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The central dogma DNA

Transcription RNA
Translation PROTEIN


Transcription • Transcription is the DNAdirected synthesis of RNA. • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the carrier of information from DNA to the cell’s protein synthesizing machinery and is transcribed from the template strand of a gene. .

mRNA synthesised in a 5’ to 3’ direction as is DNA • RNA Polymerase begins transcribing the DNA at a specific point • RNA strand is identical to the noncoded DNA (and complementary to the template strand) EXCEPT FOR.• RNA Polymerase unwinds and unzips DNA • Complementary NTP’s added to template DNA strand.. ..

Nucleotide (NTP) Deoxynucleotide (dNTP) Dideoxynucleotide (ddNTP) .

Eukaryotes must process it first.• Same process as Prokaryotes! • After mRNA is transcribed from DNA then the mRNA has a different fate in prokaryotes and eukaryotes • Prokaryotes immediately begin translating the mRNA. .

Prokaryotes: No mRNA Processing Eukaryotes: mRNA Processing: • intron/exon (expressed) • methyl cap • poly-A tail .

• Viral DNA injected into cells • Cells evolve nucleases in cytoplasm that digest any RNA or DNA present • Nucleases can’t get through the nuclear envelope so DNA is not digested • mRNA sent out into the cytoplasm must be protected – Methyl cap is a block – Poly A tail is a fuse • mRNA is still digested into NTP’s and recycled. but the Poly A tail gives it some time .

• Eukaryotic DNA is composed mostly of “non-coding DNA” (or “junk DNA”) – We’re still not entirely sure what it does – Was probably inserted by different viruses over time – The ultimate selfish gene just hitching a ride on a successful group of genes… • The introns are the sections of DNA not expressed. the exons are the sections that are expressed (ex-ons are ex-pressed) • Spliceosome loops out the introns and snips them out • Now the mRNA can be translated into a protein .