 218 et seq.) and here we find Polaris itself
; ;

;

impersonated as a bright Goat, flock of the Lord of night.

We

the highest of the may further identify

it

with 'the god Azdg-gi-tur-da' ('the Lusty-goat') named in W.A.I. II. lviii. 66. In K. 11,153 + Rm.
582,
'

1.

13,

the god

are told that Nirgal, who was originally whom his primitive worshippers at Gudua

we

[Sem. Kutu, Cutha] made king of ardli or Hades' (Sayce, Rel. And. Babs. p. 195), 'cares for the whole
of the

Tul [Du.
'

Jensen.

Kirrud. }Lmg.\Azdga'

Mr. King (Bab. Mag. p. Ill) refers to Jensen's elaborate remarks on Die Schicksalskammer im Versamm-

lungsraum in this connexion, and to his explanation of Duazaga 'as 'the lordly chamber of the Lower World' (Vide Kosmol. p. 234 et seq.). But, really, the matter is much simpler, i.e., the Hades-and'
'

'

'

Night-god cares for the whole of the hill ( Ak. tul, dul, til, Sem. tilu, sadu) of the Pole-star (Azdga) who is seated in majesty on the summit of the
t

'

'

northern heights.

At night

Mul-lil

is

lord of this

Xiv]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
;

1

85

crowned by his own bright Goat, and, below this, his deputy Mulmosarra (Vide Vol. I. 267) bears sway over the powers of darkness. The Pole-star was also called Dugga (otherwise
starry hill
it is

read

Kaga)-gilgatil (Vide W.A.I, II. lviii. 17; Briinnow, Class. Sayce, in Trans. S. B. A. iii. 206
;

List, p. 40).
is
'

Dugga=the
'

Sem. Saqa

('

High

')

and

probably connected with the Turko-Tat, root toq, to rise up,' come to the top,' etc., whence words tog,
gil, as is also

The primary meaning of hill,' etc. shown by the form of the cuneiform Til means 'life.' ideograph, is 'an enclosure.' The Duggagilgatil= High-one-of-the-Enclosure-ofthe life,' and there is much reason to believe that of which the Pole-star was Enclosure-of-life,' lord, is
meaning
high,'
i '

'

'

the famous

'

Oblong formed by the

'

stars

/3,

y, n

and
'

This particular Oblong, and the connexion between Oblongs and the Quarters or
of the Little Bear.
'

'

'

Divisions

(Regiones)

of the

heavens,
;

have been

and, as has already referred to (Vide Vol. I. 25) been noticed (Sup. p. 177), the modern votaries of

Polaris mark out an

which

'

oblong space,' the side walls of run from north to south,' so that it fronts the

'

Pole-star in the

same manner

of Ursae Min. fronts the star a Draconis.

as the celestial oblong Here, as

so frequently, terrestrial ritual is based upon, and is a It is natural 'pattern' of 'things in the heavens.'
to suppose that there is some special place in the universe which is in an occult and peculiar manner

the abode of the essence and spirit of life and it is locate this natural to in the spot heights of equally the north, ever crowned by the unsinking stars.
;

The god Tiranna was
the city of

also specially connected with

Uruk (=Erech.

Vide W. A.

I. II.

1.

54

;

1

86
xli.

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
1G), the earliest

|\1V

V.

name

of which was (Ak.) Urm-ki
'),

and whose patronIt was divinity was the sky-god Ana (=Sem. Anu).
('The
Place-of-the-Settlement
natural that the highest of the stars should be the Each of the patron-star of the city of the Sky-god.

ancient cities of Babylonia had its patron-star, as well as its patron-god. Polaris stands in the same ritual
position to Erech, as Dilgan to Babylon to Mul-lii-ki (=Nippur, Niffer). Tab.
tains observations on

and Margidda K. 12,462 con-

Tiranna, called as usual 'the god,' not 'the star'; and K. 9250 contains ceremonies to
be performed by sick persons, and connected with the
cult

of

certain

divinities,

including
p.
'

Tiranna and

Damn
of
'

(=Spica.

Vide sup.

84).

We

noticed

that the Sabians observed the

Feast of the mysteries

list is given (Spica. Sup. p. 180). of various divinities and divine pairs, male and female, representing emanations of the male and female

In K. 9417 a

principles of nature.'

Amongst them

are the

Mul-

tul-Azdga ('Lord-of-the-hill-of-the-High-one'),and the

Nin-tul-Azdga

('

Azdg ('High')
root
os,
its,

is

Lady-of-the-hill-of-the-High-one'). connected with the Turko-Tatar

ilz

('above,'

'upper

side,'

'high,' etc.),

whence such words as Uigur usaq (' high '), etc. Such was the position of the Pole-star, guarded by the two fiery Chariots of the Bears, and presiding over the highest and most sacred source of life. In the list of gods in W. A. I. II. lviii. No. 1 next to Duggagilgatil comes the god Esbar-anhi (' Crown of -heaven '), the Sem. equivalent of whose name is Dai/an-sisa (' the Directing-judge ') and next to him
;

is

Temple-of-the-four-inthe-place-of-the-height-of-heaven '), explained in the
('

the

god Giszalibri-gishi
uzztt

Sem. as Lib

mdti

('

the Place of the

Crown

of

XI v]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
').

1

87

the land

In Esbar-anki

we

shall

have no
'

difficulty
;

and in recognising ft Ursae Min. (Vide sup. p. 182) ' in the Place of the Crown of the land,' the Temple
of Four,'

we

find the

Gilgatil
/3,

('

Enclosure-of-lifc

'),

the Oblong formed by
'

Ursae Min. It is by no means improbable that the six names of the divine Judges of the Temple of Assur mentioned in
7, y

and

'

E. 1-9, represent the six remaining principal stars of Ursae Min., and that these, with
I. III. lxvi.

W. A.

Esbar-anki, make up seven Great-ones (Kabtrim. Vide Vol. I. 169), Polaris being the Eighth. Assur= origin) An-sar ('the Heaven-god Sar'), the (in

His temple analogue of the Aryan Varuna-Ouranos. is the celestial vault, and these stars, as the Judges
'

'

of

it,

occupy the highest

seats.

It will

be remembered

that

we have
of

already met with

four Kabeiric titles as
;

and Euphratean stars (Vide Vol. I. 356) his has from the at evidence Movers, already disposal, connected Eschmun and the Kabirim with Polaris

names

and the
;
1

(Vide Die Phbnizier, 1841 Vol i. 531). Upon this Bunsen remarks, Movers' explanation of them [the Kabirim] as the Ursa Minor can only be true in a later astral sense
stars of

Ursa Min.

'

I do not suggest that this (Egypt's Place, iv. 256). view is an exhaustive explanation of the Kabirim. It

merely presents them in a stellar reduplication. The Ak. Esbar-anJci=$em. Uzzu^-same (' Crown1

I

am

not sure what was the Construct state of uzzu, whether

uzuz (Cf. uznu, constr. uzun) or uzz. reviewer, not a 'critic,' of Vol. I. asserts that I am unaware there is such a thing as the construct state, although such a form as kalckab continually occurs in

A

my

work.

Bab.-As.

The construct state is by no means always used The same reviewer also asserted that I was ignorant

in
of

the meaning of hi in Barsip-/fo\ Ki, an Ak. affix denoting 'place,' is one of the first things learnt by beginners, with the other affixes

1

88

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[xiV

The scribes were distinctly partial to '). on an instance of which is afforded by the words, play Ak. Uz (' Goat '), and the Sem. Uzzu (' Glory,' whence the meaning Crown.' Vide Sayce, Rel. Anct. Bobs.
of-heavcn
'

have seen the Pole-star described as a Goat (Sup. p. 184), and /3 Ursae Min. also, as Uzsame, becomes a Goat of heaven.' The first of the other six divine Judges above referred to is (Ak.)
p.
'

285).
'

We

'

'

'

Sameld, (Sem.), Lu-kul-lali ('the Wild-heifer, voice
of abundance').

(=Gk.
Min.

SeyueX^,

Taking the stars in order, Samela, Vide R. B. Jr., Sem. l32-6)=y Ursae
'

Prof. Sayce has observed, the Goat with six heads' is referred to in W. A. I. IV. xxx. 11 and
;

As

this mythical
stellar

animal would be best explained by a connexion, such as that between the Goat-ofhis six

heaven and

companion

stars.

Esbar-anki and

Sameld, as goat and heifer, reappear in the Arabian Sphere as El-ferkaddn (=/3 and y Ursae Min.),
which
Ideler

renders

'die

beiden

Kalber.'

The

present Pole-star (a Ursae Min.) was, of course, another of the same flock, as is illustrated by its

Arabic name Al-Jedy
its

('

the Kid

')

;

whilst another of

names Al-Rakubat ('the Chariot'), Heb. Rekhev, Bab. -As. Ruktibu, illustrates the fact that the Little Bear was regarded as the Little Chariot (Vide Vol. I.
and

The reviewer subsequently withdrew this baseless prefixes. statement, but atoned for his burst of candour by asserting (somewhat indirectly) that I was ignorant of every As. grammar except that
published some years ago by Prof. Sayce. The reader will not be surprised to learn that the Editor of the review in question declined
to insert a letter in

which I exposed the ignorance and shortcomings of his scribe. It would show a lack of chivalry not to throw the editorial aegis over a stupid and prejudiced reviewer, too
lazy to study what was before him, to construe a written document.

and too ignorant

to

know how

xiv]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

89

Al-Eakffbat=ihe Alrueaba of the 269). sine Tables (Vide Vol. I. 20, 284).

Alphon-

The name Azdga

or

Azdgga

is

also

found in a

The Du-azdgga corresponding terrestrial connexion. of Babilu was the E-Saggil (' House(' Holy-mound ')
of-the-lofty-head') or great temple of Bel-Merodakh, the successor and, in some sort, reduplication of the
It is probable,' says Prof. Sayce, ancient god Mul-lil. that the mounds now called Babil by the Arabs mark
' '

where

'

it

stood

(Higher

Crit.

and Mons.

p. 154).

The

shrine of the temple possessed a copy in miniature of the Du-azdgga itself; and it seems, on the whole, sufficiently probable that the temple and its arrange-

ments were intended to be a pattern of things in the heavens,' and that, to the initiated votary, it occultly typified the Holy Hill of heaven in the sides of the
'

'

north'

(Is.

xiv. 13).
I. III. liii.

No. 1,1. 15, the kalckab An-tawhich Jensen (Kosmol. p. 158) sur-ra is mentioned, but to this I cannot agree. In takes to be a meteor
In
;

W. A.

K. 11,283, four lines only of which are before me, named in the first column, and in the second the planets with which they are specially concertain stars are

nected, thus

:

K. Zibdnitum (=the K. Antasurra. K. Dilbat. K. Anuniturii (Vide

Claivs).

I. 1.
I.

Samas
Samas.
Istar

('

the

Sun

').

(= Venus).

sup. p. 169). /. Istar.

nothing in either of these passages to star.' suggest that Antasurra is not an ordinary
is
'

There

Samas
Claivs.

is

the presiding divinity of the month of the Dilbat is the ordinary name of Istar- Venus.

Anunit

is

another of her names, and, as we have seen,

I9O

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
is

[XIV

Anunitum
is

also the asterism A,

m Sag.

Antasurra

occur in
(Ak.)

not a planet, for the names of the planets also liii. No. 1. Turning to etymology we find

Antasurra rendered (Sem.) Tsuppuru sa libi The Sem. root tspr (Briinnow, Class. List, p. 30). means to go in a circle,' revolve,' dance in a circle,'
* ' '

hence Heb. tsophir (' a he-goat'), primarily a We, therefore, observe that the Sem. title of leaper.'
leap,'

'

'

the Ak. Antasurra
whilst the ideas of
*

is

*

the

Circler of

the

Midst,'

goat,'

an animal so much con-

nected with the Pole-star and his companions, and of the eternal stellar dance (Vide Vol. I. 123, 133) are
also

both included.
ut

Briinnow,
'rising,'

A?ita=8em. Mil (' High.' Vide sup.), whilst swrra=words meaning
p.
l

'shining brightly' (lb.

141

;

Sayce, Syl.

No. 99). Hence, Antasurra= The High-in-rising.' Let us note in passing that, as so frequently, the Sem.
rendering
is

an equivalent, not a translation of the

Sum.-Ak. name.

Now

the High-in-rising,

who

is

also the Circler-round-the-midst, can really hardly be

anything but Ursa Min., which may be specially connected with the Sun as a special ruler (of the
night) and, in exact accordance with this view, the rather curious passage in Aratos
;
:

is

1

The head

of

Kynosure runs very high

When

night begins' {H.D. 308-9).

As Prof. Sayce also gives nas as a value of the form which generally=a, I suggested (E. S. R. iii. 9) that
K-w-6cr-ov-pa, the ordinary of the Arktos Olige, and which a popular etymology understood as Dog's Tail.' There is nothing

ANN-ASS-U-RA=(Gk.)
'

name

at all improbable in the word Kynosoura (whence our cynosure '=centre of attraction), like various other
'

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
in Gk.

I9I

names

astronomy

etc.,
1

having been derived

from a Euphratean

original.

The

prefixing of a

consonant not in the original is by no means unusual Thus the Sem. ydel=Gk. A/aX in Gk. transcriptions.
(Hesych. in voc), Ati=T<xTi9 (Antipatros of Tarsos), etc. But, be this as it may, we can, I think, safely
say that Antasurra=Ursa Min., which, at this period, did not contain the Pole-star, but slowly circled round the Midst,' that central point of the heavens
*

where Polaris sat enthroned.

The night-revels of the mediaeval Witches' Sabbath, where the demoniac and Satanic Goat is high enthroned, are probably not unconnected in origin with some distorted remembrances of the dancing Goat-stars,

Satyrs (Cf.

Is. xiii.

21), of primitive

Euphratean times.

Section V.

The Tablet W. A.

I.

III.

lvii.

No.

5.

This Tablet, which has already been referred to
of special interest, inasmuch as it shows very clearly the absolute identity of an important part of the Bab. Sphere with our own. Line 1
(Vol.
I.

78, 110),

is

mentions Gud-elim (=Kentauros.

Vide lb. 110-11 the stars in and this constellation following 213-4), are also named, (1) Su-zak- Gud-elim ('the Righthand- of-the- Centaur '=k and <r Centauri), (2) Su-

;

gub-Gud-elim (' the Left-hand-of-the-Centaur'=ti Centauri), and (3) Ner-gub- Gud-elim ('the Left-foot of the Centaur' =a and ft Centauri). Most of the lines are mutilated and contain little except the names of stars, but these star-names show conclusively
1

La
and

the false etymology of Kynosoura, vide Emile Burnouf, Lkjende Athenienne, p. Ill ; Sir G, W. Cox, Introd, to Myth,
to

As

'

Folklore, p. 40.

I92

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XIV

that the Centaur of the Bab. Sphere, however much he may have varied from the ordinary Classical type

(and on this point I have already spoken), was one and the same concept with the Centaur of our modern
sphere, a animal.

compound

A

creature in form part man, part full account of Gud-elim would doubtless

have spoken of the stars of his hind feet which now constitute the brilliant Crux. According to the both hands of the I have given, representations

Centaur grasped the Wild-beast (Vide Fig. xv. p. According to the Farnese Globe, he holds it 241). up with his left hand, and Ptolemy's list agrees with
this (Vide Vol.
1

I.

111).

Aratos says

:

But

his right

Before the Altar's

hand he ever seems to stretch circle. The hand grasps
so the

Another

creature, very firmly clutched,

The Wild-beast ;

men

of old

it

named

'

(H. D. 429-42).

Thus, on the globe which was before Aratos, the Centaur held up the Wild-beast (=Ligbat. Sujx
p. 5)

with his right hand. There is a very curious agreement between the Tablet and Ptolemy's List on In 1. 8 we read a singular point.
:

Kakhab Ner-gub Gud-elim, qarnu-su
'

yubbal.

The

star Left-foot of the Centaur, its horn dis-

appears.'

would almost seem from this that Nergub was not a single star, but an asterism composed of several stars, more or less in a line, and which therefore made In Ptolemy's List Star No. a sort of horn (point).
It

34 (^ Centauri)

is

described as

of the left foot (Vide Vol. I. sort of tender horn that grows in the middle of the
;
'

the one at the frog 110) and a frog is a
'

'

'

sole of a horse's foot

[Imperial Diet, in voc. ).

Now,

XIV]
for

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

1

93

what possible reason should the
foot
?

Classical constel'
'

lation
left

Centauries be credited with a

frog

in the

tablet
It

how

Before the discovery of this cuneiform hopeless such a question would have been
!

would of course have been answered by the arbitrary assertion that this description was a freak of fancy on the part of some one. The real answer is now perfectly simple. The configuration of the stars of the leg and foot suggested to the Bab. observer a
horn, in the literal application of the expression to the foot of an actual horse, frog.

'horn' of

light.

A

=a

From

this,

as

from so

many
;

similar instances,

we

learn, as a general principle, to exclude arbitrary fancy

and invention from such cases and, secondly, we note with wonder the marvellous closeness of connexion in detail between the Gk. and Bab. Spheres and star-lists. In 1. 9 the scribe passes naturally from one centaur to the other, who is also in the same neighbourhood, and names three of the asterisms of Sagittarius (Udgudua. Vide Vol. I. 78-9). The first of these
is

the

Kakkab Kumaru

('

the Dusky-part
is

').

The

Sem. in form, was, so meaning far as I am aware, first given by me in E. S. R. (Pt. A careful inspection of Sagittarius convinced iv. 11).

of this word, which

me

dusky hinder part was intended. I naturally compared Kumaru with the Aramaic kemer blackness '), whence the name of the Kemarim ('
that
its
'

(Zeph. i. 4), i.e., 'the Black-robed-ones,' the idolaBut this trous priests' (A.V. in 2 Kings, xxiii. 5).

does not exhaust the matter, for, as might well be expected, kumaru is merely the Sem. form of a Sum.-

Ak. loan-word humar, connected w ith the Turko-Tatar root hem, qum, an allied variant of which is torn, turn
T

(Vide Vambery, Etymol.
VOL.
II.

sees.

97,

179), one of the

13

194

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XIV

root-meanings of this latter form being 'darkness,' And the connexion between the mist.' night/
'
'

qum and turn appears also in the Sum.-Ak., where we find that ^m=Sem. khartsu (' obscurity '). The Ak. kumar, therefore, will signify the Darkand we are also reminded that these part of Sag. Euphratean star-names, or most of them, are Sum.Ak. in origin, the Altaic word kumar having been
forms
' '

;

draped in a Sem. form. The second of the three asterisms of Sagittarius
(Sem.) Agu ('the Crown') or Uzzu the (' Glory '), bright upper forepart of the Archer Vide sup. p. 174); and the third is (=Papilsak.
is

(Ak.)

Ega

Kakkab Su-gub

('

the Star of the Left-hand

')=y and

$ Sag. (Vide Vol. I. 77-9). Apart, then, from Euphratean representations of the Archer in art (Vide sup.

44 inf. Fig. xii. p. 235), it practically follows from such a description that the Euphratean Sagittarius was identical with the Gk. Toxotes and, as
p.
;

;

we know

that he came between the Bab. Scorpion and the Bab. Goat-fish, we also know that he was in

the same celestial locality as Toxotes. possessed no other knowledge of the

Even

if

we

Euphratean Sphere than that it contained Sagittarius and Centaurus, we should certainly be justified in assuming
that
it

also

contained various other constellation-

figures of the Gk. Sphere.

In

1.

11a

further star of

Sag.

is
('

mentioned, the kakkab

du-a

The
'

Sole-of-the-Leftfoot of Tablet continues
:

SagJ)^

Ur-ner-gub Ud-gu1 and /3 2 Sag.
irbitti

10.

Kakkab
;

Za-ma-ma,
-

kakkabdni

The

constellation the Living-eye,

four stars

nas-u
rise
;

kakkab Ner

(khi-bi).

the star Foot- (wanting)/

XIV]
13.
'

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

1

95

Kakkab
The

Uz,

hahhab Id-khu

Ner-zak
salastu kakkabdni

star the Goat, the star Eight-foot of the

Za-ma-ma va kakkab
Living-eye and the
(khi-bi).

star the Eagle,

three

stars

(wanting)/ 14. Sittdbiritu:
'

kakkab Id-khu
:

rabu
(is)

Two

conjunctions

the star the great Eagle

sumuq-same.
at the zenith'
(lit.

'height of heaven').

The Tablet, now unfortunately mutilated, gave an account of the constellation Zamama (Vide Vol. I.
45) in
1.

its

four divisions.
:

In W. A.

L

II. lvii.

Kev. A.

53 we read
*

Kakkab Id-khu,
The

ilu

Za-ma-ma
\

ilu Nin-ip.

Eagle (=Aquila), the god Zamama,=the god Ninip' (=Ber. Vide Vol. I.
357).

constellation the

As already noticed, in the Euphratean Sphere the name Eagle was applied alike to the constellation (Aetos) and to its principal star (Altair) a nomen;

clature faithfully reproduced in the Hipparcho-Ptolemy Star-list, where the constellation is styled 'Aerov
aa-repiG-jUiog,

and the principal

star in it 6 \ajUL7rp69 koXov-

fiews 'Aeros.
is

We
II.

learn here that the constellation

Aquila Kisu (W.A.I

the star-god
lxi.

Zamama,
52.

ilu

Zamama

sa

'The god Zamama of

Kis'), 'a great town in Babylonia, now represented by the mounds of Hymer' (Geo. Smith, in Trans.

Next, as to the meaning of the name Zamama,' otherwise Zagaga.' The ordinary meaning of the Ak. za is '4,' but, as I have elsewhere
S. B.

A.
*

iii.

364).

'

shown (Vide Proceedings
Ugro- Altaic
c

S. B.

A. Feb.

1888), the
line

4 '-word

is

an 'eye '-word, and the

196

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
4
'

[XIV

of idea which arrives at

is

+ hand + eye + )
Altaic
'

eye.

The following
K. B. Jr.,

represented by (Hand list of Ugro-

4 '-words

(Vide

The Etruscan
:

Numerals,
Akkadian.

p. 20) will

make

this evident

XIV]
so will
this

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

1

97

mal=

name by way

existence/ 'the existing/ doubled in of intensity, after an archaic fashion.
' '

Za-mama thus=' Eye +
eye/

existing

'=' the

Living-

We

are further informed, as above, that the staris,

god Zamama
'

or

is

specially connected with, the

god Ninip, a solar divinity, described in one passage as the meridian sun' (W. A. L II. lvii. 51), and
whose wife
as
'

is

the

Lady

of the

Dawn'

(lb. II. lix. 10).

Try impossible in Babylonia, India or elsewhere to get rid of the Natural Phenomena Theory. Here, as everywhere, we find the Sun and his bride
it is

we may

the

Dawn
'

;

and the Sun himself

is,

as of course, the

original

Existing-eye/

Hence, the connexion be-

tween Ninip and Zamama, in whom Ninip is reduplicated in a stellar phase. The bright-eyed solar Eagle
of

day reappears in a secondary phase
stellar

in

Eagle of night. And appears from his position as patrondivinity of the town of Kis, a name akin to the Turko-Tatar root qis, qiz (' fire/ warmth/ redness/

eyed

as the brighta further solar trait

Zamama

'

'

to glow '), whence the Uigur qis (' fiery '), and numerous similar words in the various connected
*

with meanings such as red/ etc. gold/ a Sem. the centre of then, Kis, Kisu, is, Fire-town/ a solar cult and Idkhu-Aquila was its patron star
dialects,
-

'

'

;

(Cf. p. 186).

Such, then, is the Eagle Zamama, and the connexion of the name with 4 is further shown by the
'
'

division of the constellation into

'

4 stars

'

or aster-

isms, namely, (l) the Right-foot (Nerzak) of Zamama Idkhu (=Altair, a Aquilae) ; (3) ( =?/ Aquilae) ; (2)

the Left-foot (^Nergub) of mentioned in the Tablet, as

Zamama, which
it

is

not

stands, but the exist-

198

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XIV

ence of which
S
;

is implied by No. 1, and which must= and This Aquilae (4) the Head of Zamama. asterism, which would=e and Aquilae, does not

appear in the Tablet, as it exists, but is necessitated by the formation of the constellation- figure, which

was

different

from that of Aetos in the Hipparcho-

The anPtolemy List. nexed illustration shows
the

Eagle,

drawn,

like

many

of the birds repre-

sented on the monuments, in a conventional way,
as
it

appears on the Stone
in

represented
III.

W. A.
1

L

xlv.

No.

(Vide

sup. p. 34), and also shows how the figure was adapted
to the actual stellar
ar-

rangement.
the
great
instances,

Here, as in
majority of the constella-

tion-former did not begin by imagining that the
Fig. III.

Idkhu- Aquila.

stars of

Aquila resembled

an eagle ; but, having the idea of an eagle already in his mind, he adapted the stars to such a form, making a suitable star its right
foot,

another
I.

its left foot,

seen (Vol.
'

81), the star

and thus on. As we have of the Goat (Uz), which is

naturally mentioned in connexion with the Aquilastars, is the top of the head of the constellation of

1

the Goat-jish,'=a l and a 2 Capricorni. In 1. 14 we read of two conjunctions/ The term conjunction is not here used in the ordinary astro'
'

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.
*

1

99

the meetiug of two or more stars or but is planets in the same degree of the Zodiac or constellations stars about the to two applied rising

nomical sense of

'

;

same time and about the same longitude.
in Aratos
1 :

So we read

When

The feathered Arrow's

others mount, the Goat (Capricorn) rises stars, the Eagle, Bird (H. D. 689-91).
. . . '

The

As. biritu, Heb. berith

('

covenant
'

'),

is

said to be

the idea of cutting (victims on the making of agreements) and the line of thought connected with this use of the word is Cutting sacriso called
;
:

from

'

fice

covenant

equally illustrated

(astronomically) conjunction. This by the Ak. term of which birit

is

is

the Sem. rendering.
conjunctions] of heaven

The passage
('

in Ak. reads

:

Kas sa-ba-an-na sa-ba-an-na

Two

covenants
is

[i.e.

'). repeated with a dual significance. I read sa-ba (not ri-ba), because the word is evidently connected with the Ak. sab, sap (' to sacrifice '), the Turkic sefa (' agreement '),

The word

and the whole
saba
cut.'

class of
('

words belonging to the Turkoto hew,'

Tatar root sap, sab
('

cut

'),

e.g.,

the Altaic

Vide Vamb^ry, Etymol.

p. 142).

Both

the Semitic and Turanian words, therefore, proceed upon the same line of thought.
Lastly, the culmination of Idkhu, the special EagleThus Ninip, the zenith Eaglestar, is mentioned.

sun of day,

of night. called (Ak.)
*

reduplicated in Idkhu, as a zenith star As noticed (Vol. I. 292) the zenith was
is

an-va
(Cf.

('

nalbas same
star

W.

divine place*), Bab. nalbar- or A. I. III. lxiv. Ob. 1. 24). The
is

Nalbas-same'

was, I zenith at certain periods, e.g., queen of the heavenly Lyre J

mentioned in K. 6324, and presume, one which prominently occupied the
(

Vega,

the

zenith-

200

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
is

[xiV

Line 15, which

unfortunately mutilated, names

the stars Ka-lik-ku, Uz (Vide sup. p. 198) and Saksadi. According to W. A. I. II. xlii. 69, Kaliklcu is to

be read (Sem.) Lisdn-Kalbi (' the Tongue of the Dog,' Vide Vol. I. 356 Briinnow, Class. List, p. 43), by
;

which
star
-

impossible not to understand Sirius, the in the mouth (Vide Vol. I. 98) of Canis Maj.
it is
'

represented as lying on the end of the Dog's tongue (Vide R. B. Jr., H. D. It is certainly singular that Sirius Fig. xxxii).

In Cicero's Aratos Sirius

is

should be mentioned in this connexion, but the lines are too much mutilated for us to be able to understand
their purport*; named in 1. 17.

and the Kakkdb Ka-lik ...

is

also

find

Saksadi (' Bright-horn-of-slaughter '), for which I no Sem. equivalent, is a very interesting starname, and=/3 Capricorni. The two stars Uz and Saksadi, which form the xxiind Arabian Lunar Mansion,

are

called

(Ar.)

Sa'd-al-Dsahih

('

The-lueky-

asterism-of-the-Slaughterer '), in which appellation we find the influence of the original Ak. name. Smvth

observes that Capricorn was mightily looked to by the xxiind Lunar Mansion was the Arabians
*
.

.

.

a

and Kazwini, Tizini, Ferghani, popular and Flruzabadi of Khorasan, author of the Kdmus,
one
;

i.e.,

Ocean, the most famous of
'

all

Arabic Lexicons,

mention
ii.

happy tendency {Cycle of Celest. Objects, Now, the real original reason of the import473). ance ascribed to Capricorn, and the origin of the
its

name Saksadi,

are to be

found in the preconstella-

tional character of the Goat-Jish. It is the Goat-sun, the solar god Uz (Vide Vol. I. 80), with his bright horn
(ray) of slaughter for darkness, night
is

and

stars,

who

the original auspicious figure.

His good luck and

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

201

well-omened character are handed on to his astral
representative and reduplication, the Star-goat Capricorn, the lucky Sign under which Augustus, most

fortunate of men, was born. In 1. 2 all is broken away except Kakhabdni Gusi-sa (' the stars of the Directing-um '), and the same

phrase appeared in 1. 18, of which nothing remains but Gu-si The reference is to the Urn of Aquarius
.
. .

which, in the Lunar Zodiac (Vide sup. p. 67), stood at the head of the asterisms. This Tablet, therefore, furnishes us with most

(Vide sup.

p. 16),

important references to Centaurus, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, Aquila and Sirius, all of which we

much as on our present sphere. The an old one, as appears, amongst other circumstances, by the fact that, in Assyrian times, it had
find described

Tablet

is

for a scribe has added already been mutilated khibi (' wanting '), to show that in his day a portion of the original had perished. But, as of course, a
;

comparatively quite modern tablet

may

bear an ex-

ceedingly ancient inscription, a simple truth sometimes lost sight of by critics.

Section VI.

The Obliquity of the
:

Ecliptic.

In Tab. K. 2894, Eev. 1. 18 we read Irbayd kas-bu sikhkhi-rat samsi
sikhkhi-rat
'

:

sus

kas-bu

.

.

.

Forty degrees=the

circuit of the

sun sixty degrees
:

=the
*

circuit.

.

.

.'

'The Kasbu' (Vide Vol. I. 325), says Prof. Sayce, was divided into 60 degrees' {Trans. S. B. A. iii. 238), and sixty was the unexpressed denominator of a fraction' {Herod, p. 403) and this passage, perhaps
'

;

202

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XIV

a gloss, contains a difficult and important statement, the explanation of which is, I think, as follows 40 f 60 t h e c i rC uit of the sun/ It is
(

=

2)

=40

=
'

:

<

clear that

sense of
is

kasbu must not be understood here in the for forty hours x 2=80 hours, not in any way connected with the circuit of the
'

double hour
*

;

*

sun/

This

'

circuit

can hardly refer to anything
of

other than the

sum

declinations from the celestial equator

the degrees of the greatest of the sun
i.e.,

during

its

annual revolution,

23g

N. and

S.

at

the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn respectively, =47, not 40, as estimated by the scribe. And this

view

is

which
moon.'
actual

strengthened by the latter part of the doubtless read 60=the circuit of
*
:

line,

the the

That

is,

|-r=l (kasbu)=60.
,

Now

sum

of the

(23i round number of 60

+ 5) + (23i + 5)=57

moon's greatest declinations is which is very near the

dently gives 20 tropic, and 30 as a round number for the lunar tropic, instead of 23j- and 28 1 respectively. From these
statements
it

He evigiven by the scribe. as a round number for the solar

follows, therefore, that the scribe

was

perfectly well acquainted with the obliquity of the ecliptic (Vide Vol. I. pp. 124, 133).

Mr. Pinches has suggested to me that possibly the reading of the word above rendered sikhkhirat, may be gir-rat advance ').

from gardru (' to Such a rendering would also be quite in accordance with the explanation above given, and
('

'

progress,'

advance

'),

would
1

refer to the
'

advance

extreme N. and of sun and moon.

'

'

S.

progress

or

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

203

Section VII.

The Seven
7

Eivers.

Siba) which, amongst other things, symbolizes Babilu (Vide Briinnow, Class. List, p. 488), appears in connexion
(Ak.

The

sacred

number

Imina, Bab.

with rivers in an interesting Tablet K. 4007, which It must be treats of seven non-terrestrial streams.

remembered that in sacred or semi-sacred accounts geography and uranography are at times intermingled, and the mythical and the mystical intrude upon
the actual

named

whilst things on earth are frequently after and are supposed to correspond occultly
;

I will first refer to W. A.I. II. with things celestial. li. Nos. 1 and 2, which have some bearing upon this Tablet. No. 1, which has been translated by Prof.

Sayce [Records of the Past, xi. 147-50), and which is an 'Assyrian Fragment on Geography,' first gives a list of countries, several of which, such as
called

(Hades), do not belong to terrestrial geography, and then (1. 25) contains a list of rivers, at the eleventh line of which the Tablet is
the country of Arallu

'

'

broken
are the

off.

Amongst the
'

terrestrial rivers
'

mentioned
'

Masgugar (' the Current,' i.e., rapidus Tigris '), the which is explained as the Bringer of Fertility
;

Udkipnunki ('the King-of-the-Plain-of-Eridu,' i.e., the Euphrates), which is explained as the Life of the Land the Arakhtu (Gk. 'Apdfys), and the Ula (Heb.
'
'

;

Ulai, Dan.

viii.

mentioned
this

are

'

Some other rivers Gk. EuXaro?). Biver of the Mighty waters,' whatever
2
;

may

be,

which

is

explained
'

as giving life to the
'

Enclosure of life' (Cf. Gilgatil, sup. p. 185); 'the Kiver of the Fish,' explained as the Biver of Fishes
1

;

the Biver of the Bird,' explained as

'

the Biver of

204
Birds
'

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
'

[XIV
'

the River of the Serpent,' explained as the River of Serpents and * the River of the goddess of
; '

;

Nisinna,'

explained as
inf. Zcty).
is

'

the

Gula' (Vide
Serpent'
water,'

In

1.

River of the goddess 44 'the River of the

explained as the
i.e.,
I.

Nahru Martu
('

('The

Bitter-river'),

the

Ogen-Okeanos

Canal-of-

Vide Vol.

354), the encircling Ocean-stream

(Vide lb. 104-5).
tion

Turning now to K. 4006 + K. 4179 we find menmade of 'the River of Fishes,' 'the River of
'

the River of Serpents,' the River of the of the River the goddess Gula,' god Marduk,' the River Gan-gaV (' The High-cloud'), and the River of
*

Birds,'

'

*

*

the Sun -god.' are those of
;

As we have

seen, the first three Rivers

the Fish, Bird and (Ocean-stream) and the Serpent explanation of the Serpent-river above given, shows that we are not here concerned with earthly streams. The River of the High -cloud'
'

can only be the Milky Way (Vide Vol. I. 105), 'the inaccessible Stream' of Egyptian mythology (Svp. p. Gula (' the Great-one '), whatever else she may 75).

have been, came to represent the primeval Ak. goddess Gurra (' the Watery-deep ') and hence her river is what Jensen calls the Weltmeer,' the Zuab-abzu
;

'

'

(Gk. Z<fy) or primordial abyss (Vide Vol. I. 352). The River of the Fish will be that from the Urn of
'

Aquarius
says, near
*

to the Piscis Australis, of which Aratos

The

right

hand

of the

Like a

slight flow of

famous Waterpourer, water here and there

And
This
1 '

Scattered around, bright stars revolve but small, all are called the Water' (H. D. 392-4, 399).
'

River of the Fish
in which

becomes

'

the River of the
Sea-goat, the

Fishes,

the

Sea-horse, the

XIV]

THE EUPHRATEAN CELESTIAL SPHERE.

205

Sea-monster, the Dolphin, the two zodiacal Fish and The Eiver of the Bird the Southern Fish all swim.
' '

will be that part of the
stellation
'

Via Lactea in which the conKhazaba-Ornis (=Cygnus) is situate. This becomes the Eiver of the Birds,' as it passes close by 'The Vultur (=Lyra) and flows through Aquila.
Eiver of the Sun-god is of course that of NingirsuTammuz, the Eiver of Orion' Eridanus, on the banks of which the luckless Sun-god, Phaethon, fell (Vide There remains 'the Eiver of Marduk.' E. B. Jr., E.)
' '

not at present able to show that the Perseusfigure of our sphere was Marduk in the Euphratean
I

am

sphere

;

but

many

circumstances incline
*

me

to this
'

the Eiver of Marduk opinion, and I believe that was the Galaxy as it flows through Perseus and past Capella, the Marduk-star, and so down southwards
to Orion.

CHAPTER XV.
The Euphratean
Star-List.

At
the

this point in the enquiry it is desirable to tabulate results of the identifications of constellations,
;

asterisms and fixed stars already obtained and at this point I would again refer to a wise caution by Prof.

Max

Muller, which, given
is

by him with
:

reference to
c

etymologies,

equally applicable here
that
all

We

must

not clamour for mathematical accuracy.'
a

I

do not for

moment pretend

will ultimately be found a result would show an insight almost miraculous. Here, as everywhere, probability is the guide of life and we do our best with the material at present available, satisfied

previous identifications to be absolutely correct. Such

;

at least of one thing, viz., that our general principles of treatment are correct, and that all the more important conclusions arrived at are

beyond reasonable doubt.

The

stellar identifications
:

previously suggested are as follows

I.
l

Northern Constellations,

etc.

Tiranna ( Judge-of -heaven '), also called Azdga - siqqa (* High - horned - one '), Diluri ('Proclaimer-of-light'), and
Duyga-gilgatil
closure-of-life
('

= Polaris{ = a Draconis)

High-one-of-the-en-

'),=Sem. Dayan-same.

Sem. Esbar-anhi (' Crown-of-heaven '), Uzzu-same and Dayan-sisa ('Directing-judge').

=

=ft Ursae Min.

XV]

THE EUPHRATEAN

STAR-LIST.
\

207

Giszalibri-giski ('Temple-of-the-Four-in-

f Vrsae Mia. =/?, y, rj, the-place-of-the-height-of-heaven '), Sem. Lib-uzzi-mdti (' Place-of-the- C (Vide Vol. I. 25).

=

Crown-of-the-land

').

)

Sameld ('Wild- heifer, voice-of-abund- I rr ' J ance'),=Sem. LiX-kul-lali. *Marturra (' Small-chariot '), =Sem. Ru- \ ' Also called Antasurra ^ kubu. (' HighTT ir >z= Ursa p Mm. ,v a tJ1 in rising ),= Sem. Tsuppur-sa-Libbi
.

m

.

.

I

('

Circler-of-the-midst

').

)

Margidda (' Long-chariot '), also called Muhnosarra ( Lord, voice - of - thefirmament') and Ak-anna ('Lordofheaven.' Gk. *Ayawa.\ Sem. Bilzakki-mati
('

= Ursa Maj.
I

Lord

-

of

-

the

-

Ghost

-

world ').

Ualuzun

'

(

Numerous

-

flock

'),

=Sem.

Tsent(< Flocks').

-Lepfieus.
/
\

n

7

Kasseba ('Lady-of-corn'),=Sem. Belatibri. Sem. Zir-banitu (' Creatress-ofseed ),=Zarpanit.
i

>
)

= Cassiepeia.
Sem

Lugal

('King'^Sem.
'

called

Sarru. Also the star of the god Lugal.'

1
J
)

^
(Vultur)
(a Lyrae).

Raditartakhu (' Lammergeier'),= Sem. Karib-barkh&ti (' Antelope-attacker ').

= Lyra
Vega

and

J
>

Khuzaba
7JA;/iw

(<Bird-of-the-forest'),=Sem.

=c**
=<4gmZa.

v (0fW& ' v

Itstsur-qisti.
('

J

Eagle '),=Sem. Nasru.

Aquila and Altair.

Zamama (' Living-eye '). Nerzak- Zamama (' Eight -foot -of -theLivmg-eye
).

)

_

,

7

J
('

Nergub- Zamama
Living-eye').

Left- foot -of -the-

1

~

Aauilap

J

Sibzianna ('Shepherd,
also

spirit-of -heaven

'),

}

Papsukala (' Guardianmessenger '),= Sem. RVu-but-same.
called

>
J

=Bootes and Ardurus.

GiZ

('Crown'), =40*

(Tide

s^.

p.

)

=Corona%

Kha CFish'),=Sem.

Ntinu (Vide sup.
J

=DelpUnus

,

A

T V) TAi r Sem Mulidtu (Gk. Tr MuAiTTa).
T

^

'

mtU

'

\
J

Andromeda.

208

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
=

D
(/?

Sibi ('Double-eye')-

Algol

Persei).

Ansu-Jcurra ('Horse'),

Sem.

Sis'il.

=

Pegasus.

Likbarra
called

'

(

Hyena '), = Sem.
('

Akhil.

Also
=,
a,

Kus-MarduJc

Hyena-of-Mer6'

y PegasL

dach ').
Mar-urbi ('The Chariot-by-itself ), Sem. Also called Gar Narkabtu-istenis. Chariot ') and Sugi (' Chariot-yoke '). ('
-Auriga.

Dilgan

('Messenger -of -light').

Also
-

called KahTcab
l

MarMUhi

('

The Star
Capella (a Aurigae).

of Merddach'), AsJcar ('the Goat'),

and Mdtu( Tempest
('Gate '-star).

'-star),

Sem.

Iqti

Nutsirda ('Prince - of - the - Serpent '), Sem. NamassH ('Eeptile'). Also
called

Anuge
('

('

Lord-of-the-Under-

--Serpentarius.

world ').

Mulubat

Man-of -death

').

e,

Serjpentarii.
,

Tsir(< Snake').

r],

Serpentarii.

primitive northern constellations of the Greeks (Vide Vol. I. 10), we shall find that all of them are included in the above list,
If

we

refer to the list of the

except the Serpent [Draco), Perseus, the Triangle, and the Arrow. The two former are Phoenician constellation-figures,

although Perseus
too,
is

may also=Marduk.

specially Phoenician, but, as noticed (Sup. p. 52), is also found in Euphratean art ; in which occurs a representation of the Solar-

The Triangle,

hero armed with

bow and arrow, contending against a Demon-bird (Sup. p. 48). I have not, however, yet rnet with the Arrow, which would be Kakhab (Ak.)
;

Gishu, (Sem.) KalcJcu, Tukultu or Utstsu, as a separate Euphratean constellation and it may have been

a Phoenician addition, as shot from the

bow

of Harelc-

Aa/-Melqarth (=Hercules).
the northern
first

The
stars,

list also

includes all

magnitude

namely, Arcturus,

Capella, Vega and Altair.

XV]

THE EUPHRATEAN

STAR-LIST.

2QC)

II.

Central or Zodiacal Constellations,
'),

etc.

Lulim

('

Ram
1

Sem. Lulimu.

.

Also

\

called

Kue{ Messenger'), Sem. Agam,

[_a
(

.

and Sem. Kusariqqu ('Strong-hornedone
').

J

Lulim
v

('

Ram

').

=Ha?nal
or 'Sickle'). '

(a Ai'ie

Gam{< Scimitar,'

j
\

$ * =% Piscium. _P Q Anetls
a
*
-

Arietis>

+a

Mahril sa risi Kusariqqi ('The Westerly- \ one of the head of the Ram '). /
ArJcd sa
risi Kusariqqi ('The Easterly-) one of the head of the Ram '). /

- JamaL
-

7

Mul

('the Star').

Also called Indna-

\

hi ('Sevenfold-one '),and

tion

'),

Sem.

Te ('Founda- ( Temennu and Aritum (
)

_ p eiac es ~
,
.

,

'

('Cluster').

Te-Te ('The Foundations').

=Pleiades and Hyades.

GuUUa
called
('

('The

Bull-in-front').

Amar

('Bull'),
').

Also) and Gut-anna >= Taurus.
)

The Bull-of-heaven
'

/>>(' The Red'). Called in Sem. Pidnu ('Yoke,' Furrow ').

\

AJ17 = AiMa

/
)

^
-

.

(

x a l **>
,

.

Sur Narkdbti sa iltdnu ('The Northernlight of the Chariot
').

f
)

_Q -P

*

,

aun
'

Sur Narlmbti sa sidu ('The Southernlight of the Chariot
').

_4 ? i Tauri ~

J

Mastabba-gaJgalla

('The Great-twins.' j
\
{
').

Lunar Zodiac).
'

Hy< ^f^f ** and Alde

f baran).

Pfel

^

~

Khigalld

('

Canal-of-water

=rj, p, v, 7,
)

Geminorum.

Mahrusa pu Mdsu ('The Westerly-one
at the beginning of the

Twins

').

}

^
=y

^emtnarum.

Arhd

sa pu Mdsu ('The Easterly-one at ) the beginning of the Twins '). /

=/x Oemmorum.
Geminorum.

~

Mdsu

sa

RVu

('

The Twin

of the Shep*

\

herd').

}
('

Mdsu mahril
VOL.

The Westerly Twin ').
Easterly Twin
').

= Castor (a Geminorum).
Pollux(/3 Geminoi-um).

Mdsu arku ('The
II.

14

2IO

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
'

[xv
Castor

Mastabba - galgal
Solar

(

Zodiac), Sem. Also called Ankiames

The Great - twins. Tudme rabtlti. (' The Heaven'

:

Gemini and and Pollux.

and-earth-pair

').

Supa

('

Lustrous

'),

Sem. Namru.

Castor and Pollux.

Nagar-asurra (' Workman-of-the-riverAlso called bed'), Sem. Namgaru. Allab ('Hero'), Sem. Kul-samsi asri
('

Voice-of-the-sun-place

')

and Gusir-

Cancer.

kesda (' Yoke-of-the-Enclosure '), Sem, Niru-sa-samS (' Yoke-of -heaven ').

Mahru
Grab
Lib

sa

Namgaru
at

sa

stdu

('The
of

Westerly-one
').

the

south

the

6 Cancri.

Namgari ('The
sa

Middle of the

Caned.

Grab').

Mahru

Namgaru

Westerly-one at
Grab').

sa iltdnu ('The the north of the

y Cancri.

ArkU sa Namgaru sa siitu (' The Easterlyone at the south of the Crab
').

-8

Cancri.

Mastabba-turtur ('The Little-twins').
Lulla
(' Fox
').

y and 8 Cancri.
a Cancri.

Lik-makh, otherwise Lik-gula Sem. Aru-rabu.

('

Lion

'),

h

Leo.

Gisbar ('Wood-of-light'), otherwise
('Sickle').

Gam
y> y>
>

i^j

e>

^ Leonis.

Bis Ari

('

Head

of the

Lion

7

).

Leonis.

Lugal

('

The King '), Sem. Sarru. Other-

wise Gubbara.

(- Regulus (a Leonis).

Mdru
Ilu

sa ribi arkat Sarru (' The Smallone of the region after the King ').

i- p
8

Leonis.

Kua

('

Oracle-god
('

').

and 9 Leonis.

Zibbat Kalbi Ari of the Lion ').

The

Tail of the

Dog

6 Leonis.

Zibbat Ari ('The

Tail of the Lion').

Ak. Lamassu ('The Flaming-one'), and Bildara (' White-fire ').

=Denebola

(/?

Leonis).

Abnam

('

Proclaimer-of-rain

').

= Virgo.
=y and
rj

Ninsar ('Lady-of-heaven').
Urragal (' The
Great-city-god
').

Virginia,

=8

and

e

Virginis.

XV]
the Lion').

THE EtJPHRATEAN

STAR-LIST.

211
. .

Sepu arkd sa Ari ('The Easterly-foot of

_^ f-P
) )

TZ Vlv

.

9 mts
. .

'

Sur

mahril Sir a ('The Bright westerly of the Ear-of-corn').
(' The Damaku.

-

one

f

F ~"* Vtr ims
.

-

Sakh

star of Prosperity '), Sem. \ Also called Khi-se (' Pro- I
'),

pitious-one-of-seed

ta

NibittuX Ear-of corn'), and Sema ('Corn-bearer.' K. I
(Sem.)

Sird ('The

one

called

.>=*.(
)
*

a

.

.

TX

.

.

.

.

V*gm).

10,932).

Lulim

('He-goat').

Also

called

Uz\

>

('Goat').

=t,

T

k, A.

Virgims.

y

Mulu-izi

('

Man-of-fire

').

=/x
('

Ptry.

and

8 Librae.

Mastabba sa ina limit Sibzina Twins in the neighbourhood
Shepherd, spirit of heaven
').

The
)
;

of the

=8

and

Virginia.

)

Ziba-anna (' Life - maker - of - heaven '). Also Sem. Zibdnitu ('The Claws').
called

)

>
)

=Chelai

(Libra).

Nidub

'

(

Lofty-altar

').

Zibdnitu sa
Zibdnitu
Claw').
Belit

siitu ('

The southern Claw
('The

').

=a Librae.
n

sa

iltdnu

northern)

y=ft
'

Librae.
,

T

.,

makh
,
.

('The Lady'), also called Nin- \ ( The Great Lady '). }
)
(

= a and P
OA =20
,.

T Llhrm
.,

-

Entenamasluv ('Lord-of-the-foundation, ,V A T a Lunar asterAs of-brickwork ). '
.

>

Librae and stars
,

r

.

7

,

j

adjacent.

Girtab ('Scorpion'), also called anna (' Scorpion-of-heaven ').

Gir-\_~
j

t

*
x
""

(Gis)-Gangusur
light
')

('Tree-of-the-garden-of-

)
I

_. P*
~~

ccor %on1/S ^ P
.
. .

'

Qablu sa
of the

risi Aqrabi ('The Middle-one head of the Scorpion ').

I J

.

.

<0 *

Rabd

sa risi Aqrabi ('The Great-one of the head of the Scorpion ').

)

~

/?<?.'
(

J

Dar-lugal ('The Great-one, the King').
Girtab (' Scorpion Asterism. Sar-ur
('
').

=Antares (a
)

Scorpionis).
v Scor-

As

a

Lunar

=0,

t,

k,

\ and

J

pionis.

Director-of-fire

').

=0
')

and

i

Scorpionis.

Sar-gaz

('

Director-of-sacrifice

=k, X and v Scorpionis.

2

12

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
face'),
).

[xV
>

Udgudua ('Smiting -sunYumu-nahri
Papilsak
called
('
('

Sem. )__
J

.,

L)ay-of-dawn

J

4 and Anunitum
iZ
g

Winged-fire-head '). ('Crown'), Hem.
('

Also
').

)

=

AgA, S
)

Great-goddess-star
etc.').

^
x
">

d

,

,

**

et0>

^"
..

Sugub-Udgudua ('Left-hand

Ur

^
('

=y
}

and

8 Sagittarii.
2

dawhM

'

(

Sole o

the Ieft "

-* and ^
=y,
S, c

Sinunutmn

('

The Swallow

').

Sagittarii.

Sem. \ Gusirabba (' Yoke-of-the-Sea '), iVa2w tamti (' Proclamation-of-thes- ( __, "" W A7i*w<r>3 /< T.A^lv. ^ C called Nunpe Sea '). Al^ Also nallod Sea'). (' Lordlycity '-star).

"

...

..

7I

Munakha
Sudul

('Goat-fish').

Also

called

Yoke '), Sem. Niru.

1^. ~ n6W
)

oaP
1

n

-

Uz ('Goat'), Sem. Enzu.
Saksadi
('

=a
'),
)

and a 2 Capricorn*.
Cawicorni

also called

Bright-horn-of-slaughter (' Slaughter-horn ').

&

J

Qarnu Enzi

('

Horn-of-the-(roa

').

=a and /3
|

Capricorni.

Mahrtt sa suhuri Enzi (' The Westerlyone of the tail of the 6roa '). /

Capricorni

Arkusa

^izi^The of the tail of the Goat ').
Gula
('

suhuri

Easterly-one
also called

)

=g Q

1

irQrnL

)

Gusisa ('The Directing-urn

'),

)

Urn

=A a

im

( vr

f,
/

).

j

^m ('Foundation'), Sem. ^p W
Nam-makh
('

.

{
').

^^J'

*'

X

an<1 *

The

Mighty destiny

-

Also called >S^M sa win zwwW ('The V =/5 Aquavit. Powerful one, which is at the Tails '). j

}

Kha

'

Fish
('

'),

Sem. Nunu.
'),

= Pisces (part).
=rj Piscium.

Durki

Cord-place

Sem. Riksu-nHni.

III.

Southern Constellations,
-

etc.

Duwuzi

('

Son

-

of

life

'),

also

called'

Ningirsu (' Lord-of-the-River-bank '), and (the southern) Sibzianna ('Shepherd, spirit-of -heaven '), Syrian Tam-

y= Orion.

muz, Gk.

'A0a/xas.

XV]
Lugal

THE EUPHRATEAN

STAR-LIST.

213

In the Lunar (' The King.' Also called Zodiac), Sem. Sarru.

)

>
|

=Betelgeuse (a Orionis).
, J0 ^ and + 0rwms
.

Abnam, Sem. Shashurru (Vermilion').
Mastabba-turtur ('The Little twins.'
the Lunar Zodiac.).

In)
}
\

T* +

x

tl

.

'

Lik-Udu ( Dos-of the-Sun'), Sem. Kalab
l

Samsi

j
'-star),

~ ,, = Cams Ma,.
.

.

Ban

('

Bow

Sem.

Qastu.

Also
=Sirius.

('The tongue-of-theDog '), Sem. Lisdn - Kalbi ; Idkliu '(' the Powerful '), and Urud ('Bronze Sem. Era. star),
Pallika or

called Ka-likku

\

Pedum ('The

Crossinc-of-

)

~ =Cams
.

Mtn.

,.

the-Water-dog').

j
)

Kaksisa ('the Leader'), Sem. Mesre. Also called Sem. Sukudu (' the Restless
')

>
)
)

=Procyon,

or

Sukunu
('

('

the Blazing

').

Maganda-anna
heaven').
Tsir-gal
('

Ship-of-the-canal-of-

~~

j

The Great-snake

').

_ ^ = Hydra.
.
,

?

'

Katsir-ninake ('The Mouth-of-the-ASfaa/fedrinks ').

)= Caput
J 77,

Hydrae

(8,

(r,

e,

p,

Hydrae).

Alia or jfswAlso called

('

Snake

'),

Sem.
('

Ttru.
J

Twws malmakh
').

Son-of-

/
)

=Alphard

(a

Hydrae).

the-Supreme-temple

Entenamasluv (As a
<p.

constellation.

Vide

|

pp. 86-87).

I
J

- a ***
7

-

Lut-Tsirna ('The Bowl-of-the-/StoaA:e '), also called (Gis)-Lue ('the Bowl' or Vessel '), Sem. Karpat-Tsiri.
'

>
)

= Crater.

Imdugudkhu ('Great-storm-bird'), also called KUusemakh ('Bird-of-the-Greatseed ') and Khu-Sebain ('The Bird! Sebain '), Sem. Zu (' Storm-wind and and Ramdnu - ikabbid Vulture '),
'

1

('

Raman-is-terrible

').

Ansu-Kurra ('The Lunar Zodiac).

Horse.'

In

the

I

^norvus
=CeataufW>
an(J
ff
,

J

GwUlim
;

riqqu

('

('Horned-bull'), Sem. fetrong-horned-one ).
(<

fmiof the

\
j

Suzalc-GwUUm
Centaur
).

The Eight-hand

t

Cereten

-

J

214

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
)

[XV
.

Sugub-Gudelirn ('The Left-hand of the
Centaur').

\

= v Oentaurt.
a ~ a and

Nergub-Gudelim ('The Left-foot of the { Centaur '). /
Ligbat
('

P

o Lentauri n *

-

Beast-of-death
('

').

Kisalbat-ala

Ancient-altar-below
Fish-of-the-Canal
').

').

=Lupus. =Ara.
=Piscis Australia.
)

Siladakhabi

('

Kumar
gal
('

('

Dusky '-one), also The Great-dragon ').

called Bis-

_p ~

,

I

AJchnd

('

Glow-worm-of-eclipse

').

= Mira (a

Ceti).

Pur -

(' Strong-one-of-the-plain '),\ Sem. Eru-edinu, Gk. 'HpiSavo?. Also I n j tt-1 tt\j/c-d' \ =Eridanus '' called River-of- V > Hid-lli-Nvngirsu (' Kiver-ofa **>*' a \ o - the - bank '), Gk. the - god - Lord - of

edin

_

.

(Potamos-

Am^h
'.

'fipiWos Horafibs.

the primitive southern constellations are of the Greeks included except the Hare (Vide Vol.
list all
I.

In this

97).

It is

not unnatural that but

little

should have
' '

been said in the Tablets about such a small and comparatively
' '

unimportant

figure
calls
it.

as

the

pale
is

and

dusky Hare, as Aratos
i.e.,

But

it
('

probable

that ultimately the
desert,'

Kakkab Ka-edinna
will

Face-of-the-

Hare)
will

appear in some fragment or
the

other,

and

thus vindicate

complete de-

pendence of the West upon the Euphratean sphere.

The Hare
Mythology.
Sirius, a

is

a very important figure in Zoological Of the southern first magnitude stars
/5

and

Centauri, Procyon and
'

Betelgeuse
'

appear individually.
of

Orion),
to

jS

the Foot Ar. Rijl, which in Orionis, Ptolemy's list

Rigel

(

is

common

Orion and the Stream,
;

may

perhaps be

whilst a and ft specially referred to as Pur-edin Crucis would appear in the hind legs of Gud-elim, the account of which has been lost. I do not know

what was the Euphratean name of Canopus, second

XV]

THE EUPHRATEAN STAR- LIST.

215

starry host, and which would be just visible low down in the southern sky (Vide The remaining first magnitude star, Vol. I. 103).
in splendour of the

Achernar (=Ar. Akhir-al-nahr,
is

'

the

End-of-the-

too far south to be seen from Babylon. River'), Many other star-names besides these above men-

tioned

occur in the Tablets.

Some

of

them

are

additional

Others are planetary names other celestial phenomena, e.g.
;

names of several of the foregoing stars. others are names of
:

Kakkab Ugaga-khu

('the Raven'),
171).
'),

Sem. Aribu.

A

comet (Vide sup.

p.
('

Kakkab

Zur

Illumination

Sem.

Tsaruru

Either a meteor or lightning. Raman, (K. 12,702). the Storm-god, is the Ilu Zur (Vide Briinnow, Class.
List, p.

141).
'

This Tablet, in the (K. 11,129). opinion of Dr. Bezold, treats of astrological forecasts taken from observations of meteors,' and is probably
a part of the finu Bili (Cat.
iii.

Kakkab Zurma

1140).

Kakkab Batga (Rm.
'Death-road').

114) or Batgakas (K. 7275. Probably the Milky Way, so fre2,

quently connected with the Souls of the dead (Vide Thus the Lunar Asterism Kliigalld Vol. I. 105).
('

The

Canal-of-water.'

Sup.

p.

75) primarily refers

to the Galaxy, and reappears in the derivative Persian scheme as Bakhvad ('the Watery-way '), which is

connected with

the

Pilgrims,' i.e., the R. B. Jr., E. S. R. Pt. v.
for
'

Bdhi-hdjiydn (' Road-of-theDead)=the Via Lactea (Vide
18).

Mars

is

mentioned in
'
'

Batga is not Mars, the same Tablet, both as
god

the god Zalbat and the star ManmaJ Kakkab Ilu Nin-Pes ('The Star of the

Lord-of-the-Boar' or 'Pig.'

K

12,325),

also called

2l6

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
('

[XV

Kakkab Pes
49).
lx.

Star of the Boar.'
is

The god Nin-Pes 23, and two of the

W. A. I.. II. xlix. mentioned in W. A. L II.
divinities of the

principal

Euphratean pantheon, Ninip-Ber and Raman, are conBer is the Lord-of-thenected with the animal.
'

and, as he is the god of the planet Saturn (Vide Vol. I. 244), I connect the Kakkab Pes with that planet. As to Raman, Prof.

Boar' (Lb.

II. lvii. 39),

Sayce observes,
['

Rimmon, when worshipped as Matu Tempest '-god], was also known as Khumuntsir the
*
,

Accadised form of the Semitic KJiumtsiru, " a pig" (W.A.I. III. lxviii. 70; Eel Anct. Bobs. p. 153,
n.
6).

Now
is

the god Nin-Pes-edinna
desert.

('

Lord of the

Boar of the
p.

449)

a divinity

may

also

be read (as

Vide Briinnow, Class. List, whose name, by some read Aitsu, I prefer) Yari and Yari, lord of
;

the wild boar of the desert, appears to me to be Ori-on (Vide Vol. I. 254), Tammuz-Adonis, who
received his fatal

Here we have in

wound when hunting that animal. origin the myth of the death of the
by the tusk of the Boar
of

Solar-hunter, stricken

storm and darkness.

Kakkab Uzu-zallu (' The Star of the W. A. I. II. xlix. 53). A comet. Kakkab Gal ('The Great-star').

Bright-body.'

Sem.
forms
'

Rabii
'In
(1.

(W.A.L
Kakkab
xlix.

III.

Hi.

No.

1,

1.

9).

A

comet.
it

its

rising like the

body Ud-khir

of a scorpion a tail
('White-rising.'
('

2).
II.

W.A.L

54)=Sem. Azkaru

The New-moon.'

Vide

Briinnow, Class. List, p. 326). The connexion between the planets and colours is one of remote antiquity. In the Temple of the Seven

Spheres (Planets) at Barsipki (Vide Vol. I. 327), the seven stages from the base were coloured respectively

XV]

THE EUPHRATEAN
Orange

STAR-LIST.
for Jupiter,

217

Black for Saturn,

Ked

for

Mars, Golden
illustrated

for the Sun, pale Yellow for Venus, Blue for Mercury, and Silver for the Moon. This is

by the following seven star-names, which occur in W. A. I. II. xlix. No. 4 The Star of the Kakhab Aban Dusia (Sem. Diisu. Diamond-stone ')=Satum. The Star Kakkab Aban Kha-urud (Sem. Nun-eri.
:

'

'

of Bronze-fish-stone

Kakkab Aban Zakur (Sem.
'

')=Mars. Uknu,
'

'

lapis

lazuli.'

The Star of the Blue-stone ')=Me7*cury. Kakkab Babbar (Sem. Kaspu. The Star of Silver')

=the Moon.
Kakkab Guski (Sem. Khuratsu.
'

The Star

of Gold')

=the Sun. Kakkab Urud (Sem.
Jupiter.

rA.

'

The Star of Bronze ')=
Vide

Kakkab Ndbi
sup. p.

('

The Star of the Proclaimed

96)=Venus.

Other star -names are partly mutilated and so untranslatable, and there are also various star-names
respecting which I do not at present offer any sugSuch are the Kabeiric star-names Kasmilu, gestions.

and Tasana,

Kaskhiszu, Kassikisu, and Kassa (Vide Vol. I. 356), Irbie, Uttid-ummari, Imsugilna, Kib-

bubu, Antaruruba, Rapasilugil, Kassu (Cf. Kassa), Rutur and Tsidar-antusi, Edan-antusi, Etur,

Kalmati.

The Kakkab Martu
ably Dilgan, which
is

('

Star of the
first

the

probof the 12 stars of the
')

West

is

West (Vide

be connected with Kaman-Matu, the Storm-god (Vide Sayce, Rel. Anct. Bobs. p. 153, n. 6), which further
sup. p. 160).
also to

Martu seems

points to Dilgan (Capella).

2l8

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XV

The Kakkab Hi Ninazu (=Ninip-Ber) probably Entenamasluv, as a Lunar Asterism (Vide sup.
p. 86).

The Kakkab Hi a (Tab. 79-7-8, 223) appears to be Gangusur (Vide sup. p. 87). In W. A. I. III. liii. No. 1, 1. 29 we read:

Kakkab Pal-dara
'

sukhal

The
Hi

constellation Libation-of-Ninip

Tiskhu
Tiskhu,

ana
to the

messenger kakkab
constellation

of the god

Girtab
of the Scorpion
(is)

dikhu
opposite.'

('to make a libation'); Dara=Ninip (Vide Briinnow, Class. List, p. 426). Tiskhu=Niniip as god of libations (Pinches, in
'
'

The Ak. pal=Sem. naqu

Proc.

S. B. A., June, 1894, p. 226). Paldara, the constellation of Ninip, and which faces Scorpio, probably=the original zodiacal Altar (Vide Vol. I. 69),

afterwards Chelai, and now Libra. Ninip and Ip are also connected with Entenamasluv (20 Librae etc.

Vide sup. pp. 86-87).

The Kakkab Utssu
III. lviii.

(<

Star of the Falcon.'

W. A.

I.

No. 11, 1. 7)=Ornis The Kakkab Kumaru (of
I.

or Vultur (Lyra).

Udgudua) has been

noticed (Vol.

78

;

sup. p. 193).

The Kakkab Mdkhar (Sup. p. 9S)=Capricorn. The Kakkab Ul-anna (' Sign-of-heaven'), Sem.
Asmu-same, mentioned
Sirius,
in Tab.

Rm.

2,

174, with

Capella, the Pleiades, Orion, Gemini, Procyon and

probably=the Hyades.

Thus, after making all due allowances in respect of doubtful and unknown stars, we shall have succeeded
in identifying no small portion of the stellar host ; and are able to place the study on a firm basis from

XV]

THE EUPHRATEAN

STAR-LIST.

219

which further investigations
future.

may

be conducted in the

Following previous authority, I had assumed that there was a Euphratean Bear '-star (Vide Vol. I. 259). But further careful investigation has convinced me
'

that this view

is

erroneous, and that

we should

read,
i.e.,

not

'bear,'

but

Damahu
p. 84).
is

('the

Prosperous'),

Spica (Vide sup. Euphratean

It is a relief to get rid of

the Bear, as there

clearly no place for Sphere (Vide Vol. I. 260).

him

in the

As regards cities and patron stellar divinities, Sin (the Moon) was the patron of Ur, Samas (the Sun) of
Sippara (Sepharvaim, 2 Kings, Venus and the (Ud-lab-ki)
;

xviii.

34),

and Larsa
of

Pole-star

Uruk
iv.

(Erech), otherwise Unu-ki

(=Heb. Hanokh, Gen.
and

17); Marduk (Jupiter) Ka-dimir-ra-ki (Babylon)
(Kutha), Margidda
(the Eagle) of

;

Dilgan (Capella) of Zalbat (Mars) of Gudua-ki

Wain) of Nippur, Zamama Kis (Hymar), Ningirsu (Orion) of
(the

Lagash (Telloh), Nunpe (, a-, n Sag.), an Ea-asterism, of Eriduga, and the Gula-star (the Urn) of Nisinna, the site of which is unknown.

CHAPTER

XVI.

The General Concepts underlying the
Constellation-figures.

Having

thus, to a considerable extent, reconstructed

the Euphratean celestial sphere, and, in so doing, proved that it was practically the mother and origin

spheres used by civilized nations whether Classical or modern, we have next to enquire what were the causes which resulted in the selection
of
celestial

the

of certain particular constellation-figures. efficiently we must, as far as possible,

To do
in

this

adopt the
the

mental

standpoint

of

the

early

dwellers

Euphrates Valley, and look round upon the external
world with their eyes.

We may

be encouraged in

the attempt by the reflection that

we gaze upon
;

the

same phenomena which met their sight and, further, that we regard them with the same human mind,
which, throughout
all

its

varied phases of power,

knowledge and ignorance, is, nevertheless, practically one and identical. The root-ideas, concepts and feelings which dominated remote Semites and Sumerians, rule over ourselves and therefore we are looking
;

back, not
selves as

upon unknown

creatures,

but upon our-

we

existed, under somewhat different con-

ditions, in the

morning of the world.

The natural

course of man's thought is from the simple to the complicated, from the obvious to the occult. Long
ere he entered

upon any

detailed study of the stellar

XVl]
host,

THE GENERAL CONCEPTS.

22

1

he was occupied in considering the great and

simple natural phenomena of light and darkness, the

ordinary dyad of which is day and night, so closely To these may next be connected with sun and moon.

added wind, tempest, clouds and the

stars as a whole.

A

brief careful observation of the latter luminaries

under favourable conditions, revealed the distinction between the fixed stars and, at least, the four prinTo these must be added the phenocipal planets.

menon

and the occasional horror of an The first point upon which man had to eclipse. satisfy himself was that regularity and stability pervaded the phenomena of the external world, that it was dominated by what I have called the Law of
of the rainbow
1

Kosmic Order.

With

this principle eclipses

appeared

at first to be in striking conflict, and the horror which they occasioned represents the terrible doubt that the
belief in the order

and stability of things to which the race had slowly attained, was in reality erroneous. On the terrestrial side, man observed himself and his and the other animals, the productions and He was conscious, varieties of the earth, and the sea.
fellow

more

or less dimly, of the ideas of power, force, life, fear, love in its variant phases, and he could measure. From the necessity of his being he measured from
himself,

and he argued by analogy. Thus, in his and speech he enveloped all things in a web thought He sometimes or principle of anthropomorphism.
believed literally in his
1

own
is

phrases
to

;

at other times,

Cf.

Archil ochos,

'Nothing

be unlooked for by men,

nothing gainsaid upon oath, nothing is marvellous, seeing that Zeus has brought about night from noon-day, hiding the light of the sun,

and grievous
F. Brooks).

fear

came upon men (Frag,
'

lxxiv., ap. Bergk,

tr.

by

22 2

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVI

Thus, as again, he knew that they were but phrases. he noticed that Sun and Dawn are hidden together in
the Darkness, he said that Asar (Osiris) and As (Isis) were linked in love in their mother's womb. Here,
at first he

knew he was speaking by way

of mortal
fact,

analogy

;

he probably subsequently forgot this

and regarded the utterance as the expression of a literal and highly mysterious truth. His power of measurement supplied him with the concept of God he necessarily regarded the Divinity as his own
;

shadow, dilated to a gigantic
thunders.

size.

Man

shouts,

God
and

The

divisions of the external world,

of spheres of effort suggest different gods. The sun is distinct from the moon ; therefore the sun-god is distinct from the moon-god. The peculiarities and
specialities

of different countries

and climates profaith
;

duced variant phases of the

common

but,

although as different as the letters of the many existing alphabets, they are all based, like the latter, on

an original
first

The widely differing forms at unity. in each case distinct origins, but the suggest variances are not fundamental. Thus, the difference
between the
beliefs of

Scandinavia and of Egypt

is

merely that of local colouring. The hippopotamus could not be a god-form or constellation-figure in regions where the animal was unknown. Lastly, man

was a borrower, imitator and adapter, not an absolute inventor and his imitation, though not so obviously crude as that of his monkey friends, was yet infinitely more intense. Thus, his religious ritual was, in most
;

instances,

a very considerable extent originally modelled on the daily phenomena and panorama of
to
I

nature.

am

not writing upon the origin of civilization or

XVl]

THE GENERAL CONCEPTS.

223

of religion, but merely upon the rise and earlier history of certain constellation-figures and therefore in the foregoing brief general remarks, I only wish to
;

indicate in outline the

mass of material upon which the human mind had to work in its efforts in this particular direction. Dyads and triads naturally
arose in idea from the consideration of such pairs as

day and night, light and darkness, morn and eve, sun and moon, man and woman or from threes, such as sun, moon and evening-star, father, mother and child, Man further observed in nature and hence transetc. ferred to his own active cogitations, a principle which
;

He noticed I have termed the Law of Reduplication. a constant repetition in the phenomena of the external world. Dawn followed dawn, sun succeeded sun day
after day.

looked upon his fellow man, saw himself again, and learned that two was one repeated. He further noticed that this repetition was either
exact or variant,
clouds;
or,
e.g.,

He

new but

similar combinations of

again,

woman,

i.e.,

wife-man.

And

all

reduplication was connected with intensity of conThus it took tinuance, of being, of wish, of effort. the form of emphasis, of direct phonetic and linguistic
repetition,

as shown in reduplication cuneiform and other ideographs, and of purely mental

of

pictorial

reduplication, which latter applied to (1) personages, (2) general ideas, and (3) their embodiment in myth,

legend and folklore.
stance, the object

Now,

to take a particular inis

not only infinitely the most important, but also by far the most remarkI need not refer here to the sun's able, is the Sun.
place in

which to us

mythology (Vide R. B. Jr., E. p. 27). The prominence of this is necessarily acknowledged by But 1 comwriters of every mythological school.

2 24

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[x

1

mence with the sun here because the numberless
it assumes in mythic fancy, under the influence of the anthropomorphic principle, are alike the best illustrations of the Law of Reduplication, and are also closely connected with the origin of the con-

forms which

The Sun hastens across heaven and earth, and rises from and disappears in the earth and sea he therefore strides, runs, gallops, drives,
stellation-figures.
;

sails,

swims, flies (Cf. Pegasos), chases the dawn, the clouds, the moon, the stars, is born, grows up, loves,

leaves, rejoins his beloved, shoots the arrow

and hurls
wounded,

the spear,

is

an eye, a wheel, a

shield, is

thorn-pricked, poisoned, sick, leprous, blinded, toils, kills his friends and his enemies, dies, fights, burns, in endless life. And these phases are reborn and is

but a few, a very few, of his personified activities. Thus, naturally, the Sun is personified and regarded
I. 310, 312), a Warrior, an a Hunter, a Giant (Cf. lb. p. Archer, a Lance-holder, or, 254), a Water-pourer, a Sailor, a Charioteer

as a

Shepherd

(Cf. Vol.

;

again, as a Ram (Cf. lb. 53), a Goat (Cf. lb. 80, 218-19), a Horse, a Lion (Cf. lb. 62-3), an Eagle
Cf.

lb.

45),

or a

Fish

(Cf.

lb.

86-7).
;

Such
are

facts

require

no

further

proof

here

they

merely

'We may observe, by mythological commonplaces. the way,' remarks Count Goblet D'Alviella, that the
'

horse,

and the cock,
p. 58).

as well as the eagle,

and the

lion,

are

essentially

solar

animals'

Symbols,

And

(The Migration of he further notes that 'in the

mythology of primitive nations the contest between the sky, or sun, and the clouds is frequently represented by a fight between an eagle and a serpent' Here we meet with the solar Snake(lb. p. 17). The Lion, king of beasts, the Eagle, king of holder.

XVl]

THE GENERAL CONCEPTS.

225

king of fishes (Cf. Vol. I. 248), are all specially sacred to the solar hero, whose most familiar mythological opponent is Darkness, appearing
either
as

birds, the Dolphin,

Night,

Storm

-

cloud

or

Eclipse,

in

size

With this are gigantic and in appearance chaotic. closely connected Cold and Winter, and Autumn, the season when the light begins to fade quickly and the cold increases. As light and warmth are, on the far more whole, pleasant than darkness and cold, so the opponent of the solar hero takes a monstrous and horrid form and is portrayed as a Dragon, huge
Serpent, Scorpion (Cf. Vol.
I.

67

et

seq.),

etc.

The

Moon, again, and Cow (Cf.

is

naturally connected with the Bull,

Ox

lb. 56, 227),

and

is

certainly also

most

closely connected with the Hare (Cf. lb. p. 97). These facts enable us to understand that the great

majority of the primitive constellation-figures had a

and were in fact forms pre-constellational history and phases of thought familiar to the mind of early man before he had entered upon the task of stellar
;

uranography.

This

is

why

he selected them for their

present positions ; for, as we have seen all along, and as even a cursory examination of the starry heavens will convince any reasonable person, the stars them-

with certain exceptions which will be noticed, do not in their natural configuration resemble the
selves,

forms in which they have been grouped, or where there may be any slight resemblance it is equally
shared by a hundred other objects which have never been constellation-figures. Writers have often told

speaking merely from the depths of their ignorChaldean shepherds were wont to gaze ance, how
us,
'
'

upon the brilliant nocturnal sky, and such and such stars resembled this
VOL.
II.

to

imagine that
15

or that figure.

226

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
all this is

[XVI

But

merely the old

effort to

make

capital

out of nescience, and the stars are before our eyes to prove the contrary. Having already certain fixed ideas and figures in his mind, the constellation-framer,

when he came
stars

and

to his task, applied his figures to the the stars to his figures as harmoniously as

possible.

figure is

Thus, nearly each primitive constellationa reduplication of an idea connected with

simpler natural phenomena, solar, lunar, or as the The solar Earn reappears in Aries, the case may be.
lunar Bull in Taurus, and thus on and such being the general concepts underlying most of the primitive
;

constellations,

we have next

to notice the

manner

in

which these very early mythological imaginings were
practically applied to the stellar expanse.

CHAPTER

XVII.
Constellations.

The Formation of the Primitive

We

have lastly to observe, in some detail, the application of the foregoing ideas and principles to the
actual configuration of the stellar host a comparatively easy task, since we have now ascertained, on
;

the one hand, the names of the principal Euphratean stars and constellations, and, on the other, the method

and

line of

thought which practically obtained in the

formation of star-groups.
early man,
like that of

As

man

of course, the eye of to-day, when lifted to the

glowing vault, fell first upon the brightest individual stars and next noted their association with each
;

other, especially in pairs, threes ecliptic constituted the region of

and sevens.

As the

and as the sun and moon, in
periously connected
twelve,
it

their courses,

primary importance, had im-

with the numbers two and

we

will first

consider the grouping of the

ecliptic constellations ; premising that the observation of single stars is, as of course, prior to their being grouped together in an imaginary whole, just as e.g.,

in matters terrestrial,
If

York existed

before Yorkshire.

find that a great number of the constellationfigures are solar reduplications, and if anyone should

we

be inclined to regard such a fact

the abstract, improbable, let us illustrate the circumstance by an example taken from heraldry. The Sun did not
as, in

monopolize the Signs to anything like the extent that

2 28

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XV

famous emblem the Lion monopolized armorial It may be a matter of some bearings at one time. surprise,' says Planch e, to learn that in the twelfth
his
'

'

century but one beast is to be seen on the shields of any of the great Anglo-Norman nobility that one
;

The Earls of Arundel, Lincoln, Leicester, Shrewsbury, Pembroke, Salisbury, and Hereford In the abstract, it was far more all bear Lions/ improbable that the w hole of these persons should adopt this one emblem than that the sun, by far the most important object in nature, should, in his varied
being a Lion.
7

aspects, occupy so much of the thoughts of archaic man. I will next briefly take the primitive constella-

tion-figures in order,
be,

and indicate, as nearly as may the principles which obtained in their several

formations.

a being regarded as I. flock' Vol. the star which heavenly 287), (Vide is their the leader. When the year naturally opens
I.

The Ram.

The

stars

'

year commenced in Aries the star Hamal necessarily had this position, and opened the year as the Eam-sun

Hence, the Ram is a solar which compose it have no actual resemblance to this animal but the

opened the day (Vide

lb. 53-4). The stars reduplication.

;

natural line of thought indicates the reason of the choice. Fig. IV. shows how the stars of the constellation were ultimately grouped in accordance with the

animal shape and this illustration applies practically to almost every constellation-figure, except to the very few in which there is a striking natural resemblance between the form portrayed and the actual arrange;

ment
single

of the stars.
star,

First

we have
;

the

Ram

as

a

Hamal

(a Arietis)
a, (3

stellation, consisting of

then a Ram-conand y Arietis (Vide sujx

XVIl]
p.

FORMATION OF PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
;

229

72) and, ultimately, when that the constellation should
possible over the ecliptic,

it is

thought necessary be spread as far as

we

arrive at the figure of

the

Hipparcho-Ptolemaic

Aries.

At

last,

modern

astronomy, for purposes of reference and description, divides the entire heaven between the constellations,
39

36

O
41

33

Fig. IV.

The Ptolemaic

Aries.

including in the part of its figure.

Ram

various stars which form no

Thus, we see, from first to last, the origin, progress and ultimate result of the idea connected with a primitive constellation and, in going through the list, the reader will find exactly the
;

same
II.

principles at work in almost every instance. The Bull. Originally the first of the zodiacal

23O

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVII

is a lunar reduplication (Vide Vol. I. the In this case configuration of the stars 56-7). aptly coincides with the lunar idea (Vide Fig. V. Vol. I. 128-9); and the original constellation, prob-

Signs, the Bull

;

Fig. V.

The Ptolemaic Taukus.

consisting of the Hyades only, is naturally As the Bull enlarged to its present proportions. originally preceded the Ram, so Sin, the Moon-god,

ably

is

at times described as the sire of Samas, the SunFig. VI. well illustrates Bui] (Vide lb. 227-8).

god, night preceding day. the lunar

of day and night apparently suggested that the constellation-figures of the Zodiac should
alternation
Fig. VI.

The

be alternately drawn from diurnal and nocturnal sources. Hence it

The Lunar Bull. will be found that Arie ^
tions

Qemini

f

No

5

~^ eo >
)

Libra), Sagittarius and Aquarius are in nature diurnal
(

^ ra

now

Signs;

Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, and Pisces are in nature nocturnal Signs. Capricomus

whilst

XVIl]

FORMATION OF PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
fact,

23 1

This

the reason of which must have been un-

centuries, has been faithfully preserved by astrology down to the present time (Vide R. B. Jr., Sem. Sec. XXVII. ; Cf. Bouchd-Leclercq,
for

known

very

many

L'Astrol. Grecque, 155 et seq.). III. The Twins. On the above principle the third
constellation-figure had to be drawn from a diurnal source. The two great stars Castor and Pollux, side by side, which alone formed the original constellation, at
'

once suggested the original

Sun and Moon, only seen together by day. As one rises the other sets, a fact quaintly shown on
Brethren,'

Twin

the cylinders (Vide Fig. VII. Vol. I. As in other cases, the 58-9, 291-2).
;

constellation

as to cover the space between the of the Bull's horns and the Crab.

was in time extended, so end

IV.

The Crab.

Next suitably came

a very dark portion of the ecliptic, which was assigned to the Crab, a variant of the Scorpion and Tortoise

(Vide Vol.

I.

60, 145, 209-11),

and an
seizes,

FlG

emblem
swallows

of

Darkness,

which

viL The Great Twins.
er *'

or, again,

guards the light and

(From a Cylin-

the light-powers. V. The Lion.

The

brilliant

stars

of the Sickle

which succeed, and which are

also connected

with the

hottest period of the year, were naturally and very suitably appropriated to the Lion, a reduplication of

From the Sickle the leonine Sun (Vide Vol. I. 62-3). the constellation enlarged until it included Denebola.
VI.

The

Virgin.

The succeeding Sign was bound

2$2

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVII

to be a nocturnal one, but the succeeding stars are bright, five of them /3, rj,

Virginis formAs crescent. a lunar ing
7, S
e

and

in

Taurus we have the

Moon-god, so here we have the Moon-goddess
and,
connecting,
as

;

is

natural, the crescent with

the upper part of her person, the brilliant star

Ear -of- corn

is

conse-

quently placed in her In V. I have hand.

demonstrated that

this

was also a love-emblem, and have given many
illustrations
Fig. VIII.

showing
it

Yiego with Spica.

the goddess holding
I.

(Vide Fig. VIII. VII. The Altar.

Vide

also Vol.
stars of

64-6, 227).

The

the immediately succeeding portion of the Zodiac are comparatively faint, but the Sign had to be a diurnal one. Hence, as the

autumn had arrived, the feeble waning Sun was aptly reduplicated in the dim stars of
season of

the circular Altar, grasped in the huge Claws of the Scorpion (Vide

Sometimes the solar Fig. IX.). or Circle Altar is represented as a

Fig. IX.

Scorpion

and Circle.

Lamp

Vide also Vol. I. 67-71, 217). (Vide Fig. X. VIII. The Scorpion. The succeeding Sign had to

XVIl]

FORMATION OF PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
;

2 OJ

be a nocturnal one

and, as in the case of the Bull, the stars lent themselves very readily to the formation of an appropriate figure, namely, the Scorpion, a familiar emblem of Darkness (Vide Fig. XL, Vol. I.

67-76).

IX. The Archer.

The succeeding Sign had

to be

/
~j
tai

Fig. X.

Scorpion and Lamp.

(From

a

Boundary Stone.)

a diurnal one, and the configuration of the stars readily suggests a Bow, and hence an Archer, Sagittarius being a reduplication of the racing Archer-sun (Vide Fig. XII. Vol. I. 77-9).
;

We now reach the watery expanse and Region of Ea, where the weather also of the time The Sign has to of year suggests an aqueous reign.
X. The Goat.

234

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVII

be a diurnal one, the stars at this portion of the is not ecliptic are dim, and their natural arrangement
connected with any specific animal figure.

What

the

season suggests is the youthful Sun of winter climbing out of the abyss of darkness, night and the deep and as both the Goat and Fish were already
;

solar

emblems, they are naturally combined in the

XVIl]

FORMATION OF PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
of

235
I.

form
80-1).

the

Goat-fish

(Yide Fig.

XIII.

;

Vol.

XL

The Water-pourer. The next

Sign, also belong-

Fig. XII.

The Archer.

(From

a

Boundary Stone.)

ing specially to a rainy season and watery region, had to be a diurnal one and hence became appropriated
;

to the

Kain-giving-sun, represented by his water-

pouring
84-5).

Urn (Vide Vol.
Here

I.

nothing

was

suggested by the natural configuration of
the stars.

XII. The Fishes,
ginally the
Fish.

ori-

This

Fig. XIII.

The Euphratean

dark and nocturnal Sign

Goat-fish.

of the watery region, in which the actual arrangement of the stars suggests no particular form, was to the Fish, a reduplication of aptly allotted

the

236

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVII

hidden in the depths of ocean and the Under-world (Vide Vol. I. 86-8). Hence, on us the Sun zodiacal the with Signs present analysis, as Earn, Twin, Lion, Daily sacrificed and Dying,
solar Fish, as

Archer,

Rain-giving,

Oceanic and Nocturnal

;

with
;

the Moon, as male and female, Bull and Goddess and with Darkness, morning and evening, in two Here we obtain an intelligible variant emblems.
evolution of stellar imagery ; we can see the reason why. The result was not the outcome of an arbitrary fancy, but the continued application of ideas which
arose naturally, of early man.

and almost

necessarily, in the

mind

XIII. The Northern Constellation-figures. Although

our knowledge of the extra-zodiacal portion of the Euphratean celestial sphere is less than the acquaint-

ance which we possess with the Zodiac, yet we know quite enough to see that exactly the same principles obtained in the formation of the extra-zodiacal constellation-figures.

The

Pole-star, as of course, stands

alone as a sacred unit, whilst the seven prominent stars of the Great Bear form a Chariot naturally

enough, and are reduplicated in the seven stars of the These two heavenly Chariots guard Lesser Bear. the Pole (Vide Vol. I. 268-9). The solar shepherd is
reduplicated in Arcturus- Bootes, the stars of which easily adapt themselves to a human form, another reason of the choice being that Arcturus is the
brightest star of the Northern Hemisphere (Vide Vol. The contest of the Sun-god with Storm I. 279-85).

reduplicated in the figures of the Kneeler, the Arrow, and the three Birds (Vide Vol. 1. 34-5, 132, 234-5), and if the reader will refer to the Map of
is

and Cloud

the Northern Hemisphere (Vol.

I.

119), he will see

XVIl]

FORMATION OF PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
in
these,

237
the

how

and

in various other,
stars

instances

natural configuration of the

portray
the

the

forms desired. 1
fish

was adapted to As the Dolphin is
248), so

head of

(Vide Vol.
46-7)

I.

the

solar

Dolphin

(Vide

lb.

reappears

-constellations in a group of stars

amongst the which stood alone

between the Arrow and Birds on the one hand, and
the figure of the solar sea Horse (Vide lb. 48, 200-2), It is obvious that these forms, the on the other. stars adjusting themselves readily to the shape of a
demi-horse, were depicted prior to that of the Dolphin, for which a small unformed group of stars was

subsequently utilized.
believe that

We

have

seen

reason

to

many

of the stars near the Pole were

specially called the Flock (Vide sup. p. 20) ; whilst certain other stellar groups, Cassiepeia, Cepheus,

combined as to represent human figures (Vide Map), which of course served for the figures of divinities, Euphratean and Phoenician. The Triangle (Vide Vol. I. 50-52) and the Crown (lb. 32-3) are natural shapes, which nevertheless were intimately connected with the religion and mythology of the Constellation-framers.
so

Andromeda, Perseus and Auriga were

The idea
224)
is
}

of a snake-holding divinity (Vide sup. p. easily portrayed by the stars of Serpenis

tarius as

that of a huge Serpent

by those

of Draco

;

but, here, as in every other instance, a previous line

The Constellation-framer is of thought is illustrated. not satisfied merely to see in Serpentarius a stellar
1

The Eagle was also

of this double aspect

is

a solar figure (Vide sup. p. 224). The reason partly the fact that the Sun, when flashing

through stormy clouds, can be regarded (1) as fighting against them, or (2) as a Storm-sun and Storm-god, using them as his
weapons.

238
picture of a
his

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVII

man holding a snake. He already had in mental religious idea the concept of a god holding a snake, either contending with it or, again, employing
it

and to this thought he gave form and Of the line of thought connected with the expression. Bears (Vide Vol. I. 256 et seq.), and of certain
peacefully
;

northern constellation-figures in Phoenician idea,

I

have already fully spoken. XIV. The Southern Constellation-figures.

When

the constellation-framer turned his gaze towards the stars of the Southern Hemisphere he would at once
see in the splendid group of Orion (Vide Vol. I. 92-3 ; 253-6) a southern solar shepherd or hunter corre-

sponding to Bootes in the north.
his
stellar

And

as the

Euph-

ratean solar hunter was accompanied by his dogs, so
reduplication was represented as being accompanied by a pair of Dogs (Vide lb. 275-9), the

seven prominent stars of the Greater Dog easily grouping themselves into the figure of a dog salient or on its hind legs, an attitude which has always been
retained in delineations
of this
constellation-figure

But, as stars were noticed ere con(Vide Fig. XIV.). were stellations formed, Sirius and Procyon were the

two
the

original

Dog-stars.

The

constellation

of the

Hare

(Vide lb. 97-8) has
;

monuments

not yet been found upon but as the animal is a singularly
its stars are

it is probable that a Euphratean constellation, and that the whole group is a stellar reduplication of the chase

widely spread lunar type, and as immediately chased by the Dogs,

those

the

Hare was

not the slightest resemblance between the stars of the Hare and the
of the

Moon by

the Sun.

As

there

is

animal, the idea of a lunar hare being in the mind of the constellation-framer, he would arbitrarily apply

XVIl]

FORMATION OF PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

239

The the stars to the figure or the figure to the stars. solar Ship is so familiar a mythological subject that

we should expect

meet a reduplication of it, espeand therefore cially in the land of the Deluge-story we are not surprised to find an Argo amongst the constellations, though of what stars it was originally
to
;

Fig.

XIV.
is

The Dog.

(From a Boundary Stone.)

composed

uncertain (Vide Vol. I. 101-3). The Storm-and-darkness -monster, connected also with the

vastness of the enringing serpentine Ocean found a natural heavenly location in the vast dark space

beneath the Zodiac and under Perseus and Andro-

meda, occupied by the Sea-monster (Vide
the Water-snake (Vide lb. 104-6.).

lb. 89-91)

;

and, in its second form, in the tremendous length of

No

reasonable

24O

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVII

person, acquainted with the representations of the Great Snake on the monuments (Vide sup. p. 34) can well deny that the constellation-framer in arbitrarily (so far as natural shape is concerned) linking together stars from Cancer to Libra in the form of a

was making a stellar reduplication of an idea familiar to his mind whilst the Kretan coins already and the legends referring to the great contest of the
serpent,
;

Sun-god with the Crab and the Water-snake, show how faithfully the myth and its stellar reduplication
were propagated in the West (Vide Vol. I. 144-6). The two remarkable clusters of stars immediately
north of the Water-snake and very closely connected with it, naturally received names, Bowl and Crow, which, as we have seen, were connected with the

Tiamat cycle of ideas and personages (Vide lb. As I have frequently had occasion to observe, 106-9). more remarkable than the quite insignifiis nothing
of

cant part played by pure invention in the progress meet with continuous borhuman thought.

We

rowing and reduplication.
well
'

Even Nature,
is

as

Emerson

says,

hums her

old

tunes with innumerable

variations.'

And

this

feature

most strikingly

Not evident in the case of the constellation-figures. only are the original types reduplications of prior ideas, but the leading figures, when once formed, are
frequently simply reproduced in slightly variant phase. Thus, the Southern Fish (Vide lb. 115-17), the Altar

(Vide lb. 67,

nothing

to

180, 216-18) and the Centaur owe the natural formation of the stars, but are

merely reproductions of the original Piscis of the Zodiac, of the original Altar of the Zodiac, and of the

Archer of the Zodiac.
(Vide lb.

The

stars near the

Centaur

110-11) permitted the introduction of a

XVIlJ

FORMATION OF PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

24 1

further figure, the

Wild-beast (Vide lb. 112), which,

originally forming part of the constellation, showed the triumph of the Sun-god alike over the Beast of

darkness and over his
This,

own solar Lion

(Figs.

XV., XVI. ).

as

already no-

ticed (Vide lb. 214), was an early feature
in the art of

Western

and one which was carefully reproduced in Hellas. In the case of the Stream
Asia,

(Vide lb. 95-9),

the

Fig.

XV

-The Centaur and the

primitive constellation, the constellation -fram er immortalized
several ideas.

remaining

Wild-Beast.

The Ocean-stream, the Milky-way, and

will

It Euphrates, king of rivers, are all concerned here. be observed that the actual configuration of the

stars

exactly out the idea

carries

;

but

it

was by no
that
stars

accident
particular

these

were selected to

depict jfiridanos. its bank stands

On
the

Fig.

XVI.-The Centaur and the
Wild-Beast.

doomed and luckless Sun - god (==Orion),
against

whom the Sea.

,

.

advancing. o The solar hero is everlastingly victorious and defeated near the Ocean-stream in a word he is Perseusis
;

monster

Tammuz.
Such, then, were the principles which obtained in the formation of the primitive constellations. Eelivol. 11. 16

242

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.

[XVII

gious and mythological ideas, already long current and venerated, were stamped upon the sky as sacred and
celestial forms.

The natural arrangement

of the stars

was

utilized as

much

as possible in connexion with

certain instances, but

had no wider influence than has

onomatopeia in the science of language (Vide lb. 128). The same leading ideas were repeated in numerous
cases, until at length the

heavenly sphere was as fully
for practical purposes, science to map out the

completed as
it

seemed necessary

being reserved for modern and thus to complete uranography. The system so formulated in the Euphrates Valley
entire heavens,

was accepted and adopted by Western Asia. The constellations of Israelite and Phoenician were those of Babylonian and Assyrian, even as Bel reappeared as
Baal and Istar as Ashtoreth.

Whenever we

find a

Phoenician constellation-figure we see in it the exact prototype of the corresponding figure in the Greek

And here my present task sphere (Vide sup. p. 50). ends. I claim to have demonstrated that the Euphrates Valley

was the main source whence were derived

I claim, the primitive constellations of the Greeks. line of shown the natural idea which to have further,

produced the constellation -figures

;

and although the

research of the future will doubtless greatly add to the mass of material available for the further elucidation of the subject, and will enable us to correct many errors in detail and to explain many circumstances and

incidents

now

obscure and perplexing, yet I

am

not

afraid that the principles maintained in this

work and

the general conclusions now arrived at, will be unable to stand the influx of more light from the East.

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
Page 208.
The Tab. Rm.
The Gates of Sugi.

100, unfortunately
'

much mutilated,

illustrates the

importance of the constellation Sugi (Sup. pp. 114-18). Line 2 of the Fragment remaining reads, Cattle bring forth and flourish, fish' ... In 1. 3 Sugi is mentioned, and in 1. 4 Margidda ('the

Wain
stars.

'),

Line 5 names
4,

so that the Tab. is specially concerned with the Chariot' the land of Elam/ but, owing to the lacuna

in

1.

what
:

this

reference was,

does not appear.

The Tab.

continues
6.
1

Kakkab
constellation

Su-gi,

kakkabdni-su^
,

bi-rit-su-nu

The

the Chariot

its stars,

their conjunction

iua satti siati rains sibirri pet-dt \imakaruJ\ the crops in that year [(men) sell greatly reveals itself ']. As to the meaning of ' conjunction,' vide sup. p. 199.
:

Sugi, kakkabdni-su, minma satti nazuzu, sibirri ina 'The constellation the Chariot, its stars, during whatever year they are conspicuous, the crops in that year
7.

Kakkab

satti siati

imakaru.

(men) sell.' That is, Sugi
in

is
1.

associated with fertility.
16.

This line also occurs

K. 2894, Ob.

'

tarbatsa ipakhkhir,-ma 9. Kakkab bdbu-su Su-gi its gate The constellation the Chariot a setting makes, and sutu mat Akkadi. ana petu ina satti siati
'

towards the south opens in that year (towards) the land of Akkad.' 10. Sugi sets, and its gate towards the north opens in that year, (towards) the land of Subartu.'

Sugi sets, and its gate towards the east opens in that year, (towards) the land of Elam.' ' 12. Sug\sebs, and its gate towards the west opens in that year, (towards) the land of Amurru.'
11.
'

Lines 14-17 read similarly that Stigi 'is fixed* (in

its

place),

244

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
'

and that its gate opens towards the same four quarters. Subartu (Cf. K. 694, 1. 9), otherwise Su-edin or Sutu (Vide Delitzsch, Paradies, pp. 234-5), lay east of the Diglat (Tigris) and north of Amurru (Vide sup. p. Kltlm, and stands for the North generally. the Amorite West. is '-land, literally 160) the sweet influences of It is thus stated that what I may call Sugi towards plenty, were directed at different times through its We here meet with an gates to the lands of the Four Quarters. archaic instance of the idea of stellar gates, which afterwards became so familiar ; especially in the case of Capricornus et solis portas' (Macrob. Comment, in Som. Scip. I. xii. Cancer Other Classical stellar gates were Unam ad signum Scofjnonis, 1). alteram per limitem qui est inter Leonem et Cancrum; tertium

=

'

'

'

.

.

.

'

esse inter
i.

Aquarium

et Pisces

7

(Varro, ap.

Servius,

in

Georg.

34).

We have seen (Sup. p. 40) that the great Goat-stsu, Sum. Askar, Ph. Aiz, Gk. Aix, Lat. Capella, which stands above Sugi, marked the new year at a time prior to B.C. 2540, when the Pleiad was
specially connected with the vernal equinox (Vide Vol. I. 56-7, noticed further, that, according to archaic Chinese 156).

We

astronomy, which was Bab. in origin, the name for the Pleiad was written 'sun open door,' and that there was a path, that of the the Pleiades and the Hyades (lb. p. 275). This^ ecliptic, between
then,

was the western gate of Sugi, open towards Amurru.
is

Thus,
Sup.

Sugi
p.

But

specially connected with the glad fertility of spring. the great Goat-stav is also in Bab. Iqu (' the Gate '-star.
;

Babylon herself but Ka-dingira (' the Gate-ofBab-ili. Hence, the path by Askar-IqH to the the-gods'),=Sem. the pair of Chariots guard the sacred where the of North, heights
208)
for
is

what

is the northern gate of Sugi, open in idea towards Subartu. Sugi, as noticed (Sup. p. 208), is the Mar-urbi (' Chariot-by Sem. vide Class. Ak. Urbi= itself.' Istenis, Briinnow, List, p.

Pole,

And

457), as opposed to the other

two Chariots, the Mar-gidda and

*Mar-turra, which

The

together. southern gate of Sugi is
'),

lie

ing-of-the-Gate

Ph. meaning

formed by the Ak. Ka-sil ('OpenBab. Kuzallu, As. Kusallu, Ph. Kesil, with the Orion 'Strong' (Vide Star-map, Vol. I. \\),

=

p. 415). eastern gate of Sugi is formed by Castor and Pollux on the north and Procyon on the south ; and is similarly styled a gate of heaven in the archaic Chinese astronomy (Vide Lacouperie, Western

Diet. (Vide Hommel, ap. Muss-Arnolt,

The

Origin, p.

301).

The

ecliptic

passes between these points,
I

as

between the Pleiades and Hyades.

am

very far from understand-

ADDITIONAL NOTES.

245

ing the full significance of the Tab., but in these matters we must At every step in the investigation of matters proceed by degrees.

Euphratean we meet with fresh evidence of how much the world has borrowed from the Land of the Two Rivers. Line 18 of the Tab., unfortunately broken off at both ends,
speaks of Napis-tu Ummdn-Manda (' The life of the Tribal Hordes,' vide sup, p. 100), about whom we would fain know more. The

same expression occurs
Line
1

in
'

W.

A.
its

1.

III. lx. 35.

9 reads

.

.

.

and

gate towards the south opens in

that year [(towards)

Akkad

'].

Lines 20-22 similarly connected the north-gate (whether of Sugi or not, I am not certain) with Subartu the east-gate with Elam,
;

and the west-gate with Amurru.

Page

224.

The Solar-eagle and

tJie

Cloud-serpent.

An

Goblet D'Alviella,

excellent illustration of the above-quoted dictum of Count is supplied by the Bab. story of the Eagle and

the -Serpent, which

is partly contained in Tabs. K. 1547 and K. The Eagle and has been translated by Mr. L. W. King. 2d27, determines to eat the young of the Serpent, and will not listen to one of his eaglets who, abounding in wisdom,' warns him against the evil deed, which is certain to provoke the vengeance of the Sun'

god, lord of justice.

and the

latter

in the belly eat the flesh
26.

The Eagle devours the young of the Serpent, complains to the Sun-god, who bids him hide himself of a dead ox, and seize the Eagle when he descends to
:

Into the midst

when he has

entered, do thou seize

him by

his wing, tear off his wings, his pinions, and his claws. ' 28. Pull him in pieces and cast him into a pit, a death from and thirst let him die.' So said, so done. The eaglet in hunger

vain warns his
'

sire against the trap, and the Eagle, when caught, The vainly endeavours to propitiate the Serpent with a gift.

Serpent
in pieces

and

tore off his wings, his pinions (and) his talons, pulled him death from hunger and thirst cast him into a pit.

A

he

died.'

The Sun-god,
from the

as lord of justice,

is

of course quite distinct in idea

solar photosphere, the Eagle of the story, who, having destroyed the little clouds (=the young of the Serpent), at even descends to the earth, and is there seized. His wings and talons

world.

(=rays) are torn off, and he is cast into the 'pit' of the UnderThere is nothing in the natural habits of these creatures

to explain the circumstances.

The Serpent does not

bite or poison

246

PRIMITIVE CONSTELLATIONS.
;

the Eagle, but acts towards him in a non-natural way but in a manner which the basis of the myth requires. Nor, again, did anyone sit down and invent this tale out of his own head. It was

suggested to

him by

natural phenomena.

A
from

fx.v06s

7raXato5 such as this, passes, as Gubernatis has land to land, the animals (I use the word in a

shown,

being altered in accordance with the region. reappears in Archilochos, in the 7th century B.C. nearly all of it is lost, just as the Bab. account

covering sense) This very talc

Unfortunately
is

by no means

perfect; but the portion of the Gk. version which remains, is sufficient to enable us to detect its parentage. It is contained in

Frags, lxxxvi.-lxxxviii. of Bergk's edit., and has been translated by Mr. F. Brooks, from whose rendering I quote
:

1

This tale there

is

among men

that a

Fox and Eagle made once

upon a time

a league together.'

This feature does not appear in the Bab. version, as we have it, but was almost certainly contained in the original. The Serpent is described as the as the clouds are the comEagle's companion,'
'

panions of the sun. The Eagle, having treacherously devoured the cubs of the Fox, retires to a 'lofty crag,' on which, he says, 'I
sit

making

light of
:

thy warefare.'
is

The Fox then appeals
. . .

to Zeus,

exclaiming ' Father Zeus, thine

the wrong-doing of beasts and

the lordship of heaven, and to thee its punishment is a care.'
is

The

rest of the

story
is

lost,

but doubtless the Eagle, whose

to that of which he alleges in for condign punishment. Zeus as the and Fox is substituted for the replaces Samas, just judge ; the Serpent.

treachery the

poet

comparing

Lykambes

to be guilty,

came

INDEX.
I.

AUTHORS.
Birch, S., i. 69. Blake, J. F., i. 275 ; ii. 182. Bode, i. 17. Bosanquet, R. H. M.. i. 287

Abdn

Yast,

i.

322.

Achaios, i. 147. Achilleus Tatios,

i. 6, 71, 260. Aelianus, i. 46, 144. Agathias, i. 317. Aglaosthenes, i. 46, 153, 262. Aischylos, i. 139-41, 176. Albiruni, i. 6 ; ii. 179-80.

;

ii.

5.
;

Boscawen,
ii.

W.

St.

Chad,
ii.

i.

177, 350

10.

Bouche-Leclercq,

231.

Aldrovandus,

i.

106.
i.

Bruchmann, i. 357. Brugmann, i. 3.
Brugsch, i. 103. Briinnow, i. 266
;

Alex. Polyhistor, Alkaios, i. 144.

141.

Alkman,

i.

143.
i.

Alphonsine Tables,
21, 189.

35, 284

ii.

ii. 8, 80-1, 109, ; 114, 130, 152, 160, 169, 171, 190, 216. 200,
;

174. Alraqqfi, Amos, i. 256. Anakreori, i. 142.
ii.

Budenz, i. 96 ii. 71. Bundahis, i. 335. Bunsen, i. 37, 140, 269 Burnouf, i. 97 ii. 191.
;

;

ii.

187.

Apollodoros,

i.

35, 42, 136, 155, 216.

Appianus, i. 229. Aratos, passim.
Archilochos,
Aristillos,
i.

Catullus,

i.

13.

ii.

221.

120, 342. Aristoteles, i. 325. Aristoxenos, i. 150. Arktinos, i. 124, 159. Arrianos, i. 316.

Censorinus, i. 6 ; ii. 128. Cesnola, i. 5, 305-6. Chalclaean Oracles, i. 287.

Chaucer,

ii.
i.

67.

273. Chipiez, vide Perrot. Chresmoi Syb., i. 6.

Cheyne,

Athenaios, 351.

i.

153,

178, 241, 270-1,

Chrysostom, i. 80. Chwolsohn, i. 73, 351;
Cicero,
i.

ii.

181.

Aufrecht, i. 258. Avesta, i. 257, 276, 285.

15, 217.

Avienus,

i.

6, 152, 217.
i.

Babelon,
Bachofen,

188.

i.

Baily, F., i. Basil, i. 286.

176, 261. 5, 94-5.

Bayer, i. 16. Berard, i. 5, 8, 138, 154-5, 188, 201-2, 206, 221, 232, 263. Bergk, i. 142-3. Berosos, i. 89, 107, 112, 317, 330-34,

Claudianus, i. 286. Clem. Alex., i. 42, 281, 317, 354. Clermont-Ganneau, i. 5. Conder, C. R., i. 309. Cornutus, i. 6. Corp. Ins. Sem., i. 169. Cox, SirG. W., ii. 123, 191. ii. Cullimore, i. 163, 213 cap. passim.
;

x.

Cumont,
Curtius,

i.
i.

7 ; ii. 55. 208.
ii.

351

;

ii.

2.
ii. 321, 332-3 60, 82. 5, 116, 288, 354 ; ii. 4, 9,
;

D'Alviella,
Damaskios,
i.

224, 245.

Bertin, Bezold,
11.

i.
i.

89, 168-9, 352-3.

Daniel, i. 36, 322. Dante, ii. 67.

Biot,

i.

6.

Daremberg,

i.

7.

248

tKDEX.
Hahn,
i.

Darmesteter, i. 7, 259, 317, 322. Dead, Book of the, i. 6, 68, 210, 279.

97, 272.

Do De

Clercq, Harlez,

i.
i. i.

7
7.

;

ii.

45, 47.

Halevy, ii. 98. Haliburton, i. 275.

Hammer,
Haug,
i.

Jos. de,

ii.

58.

Delambre,
Delitzsch.

i.

148, 220, 281. 273 ; ii. 244.
ii.
;

De Morgan, i. 21. De Sarzec, i. 201

;

47.
ii.

Deuteronomy, i. 276 De Vogue, i. 5.

103.

257-8, 317. Hayman, H., i. 291. Head, B. V., i. 168,174-5, 201, 204-6, 208-9. Hegesias, i. 115.
7, 75,

Hehn,

i.

29.

Diodoros, i. 103, 147, 216, 225-7, 318, 324, 326-7 ; ii. 2-4, 60-1.

Diogenes Laert.,

i.

123, 148, 150.

Diogenites, i. 115. Dowson, Jno., i. 335.

i. 144-5. Helladios, i. 188. Hellanikos, i. 146. Hermippos, i. 276.

Hekataios,

Duncker, i. 8, 202 Dupuis, i. 6, 117
;

;

ii.

19.

ii.

11, 20, 27.

Eckhel,

i.

161.
i.

i. 39, 95, 123, 148-9, 192-3, 197, 205, 212, 223, 225-6, 303, 316, 318, 326 ; ii. 22, 181. Hesiod, i. 140, 153-8, 200; ii. 71, 126.

Herodotos,

196. Engelmann, i. 42. Epic Cycle, i. 242-3. Epigenes, i. 333. Epimenides, i. 150, 159.

Edkins, i. 19. Ely, Talfourd,

i. 6, 76, 84, 141, 157, 219, 221, 224, 232, 269, 273, 286, 322, 344-7, 349-52, 354. Hevilius, i. 17.

Hesychios,

Hewitt,
;

J. F.,
i.

ii.

61.

Hilprecht,

7.

Epping,
ii.

i.

5, 9, 68, 87,

336, 340, 347

30.
i.

Eratosthenes,

Eudemos,
Eudoxos,
ii.

218. 148.
i.

Hipparchos, i. 12,20-118, 269, 280-1, 324, 328-9 ii. 23, 143-4, 176TV Hogarth, D. G., i. 307, 317, 319-20.
;

i.

5,
i.

10, 27,

120-2,
127,

146

;

143-4.

i. 29, 32, 40-2, 141, 144, 222, 224, 226, 242-93 ; ii. 104, 126. Homeric Hymns, i. 46, 243.

Homer,

Euktemon,
148.

125

;

ii.

137,

Homniel,

Eumelos,

i.

124.

i. 5, 18, 48, 52, 84, 225-6, 267, 273, 288, 345, 357; ii. 62, 65, 75, 77, 91, 98, 100-1, 106-9,

Euripides, i. 132-5, 284. Eusebios, i. 5, 141. Evans, A. J., i. 298-300. Exodus, i. 254. Ezekiel, i. 288. Ezra, i. 254.

111-12,114-16,120,161,167-8.
Horace, i. 59, 220 ii. 124. Hosea, i. 261 ; ii. 158. Houghton, W., i. 37, 259 Hyde, i. 25 ; ii. 20.
;
;

ii.

71.

Hyginus,

i.

13, 30, 46, 102, 107, 115,
;

135, 217, 272, 279

ii.

91, 149.

Farnell, L. R., i. 130, 155. Firuzabadi, ii. 27, 200. Flamsteed, i. 114 ; ii. 36.

Iamblichos,
Ideler,
i.

i.

351, 354.
;

6, 218, 276, 346.
ii.

Gardner,
Geminos,

Percy,

i.

200-1.
;

Imhoof-Blumer, i. 265, 301 ii. 191. Isaiah, i. 259
;

55.

i. 6, 12, 126, 139, 323 ii. 127, 136-7. Genesis, i. 64, 85, 89, 95, 140, 221, 226.
;

Jensen,
345
;

i.

5, 109, 210,

Gerhard, i. 37 Germanicus, i.

ii.

53.

98, 110-11, 155, 169, 171-2, 184, 189. Job, i. 30, 246, 256 ; ii. 155.

ii.

69,

266, 288, 309, 118-20,

6.

Gesenius, i. 5, 102, 162-7, 205, 234. Gladstone, i. 291; ii. 90. Glaser, i. 18. Goldziher, ii. 83. Grassrnann, i. 258. Grotius, i. 14.

Joshua, i. 205. Jowett, i. 123. Judges, i. 229. Julius Firmicus, Juvenal, i. 247.

i.

341.

Gruppe,

i.

5, 49.
ii.

Gubernatis, i. 60, 62, 97, 219; ii. 22. Guillemin, i. 91, 359
;

246.

i. 13, 148. Kallisthenes, i. 328. Katasterismoi, i. 6, 30, 32, 46, 97, 110, 115, 135, 150, 153.

Kallimacho.s,

54,

INDEX.
Kazwini,
Keller,
i.
i.

H$
i.

339. 262, 265, 301.

Muss-Arnolt,
184.

346

;

ii.

14, 22, 112,

Kenrick, i. 5. King, C. W., i. 6. King, L. W., i. 358 ii. 135, 184. 1 Kings, i. 230, 254. 2 Kings, i. 90, 214, 225 ; ii. 73,
;

Myro,

i.

143, 271.

Naville, i. 53. Newton, Sir I., i. 124. Nonnos, i. 6, 36.
Oixopides, i. 120, 124. Olympiodoros, i. 227.
O'Neill,
i.

193. ii. 64. Kingsniill, T. G., i. 105 Kleostratos, i. 120, 124, 129-30. Knobel, E. B., i. 6, 73, 342 ; ii. 129.
;

268.
5, 330, 337, 345.

Konon,

i.

12.

Oppert,
Ottley,

i.

Korinna, i. 144, 205, 255. Kritodemos, i. 334.
Ktesias,
i.

W.

Y.,

i.

227.

Ovid,

i.

54, 220, 247.
F.,
i.

115, 226.
i.

Lacoupekie,
75.

6, 18,

73

;

ii.

65, 67,

156, 250, 305. 151. Parmenides, i. 150.

Paley,

Panyasis,

i.

Lajard, i. 6, 97, 110, 163, 214, 217, 227, 292, 297, 306 ; ii. cap. x.

passim. Lang, A., i. 7, 294-5. Lauth, i. 245. Leake, i. 145, 176, 193, 207. Lenormant, F., i. 5, 40, 49, 140, 149, ii. 40, 70, 155, 188, 277, 344, 354
;

Pausanias, passim. Peisandros, i. 150-1, 234. Penrose, F. C, i. 6, 336. Perrot, i. 5, 51, 101, 141, 163-5, 167, ii. 31, 37, 39. 174, 305-6 Petavius, i. 21, 126. Pherekydes Ath., i. 148. Pherekydes Sy., i. 5, 354.
;

196.

Letronne, Lewis, Sir G. C, i. 6, 11, 13, 122, ii. 140. 150, 279-80, 326 Liechtenstein, i. 73. Lockver, Sir N., i. 6, 366 ; ii. 69,
i.

6.

Philon, i. 49, 140, 149. Philostratos, i. 51.

Phokos,
Photios, Pinches,

i. i.

;

148. 226.

i. 9, 46, 78, 344, 348 ; ii. 10, 13, 27, 83, 100, 117, 121, 150,

124.

Loukianos, i. 84, 115, 165, 224-5. Lydus, i. 6, 354.

Lykophron,

i.

254.
ii.

202, 218. Pindaros, i. 143. Pisinos, i. 151. Planche, ii. 228. Platon, i. 121-3 ;

ii.

141.

M.\( KOBius,'i. 62-3, 225, 356
i. 6, 115, 217, 337. Mariette, i. 143. Mart. Capella, i. 6.

;

244.

Mairilius,

Maspero,
103-4.

i.

6,
i.

19,

256

;

ii.

31,

39,

Max. Tyrius,

6, 51.

Menant, i. 6, 220. Merry, W. W., i. 253, 280. Meton, i. 125.
Micyllus, i. 280. Mills, L. H., i. 7. Milton, i. 126. Minokhired, i. 268.

Plinins, i. 12-13, 16, 21, 23, 32, 124 147, 229, 280-1, 328, 331, 333-4. Ploutarchos, i. 25, 208, 231, 276, 301, 318-9, 331, 342 ; ii. 121. Porphyrios, i. 262. Pott, i. 332. Procter, i. 14, 24, 339. Proverbs, i. 261 ; ii. 196. Psalms, i. 269 ; ii. 157. Psellos, ii. 181.

Pseudo-Or. Hy., i. 227. Ptolemy, i. 5, 20-118, 281, 286, 329, ii. 123-4, 192. 337, 342
;

Pythagoras,

i.

120, 150.

Minsheu, i. 16. Mnaseas, i. 356. Montucla, i. 23, 342. Moses, Kho., i. 226.
Mousaios, i. 148, 159. Movers, i. 5, 40, 308 ii. 187. Miiller, K. O., i. 6, 11, 13, 15, 126-32,
;

Quran,

i.

18.

Rabelais, i. 41. Ramsay, i. 307.

Ram

Vast,

i.

322.
5,

151-3, 197, 255.
Miiller,

Max,

i.

7,

256-9

;

ii.

62,

206.

Rawlinson, G., i. 329 ii. 140. Renan, i. 5, 262 Renouf, Sir P., i.
;

101, 323, 325-6,

;

ii.

180-1.

6, 19, 68.

250
Ridgeway, Rig-Veda,
i.

INDEX.
312-13. 219.
6,

Strassmaier,

i.

118

;

ii.

30.

i.

6, 53,
i.

Stucken,
Sturz,
i.

i.

9.

Robert, C, Roscher, i.

Ruskin,
Salio,
1
i.

i.

102, 158, 160. 227, 304-5. 34, 63, 178, 215, 265, 276.
7, 34,

5.
i.

Svoronos,
298.

7,

152, 164, 208, 265,

Synkellos,
7.
i. i.

i.

329.
51.

Samuel,

285.
225, 261.
i.

Tacitus,
30, 39, 140, 189,

i.

2 Samuel,

Sanchouniathon,
225, 227, 231. Sappho, 142-3. Sayana, i. 258.

Taylor, Isaac, i. 138. Taylor, Jeremy, i. 53.

Tennyson, i. 150. Teukros Bab., ii. 180-1.
Thales,
i.

27, 120, 148-9.

Sayce, passim. Schlegel, i. 19. Schjellerup, ii. 123. Schliemann, i. 97, 107, 209, 295-8.

Theognis, i. 143. Theon, i. 13, 136.
Thiele,
i.

9.

Schlottmann,

ii.

158.

Scholia, i. 30, 33, 62, 110, 147-8, 166, 169, 177. Schroeder, i. 40. Seneca, i. 331 ; ii. 124. Servius, i. 51, 68, 147 ; ii. 140.

i. 7, 141, 162, 248, 265, 271, 275, 303, 312-13. Tizini, i. 339. Tobit, i. 227. Tylor, i. 309. Tzetzes, i. 254.

Thompson, D'Arcy,

Shakspere,

i.

80.

Ulugh Beigh,
Vambery,
199.
i.

i.

20, 23, 25, 35.
ii.

Shdyast Ld-Shdyast, i. 75. Sherburne, ii. 36, 126-7. Simmias, i. 143. Simonides (Keos), i. 143.
Simplikios,
i.

91, 274, 347

;

156,

334.
i.

Simpson, W., Smith, Geo.,

74.
i.
;

Varro, ii. 244. Vergil, i. 57, 106, 220, 226, 274. Vitruvius, i. 282, 331.
108,
ii.

90,
ii.

111-12, 141, 180

104, 195.
;

Smyth, W. H.,

i.

285, 339

20,

Weber,

Albrecht,

i.

18.

27, 124, 200. Solinus, i. 189. Sophokles, i. 135-9. Souidas, i. 6, 323.

Wellhausen, ii. 100-1. West, E. W., i. 7, 75.

Wharton, E. R., Whitney, i. 6.

i.

35, 276.

Spano,

ii.
i.

50.
7.

Spiegel,

Spon, i. 164. Standard, the, ii. 176-9. Stanley, Thos., i. 73.
Steingass,
i.

Wilkinson, Sir G., ii. 128, 181. Williams, Jno., i. 18. Wilson, H. H., i. 258. Wright, Wm., i. 167, 307-8.

Wroth, W.,

i.

145, 177.

259.

i. 219, 345. 144. Stesimbrotos, i. 193. Stobaios, i. 331.

Steph. Byzant,
Stesichoros,
i.

Xanthos,

i.

Xenophanes,

226. i. 148.
231.
;

Zechariah,

i.

Strabo, i. 13, 118, 136-7, 197, 205, 226, 250-1, 314, 316, 318-20.

Zephaniah, i. 90 Zonaras, i. 37.

ii.

193.

II.-STELLAR.
1.

Sumero-Akkadian.
16, 27.

Abxam Abnam
Alam,
Alia,
i.

(Stellac Virginis),
(Betelgeuse),
ii.

ii.

*Akanna (Aydi/i/a), Akhna, i. 358-9.
ii.

i.

169-70. 269.

Allab, 160.

i.

360
23.
ii.

;

ii.

15, 16, 115-16, 122,

Ama,

ii.

Ankiames,

168, 170-1.

155.
;

360

ii.

109.

Ansu-kurra, ii. 22, 84-5. Autasurra, ii. 23, 189-91.

INDEX.
Anuge,
Apin,
ii.

251
i.

ii.

174-5. 67-8.
?), ii.

Gutdiia,

358.
i.

Guttav (Gud),

82, 85, 93.
ii.

Aritum (Sem.

153, 155-6. Askar, i. 42, 220, 222, 358 ; ii. 97. Azaga-siqqa, ii. 183-4. Azagi-turda, ii. 184.

Hid-ili-Ningiusu,

23.
ii.

Idkhu

(Aquila),

i.

45

;

17, 130,

Ban,

ii.

129-31, 138.
ii.

175 195-9. Idkhu' (AUair),
125, 197.

i.

45, 111-12, 123,

Batga (Mars), i. 348. Batgakas (Via Lactea),

215.

Bildara, ii. 109. Bir (Mars), ii. 160. Bir (Aldebaran), ii. 160. Birva (Antares ?), ii. 160.
Bisbis,
i.

Idkhu (Sirius), ii. 173-4. Imdugudkhu, i. 108 ii.
;

17, 168.

Imina-bi, i. 358. Iskhara, ii. 91, 153.
Izsi,
ii.

109.
ii.

90.

Bisgal,

ii.

23-4.
i.

Kakran,
75
;

120.

Dar-Lugal,

ii.

88.
;

Kaksisa, i. 358, 119-31, 138.
ii.

360
ii.

;

ii.

98,

110,

Dilbat (AeAe^ar),
Dilgan,
i.

i.

88, 93, 346
ii.

96. 153-4, 162, 164-5.

Kalikku, Kas, i. 58.
217.

i.

356

;

200.
i.

222, 358-9

;

97,

136,

Kaskhiszu ('A|iWp(ros),

356
;

;

ii.

152, 159, 217. Dilnu, ii. 153-4. Diluri, ii. 183. Dir, i. 346.

Kasmilu (Ka<Tfx7\os), i. 356 ii. 217. Kassa ('Afcpos), i. 356 ii. 217.
;

Dugga-gilgatil,

ii.
i.

185-7.

Kasseba, ii. 19. Kassikisu ('A|toKep(r>7),
155.

i.

356

;

ii.

Dunghaduddu,
Dur, i. 87. Durki, ii. 16.

345

;

ii.

217.

Katsir-nmako,

ii.

108.
;

Dusia, ii. 217. Duzi, i. 92 ii. 23.
;

Kha (Piscis), i. 358 ii. 159. Kha (Delphin), ii. 130-1. Kha (Piscis Aust.), ii. 174-5.
Kha-urud,
ii.

217.

EGA, i. 78 ii. 194. Entenamasluv, i. 69
;

;

ii.

86-7,

97,

111-12, 118-19, 157. Esbar-anki, ii. 186-7.

Gal, ii. 216. Gallamta-uddua,

i.

Gam Gam
Gar, Gig,

(Sickle),

i.

16,
i.

(Scimetar), 107-8.
i.
i.

82 360 54
; ;

ii.
;

72.

Khigalla, ii. 75. ii. 130, 161. Khise, i. 65 Khul, i. 347. Khu-semakh, ii. 160-1. Khu-sibain, ii. 107. Khu-sin, ii. 107. Khu-zaba, ii. 148.
;

ii.

107-8.
70-2, 97,

Kinmi,
Kua, Kue,
ii.
ii.

ii.

2.
ii.

ii.

Kisalbat-ala,
81. 16.

5-9.

359

;

ii.

18, 63.

348. Gil, ii. 129. Ginna, i. 346.

Kumar
Lamas,
;

(Ke/xfiop),
ii.

i.

90

;

ii.

17.

82.

Giranna,
Girtab, 153. Gisbar,
i.

i.

72

ii.
;

16, 158.
ii.

70, 72-6

16, 90-1, 131,

Ligbat, i. 112 ; ii. 5-7, 17, 91. Lik, ii. 17. Likbarra, ii. 68-70.

i.

360
ii.

;

ii.

Gisgangusur,
Gis-Li-e,

ii.

79-80. 87-8.
186-7.
17, 191-3.

Likmakh,
167.

i.

360

;

ii.

16,

83,

131,

108.
ii.

Giszalibri-giski, Gubbara, ii. 81.

Likudu, i. 277. Lubat, i. 70 ii. 96.
;

Gudelim,

i.

110;

ii.

Gudibir, i. 346. Gula, i. 84-5 ; ii. 16. Gusirabba, i. 116 ; ii. 93. Gusirkesda, ii. 77-8, 96. Gusisa, ii. 16, 201. Gutanna, i. 57 ; ii. 16.

Lubat-gudibir, i. 343. Lubat-sakus, i. 346 ; ii. 65. Lugal (Regulus), i. 62 ii. 119, 122,
;

160, 167.

Lugal (Betelgeuse), Lugal (Antares), ii. Lugal (Hercules) ii.
Lugal-nerra,
i.

ii.

74-5. 88, 175. 10-11,

346.

252

INDKX,
Sagmegar, i. 345 Sakh, ii. 84.
;

*Lulim-makh, ii. 169. Lulim (Aries), i. 54 ii. 138. Lulim (Hernial), i. 54 ii. 145, 169. Lulim (Stellae Viryinis), ii. 65, 85.
;

ii.

155, 164, 166.

;

Lulla,

i.

360

;

ii.

160.
ii.

Lunit, ii. 6Q, 97. Lut-Tsirna, i. 107

Sak, ii. 159. Saksadi, ii. 200. Sakus, i. 343. Sakus-utu, i. 346.

;

17.

Sakvisa(2ex),
Samela,
ii.

i-

345

;

ii.

95.

188.

Maganda-anna,
Mfikhar,
ii.

i.

102

;

ii.

17, 19.

93-4. Manma, i. 73, 347. Mar, i. 358.

Margidda,
150, 186.

i.

267 269

;

ii.

17,

21,

136,

Sargaz, ii. 90, 140, 174. Sarnerra, i. 82. Sarur, ii. 90-1, 140, 174. *Satilla (Sa-riWa), i. 273-4. Sema, ii. 211. Sibi, ii. 22, 115.

*Marturra, Marurbi, ii. 208. Mastabba-galgal (Pleiad and bar an), ii. 72-3.
i.
;

ii.

21.

Sibzianna (Ardurus),
ii.

i.

287,
;

312

Aide-

Mastabba-galgal (Castor and Pollux),
i.

59, 359
ii.

;

ii.

16, 160.
(a,
</>'

Mastabbaturtur
nis),

and

2
<f>

Orio-

74.
et aust.
),

17, 132-9. Sibzianna (Orion), i. 288 132, 137-8, 166. Siladakhabi, ii. 11-12. Simul, i. 54. Simut, i. 73, 348. Subat, ii. 174-5.

ii.

16, 23,

Ma,sta.bba.-tm'tw (Aselhis bor. ii. 63, 139. Mi, i. 346.

Sugi,

ii.

110-11, 138, 152, 160, 243-5.
;

Mul,

i.

358-9

;

ii.

131, 138, 145, 156,
i.

168.

Sugub-Gudelim, ii. 167, 191. Sugub-Udgudiia, i. 78 ii. 194. Sulpa-uddu, i. 343 ii. 139. Supa (Castor and Pollux), ii.
;

76-7.

Mul-babar (Mo\o&6&ap), M(W)ulmosarra, i. 267
;

347.
79-80, 85,
|

ii.

108, 138.

Mulubat,
Mulu-izi,

ii.
ii.
i.

50, 89. 85.
89,

98, 114-18, 131. Supa (Spiea), ii. 167. Sutul, i. 81. Suzak-Gudelim, ii. 191.
ii. 16, 145, 156. i. 57, 274 ii. 73. Tete, i. 57 Tiksi-stars, 106-110. Tiranna, i. 264, 269 ; ii. 183-6. Tsir (Caput Hydrae), i. 106, 360 108-9, 131. Tsir (Serpens), 89-90. Tsir-gal, 361.

Muna-kha,

219
i.

;

ii.

16, 93.
ii.

TA,

;

;

Nagar-asurra,
159.
i.

60, 360
ii.

;

15,

Nam-makli, 169, 175. Nergub-Gudelim, ii. 191. Nergub-Zamama, ii. 194, 197. Nerzak-Zamama, ii. 195. Nidub, i. 70 ii. 16, 140, 168. Ningirsu, i. 93 ; ii. 23, 97. Ninmakh, ii. 160. Ninpes, ii. 215. Ninsar, ii. 83-4, 139. Ninsianna, i. 269, 346.
; ;

358

;

ii.

Turusmal-makh,

ii.

79.

Ualuzun,
Udgudiia,

ii. i.

20.

78;
i.

ii.
;

5-7, 96, 111.
ii.

Ugaga-Khu,
Ulanna,
ii.

109

171-3.

Numea, i. 73. Nunki (Nunpe),
172.

i.

116

;

ii.

93, 157,

Ul-mi, ii. Ur-gula, i. 62
Urragal,
ii.

218. 134.
;

vide Likmakh.
ii.

Ur-negub-Udgudua,
ii.

194.

Nutsirda,

21, 89, 96.

Urud,

ii.

83-4, 139. 217.
;

Paldara,

ii.

218.

Pallik(ur)a, 17, 76, 96. Papilsak, i. 78-9 ; ii. 16, 111.
ii.

Utu-altar, i. 345 Uz (Capricorn), 198-9.

ii.

155.
;

i.

81

ii.

159,

195,

Papsukala,
Pur-edin,
i.

ii.

133-4, 168. 96 ; ii. 23, 96.
i.

Uz (Capella), ii. 98. Uz (Stellae Virginis), ii. 167. Uz-makh (Polaris), ii. 184.
;

Raditartakhu,
148.

35, 234

ii.

17,

Zakur,
ii.

ii.
i.

S.-A. names,

24-5, 206-14, 215-18.

Zalbat, 160.

217. 72-3, 82, 343

;

ii.

7,

96,

INDEX.
Zamama,
ii.

253

194-9.

Ziba-anna, ii. 16, 140. Zibanna, i. 346 ; ii. 140.
2.

Zibzik, i. 88. Zur, ii. 215. Zurma, ii. 215.

Semitic.
;

Adamath (Andromeda),
a
ii.

i.

8,

49-50

Famm-al-HCt (Fomalhaut),
ii.

i.

117

;

117.
i.
;

12.

54 Agaru, Agil, i. 78
;

ii.

ii.

14, 16. 129.

Hamal,
228.
i.

i.

22, 54,

337
i.
;

;

ii.

40, 145,

Ailuv, Aish, i. 119, 273. Akhir-al-nahr (Achemar),
i.

54.

95.

Akhu,

ii.

68.

34, 119; ii. 10. Harekhal('HpaKA7js), Haris-al-Sama, i. 285 ii. 134. Haris-al-Simak (Haromach), i. 285.

Al-Anharan, ii. 27. ii. 14, 145. Alap-same, i. 57 Al-Auwa, i, 283 ii. 27.
; ;

Ip,dt-al-.ta(jza

(Betelqense),
'

ii.

75,

Al-Ayyaq (Alaioc), i. 221. Al-Bakkar (Beguius), i. 284.
Al-Dalim,
;

132, 137, 170, 174. Iqu, i. 220-1 ; ii. 97.

i.

94.
i.

Ka,
57, 149,

i.

84

;

ii

15.

Al-Debanm (Aldebaran),
338 ii. 73, 145. Al-Ferd (Alphard),
Al-Fer-Kadain,
ii.

Kabdhi-l-'inan,

Kaivanu (Kiyyun),
Kak-qasti,
ii.

ii. 79, 131. 116, 188. Al-Ghul (Algol), i. 348 ; ii. 22-3, 115. Al-Jady (Algedi), i. 81. Al-Kalurops (Inkalurus), i. 284.

118. i. 346. 120-1, 130.
ii.

Kalab-mutani, ii. 5. Kalab-Samsi, i. 277. Karib-Barkhati, ii. 26. ii. 26. Karpat-Tsiri, i. 107
;

Al-Midschmara, i. 217. Al-Natih (Nath), ii. 54, 118. Al-Nesr-al-Waki ( Vega), i. 35.
Al-Rai,
ii.

Keph,
304.

(Krj06i5s),
i.

i.

10,

30-1,

235-6,

20.
ii.

Al-Rakiibat (Alrucaba),

188-9.

Kesil, 119, 256 ; ii. 244. Khabattsiranu, ii. 97. Khadis, ii. 181.

Al-Ramih, i. 285. Al-Simak (Azimech),

Khum-khum,
i.

i.

348.

285.

Kirnah,
Kisallu,

i.

119, 273.
5, 7.

Al-Tair (Altair), i. 45 ; ii. 125, 128-9. Anu (Mars), i. 348 ; ii. 7. Anunitum (Venus), ii. 169. Anunitum, (a, fx Sag.) ii. 92, 169.

ii.
i. i.

Kochab,

357.

Kumaru,

90
i.

;

ii.

193.
;

Kusariqqu,

54,

337
i.

ii.

16.

Am-rabu,

i.

62

;

ii.

15.

Lesath
Banat-an-As
Belit,
ii.
i.

(Aijffos),

76.

(Bcnetnasch),
i.

i.

273.

Barsav (Perseus),
86.

40

;

ii.

71.

Lisan-Kalbi, i. 356. Lubati, i. 53. Lu-masi, i. 78 ; ii. 1, 110-38.

Bibbu,

346.

Madls,
Dai'INU,
ii.

ii.

181.
24.
;

155.
;

Mamluv,
ii.

ii.

179. Dayan-same, i. 269 Duzu, ii. 26. Dzeneb-al-Asad (Denebola),
ii.

Masu, Matu,
i.

i.

70

ii.

138-42.
i.

ii.

97.

340
i.

;

Mazarati (Mazzaroth),

350

;

ii.

1, 4.

83.

Menkalinam,
81.

ii.

54.

Dzeneb-al-Jady (Deneb Algedi),

Mesre,

i.

360.

Dzeneb (Deneb),

ii.

66.
i.

Enzu
284.
Eritu,

(Capricorn),

81

;

ii.
i.

15.

Erek-hayim
ii.

('HpryoVr;),

119,

195,

Mintaka, ii. 146. Misallim-mutani, i. 348. Mulidtu (MvAtTTo), ii. 22, 117. Mustabaru-miitanu, i. 348. Mustarilu (Moschtari), i. 346.
Mustelil,
i.

22-3.
ii. 23, 132. 43, 119, 168-9.

346.

Eru, ii. 173, 217. Eru-edinu (HpiSavos),

Eschraun,

i.

Etseu-tsiri,

ii,

66, 86.

Nabi, ii. 96, 217. Nabu, i. 244, 346. Nabu-tamti, i. 116.

254
Nakaru, i. 347. Nakhasch, i. 30, 119. Namassu, ii. 21.

INDEX.
Sarru (Betelgeuse), ii. 74-5. Sem. names, ii. 26, 206-13. Shashurru, ii. 169-70. Simak-al-Ramih, i. 285 ii. 134.
;

Namgaru, ii. 15. Namru, ii. 98.
Narkabtu,
i.

Sinunutum,
;

ii.

92.

359
;

ii.

26.

Sirii,

ii.
ii.
i.

15.

Nasru, ii. 26. Nibiru, i. 347

Sisu,
ii.

26.

96, 155, 159.

Nibittu, i. 65. Niru, i. 81 ; ii. 34.

Skat, 84, 341. Suhail, i. 103. Sukudu, ii. 122.

Nun-suki,

ii.

11.

Sukiinu,

ii.

122.

Nunu,

i.

358.

Tammuz,
Phoenician
constellations,
i.

i.

92-3,
ii.

197-8

;

ii.

23,

119,

44.

149 ; ii. 51. Pidnu, ii. 78, 145.

Temennu,
Tikpi,
i.

ii.

57 ; 106-10.
i.

14, 156.

Tsalamu,

ii.

26.

Qassiu-PEAER
Qastu,

(Kaao-teiraa),

10,

37-8, 134-5. ii. 26, 130.

Tsarru, i. 347. Tsene, ii. 26. Tsiru, i. 360.

RabD, ii. 155. Rababu, i. 90.
Rabi-hajiyan,
ii.

215.
i.

Tsiru-rabu, i. 361 ; ii. 26. Tsuppur-sa-libbi, ii. 190. Tuame-rabiiti, ii. 14. Tuamu-Giru, i. 356.
;

Ramanu-ikabbid,

108

ii.

84.

157. Rijl (Rigel), ii. 214.

Rappu

1.

ii.

Uknu,
Uzzu,
;

ii.

217.
;

i.

78

ii.

188.
5.

Riksu-nuni,
Ris-ari,
ii.

i.

87, 341

ii.

15.

210.
;

YOmu-nahri,
;

ii.

Ri'ubutsame, i. 287 ii. 14. Rukubu, i. 268 ii. 21.

Zawiyatal-'auwa
339.

(Zavijava),

i.

Sa'd-al-Dsabih, ii. 200. Sa'd-as-SuM (Sadalsund).
Sakib,
i.

i.

358.

84.
i.

Sar-neri,

346.
;

Sarru (Hercules), i. 34 Sarru (Hegulus), i. 62 Sarru (Mars), i. 347.

ii.
ii.

10.

;

107.

Zibanituv, i. 70 ; ii. 15, 140. Zibbat-Ari, i. 340. Zibbat-Kalbi-Ari, i. 330. Zibu, i. 347 ; ii. 69. Zu, ii. 84, 89, 141. Zuben-al-cheraali, i. 70. Zuben-al-genubi, i. 70.
3.

Greek.
Arktos (Ursa),
256-68
;

Aetos

10, 44-6, 126, 129, (Aquila), ii. 47-8, 194-9. 141, 159 i. 221. Aige,
i.
;

i.

10, 25-7, 133, 137-

8, 142, 149, 159, 233, 247-8, 250-2,
ii.

236.
i.

AigokerSs (Capricornus), i. 10, 79-82, ii. 45-6, 233-5. 150, 218-9. 241
;

Arktos Mikra (Ursa Minor),
25, 133, 149,

10,

Aix

(Capella), i. 16, 42, 129-31, 21822 ; ii. 40-1, 52, 98, 133, 152, 168. Alkyone (Alcyone), i. 57, 146, 273, 275.

265, 268-9
;

;

153, 159, 251, ii. 20-21, 190-1.

262,

Arktouros (Arcturus), i. 11, 157, 282, ii. 8-9, 134, 183, 236. 273, 285

Amaxa
266-9

(Plaustrum),
;

i.

130,

260,

Basiliskos (Hegulus),
80, 108.

i.

62, 33S

;

ii.

ii.

21, 47, 99, 110.

Amphoreus (Amphora), i. 84, 117. Andromeda, i. 10, 48-fO, 134-5, 215,
247, 284 ; ii. 16, 237. ii. 88. Antares, i. 73, 75 Antinoos, i. 13, 23.
;

Bootes, i. 10, 31, 142, 156, 158-9, ii. 132, 247-50, 263-4, 279-88 134, 236. Botrys, i. 166-7, 171, 274.
;

Arg6, Arkas, i. 283. Arktophylax,

i.

10, 99-103
i.

;

ii.

54.

Cheirun,

i.

263, 281.

Chelai (Libra), Chelys, i, 35.

110-11, 125, 213-14. i. 10, 66-71 ii. 44.
;

INDEX.
DELPHrs(Z>e?^m),
159, 241
ii.
;

255
(Cygnus),
ii.
i.

i.

10, 46-7, 126-7,
i.

Kyknos
205.

144, 153

;

ii.

48,

ii.

116, 237.
10,

Delt6ton (Triangula),
52.
i.

50-2;

Kynosoura,

190-1.
i.

Didymoi (Gemini),
291-2
;

10,

57-9, 179,

Lagos
53.

(Lopus),
(Leo),
i.
i.

10, 96-8, 141

;

ii.

ii.

42-3, 231.
i.

Drakon (Draco),
143, 265.

10,

27-30,

129,

Ledn
231.

10,

60-3;
;

ii.

43-4,

Lyra,

10, 34-5, 126, 141

ii.

48.
76.

Engonasin

(Hercules), i. 10, 33-4, 151-2, 213 ; ii. 10-11, 47, 236. firidanos (Eridanus), i. 48, 93, 96 ; ii. 23, 52, 205, 241. Eriphoi (Haedi), i. 16, 129.

Maira

(Mera), i. 236, 279 Mikros-Kontaratos, i. 285.

;

ii.

Nektar,

i.

218.

Galaxias (Via
;

Lactea),

i.

75, 103,

105 ii. 34-5, 75-6, 204. Gk. names, ii. 26-7.

#

Oistos (Sagitta), i. 10, 44, 131-2, 234 ii. 35, 44, 236. Onoi (Aselli), i. 15-16.
;

Ophiouchos

Helike,
129-31

i.

221, 281.

Heniochos
;

(Auriga),
ii.

i.

10,

40-42,

(Serpentarius), 42-3, 168-9, 228; ii. 21, 237-8.
i.

i.

10,

49-51,
;

51-2, 118.
2.
i,

Ophis (Serpens),
90.

11-12, 44

ii.

36,
82,

Hermeneis, Hesperos-Phosphoros, Hippos, vide Pegasos.
ii.

150, 251.
i.

Orion (Orion),

Hippos Protome (Equulcus),
47.
i.

12, 23,

54, 134, 142, 146-9, 156-8, Hyades, 247-50, 252, 289, 338 ; ii. 73. Hydor, i. 87, 117.

10, 67, 91-3, 119, 134, 142-4, 147, 156-9, 252-6, 249-50, 275, 277-9, 210, 282-3, 286, 288-9; ii. 23, 75, 132, 137-8, 241, 244.
i.

73-4,

Ornis (Olor),
ii.

i.

10,

35-7, 159,

162;

48.
i.

Hydra,
ii.

i. 10, 103-6, 54, 87, 239-40.

144-6,
i.

151-2;

Parthenon
10,

Hydrochobs (Aquarius),
126
;

82-5,

( Virgo), 44, 83-5, 231-2.

10,

63-6

;

ii.

ii.

12, 47, 235.
(Pisces),
ii.
i.

Pegasos (Pegasus),
10,
85-8,
;

Ichthyes
177-8
ii.
;

47, 235-6.
i.

Ichthys (Piscis Notius),
204, 240.
i.

10, 114-17
ii.

;

i. 10, 47-8, 126, 129, 159, 167, 171, 178, 200-2, ii. 37, 48-9, 237. 211-15, 308 Peleiades, i. 139, 270-1. Perseus, i. 10, 38-40, 134-5 ; ii. 208, 237.

Iktinos (Miluus),

126

;

148.

Phatne (Praesepe),
79.

i.

15-16, 360

;

ii.

Karkinos

(Cancer), i. 10, 59-60, 145, 151, 207-11 ; ii. 43, 231. Kassiepeia (Cassiopeia), i. 10, 37-8, 134-5 ii. 18-19.
;

Kast6r (Castor),
139, 170-1.

i.

59, 133, 359
i.

;

ii.

Pleiades (Pleiades), i. 10-12, 57, 134, 139, 142-4,146-7, 153, 156-8, 236, ii. 156. 248-50, 252, 270-5, 357-9 Pleias, i. 134, 231, 254 ; ii. 73. Plokaraos, i. 12-13, 23, 32.
;

Polydeukes (Pollux),
10, 109-11,
ii.

i.

59, 133, 359

;

Kentauros (Centaurus), 214 ii. 191-3, 240.
;

139, 170-1.
i.

Potamos (Amnis),
;

10, 93-6,

240

;

Kepheus (Cepheus),
235-6, 304
;

i.

10, 30-1, 134-5

vide Eridanos.

ii.
i.

20.
10, 88-91, 135,

Prokyon
172
;

Kotos
ii.

(Cetus), 55.

278-9;
238.

ii.

11-12, (Procyon), i. 99, 98, 121, 124, 129-31,
i.

Korax (Corvus),
Kreter (Crater),
ii.

i.

10, 107-9 ; ii. 48. i. 10, 106-7, 170;

Protrygeter (Vindemitor),
ii.

11,

65

;

136-7i.

54.

Krios (Aries),

i. 10, 52-4, 124, 198, 40-42, 228-9. Kronos (Saturn), ii. 109. Kuon (Canis Maj.), i. 10, 98-9, 137, 143, 277-9 ; ii. 53-4, 200.

Seirios (Sirius),

11, 95, 144, 153,
;

337

;

ii.

156-7, 275-7, 279 156-7, 173-4, 200, 238.
i.

ii.

120-31,

10, 71-6, 126, Skorpios (Scorpio), 128, 147 ; ii. 44, 232-4.

256
Stachys (Spica),
84, 180, 183.
i.

INDEX.
11,
i.

65-6

;

ii.

30,

Th.Tion (Lupus), 214 ii. 7, 241.
;

i.

11-12,

111-12,

Stephanos {Corona),
ii.

10, 32-3, 148

;

Thymiaterion (Thuribulum), 112-13,
217.

237.
12, 113-14.
i.

Stephanos Notios (Corona Australia),
i.

Thytcrion (Ara),\. 10, 217;
54-5, 232.

ii.

8-9,

Sterope,

146, 236.
i. 10, 55-7, 42, 229-30.

Toxotes (Sagittarius), i. 10, 77-9, 91, ii. 44-5, 114, 124 193-4, 233, 235.
;

Tauros (Taurus),
297, 357-8
;

128-9

ii.

Zugon (Jugum),
4.

i.

70.

General.
Malus, i. 78. Mao, i. 275.

Anu,

region

of,

i.

54

;

ii.

161-76.
i.

Apus, i. 16. Arabian Lunar Mansions
70, 74, 85, 200.

18

;

ii.

Mars,

i. 73, 244, 342-3, 347-8 68-9, 73, 109, 160.

;

ii.

7,

Bel, region of, ii. 161-76. Bubulcus, i. 283.

Caesaris Throxox,
Cameleopardalis,
i.

i.

16.

Mercurius, i. 244, 342-3, 345-6 136, 139-40, 179. Mira, i. 91, 359. Monoceros, i. 17.

;

ii.

Canes Venatici,
Carina,
i.

i.

17, 27. 17.

Musca,

i.

16.

78.
i.

Pastor,

i.

285.

Chameleon,

16.

Clamator, i. 283. Clypeus, i. 17.
Corolla,
i.

Pavo, i. 16. Phoenix, i. 16. Piscis Volans, i. 16.
Pluviae,
i.

289.
i.

114.
16.
ii.
i.

Pole-star,
i.

264,

269;

ii.

113,

Dorado,

176-86. 161-76.
19,

Ea, region of, i. 48, 84 Egyptian constellations,
;

78. Puppis, Pyh, i. 275.
i.
;

260

75, 84, 114. Ensis Orionis, i. 16, 134.
ii.

Rivers, the Seven,

ii.

203-5.

Sah,
Graha,
Grus,
i.

i.

256

;

ii.
i.

ii.

99.
i.

Sapta rishayah,

114. 258.
;

Great Stream,
16
;

279
24.

;

ii.

75.

ii.

Saturnus," i. 244, 342-3, 346 168, 179. Septentrio, i. 283 ; ii. 110.

ii.

140,

Haptoiring,
Hastatus,
i.

i.

257.

285.

Hydrus,

i.

16.
i.

Sextans, i. 17. Signs and divinities, Sopdit, i. 256. Suculae, i. 289.

i.

244.

Indianus,

16.

Tah,
Jugulae,
Jupiter,
ii.
i.
i.

ii.

79.
i.
i.

360
87,

;

ii.

79.

Ti Cheh,

342-3, 346-7, 73, 129-30, 159, 164-6.
(Canopiis),
i.

359;

Tistrya,

Karbaxa
Khunuseti,

Toucan, i. Triangulum,
;

268. 276. 16.
i.

16.

95, 103

ii.

126, 214-15. i. 272.
i.

Vanaxt,
Vela,
i.

i.

75. 81,
;

78.
i.

Venus,

88,
ii.

154,

Lacerta,
Libra,
i.

17.

i. 17, 27, 114. 71, 180. Livyathan, i. 90.

Leo Minor,

342-3, 346 159, 189.

32, 34,

244, 269, 153-4, 156,

Vulpecula et Anser, i. 17. Vultur cadens, i. 35, 141.

Lynx,

i.

17, .27.

INDEX.
III.-GENERAL.
201. 224, 226. Adonai (Adonis), i. 277. Agamedes, i. 243. Ahura-Mazda, i. 276, 315. Ai, i. 344.

257

Acheloos,

i.

Ada

(Ate),

i.

'Aschtharth, ii. 242.

i.

154, 195, 223, 306

;

Ashima, i. 225. Ashtoreth Qarnaim,

i.

64.

Aidoneus,
Alala, Aleos,
Allat,
i.
i.

i.

63.
ii.

Ass(h)ur, ii. 68, 187. Asklepios, i. 43, 169, 228-9. Astarte, i. 3, 165, 188, 202, 233.

Ak. month-names,
45
;

13.

Ast-No'ema (Astynome),
Astraios,
i. i.
i.

i.

189.

ii. 8.

155.
59.

Alexander,
ii.

232, 235. i. 314-15, 317-20.
33, 39, 49.

Asvinau,
Atalante,
ii.

263.
i.

'Atar-'ati (Atargatis),

210, 224-5

;

Althepos, i. 229-30. Amaltheia, i. 221.

191.

Atel (Atlas),

Amazons,

Amma,
77.

i.

133. 29, 221.
i.
; ;

i. 30, 132-3, 205, 212, 231, 275.
;

139-40
212.

ii. 162, 244. Amorites, i. 308 Ana (Aim), i. 245, 353 ii. 33, 69,

Athamas, i. 3, 54, 197-8 Athena, i. 41, 225, 246.
Itonia,
i. i.
i.

ii.

204.
36.

Onka,
Polias,

Anahita (Anaitis), i. 317. Anaximandros, i. 120, 123-4.
Anbai,
i.

230.
ii.

244.
i.

Angra-mainyu, Anna, i. 212.
;

276.

Attys, i. 310. Axiokerse, i. 227 Azeus, i. 232.

;

217.

Azi-Dahaka,
332-4
ii.
;

i.

322.

ii. 68, 187. Ansar, i. 353 Antediluvian Kings, i. 54,

Baal Hamon
238, 263 Katsiu,
;

(Palaimon),
12, 242. 30.

i.

138,

ii.

78, 84, 89.
i.

ii.
i.
i.

20S, 244 ; Armed, i. 214, 236. Melainis, i. 206, 210. Ourania, i. 223. Apollon, i. 204, 229, 244, 290.

Aphrodite,

3, 51,

22.

Delphinios,
243.

i.

39,

47,

86, 127,

197. 138. Tars, i. 237, 307. Tropha, i. 138, 243. TsephOn, i. 30, 236, 305.

Kronos,

Middoh,

i.

42, 185, 352 ; ii. 204. Aquaria, i. 306. Arallu, ii. 33, 38-40, 91, 203. Aramis, i. 225-6.

Apsu,

i.

Baalath, i. 38. Babel, Tower of, i. 69 ; i. 86, 98. Babilu (BabylSn), i. 221, 314-22 ii. 101, 103, 136, 189.
Bab-ili,
i.

;

314

;

ii.
;

97.
ii.

212-13, 236, 244. Argos, i. 133. Ariadne, i. 32-3. Aristagoras, i. 120, 123.
Ares,
i.

Ka-dingira, i. 314 Suanaki, i. 314.
Tintirki,
i.

219.

314
;

;

ii.

86.

Ark, Euphratean,

i.

102.

Balm, i. 85, 305 Bakchos, i. 193.
187.

ii.

83.

Arkas, i. 232-3, 263. Artemis, i. 147, 187, 213, 263. BraurSnia, i. 232, 264.

Barsipki (Borsippa),
i.

i.

327

;

ii.

103,

Diktynna,
Ephesia, 232-3.
i.

i.

232.

133, 184, 210, 214,
i.

232. Heurippa, i. 232-3. Hippia, i. 232. Kalliste, i. 232, 263. Orthia, i. 143, 232. PatrOa, i. 51. Selene, i. 67, 253. Taurika, i, 232. Asar (Osiris), i. 184.

Eurynome,

Bee, 172, 184, 186, 216, 310. Bel-ethan, i. 246, 350, 357. Bellerophon, i. 207, 211, 214, 253. Belos, i. 112, 319, 328, 331, 353 ; 101, 140.

ii.

Belu Marfiduku,

i.

244, 289

;

ii

10,

74, 88, 104, 205. Ber, i. 357 ; ii. 218. Beth-el, i. 30.

Boreas,

i.

305.
i.

Boundary -stones,
28-36.

125,

209

;

ii.

Britomartis,

i.

32, 189, 284.

VOL.

II.

17

258
Caduceus,
i.

INDEX.
172.

Camillus, i. 356. Chimaira, i. 215-16. China, i. 18-19 ii. 4, 64-5, 67, 75. Coin-types, Achaia, i. 218-22. Aigai, i. 218-22.
;

Coin-types, Panormos, i. 164, 166-7. Parion, i. 180-1. Phaistos, i. 145, 190. Pherai, i. 200-2. Phoenician, i. 162-70.
Phokis, i. 203. Plakie, i. 181. Priapos, i. 181.

Aigaion Islands,
N., 192-4. Aigina, i. 207-11.

S., 191-2.

Prokonnesos,

i.

181.

182-3. Akarnania, i. 203. Akragas, i. 194-5. Alea, i. 231-2. Alos, i. 197-8. Apollonia, i. 176. Aptera, i. 187. Argolis, i. 228-31. Arkadia, i. 231-6.
Aiolis,
i.

Sexti, i. 166. Sikelia, i. 194-7. Solous, i. 166. Stymphalos, i. 234-5. Tanagra, i. 205-6.

Tarz (Tarsos),

i.

163, 165, 167.

Arvad, i. 165, 167, 188. Ashqelun, 165, 167, 188. Atarneus, i. 176.
Attike, i. 162, 207. Boiotia, i. 203-7. Ddris, i. 187.

Tegea, i. 235-6. Te6s, i. 186. Thasos, i. 192-4, 298. Thebai, i. 206. Thessalia, i. 197-202.
Troas, i. 182. Troizen, i. 229-31. Tsidon, i. 168.

Eastern Hellas,
Elis,
i.

i.

238-9.

Tzur (Tyre), i. 163-4, 167-8. Vaga, i. 162.
Zakynthos,
i.

222. i. 202-3. Ephesos, i. 183-4. Epidauros, i. 228-9. Eryx, i. 195. Etruscan, i. 170-2. Gadir, i. 166. Gambrion, i. 176. Gaulos, i. 164.

223.

Epeiros,

Constellation subjects Etruscan, ii. 53-4.

Euphratean,

ii.

28-58.

Gems,

i.

301-3.
i.

Hittite,

Kretan, i. Kypriot, i. 305-7. Mithraic, ii. 55-8.

ii. 49-50. 307-8 298-301.
;

Hadrianothera, Hellenic Italy,
Illyria,
Iolla,
i,
i.

i.

i.

176, 265. 236-8.

Mykenaian,
Phoenician,
Shields,
i.

i.

ii.

298. 50-1.

202.

303.

176. Ionia, i. 183-7. Itanos, i. 188-9. Kephallenia, i. 223.
i. 162-3, 165-8 211-18. Korkyra, i. 203. Kossoura, i. 164, 168. Krete, i. 187-91. Kypros, i. 163, 165, 167-8. Kyzikos, i. 176-9 ; ii. 29. Lakonike, i. 228. Lampsakos, i. 179-80. Larissa, i. 199. Lokris, i. 203. Lydian, i. 174-5

Tirynthian, i. 296-7. Troian, i. 295-6. Vases, i. 303-5. Cupid, i. 115 ; ii. 91.

Khilak

(Cilicia),
i.

Korinthos,

Dadda

(Adodos),

i.

225.
ii.
i.

Dagan, i. 189, 226, 357. Dagon, i. 41, 188-9, 357 Darayavaush (Darius) I.,
;

12.
9,

172,

315-6

;

ii.
i.

14.

-

Davkina,

-

Decans, i. Demeter, i. 157, 204, 244. Hippia, i. 127, 188. Melanis, i. 207. Derketo, i. 49, 88, 115, 188, 224
91.

353. 341.

;

ii.

172-4. Makara, i. 174. Mallos, i. 166.

Lykian,

i.

Did6,

i.

212.
i.

Diktynna,
Dionysos,

189-90.
3, 32, 81,

207. Messenia, i. 228. Miletopolis, i. 180. Motye, i. 164-6. Orchomenos, i. 204-5.

Megara,

i.

107, 186, 193, 199, 232, 254, 302. Bassareus, i. 175. Dimorphos, i. 182. Diphnes, i. 182.
i.

INDEX.
Dionysos, Melanaigis, i. 130, 206,219. Nyktelios, i. 206.
182, 300- 1. i. 182. i. 182. Tauromaphos, i. 182. Tauropos, i. 182.

259

Herakles (Harekhal),
40, 63,

Pelekys,

i.

i. 3, 29, 35, 39106, 145, 192-3, 200, 203, 216, 233-5, 289-90, 308 ; on coins,
;

Taurogenes, Taurokerds,

passim ii. 10. Hermes, i. 34-5, 97-8, 243-4
40.

;

ii.

139-

Dioskouroi,
Diizi,

i.

59, 168, 171-2, 192.

Hesperides, i. 29. Hestia, i. 244.

Duwuzi (Tammuz),
;

92,

105,

Hiddeqel,

i.

95
i.

;

ii.

23.

253, 288 241.

ii.

44, 97, 132, 180, 216,

115, 188-9, 231, 245, 356-7 21, 33, 91. Eabani, i. 3, 111 ; ii. 54, 56. Eagle, two-headed, i. 308. Elagabalus, ii. 76. El-Elion, i. 231-2.

Ea,

i.

j

ii.

115, 310. Hippokrene, i. 201. Hittites, i. 307-12 ; ii. 49. Hyas, i. 147. Hygieia, i. 228, 243.

Hierapolis,

Ikarios,
II, i.

i.

107.

29.

Elieus,
En-lil,

i.

i.

232. 353.
i.
i. 354. 328, 331

Indra, i. 53, 84. In6, i. 212. 16, i. 227.
Iolaos,
Isis,
i.
i. 202, 216, 233. 115.

Ennead, the,

Enu

Bill,

;

ii.

100-1.

Eos, i. 253. Erebhno'enia, i. 29, 49. Erebos, i. 29. Erechtheus, i. 41, 304. Eri-aku (Arioch), ii. 101. ii. 93, 157. Eridu, i. 115-16 Erigeneia, i. 154.
;

i. 64-6, 133, 207, 223-4, ii. 22, 41, 44, 238, 244, 346, 350 83, 91-2, 133, 154, 156-9, 169. i. 8, 188. Itonos,

Is(h)tar,

;

Jupiter,
Kabirim,

i.

237.
43, 168-9, 182, 191,

Etanna,
96.

i.

141
i.

;

ii.

48.

i.

356

;

Euphrates,

95,

240;

ii.

23, 92-3,

ii.

187.
i. i.

Kaldai,
i.

318. 234, 263-4.
II.,
i.

Europe,

29, 192.
i.

KallistO,

Euryuome,
Gad,
i.

29, 155, 188, 247.

Kambujiya (Cambyses)
315.

118,

36.

Kampe,

i.

216, 302.

Gargamis, i. 115, 309. Gaza, i. 232.
Ge, i. 41, 49. Gephyraioi, i. 205.
Gibil,
ii.

76, 80.

Kandaon, i. 254. Kar (Ikaros), i. 284, 303. Kasseba, i. 38, 345 ii. 19. Kas Utu, i. 361. ii. 50. Kedalion, i. 255
; ;

Gidde, i. 36. Gilgames(h), i. 39, 46, 68, 111, 151, 213 ii. 10, 41, 47, 54, 56. Great Goddess, the, i. 32, 65, 214,
;

Kerberos, i. 277, 290. Klia-Ea, i. 116 ; ii. 155.

Khamman

(Hamon),
i.

i.
;

40, 263.
ii.

Khammurabi,
Khasis-adra,
i.

307, 309.

Gryphon,
ii.

i.

164, 172, 179, 186, 216

;

29, 37.

Khemarim, i. Khereb (Harpe),
ii.

100-1. 189, 351. 90 ; ii. 193.
;

314

Gula, i. 85 ; ii. 83, 204. Gurra, ii. 83, 204.

Hadad,

i.

225, 310.
i.

Hare, lunar,
225, 238.

97,

294-5

;

ii.

214,

Harekhal, vide Herakles. Hebe, i. 289. Hekate, i. 3, 155, 200.
Helios,
i.

Khshayarsha (Xerxes), i. 316. Khumbaba, i. 350. Kiden, i. 118, 319. Kirke, i. 3, 197, 246. Kisar, i. 353. Kosmic periods, i. 332-5.
Kronos,
i.

i. 89, 179-80, 239 53,a 70-72, 80, 104.

3,

29, 40, 111, 141, 154,

244, 335.

39.

Hephaistos, i. 244. Hera, i. 244, 262, 336. Akraia, i. 212.

Kua, ii. 81. Kudar-Lagamar, ii. 100-1, 164. Kuras (Cyrus), i. 315.
Kusu,
ii.

91.

260
Kybele, i. 184, 214, 309. Kypselos, i. 212, 305.

INDEX.
Ousods, i. 39. Oversea, i. 89.

Ladon, i. 29. Lakhmu, i. 352.
Latarak, ii. 85. LeukoLhca, i. 212, 235.
Linos,
i.

Palaimox,
Baal

i.

46,

127,

210

;

vide

Hamon.
i.

35, 235.
i.

Palamedes, Papsukala, Parsondas,
89.

3,

136-8, 159, 199, 243.

ii.
i.

33, 133-4. 59 ; ii. 19.
ii.

Lugal-tudda,

140

;
;

ii.

Pelops,

i.

212-3.
i.

Lunar Zodiac, i. 17 Lykaon, i. 221.

ii.

59-105.

Phaeth6n,
Phrixos,
i.

93, 96
;

;

205.

198

ii.

Ma,

i.

309.
i.

Marduk,
Matu,

87,

89,

116, 231,

234

;

Planetary gods, i. ii. 39. Polygnotos, i. 138 Poseidon, i. 3, 41-2, 46, 48, 165, 178,
;

125. 335.

vide Belli MarudCiku. i. 222 ii. ; 98, 217. Melekhet-qartha, i. 230.

188-9, 208, 212, 222, 230-1,

246,

356-7
238,

;

ii.

12.
i.

Erichtlionios,

42. 42.

Melqarth, i. 253-4, 291

39,
;

ii.

232, 10-11, 208.
51,
;

46,

Hipparchos,

i.

Mene,

i.

36.

i. 84, 219 vide Ramanu. Metonic Cycle, i. 125, 323-5. Midhgardhsormr, i. 105. ii. 19, 55-8. Mithra, i. 285, 317

Mernier,

Hippios, i. 42, 233. Olenios, i. 42. Taraxippos, i. 42.

Prometheus, i. 140. Pushan, i. 81, 219.

;

Mithraic Art,

i.

74;

ii.

56-8.

Qadmu

Molekh,
Mul-lil,

i.

230.

(Kadmos), i. 2, 140, 147. Qarth-hadasth (Carthage), i. 169, 314.
Qol-pia'h (Kolpia),
i.

Month-divinities, ii. S3. i. 246, 267, 357. Mummu, i. 89, 352-3.
Mylitta,
i.

39, 305.

Ra,

i.

39.
i.

350

;

ii.

22.

Ramanu,

84, 219, 231

;

ii.

41,

47,
ii.

84, 216-7.

Nabu
140.

(Nebo),

i.

244, 346
III.
;

Reduplication,
;

Law
i.

of,

i.

12;

ii.

136,

223-4, 236.

Nabukudurra-utsur
rezzar),
i.

(Nebuchad21.

314, 361

ii.

Nabimatsir (Nabonassar), i. 328-9. Naburianos, i. 118, 319. Nana, i. 309, 317, 357 ii. 76. Nannar, i. 56, 59, 345 ii. 19.
;

185. ; Regiones Coeli, Rhamas, i. 84, 219, 231, 350. Rhea, i. 29, 32, 221.
ii.

25

Rhotamenti (Rhadanianthys),
Sabians, ii. 179-80. Sagimu, ii. 89, 96.
Sakaia,
i.

i.

184.

;

Nauplios, i. 136. Nazaratos, i. 281.

351.
i.

Nekyia,
Arallu.

i.

246,
36.

253,

290-1;

vide

Salambo, i. 350. Samas (Shamash),
48, 75-6, 245-6.

344-5

;

ii.

33,

Nemesis, Nergal, i. 73, 75, 244
i.
;

Sanda (Sandon),
;

i.

ii.

73, 85.

Nestor, Cup of, i. 270-1. ii. 197, 199, 218. Ninip, i. 244, 357 Ninkigal, ii. 33, 89-90. Ninos, i. 226. Nisroch, ii. 68. Nuzku, ii. 79-80, 139-40.

Saqq&ra, i. 69 ; ii. Saron, i. 230. Saros, i. 323, 334.
Satyrs,
i.

308. 163.

112
i.

;

ii.

191.
39, 231.

Schachar,
Seilenos,

49.
i.

Schamemerum,
i.

196.

Oannes,

i.

Ogenos, i. Okeanos, i. 42, 89, 105, ii. 90, 204, 241. A 354
;

188. 354.

Selene Taurokeros, i. 227. Seleukos, i. 320-1. Semiramis, i. 223-7.
111,

155,

Olenos,

i.

221.

Seraphim, ii. 82. Shu, i. 285. Sin, i. 60, 352;
104-5.

ii.

33, 72, 81,
i.

85,

Omar, i. 27. Omphale, i. 309.
Ophi6n,
Ortygia,
i. i.

Sinakhi-erba (Sennacherib),
Siri6n,
i.

329.

29, 304.

276.
i.

253.

SisythSs,

84.

INDEX.
Sltfron,
i.

26l
i.

207-8.
i.

Uru-ki,

345.

118, 319. Sphinx, i. 179, 186. Star-worshippers, ii. 176-80. Surya, i. 86.

Soudinos,

Utu, i. 345. Uz, i. 80.

Venus,

i.

115
225. 216.

;

ii.

91.

Sym-Plegades,
Syria,
i.

i.

271.

226.
i.

Wadd,
Wheel,

i. i.

Tammuz,
Tan,
i.

54, 92-3, 96, 197-8, 225, 231, 277, 288 ; vide Diizi.

Yapheth
Yara, Yule,
i. i.

(Iapetos),
;

i.

155.

188, 205. Taras, i. 237.
ii. 180. 336. Thavatth, i. 89, 352. Thorr, i. 84, 219. Tiamat, i. 89, 108-9, 352-3 Titanes, i. 140. Tortoise, i. 207-11, 296. Triptolemos, i. 207. Triquetra, i. 172. Trophonios, i. 243, 255.
;

254
80.
i.
;

ii.

216.

Tarku, ii. 49. Tartak, i. 262

Zamama,

45
ii.
i.

;

ii.

197.

Temple

stars,

i.

Zaps, i. 42 Zarathustra,

204.

Zas (Zeus),
;

i.

276. 354.

ii.

71, 88.

Zeus,
ii.

i.

156-7, 230, 244, 246, 272

246.

Aphesios, i. 231. DodOnaios, i. 272.
Kasios,
i.

38.
i.

Labrandeus,

199, 301.

Tusna, Tutu, i. 177 Tyche, i. 37.
i.

37.

;

ii.

29.

Laphystios, i. 197. Lykaios, i. 221, 236, 263.
Meilichios,
i.

TyphOn,

i.

31, 115.

Palamnaios,
357. 100-1.
i.
;

i.

51, 230. 198-9.

Udagan
Unicorn,
Uras,
i.

(Odakon),
ii.
i.

Zikum,

Tarsios, i. 237. i. 352.
:

Umman-Manda,
57,

297

ii.

37, 104-5.

Ziqqurat, i. 69, 327 Zoganes, i. 351.
Zoros,
i.

ii.

33, 104.

84, 229.
i.

Urii-dug (Merodach),

277.

Zu,

ii.

229. 141.

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' 1

*

;

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s'est donne" pour tache de determiner la part qui revient a l'influence s^mitique dans la II surprend des mythologie grecque, et il a trouve" que cette part etait considerable. lament oriental bien caracte'rise' dans les rites, dans les idees, et dans les mots. Son livre sur le dieu des mers avait pour but de de"montrer que ni le nom, ni la conception de Poseidon, n'avaient une origine helle"nique. L'ouvrage qu'il consacre a Dionysos est traite de merae dans un esprit d'opposition aux mythologues qui rattachent Le Grand Mythe Dionysiaque etroitement le pantheon grec au pantheon vedique est un ouvrage solide autant qu'interessant.' Bibliotheque Universelle et Revue Stiisse.

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'

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The author of The Great Dionysiak Myth has given a fuller and more interior view of the fancied grape-god. We are conducted through a world of classical and mythological research far outside of Olympus, and even of Greece, over Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and the far Orient.' The Medical Tribune (New York).
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During the twelve years which have passed since the publication of the first edition, a amount of solid work has been done within the domain of comparative mythology. Of the results so gained, probably the most important is the clearer light thrown on the influence of Semitic theology on the theology and religion of the Greeks. This momentous question I have striven to treat impartially and for my treatment of it I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr. Robert Brown's valuable researches in the field of the great Dionysiak Myth.' Rev. Sir G. W. Cox, Preface to the new edition of The Mythology of the Aryan Nations.
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LANGUAGE, AND THEOKIES OF
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Professor

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'

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of the world in its varied round of day, night, week, month, season, and year." His present work is an attempt to point out the way in which man attained to an idea of this order, so far as the year and zodiacal signs are concerned. It is more especially with the zodiacal signs as we have received them from the Greeks that he concerns himself. They were ultimately derived from the Aecadians, who first mapped out the sun's course through the sky, and gave to each section of it the names by which the signs are still, for the most part, known. Mr. Brown claims to have shown that the signs, when the mythological conceptions which lie at the bottom of them are examined, fall naturally into two groups, six being diurnal and six nocturnal. In this way the year became to early men the day of twenty-four (or rather twelve) hours on an enlarged scale. We always find in Mr. Brown's writings proofs of wide reading and happy suggestions. There are very few of his statements with which we should be disposed to quarrel, and the general reader cannot fail to find his work both instructive and interesting.' Academy.

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In reading this brochure, one almost stands aghast at the amount of erudition and the extent of research that have been employed in its construction while the marvellous ingenuity with which the author has pieced together so many seemingly unconnected facts drawn from so many various sources, into a logical and convincing series of arguments, all leading to the same conclusion, is not less striking.' Scotsman.
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THE MYTH OF KIRKE.
'Mr. Brown's

55.

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. .
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Into the midst of the battle of the three principal directions of Mythological Science in England, the Author leads us with lively and often delightful humour. Max Miiller has put together his thoughts concerning language, myth and religion in the Contributions to the Science of Mythology, 1897. The Arians had before their separation, a formulated belief in divinities, in which they embodied the great natural phenomena, namely the Solar. Once more does Andrew Lang, his old adversary, fight him in his [Lang's] Modern Mythology, with the insufficient weapons of his known anthropological theory. Though Brown declares himself full of respect for the former and finishes off the latter with sharp humour, still he blames Miiller for several weaknesses; and, more especially, as a principal fault, for his disinclination to admit that so many Hellenic divinities and mythical stories can be explained by Semitic influence. Most certainly the powerful Semitic cult-centre on the Euphrates carried forward an influence more clearly seen year by year from new discoveries, not only on domestic life and knowledge, but also on the belief of Hellas. Brown recognizes Semitic extraction in a Greek divinity (1) If the name and its principal myths do not appear in the other Arian mythologies (2) If Arian naturemyths provide no simple and appropriate explanation of its existence (3) If its cult is found in territory either non-Arian, or governed by non-Arian influence; (4) When the form is more or less unanthropomorphic (5) When the character and history harmonize with the character and history of non-Arian divinities and (6) When Arian philology is not in a position to explain its name, and some or most of its principal features. Thus does he explain Kronos, Poseidon, Dionysos, Aphrodite and Herakles as Semitic beings : but further, also Ino, Athamas = Tammuz, Kirke, Hekate, the Ilian Athene, the picture of the Under-world Nekyia, and the Greek constellations. 'Anzeiger fur lndogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde.
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which are very suggestive.' Literature. Mr. Brown has long been known as a most diligent student of astronomical archaeology, and his translation of Aratus, with the notes accompanying it, was highly valued by all who take an interest in the early history of astronomy. The object of his present work is to trace back the constellations as near as can be to the time and place of their That place Mr. Brown finds to be the Valley of the Euphrates, and the earliest origin. people to which he is at present able to follow them are the Akkadians. The present volume is chiefly occupied with a translation of the star catalogue of the Almagest, and with establishing that the early Greek writers, and Homer in particular, were well acquainted with the constellation figures. Much of this is thoroughly pioneer work in a region of extreme interest and no little importance, and Mr. Brown is the first person who has carried it on with anything like the same system and labour. His scholarship is The book shows wide, his industry is inexhaustible. Our debt to him is great immense learning and research.' Journal of the British Astronomical Society.
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Astronomy is probably one of the very oldest of sciences its origin is lost in tlie most remote antiquity, and we do not even know how or when the constellation figures were developed, although these indicate a very advanced stage of astronomical knowledge. Mr. R. Brown has just published the first volume of a series of scholarly researches Into the history of the Primitive Constellations, which contains a mass of information upon the state of astronomical science in Babylon and Greece. In opposition to some previous inquirers, the author considers that the ancient astronomers did not group the stars in the shape of certain figures because their grouping resembled these figures, but that they first selected the figures, and then arranged the stars within their outlines. Much evidence is given in support of this view, especially from the flipparcho-Ptolemy star-list and Greek literature generally. There seems every reason to believe that the Greeks obtained their knowledge of constellations and astronomy generally from Asia, especially the region of the Euphrates. Mr. Brown's work contains an enormous number of classical references and can be confidently recommended to all those interested in this subject.'
1 ;

I

Westminster Review.

'The present volume is mainly concerned with the Hellenic history of the signs, including their place in the art of the various nations with whom the earlier Greeks came into contact, and concludes with a notice of the Gra:co-Babylonian period of Seleucus and his successors. In a second it is proposed to trace the constellation figures backwards from the era of Alexander to their first appearance in the dawn of history. Mr. Brown has gone into the matter very elaborately and with great wealth of illustration, which cannot fail to render his work of high interest to the student of ancient literature and science.' Notes and Queries.
'So much has been done now in the publication of Babylonian and other tablets that possible to make hopeful research into the primitive astronomy, and to reach conclusions that are approachably scientific and final. Mr. Brown claims no more than that. But he claims that, and makes it good. He has no revolutionary theories his work is on the lines of the great scholars but he is original and painstaking, making actual new contributions to the subject. Moreover, he has succeeded in retaining the reader's interest throughout, no doubt by the simple process of being always interested himself. This volume is the first of two. It carries the history of the constellations through the Hellenic period. The second will trace the Signs from the age of Alexander back to the dawn of history a period of deeper and yet more difficult interest.' Expository Times.
it is
;

;

' Many years of laborious and conscientious study must have gone to the collection and sifting of the facts with which his pages are crammed. One chapter is devoted to showing that the Stellar Catalogue of Ptolemy contained in his " Almagest," is practically an edition of the earlier Star List of Hipparchos, and to a transcription and elaborate examination of the list, with the object of identifying the constellations therein contained with figures in classical, Phoenician, and Babylonian mythology ... fruitful field of corroborative evidence and illustration is found in the Greek coins and in Homeric references, all pointing back, as the author holds, to an origin in the primitive civilization in the

A

Euphrates Valley. 'Scotsman. The author has in previous works established his right to be heard as the exponent of an intelligent theory of the orgin of myths, differing on the one hand from the solar theory, mainly associated in this country with the name of Prof. Max Miiller, and on the other from the folk-lore theory advocated by Mr. A. Lang. He has also in the view of many good authorities established the intercommunication of myths between the great races of mankind in a way that not long ago was thought impossible The book is one of extraordinary erudition.' Glasgow Herald. We have little but praise for Mr. Brown's latest contribution to the history of science and mythology, or of science in its mythological stage a "border-land " on which he moves with an ease and assurance which we admire. With Mr. Brown's fundamental contention that a large debt to the Orient is to be recognized in Greek civilization and thought, we have on previous occasions expressed our general agreement. We gladly recognize that in the present volume the author has fortified that contention by a careful argument and a mass of evidence dealing with the origines of Greek astronomical myth and science. Mr. Brown makes out a strong case for recognizing Babylon as the ultimate source of much that has passed for original Greek observation, speculation, and construction.' Manchester Guardian.
'
. .

.

'

Mr. Brown has devoted himself to this and kindred subjects for years, and in the work, the first volume of which is before us, the ripest fruits of his years of study will be presented. An enthusiastic student of Greek literature, deeply imbued with Semitic learning, the author has endeavoured to show in his various works the Semitic influence in Greek mythology^and life. His services in this field commend him to the regard of a wide circle of scholars! The book before us increases their debt to him The chapter on Babylonian astronomy makes good use of both Greek and cuneiform sources, and gives excellent promise for the rest of the work, which Semitic scholars will await with interest.' The American Journal of Theology.
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'

The volume

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varied erudition.'
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THE PHAINOMENA, OR 'HEAVENLY
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Constellations possesses any interest.'
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Knowledge.
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'An arduous task could scarcely be accomplished Notes and Queries.

more scholarly or

'This translation, without sacrificing fidelity, has preserved the spirit of the original. The work is profusely adorned with highly interesting illustrations.' The Literary World.
'

sumptuous form.'
is

Mr. Brown has published his neat aud faithful translation in an attractive, not to say The Academy.

'Those who know Mr. Brown's other works will readily believe the actual translation the least part of the book; the most important portion consists of the abundant and valuable notes upon every constellation named. Mr. Brown's erudition and range of research have received recognition ere now from the highest authorities, and they are displayed afresh in these interesting notes. Many of the constellations are traced hack and Mr. Brown's remarks as to the date of the observato their Akkadian stage tions upon which the poem of Aratos is founded are very forcible. The book is adorned with a great number of curious Middle Age or Archaic designs of the constellationThe Observatory. figures.'

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'

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AND KLEOBEIA.
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You have created an exquisite background not think any words of mine will be needed
Jane
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and true
'

for having placed the whole Rt. Honble. Prof. Muller.

MAX

problem of mythology in a clear

are
'

The subject is very interesting to me, and I agree with you in the opinion that there many Semitic and other Anaryan elements in Greek religion.' Prof. TlELE (Leiden

University).
1 do not keep far from your point of view of the acceptance of the opinion of a strong Semitic influence upon the Greek religion Your most excellent work about the constellations.' Prof. Dr. W. H, Roscher (Leipzig).
.
. .

1

Mr. Brown's own position

is

that of one

who

seeks for the meaning of

divine

names

Mr.
'

quarrel is mainly negative ; he only complains that the Professor has ignored the extent of Semitic influence in Hellas and passed over the writers who have demonstrated it. But as regards Mr. Lang he fights mainly on the Professor's side, and fires several shots with very pretty effect both on his own account and on that of his ally ... As to his polemics, he has a very pretty wit and no small skill of fence, which Mr. Lang may be expected to parry if he can.' The Times.

Andrew Lang, in The Bookman. With Prof. Max Muller Mr. Brown's

in Semitic philology

... In

itself

many Greek no theory can be more probable.'

Mr. Andrew Lang is a dexterous controversialist, wielding the sharpest of rapiers. But he does not have it all his own way. Mr. R. Brown is an expert, but he can be series of passages at arms with Mr. playful and in the first half of this volume he has a " " fire stealing, bearLang, and does sometimes dialectically draw blood Totemism, " dawn Mr. Brown has a "go at them all, and Mr. earth-myths, myths, cults, mouse-cults, Lang will need to sharpen his rapier once more.' The London Review.
1 ;
.
. .

lore
'

'A work which ought to find a place on the shelves of all students of myths and folkAdmirably written.' Echo. This is a lively and vigorous assault-at-arms in three bouts, defensive, offensive, and his axe constructive ... In the second part Mr. Brown takes up and butchers Mr. Lang on his own account ... On the intrinsic and fundamental issue we find ourselves in substantial agreement with Mr. Brown's contention that old Greek myths and Greek religion contain a considerable admixture of Semitic and other Oriental Mr. Brown is doing a good service in amassing and emphasizing the elements
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

evidence.'
'

Manchester Guardian.

substantial contribution to mythological study.' Glasgow Herald. Real knowledge of Euphratean mythology.' Literature. 'A clever interesting volume ... the student of mythology will find delightfully well put.' Expository Times.
1

A

many

things

Mr. Brown

is

probably

right in

emphasizing Semitic influence on various myths.'

The

Literary World.

Mr. Brown playfully criticizes the two authors [Prof. Max Muller and Mr. A. Lang] above mentioned, leaning somewhat to the side of Prof. Max Muller. 'The Oxford Magazine. There are many features in the classical mythology that we learned at school which are plainly not of Greek origin. Whence do they come? Mr. A. Lang thinks they can be traced to the beliefs of savages but Mr. Brown thinks they were borrowed bodily from the civilized inhabitants of Western Asia. It is most probable that Mr. Brown is right
'

'

;

DINVINb dOtl.

SEP J 6 197 \

QB

Brown, Robert

302 B7
v. 2

Researches into the origin of the primitive constellations of the Greeks

Physical

&
5ci.

Apphed

PLEASE

DO NOT REMOVE
FROM
THIS

CARDS OR

SLIPS

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