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Handout 1

Personal Work Techniques (PWT)


Dr. Arno Schircks, SAV Faculty & Senior Consultant

Handout 1:

A. Study Tips for MBA Course


B. Proactive Project Management
C. Project Management of learning
D. Workplan
E. Effective Note-Taking
F. Managing your reading
G. Learning style model
H. Learning by Listening
I. How to work with case study
J. Analyzing a case study
K. Core cross-cultural attitudes

Assignments:

Individual:
• Answer TIME-MANAGEMENT PERSONALITY PROFILE
• Answer LOCUS OF CONTROL INVENTORY
Team:
• Create 9 study groups/learning teams: 7 with 4 members, 2 with 5 members and give
list to the Faculty
I. Handout:

A. Study Tips for Users of Educational Institute


Courses
Learning is a skill, like many other activities. Although you may be familiar with many of the
following study tips, we want to reinforce their usefulness.

Your Attitude Makes a Difference

If you want to learn, you will: it's as simple as that. Your attitude will go a long way in
determining whether or not you do well in this course. We want to help you succeed.

Plan and Organize to Learn

· Set up a regular time and place for study. Make sure you won't be disturbed or distracted.

· Decide ahead of time how much you want to accomplish during each study session.
Remember to keep your study sessions brief; don't try to do too much at one time.

Read the Course Text to Learn

· Before you read each chapter, read the chapter outline and the learning objectives. Notice
that each learning objective has page numbers that indicate where you can find the concepts
and issues related to the objective. If there is a summary at the end of the chapter, you also
want to read it to get a feel for what the chapter is about.

· Then, go back to the beginning of the chapter and carefully read, focusing on the material
included in the learning objectives and asking yourself such questions as:

- Do I understand the material?


- How can I use this information now or in the future?

· Make notes in margins and highlight or underline important sections to help you as you study.
Read a section first, then go back over it to mark important points.

· Keep a dictionary handy. If you come across an unfamiliar word that is not included in the
textbook glossary, look it up in the dictionary.

· Read as much as you can. The more you read, the better you read.

Testing Your Knowledge


· Test questions developed by the Educational Institute for this course are designed to reliably
and validly measure a student's ability to meet a standard of knowledge expressed by the
industry-driven learning objectives.

· End-of-the-chapter Review Quizzes help you find out how well you have studied the material.
They indicate where additional study may be needed. Review Quizzes are also helpful in
studying for other tests.

· Prepare for tests by reviewing


- learning objectives
- notes
- outlines
- questions at the end of each assignment

· As you begin to take any test, read the test instructions carefully and look over the
questions.

We hope your experiences in this course will prompt you to undertake other training and
educational activities in a armed, career-long program of professional growth and development.

B. Proactive Project Management


Form B
Reading a Gantt Chart

Task 1

Task 2

Task 3

Task 4

Task 5

Days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Answer the following questions on the basis of the information displayed in the Grantt chart
above:

1. How long is Task 1 supposed to take?


2. How long is Task 4 supposed to take?
3. What are the busiest times of this project?
4. Are there any issues that pose potential problems?
C. Project Management of Learning
How to solve the TIME DILEMMA?
Determine how much time you can control yourself next month by establishing your work plan.

Already planned or fixed days or activities during next month:

Planned days or fixed assignments Working days next month


Imposed time from others or fixed assignments already
received

Core Courses

Meetings or workshops

Travel

Other 1

Other 2

Total of already planned days B

All working-days available next month


A
./. planned days B

= remaining days for planning


A - B = C

25 April, 1997 PWT Time Dilemma.doc

D. Work Plan
Work Plan for: ____________________________(month)
Objectives:
What do I want to achieve this month for coming closer to my
academic objectives? What, how, who, where, when, why?
What have to discuss with partners, faculty, customers or other
people?
Working days Working
C days
Net available days = __________(From Time
Dilemma sheet)
C D
./. unforseen or unexpected 20% of =

Activities for learning: reading, summarizing, discussing, Plan Actual


surveys, preparation of presentations etc.
E. Effective Note-Taking
Lecture styles vary greatly from speaker to speaker. Some lecturers are beautifully organized,
some ramble, some present an hour of anecdotes and leave the student to determine their
signficance. It is therefore imperative that you figure out a lecturer's style and how it functions
to convey her/his idea. In the case of the rambler or story teller, you may find yourself at the
end of an hour with only a sentence or two written down which may leave you with a feeling of
insecurity. If this happens, it might be a good idea to check with other students, but don't be
surprised if it works out that your one or two sentences do, indeed, represent the crucial points
of the lectures.

I. Purposes of Note-Taking

1 . In order to take efficient notes, the student is forced to listen carefully and critically to
what is being said.

2. Taking notes aids comprehension and retention. Personal notes in one's own writing
are easier to understand and remember than textbook material.

3. Lecture notes should represent a concise and complete outline of the most important
points and ideas, especially those considered most important by the professor.

4. Lecture notes clarify ideas not fully understood in the text or elaborate on things that
the text mentions only briefly.

5. Lecture notes combined with notes from textbook material are an excellent source of
review. They provide a gauge to what is important in the textbook.

A frequent complaint of students is that they are unable to determine during the lecture what is
important and what might just as well be left out. These students may attempt to write down
every word uttered by the professor, combining page after page of isolated facts and details but
missing a more general understanding of the material, as they are too busy writing to listen.
The following are some suggestions to aid the student in taking efficient lecture notes.

II. Before the Lecture

The single most important thing you can do is to read or skim the text prior to attending the
lecture. This will enable you to:

1. Get the general overview of main ideas, secondary points, and important concepts.
Listen with understanding and determine what is relevant and irrelevant.

2. Identify familiar terms with unfamiliar terms and concepts.


a. Look up the terms before class.
b. Listen for an explanation during the lecture.
c. Ask the professor or TA for an explanation.

3. Note portions of the material which are unclear.


a. Listen for an explanation during the lecture.
b. Develop questions to ask in class.

4. Look for other aps in information which should be clarified or filled in.

III. During the Lecture

1. Structure and Organization.


Each student should develop his own method of taking notes, however, the following
suggestions may be helpful.

I. Keep a separate section of your notebook or binder for each course. If there are
several types of notes for one course, such as lecture notes, notes on outside
readings, and computation of problems, you may want to arrange them on
opposite pages for purposes of cross-reference.

2. Notes for each lecture should begin on a new page. This makes for a greater
legibility and allows for more freedom in organization.

3. Date your lecture notes and number all pages.

4. Make your notes brief.


a. Never use a sentence when you can use a phrase, or a phrase when.
You can use a word.
b. Use abbreviations and symbols wherever possible.

5. Put most notes in your own words. However, the following should be noted
exactly:
a. Formulae
b. Definitions
c. Specific facts

6. Note your lecturer's chief pattern. S/he may be summarizing the text and
highlighting important points, or trying to draw relationships between new and
previous understandings. S/he may expect you to get the textbook material on
your own while he discusses related outside material.
a. If s/he is highlighting the text, take down explanations and examples.
Seeing a concept stated in more than one way can help you
understand it.
b. If s/he draws relationships and asks questions, note the questions and
answers. If s/he doesn't give the answers, try to find them after class.

7. Don’t worry about outlining, but use indentations to distinguish between major
and minor points. Numbers and letters may be added later if you wish.
However, if the lecturer says s/he will make four or five points, list four or five
causes, etc., be sure to use numbers as a check on having taken them all
down.

8. Note down unfamiliar vocabulary and unclear areas. If the lecturer discusses
something you don't understand, take it down as best and as completely as you
can. Then you can check with the text or at least know what questions to ask if
getting help from someone else. If your instructor knows juts what you don't
understand, s/he's in a position to help you.

9. If you should miss something completely, leave a blank space and get it later.
10. Use margins for questions, comments, notes to yourself on unclear
material, etc,

11. Develop a code system of note-marking to indicate questions, comments,


important points, due dates of assignments, etc. This helps separate
extraneous material from the body of notes and also helps point out areas
which are unclear. Margins are excellent places for coded notations. Some
suggested codes are:
? - not clear at time of lecture
Imp. or ! - important
Q questions
* - assignment
C - comment(student's own)

12. Attempt to differentiate fact from opinion.

2. Content.

1. Notes should include all main ideas and enough subordinate points to clarify
understanding.

2. All formulae, rules, definitions, and generalizations should be included.

3. Inclusion of the speaker's illustrations and examples may help clarify concepts
when notes are reviewed.

4. Marginal notes facilitate speedy location of specific items.

5. Instructors usually give clues as to what is important to take down-.


a. previews and summaries
b. material written on blackboard, other visual aids
c. repetition
d. vocal emphasis
e. questions asked of the class
f. word clues: four causes of, four aspects of, therefore- in conclusion; and
so we see; hence- in a like manner, on the other hand- however, cause-effect;
relationships- etc.

IV. After the Lecture

1. Go over your notes as soon as possible after the lecture.


1 . Clear up illegibilities in writing, check for errors, fill in further facts and examples
while the lecture is still fresh in your mind. At this point you should clear up
misunderstandings or fill in missing information by consulting the lecturer, TA,
classsmates, the texts, or addtional readings.

2. Immediate review is essential to retention. Unless you review within 24 hours after
lecture or at least before the next lecture, retention will drop sharply and you will
be relearning rather than reviewing.

3 . Merely recopying notes without thinking about or revising them does not
necessarily aid retention. A more helpful practice is to manipulate the material by
reorganizing it and putting it in your own words. For a well-organized lecture, an
outline can suffice, but in the case of material where important ideas and
relationships are scattered throughout, there is a technique called mapping which
can be very useful in restructuring and puttino together the relevant points. The
use of this technique forces you to critically evaluate material in terms of main
ideas, secondary points, and details, and to structure this content in an organized
and coherent fashion. Relationships must be observed and established, irrelevant
material may be excluded. This can be one of the most efficient means of
immediate review for optimal retention,
See below for an example of "mapping"
F. Managing Your Reading

The volume of reading that is essential today in most managerial positions is discouraging - but
essential. To keep up, to know what is developing in the organization and within the area of
your business, you must do a lot of reading. The answer is to be able to read faster and at the
same time remember more from what you have read. But how to do it?
Some practical techniques are offered by Phyllis A. Miller, Ph.D., a reading specialist, in
Managing Your Reading.

Pacesetting
Use your choice of two aids to help you to build up your reading speed as you move across the
lines of print and down the page.
One aid is your hand, and most people use their right hand. Begin by placing your hand palm
down on the page in a relaxed manner. Use your middle finger to lead you along underneath
each line of type. Don't go all the way to the edge of the printed column. Stop when you are
about one-half of an inch from the edge on the right, then move your hand down one line and to
a half-inch from the edge on the left. Keep the tips of your fingers in contact with the page at all
times. Move your hand as if you were underlining the words you are reading. This keeps your
attention directed to that spot, and results in better concentration.
The second pacesetter aid is an unlined index card. Place it one or two lines above the line you
are reading, so it doesn't get in your way. The card will push you along as you read and will
discourage backtracking, which is often both habitual and unnecessary.
Use either your hand or the card to set various paces to build up your rate of reading. At first,
simply try them out, reading at your normal pace. You will probably find they disrupt your
concentration. They will become helpful only when you are less conscious of them.

Warm-up Pacing
Use warm-up pacing to get accustomed to higher speeds of reading. Set a pace considerably
faster than you comfortably read, and keep it, regardless of your level of understanding of the
material being read. At this point, comprehension has a low priority.

Efficient-rate Pacing
Efficient-rate pacing is reading for ideas as you pace with either your hand or a card.
Concentrate on picking up the meaning as you go along. If you have done enough warm-up
pacing, your pacing aid should move fairly automatically, and this will help you to read at a
faster rate than you would without the aid.
After you have completed a passage - a page or so - check yourself. Without looking back at
what you have just read, try to jot down phrases or sentences about the passage. Write them
down, then go back over the reading to double-check your accuracy.

Measure Your Pacing Rate


Try these two methods to measure your reading rate:
1. One is the "eyeball" method. Simply look to see how much you have read, measuring in
pages and fractions of pages when reading a book.
2. The other is the WPM (words per minute) method. First, get the average number of words
in a line of print by counting three lines, then dividing by three. If the answer doesn't come out
even, round down. Then, count the number of lines you read in a minute. Multiply this number
by the average number of words in a line and you get the words per minute. (Six words per line
times fifty lines equals 300 words per minute.)

Skimming
Skimming allows you to get the main ideas as you skip other parts of the material. It helps you
to follow the writer's thinking and to see the development of each point. It shows you how to
filter material as you move through it so that you pass over the lengthy discussions, examples,
and fillers.

In skimming, you're trying to follow the writer's train of thought to get the main ideas. Read the
introductory material in a chapter. This may be a single paragraph or a page or more.
Then read the first one or two sentences of the rest of the paragraphs, Try to determine the
topic sentence, the one that contains the main idea of the paragraph. This is usually the first
sentence of the paragraph.

Key Concept Words


Key concept words express the leading ideas of the material. As an example, in a book on
public speaking, the word "communication" might be a key concept word, one to look for as you
skim. Read sentences that contain key signal words, wherever they are found.
Key signal words signal emphasis, a shift in thought or a way of connecting one idea to another.
They help the writer to develop the train of thought or to string the main ideas together.

Look for these key signal words at the beginning of a sentence or at the beginning of the second
part of a compound sentence.

How to Skim
To prepare for skimming, analyze the book and the chapter titles to identify the key concept
words.
Use your hand or a card as a guide, as we suggested earlier, reading only the first sentence of a
paragraph. If you lose your train of thought, try backing up and also reading the last sentence of
the preceding paragraph. Sometimes an author makes a point at the end of a paragraph, then
refers to it in the next paragraph.
If the author switches to narrative to illustrate a point, you have a choice. Read it or skip it.
Skim slowly when you start new material. Get a feel for the author's style and the line of
thought. Build up speed after you are more sure of what you are getting from the material.
Use skimming to approach difficult material you might otherwise avoid. It permits you to
become acquainted with the material without dealing with details either prematurely or at all.

G. The Elements of Learning Style


Psychological Elements

Individual process new and difficult information in fundamentally different ways. The terms
analytic / global, hemispheric preference, sequential/simultaneous, and inductive/deductive
have been used interchangeably in the literature. The descriptions of these variables tend to
parallel one other.
Those who tend to be analytics learn more easily when information is presented step by step in
a Cumulative sequential pattern that builds toward a conceptual understanding. Conversely,
those who tend to be globals learn more easily when they, understand the concept first. After
they see the "whole picture" they then can concentrate on details. Globals also enjoy being
introduced to the information with a humorous short story replete with examples and graphics.
Whether analytic or global, however, what is crucial to understanding brain functioning is that
both types do reason, but by different strategies (Levy, 1979; Zenhousern, 1980). Each strategy
is "a reflection of a trend toward optimalization of efficient use of neural space" (Levy, 1982, p.
224).
Thus wether adults are analytic or global, sequential or simultaneous, inductive or deductive, or
have a certain hemispheric preference, they are capable of mastering identical information or
skills and working productively if their processing styles are complemented. That conclusion
has been documented at tile high school and adult levels.
Analytic and global processors have different environmental and physiological needs (Cody,
1983; Dunn, Bruno, Sklar, & Beauclry, 1990; Dunn, Cavanaugh, Eberle, & Zenhausern, 1982).
Many analytic preferents tend to opt for learning and working in a quiet, well-illuminated, formal
setting; they often have a strong emotional need to complete the tasks they are working on; and
they rarely eat, drink, smoke, chew or bite on objects white concentrating. Conversely, global
preferents appear to work with what some describe as distractors: they concentrate best with
sound (music or background talking), soft hearing, an informal seating arrangement, and some
form of intake. In addition, globals take frequent breaks while concentrating and often stay with
a task for a short amount of' time, stop, do something else, and eventually return to the original
task. Neither set of procedures is better or worse than tile other; they merely are different.
Many globals prefer learning with peers rather than alone or with an instructor or supervisor, and
they also often prefer to structure tasks in their own way; they tend to dislike imposed directives.
The psychological element of impulsive/reflective is a function of individual verbal risk-taking
behavior. Impulsives are quick to say what first comes to mind. Reflectives, however, need
time to consider the question or problem and think through alternative solutions before
verbalizing. Both response styles are beneficial. Instructors and managers should consider
building buffer time into training discussions and office meetings to ensure the input of the
reflectives is not compromised by pressure to move through the agenda.
Instructors and employers need to know how to guide and interact with both analytic and global
processors whether on the job or in a learning environment. A necessary precondition to this
management approach is understanding one's own learning style preferences. Understanding
and capitalizing on an individual's preferred processing style clearly will enhance academic and
job related productivity.

Environmental Elements

How people physically react to the elements of sound, light, temperature, and design in the
immediate environment is biologically based (Restak, 1979; Thies, 1979). Some individuals
prefer absolute quiet while concentrating; others need background sound, such as a radio, to
produce their best work. Light and temperature fill on a similar continuum. Some people prefer
varying amounts of light, such as that provided by task lighting; some prefer a warm
environment and others a cooler work area.

The study of the relationship between workers and their environment is called ergonomics.
Studies have shown that such environmental factors as lighting, heating, furniture design, and
noise affect individual employees differently. There is a direct correlation between those factors
and the individual's productivity (Whitehouse, 1988). Accommodating an individual's unique
preferences leads to an increase in productivity (DLirante, 1988). Ergonomics takes a human--
centered approach to addressing the requirements of workplace systems. Although people are
adaptive, this adaptation effort creates a corresponding reduction in the individual's ability to
devote energies and skills to job performance or learning. Excessive adaptation may lead to
discomfort, fatigue, and in extreme cases a medical problem (Spinger, 1988).

Similar differences are evidenced with varied seating arrangements. Some prefer concentrating
in wooden, plastic, or steel chairs, but many others become so uncomfortable in conventional
seats that they are prevented from engaging in productive thinking or learning. Few people are
aware that when a person is seated in a hard chair, finally 75 percent of the total body weight is
supported by four square inches of bone (Branton, 1966). The resulting stress on the tissues of
the buttocks causes fatigue, discomfort, and frequent postural change. Only naturally well-
padded people can tolerate conventional seating for long periods of time.

For those reasons, the physical layout and furnishings of offices, work spaces, and classrooms
have profound effects on productivity levels. Flexibility in lighting intensity, type of seating, and
quiet or sound (such as with portable stereos) will allow individuals to create personally
productive work spaces. Employees' preferences in terms of environmental elements can guide
organization decision makers in the selection and furnishing of facilities.
Emotional Elements

Emotional elements address the ways in which a person approaches a learning situation or
undertakes a difficult project. A key emotional element is motivations (how driven one is,
whether one is a self-starter, and whether one is willing to take risks). Highly motivated
individuals require little supervision and learn new skills quickly; individuals with low motivation
require frequent positive feedback and constant supervision, even in tasks they easily can
accomplish. Another emotional element is persistence. Learners who tend to be nonpersistent
prefer to work with many short-term projects. Those who tend to be persistent are more
productive working on one project at a time. Both types will be equally productive despite the
dissimilarity in approach.

Responsibility (the extent to which one takes direction versus a preference to personalize a
task) is an indication of degree of conforming behavior. Those who are conforming by nature
take direction and feel compelled to do what they “should"; nonconformists question authority
and thrive on collegial relationships. The element of structure impacts whether one wants
directions spelled out specifically or prefers reaching the goal with choices and options. A
mismatch of responsibility or structure orientations can be a source of conflict or discomfort
between manager/employee and instructor/learner. An awareness of these differences when
working or learning is critical to establishing productive relationships.

Sociological Elements

Sociological elements influence one’s preference for working independently; with a team, a
mentor, or a colleague; or in a variety of groupings. The sociological preferences of an
individual directly affect how successful small-group instructional techniques work as an
instructional strategy or the degree to which one is perceived as a team player. Often a
member of a quality circle or project team who prefers to work independently will work on
specific portions of the project alone and then bring back to the group his or her finished
product.

Physical Elements

Physical elements, which are also biologically based, include intake (the need to eat, drink, or
chew); mobility (the need to move or stretch periodically); time of day (peak energy times); and
perceptual preference (whether one learns best in an auditory, visual, tactual, or kinesthetic
manner). Although some individuals need to eat, drink, or chew when they work, others prefer
not to do so until they have completed their tasks. In terms of mobility, some individuals can sit
at their desks for long periods of time when working on challenging tasks, whereas others need
to get up frequently to take breaks, stretch, and move around.
The physical element of time of day has received substantial attention in terms of chrono-
biology, peak energy times for individuals, time management, and the implications for flextime.
Task efficiency also is related to each person's temperature cycle (Biggers, 1980); thus it is
related to when each person is likely to concentrate and/or learn best. Individuals have specific
chrono-biological cycles and times of day during which they can perform maximally. Performing
challenging tasks or learning new information at the best time of day impacts the quality of the
work produced. Furthermore, statistics show that information taught to an individual at his or
her best time of day is more often used on the job than information taught at another time
(Freeley, 1984).

Perceptual preference, or sensory modality, refers to the different paths through which people
can absorb information (auditory, visual, tactual, or kinesthetic). Research has verified that when
an adult is taught with instructional resources that complement his or her sensory strength,
more is learned and the person experiences a more positive attitude toward basic learning itself
(Buell & Bucll, 1987; Farr, 1971; Ingham, 1989).

Perceptual preference tends to develop with physical maturation. The tactual / kinesthetic
modes are trongest among young children; the visual mode takes over in approximately the
second or third grade; and at the end of elementary school, the auditory predominates (Keefe,
1979; Price, 1980). According to Keefe (1979), adults tend to possess a preference for one
modality or another. One cannot assume that individual adults will achieve optimal learning or
concentration regardless of' the instructions approach utilized. Based on tests ofbthousands of
adults with the Productivity Environmental Preference (PEPS), Dunn, Dunn, and Price (1989)
concluded that many possessed only one perceptual strength, whether tactual / kinesthetic,
auditory, or visual. Approximately 40 percent were visually oriented, 30 percent were auditory,
and 30 percent were tactual/ kinesthetic (Dunn, 1986). In short, a majority of adults have
perceptual learning preferences dominated by one modality.

Some people can remember approximately 75 percent of what they hear; those are considered
auditory learners. Visual learners remember 75 percent of what they read or see. As people get
orlder, they tend to be more visual. The legendary command of “put it in writing” may reflect a
real need for some people. Approximately 40 percent of the population tends to possess a
visual strength. Others learn through physical engagement; they learn by doing. A person with a
kinesthetic strength needs to be actively involved in a task such as a site inspection or field trip,
or learning by doing. An on-the-job training program is far more effective for those people than
an office material, text, or lecture. Those with a tactual strength are best able to remember new
and difficult information when they use their hands during the learning process. Building
models, drawing diagrams or pictures, and using manipulatives all enhance the concentration of
tactual / kindesthetic individuals.

It is imperative that a person’s first exposure to new information or a new project be through his
or her strongest modality. Using all four modalities in sequence does not ensure that each
person is introduced to difficult material correctly (that is, through his or her perceptual
prefercnce/strength). Using multiple stimuli is often counterproductive. For example, many
highly auditory individuals listen better when they are not required to take notes; in effect, note
taking interferes with their listening. These critical findings should guide instructors, employers,
and individual learners to make wise decisions concerning selection of courses or training
programs and strategies for accomplishing challenging tasks (Buell & Buell, 1987; Dunn, 1988,
1990; Ingham, 1990).

H. Learning by Listening
You can learn a lot through listening. In college, it will be a prime source of information.
Listening is a skill which must be developed. If you apply the following suggestions, you will find
yourself listening more effectively.

The responsibility for developing interest and understanding is yours. Be an active listener and
get the most out of attending lecture. Concentrate on what the speaker is saying. Sit where
you can see and hear the speaker easily and where other distractions are at a minimum.

Determine why what the speaker is saying is important to you. If you don't have an immediate,
vivid reason for listening to a speaker, you are an unmotivated listener. Practice the habit of
paying attention.

Prepare to get the most out of lecture by reviewing the important points from the previous
lecture. Preview the assigned readings to establish some background knowledge. Determine
what you know and do not know about the material in order to focus your listening as an
opportunity for learning.

Listen for the pattern of organization in lecture. Does it begin or end with a brief summary of the
main concepts, themes, or ideas? How are details or examples used to develop specific
points? What is the relationship between the points presented?

What is the structural format? Outline? Comparative analysis? Main idea, background
information, supporting points? Inductive or deductive reasoning?

Ask yourself: What questions does this lecture answer? What are possible midterm questions
that information from lectures could be used to answer? What is the relationship between the
lectures and the readings?

Not everything is equally important in lecture. Hold yourself accountable for being selective and
differentiating between levels of importance. Organize your notetaking as a way to review, test
your understanding of ideas, and prepare for exams.

I. How to work with case studies


Cases are a way to develop a productive and meaningful way of expressing yourself about
business problems. They help you to use logic for the solving of problems.

1. Define the problem


• Become familiar with the facts
• Isolate the central problem
• Look for guiding questions which highlights the background
• Distinguish problems from underlying causes decline in sales is a symtom for a problem in
the marketing mix, not the problem
• Identify the problem to be solved first - it might help for the others

2. Select alternatives
• Extract them from the case or supply from own judgement
• Limit alternatives to a reasonable number of approx. 3-4 one should always be the status
quo - in another shape

3. Analyze alternatives = heart of the case method


• Separate into parts: find out nature, proportion, function and their underlying relations
• Analyze the facts presented in the case
• Utilize additional data and information available around you
• Incorporate relevant outside data from other disciplines accounting, economics, statistics,
sociology
• Make assumptions - and clearly declare them as such but don’t assume away the problem
• Examine both sides of important issues
• List pro's and con's / advantages and disadvantages of each alternative

4. Make recommendations
• Judge the relative risks and opportunities of various alternatives
• Make a clear cut decision its more important HOW you come to a decision than the selection
itself
• To 'get more information' is not accepted as a result decisions ran not wait long researches,
they mostly are done in uncertainties
5. Specify plan of action
• How to implement the decision why actions: What - When - How much does it cost
• Reflect on potential market reactions
• If more data are needed: State target for research, method to be used, time and costs

6. Prepare contingency plan


Prepare an alternative scenario if reactions of the market fail

7. Write a report
• written reports forces you to do a better job of analyzing
• The report should be objective, balanced, consistent and decisive and should show that -
you have understood the situation interpreted the facts correctly
• Do not repeat the facts and problems that have been provided
• Structure the report with a beginning and an end i.e. with a good order of content
• Report should be of optimal length to cover the subject
• It’s standard should reflect what business today expects from an MBA

J. Analyzing a case study

Key questions to be raised:


1. What are the problems?
2. What have been done?
3. Why didn’t it (the change strategy) work? First trial
4. What have been adjusted? Second, etc. trial
5. What are the initial results?
6. What are the critical success factors (CSF)?
7. What should be done further?

K. “Core” cross-cultural attitudes*


1. Open-mindedness toward new ideas and experiences
2. Empathy with people from other cultures
3. Perceptive of differences and similarities between own culture and other culture
4. Nonjudgemental: Noncritical observation of own and other people’s behavior
5. Meaningful relationship with people in the other culture
6. Less ethnocentric

*
Gudykunst, Hammer, Wisemann, Intl. J. of Intercult. Relations, 1. 1997
Enhance communication sheet
Communicating with a wide variety of people is challenge. There are numerous types of people
with whome conversing and extracting meaning may be difficult. The causes of communication
problems may be physical (e.g., ineffective use of the voices, eyes, arms, or hands) or skilled –
based (i.e, lack of knowledge about verbal and nonverbal communication skills), or emotional
(e.g, issues related to culture, age, sexual preference, gender or disability).
To effectively present information and identify the other person’s needs, the following general
techniques can help.
Listen actively. Take the time to practice effective listening skills by focusing on what is said by
the other person’s and rephrasing it in your own words to see if you have interpreted it
accurately. Check for understanding before making assumptions or decisions.
Act responsively. Decide whether an action is required and select the appropriate response or
action.
Reduce your rate of speech. When dealing with people who have a hearing, learning, or speed
related disability or who are not native speakers of your language, slow your rate of speech.
This allows better comprehension and formulation of a response.
Speak audibly and clearly but not patronizingly. Communication with people who have difficulty
understanding your verbal communication can be enhanced if you clearly enunciate your words
or confuse your meaning. If the person does not have a hearing disability, it may also offend him
or her.
Look directly at the person. When communicating, face the other person so that he or she can
see you speak the words and watch your nonverbal facial expressions and gestures. This aids
comprehension and verification of your message. Even if the person is using an interpreter or
companion to assist in communication, speak to the person, not to the assistant.
Be concise. Eliminate unnecessary words and expressions and say exactly what you mean. Ask
simple, open – ended questions (those that allow more than a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response. In some
cultures, the word ‘no’ is used sparingly or not at all, so allow the other person to communicate
unwillingness or disagreement in another way.
Have patience. Take time when communicating; do not rush the other person or interupt or
finish his or her sentences. Encourage the other person to continue.
Repeat or rephrase. If necessary, repeat your message, ensuring that it is spoken clearly and
slowly. If appropriate, select shorter words. It also may be helpful to give an example, illustraion,
or demonstration.
Watch for nonverbal cues. Watch the person’s facial expressions and body language to help
gauge his or her reactions and comprehension. For example, frowning may indicate lack of
comprehension as well as disagreement. In some other cultures, the typical North American
speaking distance is “too close” or “not close enough” for interpersonal communication.
Keep hands and objects away from your face. Avoid masking your speed and facial messages>
Obstructing the other’s person view of your face may send the message that you are
embarrassed, lying, or uncertain about what you are saying (or that you are rude). Keeping your
face in view also makes it easier for hearing – impaired people to read your lips.
Use standard language. Avoid using contractions (e.g., do not, should not, can not), slang,
technical terms and jargon, acronyms, or other verbal short cuts that may be unfamiliar or
annoying to the other person.
Use pauses. Allow time for comprehension and for other person to respond or react. Also allow
opportunities for questions.
Use inclusive language. Ensure that your language does not omit anyone or any group (e.g., do
not refer to a group of men and women as “you guys”)
Avoid demeaning terminology. Do not use terms that have negative meanings when referring to
individuals or groups (e.g. handicapped, girls, retard). Do not make slurs about other cultures or
beliefs.
Put messages in writing. In addition to verbally transmitting messages, provide written copies.
This aids people who have difficulty interpreting spoken language by allowing future reference
or translation from the material.
Enhancing Communication sheet
Communicating with a wide variety of people is a challenge. There are numerous types of
people with whom conversing and extracting meaning may be difficult. The causes of
communication problems may be physical (e.g. ineffective use of the voice, eyes, arms or
hands), or skilled – based (i.e., lack of knowledge about verbal and nonverbal communication
skills) or emotional (e.g., issues related to culture, age, sexual preference, gender or disability).
To effectively present information and identify the other person’s needs, the following general
techniques can help.
Listen actively. Take the time to practice effective listening skills by focusing on what is said by
the other person and rephrasing it in your own words to see if you have interpreted it accurately.
Check for understanding before making assumptions or decisions.
Act responsively. Decide whether an action is required and select the appropriate response or
action.
Reduce your rate of speech. When dealing with people who have a hearing , learning, or speed
– related disability or who are not native speakers of your language, slow your rate of speech.
This allows better comprehension and formulation of a response.
Speak audibly and clearly but not patronizingly. Communication with people who have difficulty
understanding your verbal communication can be enhanced if you clearly enunciate your words.
Do not shout or exaggerate your pronunciation. This may distort your words or confuse your
meaning. If the person does not have a hearing disability, it may also offend him or her.
Look directly at the person. IWhen communicating, face the other person so that he or she can
see you speak the words and watch your nonverbal facial expressions and gestures. This aids
comprehension and verification of your message. Even if the person is using an interpreter or
companion to assist in communication, speak to the person, not to the assistant.
Be concise. Eliminate unnecessary words and expressions and say exactly what you mean. Ask
simple, open – ended questions (those that allow more than a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response. In some
cultures, the word ‘no’ is used sparingly or not at all, so allow the other person to communicate
unwillingness or disagreement in another way.
Have patience. Take time when communicating; do not rush the other person or interrupt or
finish his or her sentences. Encourage the other person to continue.
Repeat or rephrase. If necessary, repeat your message, ensuring that it is spoken clearly and
slowly. If appropriate, select shorter words. It also may be helpful to give an example,
illustration, or demonstration.
Watch for nonverbal cues. Watch the person’s facial expressions and body language to help
gauge his or her reactions and comprehension. For example, frowning may indicate lack of
comprehension as well as disagreement. In some other cultures, the typical North American
speaking distance is “too close” or “not close enough” for interpersonal communication.
Keep hands and objects away from your face. Avoid masking your speech or facial messages.
Obstructing the other’s person view of your face may send the message that you are
embarrassed, lying or uncertain about what you are saying (or that you are rude). Keeping your
face in view also make it easier for hearing – impaired people to read your lips.
Use standard language. Avoid using contractions (e.g., don’t, shouldn’t, can’t), slang, technical
terms and jargon, acronyms or other verbal short cuts that may be unfamiliar or annoying to the
other person.
Use pauses. Allow time for comprehension and for the other person to respond or react. Also
allow opportunities for question.
Use inclusive language. Ensure that your language does not omit anyone or any group (e.g., do
not refer to a group of men and women as “you guys”).
Avoid demeaning terminology. Do not use terms that have negative meanings when referring to
individuals or groups (e.g., handicapped, girls, retard). Do not make slurs about other cultures or
beliefs.
Put messages in writing. In addition to verbally transmitting messages, provide written copies.
This aids people who have difficulty interpreting spoken language reference or translation from
material.
Bilateral Training Theory
The study of the differences between the hemispheres (halves) of the brain began with an
obscure French country doctor, Marc Dax, who notice that patients who lose their powers of
speech following brains injuries sustained damage to only the left sides of their brains. Dax
proposed at a medical society meetings in 1836 that speech is controlled by the left side of the
brain and, therefore, that the two hemispheres must control different functions. Although Dax’s
theory did not receive much attention at the time, it has since been the basic for a great deal of
research and interest.
Brain Hemispheres
The human brain consists of two hemispheres that are mirror images of each other. The
hemisphere are connected by the corpus callosum, a series of transverse nerve – fiber bundles
that transmits information from one brain hemisphere to the other. Each hemisphere controls the
movements and sensations of the opposite site of the body; that is, the left hemisphere control
the right side of the body.
Human beings are asymatrical; they are not equal adept at using their right or left sided but are
equally divided in their preferences, the overwhelming majority of humans favor their right sides.
Ninety percent of us are right handed. Furthermore, researchers have discovered that the
human brain itself is not symmetrical in its abilities. Although sensory and motor functions are
equally divided, many of the higher mental capabilities (such as speech) seem to be controlled
primarily by either one hemisphere or other.
Much of the research that has been conducted on the hemispheres has occurred as a result of
studying brain – injured persons or persons who have had their corpora callosa surgically cut for
medical reasons (the latter are commonly known as split – brain patients). Mental functions that
are hemispherically individualized have been identified in such persons by identifying the
functions that have been impaired or eliminated and the side of the brain that was injured. It is
then supposed that the injured hemisphere controls those functions.
Such study appears to indicate that the left brain controls a significant portion of the analytical
mental functions such as language (both speech and comprehension) and logical and rational
capabilities, whereas the right brain controls much of the intuitive capabilities – the abilities to
produce and appreciate music and art, as well as spatial skills. The hemispheres also seem to
differ in their methods of processing information. The left brain tends to process information in a
sequential manner, dealing with details and features, whereas the right brain tends to deal with
simultaneous relationships and global patterns.
However, the above categorization does not explain our asymmetrical brains. If the above were
foolbroff, right – handed people all would be logical, organized, and reasonable people, and left
– handed people all would be artistic, intuitive and disorganized.
Left Handedness
Left handed has become a focal point of study in researchers’ struggles to understand the
workings of the human brain. It is not known for sure what causes a person to be left handed.
Some scientists belief that left handedness is caused by slight brain damage (cause by
insufficient oxygen) to the left hemisphere at birth, forcing the right hemisphere to “take over”
the language functions, thus producing the person whose left side is dominant. Others believe
that handedness is inherited. They point to the statistics that two right – handed parent have two
% chance of producing a left handed child, and two left – handed parents have 47% chance of
having a left handed child. Still others argue that handedness is behaviorally determined, that it
is learned after birth and is not caused by physical trauma or genetics.
“Lefties” differ from “righties” in more ways than their writing hands, which is the most obvious
difference. Research does indicate that the brains of left – handed people are organized
differently than the brain of right – handed people. Studies have indicated that the speech of
some left – handed people actually is controlled by the right hemisphere, which contradicts the
right – and left – brain function theories origionally presented. Other left – handers appear to
have bilateral control of speech, i.e., control shared by both hemispheres. Still other’s speech is
controlled by the left hemisphere, just as in the case of right handers. In addition, a
disproportionate number of artistic people are left handed, promoting speculation that left
handers can develop their right brains (artistic ability, creativity, intuition and etc.) more than
right handers.

Some Caveats
Some educators have argued that because we live in society that values objectivity, logic
reason, and organization more than creativity, intuition, art, and music, our “right brains” are not
being developed and utilized as they should. These people point out that our educational
methods in general favor “left – brains” processing(testing, reading, writing, reasoning, etc.,),
while alternative methods of reaching conclusions and learning – such as using intuition or
being creative – are devalued. Children in school learn to give the teachers what they want
rather than learning to think independently and creatively.
Although this conclusions may be true in terms of sociological processes, they are not
necessarily accurate in terms of the popular conceptions of “right brain/ left brain.” There is a
danger that bilateral brain theory will extend beyond the research of neuropsychologists to
become part of the “psychobable” of popular culture.
Springer and Deutsch (1989) believe that the hemispheres of the human brain are not as
separate and distinct as popular culture believes them to be. Current research seem seems to
indicate that although the hemispheres appear to retain some separate functions, they are more
integrated than is commoly realized. Furthermore, there are many components of human
existence that have not yet been identified or traced to particular part of the brain. For example,
Freudian theory and the theory of the unconscious seems to have a great deal to offer and has
been incorporated into our culture, but modern science has not been able to identify an
“unconscious” part of the human brain. There are many mysteries of human brain and psyche
that have not been explained fully and never be.
II. Assignments:
A. TIME-MANAGEMENT PERSONALITY PROFILE
Debbie Seid and Kim Piker

Instructions: Please answer each item according to how often that statement is true for you.
Write your answer on the blank that precedes each item, using the following scale:
4 = Almost Always
3 = Often
2 = Sometimes
1 = Almost Never

1. I have so many "to do" lists that I don't know where to begin.
2. I can make decisions about minor details without needing to know how the overall plan is
coming together.
3. I know where I have filed most of my important papers.
4. A busy environment helps me to work more efficiently.
5. I find myself inundated with papers that I have to get to.
6. I get distracted by the unimportant while I am in the middle of the important.
7. If a party is being planned, I enjoy attending to the particulars more than I do planning the
theme.
8. I keep my "to-do" list handy.
9. I tend to take on several tasks at one time.
10. I find myself losing sight of long-term goals when dealing with short-term crises.
11. I find myself daydreaming during meetings or discussions.
12. I am good at mapping out the steps needed to complete a project
13. Telephone and fax numbers for my business contacts are readily accessible.
14. While working on one project, ideas about other projects come to in my mind.
15. I put off making decisions until a situation becomes urgent.
16. My mind wanders when I’m working alone.
17. In the midst of working on a project, attending to minor details as they come up helps me to
keep on track.
18. I am uncomfortable when my desk is overcrowded with papers.
19. I am eager to start a new project before I even finish an existing project.
20. I prepare for things at the last minute.
21. Interruptions throughout the day affect the amount of work I am able to accomplish.
22. I am very precise in how I handle projects.
23. I keep track of all of my important deadlines.
24. When I talk on the phone during a casual conversation, I also engage in other activities
(e.g., cooking, grooming, cleaning, etc.)
25. I avoid delegating work until it's absolutely necessary.
26. I have scraps of paper scattered about with bits of information on them.
27. I go home with my desk in order.
28. I keep my legal and accounting records updated and in order.
29. During a business phone conversation, I would rather look for a related file while talking than
put the person on hold.
30. I find it difficult to make time for the unexpected.
31. I put off today what I can do tomorrow.
32. It is important to capture specific details of business conversations and record them
verbatim.
33. I object to meetings that start late.
34. If I am trying to find a street address while driving, I would rather leave the radio on than turn
it off.
35. I find myself working long hours and never catching up.
36. When I am in a meeting and someone brings tip an interesting but unrelated topic, I joint the
discussion about the new topic.
37. I enjoy implementing the details of a project more than I do envisioning the end result.
38. I think that meetings that don't have an agenda are a waste of my time.
39. If I am walking around a shopping center looking for a particular store, I am comfortable
chatting with a friend as I look.
40. I am disorganized because I do not have the time to get organized.

B. LOCUS OF CONTROL INVENTORY'


Udai Pareek

Instructions: The following thirty statements represent employees' attitudes toward their work in
an organization. Read each statement carefully; then indicate the extent to which You agree
with it by writing a number in the blank provided. There are no right or wrong choices; the one
that is right for your is the correct answer. If the responses do not adequately indicate your own
opinion, use the number closest to the way you feel. Use the following key:

Strongly Generally Agree Agree Seldom or


Agree Agree Somewhat Only Never Agree
4 3 2 1 0

1. Determine what matters to me in the organization.


2. The course of my career depends on me.
3. My success or failure depends on the amount of effort I exert,
4. The people who are important control matters in this organization.
5. My career depends on my seniors.
6. My effectiveness in this organization is determined by senior people.
7. The organization a person joins or the job he or she takes is an accidental occurrence.
8. A person's career is a matter of chance.
9. A person's success depends on the breaks or chances 1-ie or she receives.
10. Successful completion of my assignments is due to my detailed planning and hard work.
11. Being liked by seniors or making good impressions on them influences promotion
decisions.
12. Receiving rewards in the organization is a matter of luck.
13. The success of my plans is a matter of luck
14. Receiving a promotion depends on being in the right place at the right time.
15. Preferences of seniors determine who will be rewarded in this organization.
16. My success depends on my competence and hard work.
17. How much I am liked in the organization depends on my seniors.
18. Getting people in this organization to listen to me is a matter of luck.
19. If my seniors do not like me, I will not succeed in this organization.
20. The way I work determines whether or not I receive rewards.
21. My success or failure in this organization is a matter of luck.
22. My success or failure depends on those who work with me.
23. Any promotion I receive in this organization will be clue to my ability and effort.
24. Most things in this organization are beyond the control of the people who work here.
25. The quality of my work influences decisions on my suggestions in this organization.
26. The reason I am acceptable to others in organization is a matter of luck.
27. I determine what happens to me in the organization.
28. The degree to which I am acceptable to others in this organization depends on my behavior
with them.
29. My ideas are accepted I if I intake them fit with the desires of my seniors.
30. Pressure groups in this organization are more powerful than individual employees are, and
they control more things than individuals do.
Handout 2

Personal Work Techniques


(PWT)
Dr. Arno Schircks Faculty & Senior Consultant

Handout

Organizing your thoughts


Three steps to understanding
Writing: The manager as editor

Assignments

Individual
Learning Analysis for individual consulting with Faculty

Team
Continue to review the OB chapters for the Final Exam

A. ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGH


Organize your written communication to ensure your message is clear, precise, and understood.
The two most important parts of organizing are clearly understanding the purpose of your
communication and arranging its content.
Purpose
First determine the purpose of your communication.
What information do you want the person to receive as a result? Some options are:

* Giving information to the person: "What do I want the person to know?"

* Requesting action: 'What do I want the person to do as a result of the communication?"


* Persuading the person: "What do I want the person to think or feel?"

Content
Once you know the results you want to achieve, organize your communication. There are three
proven ways to organize your ideas. No one way is better than the other. It is more a matter of
personal style. All three ways are used as aids to help you include everything and organize it
logically.

1. The first format is the outline, with which you are probably the most familiar.

- In an outline, the most important ideas are closest to the left margin.
- Subordinate ideas are indented under the corresponding main idea.
- Details are indented under the subordinate ideas. Details would include examples,
statistics, further explanations, definitions, etc.
- Don't use full sentences, just key ideas and words.

TOPIC
1. Important idea 5
A. Subordinate Ideas
1. Detail
2. Statistics
3. Definitions
4. etc.

2. The classification diagram, or tree diagram, is another format.


- The topic or main idea is put in a box at the top and is usually written as a sentence.
- Subordinate ideas are listed from left to right underneath. Three are shown, but there can
be as few as one and as many as you need.
- Supporting details branch out from each subordinate idea.
- The conclusion is linked to details and placed in the box underneath the details.
TOPIC

Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate


Ideas 1 Ideas 2 Ideas 3

Diagram Statistics Details etc.

CONCLUSION

3. The third organizing method is called mind mapping. The main idea is placed in a circle in
the center of the page.

- A line is added for each key idea, connected to the center circle.
- Supporting ideas are attached to lines connected to the key idea line.
- You can make notes not only in words, but also images, numbers, colors, and pictures.
- You can draft your communications directly from the mind map or use one of the other
formats to provide sequencing.
KEY IDEA 1 KEY IDEA 3

Lines Connect TOPIC Supporting


Key Idea Ideas Connect
To Topic To Key Ideas

Images Colors Pictures Etc.


Numbers Words Diagrams

KEY IDEA 2

Organizing your communications is just the first step. Then comes a first draft followed by
editing, proofing, and reviews for grammar, spelling, phrasing, and language appropriate to the
audience. To achieve the desired results from your written communications, you must invest
time in organizing your thoughts.

B. THE MANAGER AS EDITOR

As a manager, project team leader, or senior staff member you may edit the work of others.
Here are some guidelines that will help you become a more effective editor:

Be specific, don't make vague comments. Telling someone the material is not clear or
organized is not enough. When commenting on the organization, clarity, conciseness, or style,
give specific examples and make some changes to the text to illustrate what you mean

Be non-judgmental and positive in your comments. Don't tell the author the writing is
“good" or "bad." Give feedback on such items as the effectiveness or persuasiveness of the
writing and whether the goal is clear and achieved.

Be sure to edit for both meaning and the appropriate use of words. Correcting spelling,
grammar, punctuation, and syntax is important, but the editor's job is more than that of just a
proofreader.
Be positive with your feedback. When the writing is effective, give praise and your reasons.
Don't just look for errors.

Be patient. If you want the exercise to be a learning experience for the writer, give some
examples and have the writer do the rewrite.

Writing is a skill that requires practice to maintain and a good editor to improve. Help your
people grow through your editing.

C. THREE STEPS TO UNDERSTANDING

One of the most difficult tasks for most managers and technical professionals to accomplish is
the writing of a report for senior management. Whether it be a research report, status report,
marketing strategy, planning document, etc., there are only three steps you need to remember:

Plan
- Give yourself enough time. Make sure you start early enough so there will be time to write
and re-write your draft.
- Outline key points and ideas you want to address. Put them in sequential order.
- Identify the main topics and supporting concepts.
- Create an outline. This should include the main headings and sub-headings so the reader
will know when you are presenting new thoughts.
- Analyze the reader's needs and level of thinking. Determine how technical you should get.

Write
- Have all your notes, research data, and materials available.
- Keep your readers' needs in mind. Ask yourself: "What will the readers learn from this.
How will it help them make a decision, etc.?"
- Do you need to define terms or to use non-technical explanations.
- Write a first draft. Then review it and write a second draft paying close attention to
meaning, clarity, spelling, and grammar.
- Use charts, tables, and illustrations to present numerical information,
- Include a section in your report on conclusions and recommendations.
- If it is a long report (more than 1 0 pages), prepare a one-page executive summary.
Review
- Get away from your writing. Let it sit for a day or two if possible, then review it.
- Have a colleague who understands the material review it and give you feedback.
- Read your report out loud so your ear can hear it.
- Have someone who is proficient at spelling and grammar review your report
- Put aside your pride in authorship and listen to the other's reviews and feedback.
- Write the final copy and edit it one more time before distributing it.

Four helpful hints:


1 . Write the same way you speak, so you will be understood.
2. Know the writing style used in your organization and follow it.
3. Allocate blocks of time of at least one to two hours to writing assignments.
4. If you are a procrastinator, begin a rough draft immediately.
Handout 3

Learning Analysis
The following form is designed to provide a useful way for participants to “collect" their learnings
as they encounter new skills, insights, and applications they want to use. You can use this form
to "draw out" learnings from participants in four general categories:

1. "What I learned"-A new skill, application, concept, idea, or personal understanding

2. "What I re-learned"-"A piece of knowledge or understanding that I've learned before. It's
not new to me. Or, maybe I just haven't mastered the skill or idea yet, and I have
rediscovered it."

3. "What I am beginning to learn" – I’m beginning to understand, or I'm beginning to learn a


new or different way to do something. This category is for those areas where I know I've
got a ways to go."

4. "What I need to learn"-"Sometimes I run smack dab into a key development need. It's
obvious that I will cause myself pain or difficulty if I don't learn this. Or, I realize that there is
a real opportunity for me to learn something."

Learning Analysis
Name: -----------------------------------

Use this form to reflect on your major learnings during this training program. These notes will
be useful in your next step planning and longrange goal setting.

About Myself

I learned I relearned I am beginning to I need to learn


learn
Handout 5
Personal Work Technique (PWT)
Faculty: Dr. Arno Schircks

Session #5

AP 6
MANAGERIAL WORK-VALUES SCALE
INTERPRETATION SHEET (May 99)

Work Value Learning Teams


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Creativity 13.6 15.6 15.2 14.2 17.6 13.4 14 12.5
Economics 13 10.6 14.6 14 10.4 9.6 10.25 11.75
Independence 12.4 14.8 16 14.8 16 14.8 15 15
Status 14 13.2 13.6 14 12 10 13.75 13
Services 9 11.4 7.6 11.4 11.4 10.2 11 10.5
Academics 10.8 11.2 7.2 8.2 12.4 13.4 9.75 10.5
Security 11 8.8 9.6 9.4 8.2 9.4 8 11
Collegiality 13.8 13.6 12.6 11.6 9.6 13.4 13.25 11.25
Work Conditions 10.6 10.8 10.2 11 9.8 10.2 11.25 10.5

SAV 6 th PROGRAMME
N = 38
HCMC, 31/5/1999
MAY 27, 1999
SUBJECT: PERSONAL WORK TECHNIQUES.

LECTURER: DR. ARNO SCHIRCKS

TAKE NOTES: SUMMARY ABOUT SIX HATS THINKING

- "The quality of our thinking will determine the quality of our future."

- De Bond's thinking tools: THE SIX THINKING HATS.

- Why we use the hats ?

There are adversary thinking & parallel thinking.

- Why we use word "hat" ?

+ Because hat places on our head as our brain.

+ Because we can change the old hat for the new one.

- What's six thinking hats ?

+ A powerful thinking tool that encourage parallel thinking.

+ A training program that provides the knowledge and the skill useful.

- Why our current thinking is inadequate ?

* Lack constructive energy.

* No design.

* No creativity.

* Positions people as adversaries.


Six hats thinking

1. White hat: Information, data, needs....


Focus on Information available
Information we would like to have Information we need
Information that is missing

2. Red hat : Feelings, intuition, emotions....

Focus on Giving legitimacy to intuition and feelings


Representing feelings "right now”
Using as part of the thinking that leads to a decisions
Using after a decision has been made

Range of feelings:

Enthusiastic >Like >Interested >Uncertain >Some misgiving >Dislike > Hate

3. Black hat -. Risks, caution, difficulties....

Focus on Thinking that does not fit the facts. experience, regulations. strategy, values
Faults
Potential problems
Errors of logic

4. Yellow hat Logical positive, feasibility, benefits....

Focus on Feasibility
Benefits (who, how, why, how long, Value, both existing and potential

5. Green hat: Possibilities, alternatives, new ideas,

Focus on Making a creative "effort"


Modifying ideas and removing faults Set up a microculture

6. Blue hat : Managing the thinking, thinking about thinking, process control.

Focus on Agenda.
Next step.
Requests.
Summary.
Conclusion.
Decisions

Blue hat - key points

+ Refocus thinking.

+ Handle requests for certain types of thinking


+ Point out inappropriate comments.

+ Ask for a summary of the thinking.

+ Make a decision.

+ Often the role of the manager or facilitator.

+ Could be any participants.

Step number
Duration of step in minutes
Individual work
Teamwork

1. blue Planning of thinking process

2. white What do we know about the subject

3. green Generate ideas for implementation

4. red Select the 3 best ideas


(each member has 6 points to allocate.- 3=best idea, 1 =third best idea
5. yellow Discover benefits and value of each idea

6. black RISKS, hindering factors, difficulties of each idea

7. green How to overcome hindering factors

8. blue Recommendations for implementation

9. red My feelings (a) about the process (b) about the product
Handout 6

MANAGERIAL WORK-VALUES SCALE

T. Venkateswara Rao

Instructions: This questionnaire consists of pairs of statements related to work values. Read
each pair of statements carefully and assess the relative values of the statements for you.
Some alternatives may seem equally attractive or unattractive to you; nevertheless, you must
choose between the alternatives. For each pair of statements, you have three points to
distribute. For example, read the following pair of statements:

I prefer work in which:

la. I develop new ideas.


lb. I am paid well.

In the blanks preceding items la and lb, you would distribute points according to the
explanations that follow.

If you prefer 'a" and do not prefer 'b,' mark the blanks as follows:

3 la!
0 lb.

If you have a slight preference for 'a" over "b," mark the blanks as follows:
2 la.
I lb.

If you have a slight preference for "b" over "a mark the blanks as follows:

I la.
2 lb.

If you prefer 'b" and do not prefer 'a," mark the blanks as follows:

0 la.
3 1 b.

Although you will see the same item more than once, proceed through the questionnaire
and treat each pair of statements independently. Be sure to use only the combinations of
numbers shown. Remember, first impressions are important.

I prefer work in which:

la. I develop new ideas.


lb. I am paid well.

I prefer work in which:


2a. I do not need to depend on others for help.
2b. I have a prestigious position.
3a. I solve others' problems.
3b. I have an opportunity to teach others what I know.
4a. I am paid enough that I can have all the things I want.
4b. I have a very secure position.
5a. People respect me.
5b. I teach and do research.
6a. I feel a sense of achievement.
6b. My colleagues and I get along well together.
7a. I have adequate freedom and independence.
7b. I solve others' problems.
8a. I have the opportunity to invent new things.
8b. I have no fear of losing my job.
9a. I do things the way I please.
9b. I do research.
10a. I can help others to be happy.
10b. I have all the physical facilities I need.
11a. I receive large financial rewards.
11b. I teach.
12a. I have high status.
12b. My physical surroundings are good.
13a. I help other people.
13b. I am in no danger of being laid off.

I prefer work in which:

14a. I have a high salary.


14b. I am respected by others.
15a. I am an influential person.
15b. Nothing can threaten my job.
16a. I do unique things.
16b. I do not need to depend on others for help.
17a. I do things almost entirely by myself
17b. I do not fear losing my job.
18a. I earn an adequate income.
18b. I work in pleasant surroundings.
19a. I solve the problems of others.
19b. I have good associates.
20a. I am respected by others.
20b. My colleagues are people I like.
21a. I invent new things and find out new ways of doing things.
21 b. My surroundings are pleasant.
22a. I have the freedom to do things the way I want to do them.
22b. I am paid enough money,
23a. I have the satisfaction of helping people.
23b. I have good opportunities for salary increases.
24a. I enjoy the company of my colleagues.
24b. I can save money.
25a. I use my great potential.
25b. I have an influential position.

I prefer work in which:

26a. I do things independently.


26b. My co-workers are my friends.
27a. I can be creative and use my intellect.
27b. I have an opportunity to teach.
28a. I have the freedom to do things the way I want to do them.
28b. My physical surroundings are pleasant.
29a. I serve others.
29b. I have high status.
30a. I am secure in my job at all times.
30b. Superiors and subordinates get along well with each Other.
31 a. I teach and do research.
31 b. I have adequate facilities.
32a. I can feel I did the job well.
32b. I satisfy a number of clients.
33a. My job is secure.
33b. I have adequate physical facilities.
34a. I have a steady job.
34b. I can be an academician.
35a. I get along well with others.
35b. I can explore theories of management.
36a. I like my superiors and subordinates.
36b. I have all the facilities I need.
Handout 7

PWT : TEAM PROJECT

Human Resources
The Wages of Stress

The waves of corporate downsizing that buffeted the U.S. workforce earlier this decade may
have subsided, but the stress levels of workers continues to mount, reports a new survey by
Aon Consulting, a human resource consultancy based in Chicago, Illinois. And with stress
rising, employees' productivity and commitment are falling.
During the first quarter of i998, Aon interviewed a broad set of 1800 workers from around the
country. The survey reveals that 53% of employees feel burned out on the job, up dramatically
from 39% in i995, when Aon conducted a similar survey. The increase in stress comes at a time
when employees are spending more and more time at work. According to the survey, the
percentage of workers regularly putting in So-hour weeks nearly doubled since, rising from I3%
to 23%.
"The American workforce is getting winded," says David Stum, president of Aon Consulting's
Loyalty Institute. He sees a link between the long hours and the increasing stress.
"As employees put in more time it the office or factory, they're having increasing trouble
balancing their work lives and their personal lives. That's creating conflicts and, in turn, stress."
The wages of stress are high, for companies as well as for employees
Because workers tend to take more time off as their stress levels increase, the rise in stress
means an erosion in productivity. The 1998 survey shows that the average employee missed
1.5 days of work clue to stress in the last year. And more than 80%. of the employees who miss
time due to stress also miss time to deal with personal matters such as caring for a sick child or
parent. Altogether, the average employee missed 11.5 days of work last year to handle
personal matters. And when sick time is included, the number of days lost rises to 15.1,
representing almost 6% of annual workdays.
The researchers found a statistical correlation between increased stress and reduced
commitment. Aon's survey used the company's Workforce Commitment Index (WCI) to
measure changes in levels of commitment. The WCI is a behavioral index that measures three
key dimensions of employee commitment: teamwork behavior, willingness to recommend the
company and its products to others, and intention to keep working for the company. The
measure was first used in I997, when Aon surveyed 2.020 workers and established a baseline
index of 100. In this year's survey, the index declined by 2.2 points, to 97.8. Commitment
declined in virtually every industry, age group, income group, and job classification.
What can employers do to reduce workplace stress? They might start, Stum says, by taking a
fresh look at their benefits packages. As work hours lengthen, employees are placing greater
importance on the time off they receive. Indeed, when the researchers asked workers to rank
23 common benefits, paid vacation and holidays was six places higher in 1998 than in 1995,
now claiming the fourth spot among all employee benefits.
On a more fundamental level, Stum believes that companies should begin tailoring the
workplace to the needs of individual workers. " Executives have gotten smart about how to
segment their customer base; now they need to get smart in segmenting the workforce," he
says. "We're talking about something a whole lot more sophisticated than allowing a few
employees to work at home. Companies need to think about customizing work schedules and
benefits packages to help each employee strike the right work-life balance." (For more
information on that subject, see the article "Work and Life: The End of the Zero-Sum Game" in
this issue of HBR.)
Rethinking the relationship between the employer and employee can go a long way toward
reducing workers' stress levels. And it may also pay big dividends for companies. Aon
researchers isolated 17 determinants of workforce commitment- as seen from the employee's
point of view. Management's recognition of personal and family life ranked first, whereas salary
did not even make the top ten. Says Stum, "Employers who do a superior job of recognizing the
importance of workers' off-the-job lives could be rewarded with a more committed and
productive workforce and an improved bottom line."

Diane L. Coutu