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Definition: * * * Education is that which makes a man of good character and useful to the society. (Yajnavaikya).

Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man. (Viveka.nanda). Education is the all-round drawing of the best in child and man-body-mind and spirit. (M.K. Gandhi). Nursing education * Nursing education is the professional education for the preparation of nurses to enable them to render professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health and illness, in a variety of settings. 3.A BRIEF HISTORY OF NURSING EDUCATION: 3.1 NURSING EDUCATION WORLDWIDE: 3.1.1. EUROPEAN SCOOLS OF NURSING: Early nurses did not receive formal training specifically designed to prepare them to care for the sick. The school of Kaiserwerth was one of the programs which were established to train women to care for the sick and poor. The La Source program was founded in 1859 in Germany to prepare lay women to care for sick in their homes. The theory consisted of an hour class held daily for five months, for a total of 120 hours. The students studied anatomy, physiology, hygiene, pathology and nursing procedures. At the completion of program the student was given an oral examination. The students wore no uniforms and were not called nurses. The La source programme later developed into three year programme. The first nine months considered a probationary period after passing a comprehensive examination; students became regular students and completed the three year programme. Florence Nightingale was the first to envision nursing education as a preparation for nursing practice. She advocated the establishment of nursing education in an endowed school, where the chief purpose was education rather than service. Nightingale firmly believed that nursing was a profession based on fundamental principles, and that it was distinct from medical profession. She wanted nurse to be educated in a programme of systematic instruction, which included both theory and nursing skills. Nightingale, as a product of

Victorian England was very concerned about the character and morality of nurses; both had to be
beyond reproach.

3.1.2. THE NIGHTINGALE SCHOOL FOR NURSES: Florence Nightingale advocated nursing as both an art and a science. She strongly believed that the focus of the training school should be nursing education rather than nursing service. She felt the curriculum should be flexible and stress compassion and empathy for the patient. She insisted that the patient was to be treated as a whole person and not as a disease entity. She also realized that clinical practice and theory must be con-elated to ensure quality education. Using monies from the Nightingale fund; a building to house nursing students was purchased. St.Thomas hospital, London was selected for the clinical learning experiences. It was started in June 1860, with 15 probationers selected by Miss. Nightingale.
The purpose of the school was to train the probationers as hospital and district health nurses. To attract educated young women there were two classes of nurses. Special or paying students paid fees and worked as staff for two years after their probationary-training; while other students did not pay fees and worked for three years after their training. At the completion of their time they become certified nurses. The Nightingale School is considered the first "modem" school of nursing and the beginning of nursing as an organized profession. The programme was one year w length. Evaluation and testing was done by the school matron. Graduates of the schools were not licensed as they are today. In fact, nightingale did not approve of licensing examinations because she felt there were no outside groups capable of testing the knowledge of nurses. Graduate of the Nightingale school were later head nurses in

Scotland, Germany, Norway,

Sweden, Canada, the United States, South Africa, India and Australia. 3.1.3. EARLY NURSING EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES: During the first pan of nineteenth century, the only organized preparation of nurses was in catholic sisterhoods, training was apprenticeship and restricted to members of the order. In 1839, the nurse society of Philadelphia, under the direction of Dr.Joseph Warrington, organized a school of nursing which was patent after the work of Elizabeth fry in England. In 1861 the women's hospital of Philadelphia, offered a six month's design to appeal higher class of young women. The courses included medical surgical nursing Materia Medica: and dietetics a diploma was awarded upon the completion of programme. Dr.Mary Zakrzewska, a obstetrician attempted to establish a training school at the new Inland hospital for women and children in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1861. 3.1.4. EARLY PROGRAMMES:

7. Duties in the second year included private duty nursing in the patient home and head nursing. MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL: The training school of the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston was opened on November 1st.1. Student nurses lived in a hospital dormitory or nurses homes.Three schools-Bellevue Hospital training school in New York. hospital training school in Boston. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING EDUCATION: 3 . Doctors and nurses collaborated to write comprehensive nursing textbook. In 1876. BELLEVUE HOSPITAL SCHOOL OF NURSING: Women involved in the reform movement turned their interest and efforts toward the improvement of the hospitals by improving the nursing care within the existing institutions. The nightingale system was followed in New York.1. Obedience was expected and discipline was severe. The school quickly grew in size and its graduates become superintendents in other school of nursing. The school was one of the institutions to obtain university affiliation and endowment.1.6. 3.1. and the Connecticut training school in new heaven were opened in America during 1873. It is recognized as one of the pioneering schools in nursing education. Because this was the first school to attempt a formalized instructional program. 3.8. Nurses often slept in rooms located between patient rooms as students were expected to attend to patient during the night. the school published the first nursing manual. it was called the Bellevue system. The new heaven manual of nursing which was published in 1879 the text was used by nearly all the nursing schools being organized throughout the United States. The Connecticut training school was established in 1873\ht school was totally independent of the hospital. 1873 with a class of six students. 3. Massachusetts. One of such group was the New York state charities aid association. This may have brought about the great success. The training programme was one year in length. but students were required to remain for second year doing service. THE CONNECTICUT TRAINING SCHOOL: At the request of the medical staff of new heaven hospital. of which Bellevue Hospital visiting committee was an integral part.5. Hours of duty were long and students had one afternoon off every two weeks. The schools greatly influenced the development of nursing education. Today it is the Yale university school of nursing. 3.

3. the American hospital association determined there were three classifications of nurses: 1. For the study of nursing education Dr C.IN 1879 there were eleven training schools in United States in 1885the reported number of rose to thirty four. 2. It established guidelines for curriculum planning and discussed tjie need for clinical instruction to augment the theoretical courses. The curriculum guide for schools of nursing which was third edition was published in 1937. Administrators and Educators. Many schools of nursing waived their admission in order to recruit as many students as possible.1. an expert in public health was the chairman of committee but his secretary. Attendant of subsidiary nurse. The rapid expansion of scientific medicine necessitated more hospitals and thus more nurses.9. This group was concerned with improvement of curricula and standard of admission in 1912 the association changed its name to the national league of nursing education. The Rockefeller Foundation became interested in health care and decided to fund the committee.1. In 1917 a standard curriculum for schools of nursing was published which outlined the curriculum for a three year course. The coinmittee 4 . In its 1923 report. EARLY TRENDS: In 1895 the American society of superintendents of training school of nurses was organized. Josephine gold mark was responsible for study. The AHA believed all three groups needed special training but that nurses in the first two classifications should be examined and licensed by state members and the third group were to be supervised by the administrative and beside nurses. 3.10. Beside nurses. THE WINSLOW-GOLDMARK REPORT: When World War I began more nurses were needed. In 1907. It also refereed to professional education and collegiate education for nurses. a committee made a number of recommendations which had great influence on the development of nursing education. The committee further recommended that auxiliary workers be trained to assume duties which did not require the expertise of the graduate nurse. and 3. Winslow. A.

recommended that nursing school affiliate with a college or university and those schools should be funded.The findings of the committee indicated that nursing education was inadequate to prepare nurses who could meet the expectations and needs of the consumers of nursing services. 3. In 1947. Analyzing nursing practice and education. Ester Lucile brown. It was recommended that professional nurses should be educated at the baccalaureate level and two year college programs be developed to prepare nurses to relieve nursing shortage. and grading the nursing schools. and the schools of nursing should have their own budgets.1.1. the American medical association and American hospital association comprised the committee on the grading of schools of nursing. The standards of nursing education were greatly improved across the country. The committee on accreditation developed standards for the evaluation of nursing schools in 1941 the first list accredited schools was published.12.1. she felt that nursing education was a responsible of the public and that public funds should support schools of nursing. social. a postwar planning group the national nursing planning committee was established to develop professional objectives and determine the areas which required study and research. another committee was developed to continue the study done by wins low and gold mark. THE BROWN REPORT: In 1944. because in order to 5 .11. the American nurses association the national organization for public health nursing. 3. Regional planning for nursing education and service was recommended in order to adequately meet the needs of the community in the future. Representatives of the national league of nursing education. scientist undertook a study of schools of nursing. Dr. FEDERAL FUNDING: Florence nightingale had stated that nursing schools should be responsible to the public for the quality of work of their graduates. THE COMMITTEE ON THE GRADING OF SCHOOLS OF NURSING: In 1925. In turn. 3. The study recommended that all existing schools of nursing in the country should get affiliations with universities. The committee was given the tasks of studying the supply and demand of nurses. The study led to reform in nursing education. The study took over seven years .13.

Diploma and degree courses are run at different academic levels. and student loans. institutional support. In 1975. research grants. There is also an accelerated Diploma for graduates who already hold a health related degree. o Baccalaureate o Junior college and o Diploma nursing program Diploma to baccalaureate programs for diploma nurses. Diploma to master in nursing program for diploma nurses is emerging. Certified nurse specialist in 6 . however there is an element of overlap. funding for new schools of nursing. schools had to meet the requirements developed by the national league of education. post graduate education and refresher courses. traineeships. o Post basic nursing program is provided for the diploma nurses. CURRENT NURSING EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN JAPAN: There are three types of nursing programs in japan. o Master's level nursing program are developing rapidly. appropriations were made for construction grants project grants. and preparation of nurse specialists. another Nurse Training act was passed and it provided federal assistance to schools of nursing and nursing students. Other continuing nurse education program includes. In 1971 the Nurse Training Act. nurse practitioner preparation. capitation. In 1964. The Nurse Training Act of 1943 provided for the establishment of the Cadet Nurse Coips. practical -nursing experience in hospital or community settings. CURRENT NURSING EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN UNITED KINGDOM: Students wishing to train as a nurse undertake either a pre-registration diploma or degree at university.obtain federal monies. as diploma level students can transfer to degree courses or can opt to come back and 'top up' their diploma in nursing to a degree at a later stage. was expanded to include student aid. This is normally a three year programme designed to combine classroom theory -with real. financial distress.

critical care.5 years of university level nursing is provided.5 Years Note: one year of study is equivalent to not less than 36 weeks of instruction. After graduation they were considered as nurse managers. additionally 1. Level 2 nurse: Considered as nurse educator. CURRENT NURSING EDUCATION STATUS IN RUSSIA: Level 1 nurse: 3years of training after 12* standard.5 years of training is provided. Level 3 nurse: 4.5 Years full-time 7 . infection control.■ Cancer ■ Women's health ■ Child health ■ Gerontology ■ Psychiatry ■ Community health ■ Emergency. diabetes nursing. CURRENT NURSING EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN AUSTRALIA: DIPLOMA OF NURSING Duration 1.hospice care. BACHELOR OF NURSING Duration 3 years full-time MASTER OF NURSING (Management / Practice) Duration 1 year full-time MASTER OF NURSING (Clinical Education) Duration 1 year full-time study MASTER OF CLINICAL NURSING Duration 1.


ASN allows a student to become a Registered Nurse (RN) For ASN's it is the stepping stone to a BSN. AND to MSN: This programme is for the AND's who want to earn an MSN immediately after earning BSN. It involves one year training at a hospital. or community college. Requirements include a BSN. LPNtoBSN: It allows the LPN to become BSN in just two year degree programme. Here it is shorter in duration of study i. RN to BSN: This programme is designed for ASN's to get BSN degree. vocational school. Entry is through entrance exam. ASSOCIATE OF SCIENCE IN NURSING: (ASN) It is a two year degree programme. This programme is also known as bridge programme.Licensed practical nurse (LPN) or Licensed vocational nurse: to earn LPN/LVN state administered nursing examination should be passed. It is entry point for technical nursing practice. LPN-TO-ASSOCIATE's This programme is designed for LPN's who want to earn a degree that will enable them to sit for NCLEX Examination. Accelerated degree BSN: A variation of the Second degree BSN is the Accelerated degree BSN. a RN license and some period of clinical work experience. Duration of course is two years. only 12 months of course.e. 9 . MSN: It is an 18-24 month programme that allows a nurse to specialize in any particular area. Second degree BSN: It is designed for non-nurses who have Bachelor degree in non nursing fields. Entry is through entrance exam. such as area of advanced clinical nursing or research. Eligibility any degree.

More and more states and employers are now requiring Master's degrees to allow these certified non-master's nurses to practice. sometimes called "graduate entry". and in leadership skills. Course of study involves under graduate nursing subjects. nurse practitioner (NP). Post-certificate Master's: In the past. Post master's certificate programmes: Post master's certificate programmes are designed for nurses who already have a Master of Science degree in nursing who wish to qualify to sit for one of the certification exams or to expand into a new area of specialization.Direct entry MSN: Direct entry MSN. The duration of study is three years. the history and philosophy of nursing science. These requirements have generally changed. In some ways these programs are parallel to the RN to BSN programmes. or nurse midwifes (CNM) without earning a Master's degree. many states allowed RNs to earn certification as nurse anesthetist (CRNA). or masters entry programmes. which don't qualify you for any new certifications and licenses. First year is being devoted for entry-level nursing coursework and last two years for master* slevel study. The doctor of nursing degree generally builds on the role of the advanced practice nurse and is more focused on developing advanced practice 10 . it also combines preparation for RN licensure with advances training in master's specialty area. and some schools offer programs that allow these certified nurses to earn their master's degrees while earning credit for their past educational and work experience. Doctoral programmes: In a doctoral programme everyone receives training in research methods (including statistics and data analysis). Doctor of nursing programme: ND programmes usually require 3 .5 years of full-time study. are designed for non nurses who hold bachelors degree in non nursing fields. but which add to your professional credentials and make you more employable.

PhD in nursing. A clinical defense and dissertation are common requirements. accelerated program simultaneously offering master's preparation and advanced research training at the doctoral level. A typical program takes five years to complete.nurse specialist skills. organizational and educational settings. Doctor of Philosophy Programmes: PhD programmes prepare nurse scholars and researchers who will contribute to the growth of nursing science through scholarly research that advances the theoretical foundation of nursing practice and health care delivery. Doctor of Nursing Science: Graduates of a DNSc programme are prepared as nurse scientists with the investigative skills of a researcher and the clinical and leadership skills necessary to influence the health care system. The programs efficiently take you through a BSN. The goal is to prepare leaders who can affect change through system redesign and evidenced-based decision making in a variety of clinical. Doctor of Nursing Practice Programs: DNP programmes usually require 3 years of full-time study and emphasize clinical practice-oriented leadership development. including the conduct of scholarly inquiry. health care economics. leadership in health care delivery systems and public policy formation. access and fiscal responsibilities. patient outcomes and system management. to an MSN. The goal is to prepare graduates for leadership positions in research. MSN/PhD Dual Degree: The MSN/PhD Dual Degree programme is for highly qualified nurses with a bachelor's degree in nursing who are interested in an intensive. clinical care delivery. Graduates will be experts managing the complex balance between quality of care. statistical analysis and informatics are common focus areas. 11 . Health outcomes measurement. A ccelerated BSN to PhD: These relatively rare programs are focused on students who have definite plans for being a researcher or teacher of nursing in your future. Graduates will be qualified to engage in all dimensions of professional and scholarly life.

George. After hospital came into existence in Western Europe and prior to the influence of Florence Nightingale. poverty. Miss Nightingale also believes than the Nursing school should be separate financially and administered from hospitals where the students trained. it is hard to realize that recognized preparation for modern nursing education began with the establishment of Nightingale school of nursing in London.JOINT DEGREE PROGRAMS: MSN/MPH: MSN/MBA: MSN/MSHA: 32. the system of Pardah among Muslim women. hospital care was given by women such as prisoners. Thus it signaled an expectation by the nursing communities than preparation of nurses should be an educational rather than apprentice. Florence Nightingale is created with rounding ordinary nursing and creating the first educational system for nurses. Since independence in 1947. This model of nursing training questions as early 1500s with recommendation from curriculum committee from NLNE proposed guidelines by establishing norms for nursing education. Nurses were educated under an apprenticeship model of education characterized as a training program in which students could learn by working with and being directed by nurses on a clinical unit.1. caste system among Hindus. etc. Early apprentice nursing program had no formal classes or textbooks. many changes have taken place and attitude toward nursing is still changing. 3. MILITARY NURSING: It is the earliest type and 1664 the East India Company helped to start a hospital for soldiers at Fort. illiteracy . In 1797 a lying hospital was built and 1854 government sanctioned training School for midwives. St. political unrest. Modem nursing education started on the basic of Florence Nightingale work and training plan developed in hospital school of Nursing in London.2. Madras. NURSING EDUCATION IN INDIA: In the past the progress of nursing in India has been hindered by many difficulties such as low state of women. In 1861 through the (efforts of civilian hospitals) 12 .

Thus in 1885. 3.BOOKS: 13 . this fact was brought to the attention of Queen Victoria.2.2. The sisters of all saints were the first to establish'a training school for nurses in the hospital. Later this plan was reversed. There were only a few Anglo-Indians and Indian Christian girls working on mission hospital. TEXT. Their work was appreciated and the need for training nurses was felt. In 1878 the government invited the Sister of the Community of all saints to come from England and taken over the work of nursing.2.CIVILIAN HOSPITALS: Nursing in the Military hospital was of poor quality carried on by male orderliness and the menial staff In 1871 the Governmental General Hospital. This is commonly called the "Dufferin Fund' and continues to provide education for women to train nurses and midwives for hospitals and private work. Queen Victoria instructed the Lady Dufferin about the need for medical care for women and children in India and asked her to take a special interest in this problem. 1891. This laid foundation for Public Health Nursing. On 24th may 1909 the Indian Medical Mission Association granted the nursing Diploma after examining student by Central Board of Nurses training schools in South India. Lady Dufferin was responsible for starting the "National Association for Supplying Medical Aid by women of India''. DUFFERIN FUND: Until the late 19th century there was no women doctors and therefore no care for women except in mission hospitals.4. lady dufferin wrote to her to get the-financial aid. General training was taken first. 3. MISSION HOSPITALS: Mission hospitals were the first to begin the training of Indian as nurses. 3. Bai Kashibat Ganapat. In the beginning there was no uniformity of course or educational requirements. At this time it was difficult to get nurses. undertook a plan to train nurses. was the first Indian Nurse to come for training.reform in military hospital led to reform in civilian hospitals. Nurses were brought from England to be in charge and the first six students were those who had previously received their diploma in midwifery. Madras. followed by a course in midwifery. At this time Lady Duffer in was coming out to India with her husband who was on government service. 3. About 1907-1910 the North India United Board of Examiners for Mission Hospital was organized and set up rules for admissions and standards of training and conducted a public examination.

The purpose of council is to coordinate the activities of the various state registration councils.7. midwives. The basic programme for combined general nursing and midwifery developed rapidly after 1871. A beginning has been made in this work and the first text-book for nurses in India was put out by the south India examining board of the nurse's league of Christian medical association of India in 1941. Tarn Taran in Punjab state. THE INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL: The Indian nursing council Act was introduced in the constituent Assembly of India m November 1947. REGISTRATION FOR NURSES: As training for nurses. 3. and health visitors progressed.9. Mary's Hospital. 3. was begun in 1960 at RAK College of Nursing in Delhi. In 1963 the school of nursing in Trivandrum instituted the first two year post certificate Bachelor degree programme.2. Vellore. the need for legislation to provide basic minimum standards in education and training was felt. AUXILIARY NURSING: A two year programme for the Auxiliary nurse midwife was first established in 1951 at St. The practice of the Auxiliary nurse midwife has helped to improve the amount of care given to the patient as well as the health teaching given itb the public. to set up standards for nursing education and to make sure these standards are carried out. The first four year basic bachelor degree programmes were established in 1946 at RAK (Rajkumari Amrit Kaur) college of nursing in Delhi. NURSING EDUCATION: Nursing education in India began with very brief periods of training.One of the handicaps in the development of nursing. It was passed and came into force on December 31. a two year post graduate programme.2. and CMC College of Nursing.2. The first Master's Degree course.6. schools was the lack of textbooks.2. 3. The training for general was extended to two years and men for three years before they enter midwifery training.8. VARIOUS NURSING COURSES IN INDIA: 14 . In 1926* Madras state formed the first registration council. 3. 1947.

5 years. R.M B.N.SC BASIC: Eligibility criteria: 12th std. (subjects: physics. Registration: Additional Distance education: Eligibility criteria! 10th /12th std.Sc. Duration of study: 1. B. ANM REGISTERED NURSE/MIDWIFE: Eligibility criteria: 12th std. Examination: University Registration: R.ANCILLARY NURSE/MIDWIFE: Eligibility criteria: 10th std. Certificate programmes: 15 . Examination: Nursing Examination Board Registration: R. Examination: university. Registration: Additional. Examination: university.5 years. +GNM+2 years Experience Duration of study: 2 years. Examination: Nursing Examination Board Registration: R. Universities providing distance education in nursing: IGNOU 1.N.M . biology) Duration of study: 4 years. Post Basic (Nursing) Duration: 3 Years 2. B. chemistry. +GNM+2 years Experience Duration of study: 3 years. R. Duration of study: 3.SC POST BASIC: Regular: Eligibility criteria: 10th 712th std.

6.SW-Master of social work. Diploma course: In Acupuncture. Doctorate programmes: Ph. Food and Nutrition. Diploma programmes: Diploma in HIV and Family Education Diploma in Nutrition and health Education Diploma in Nursing Administration. G.Sc. Diploma in clinical cardiology.A Rural development M. 3.G. 4. certificate in maternal and child health care. Sociology Ph. P. 4. 5. Public administration. M. P. in Nursing Duration: 2 years. Public Administration.  National institute of health and family welfare: 1. Applied Psychology.Sociology.G. Hospital Administration. disaster management. U.Sc. 3.A.D.Sociology M. P.D.Certificate in Disaster management.G.A.Sc.G.A. Diploma programmes: P. 2. certificate in Health care waste management. degree course: B.A. Certificate course: In Food and nutrition. Duration: 2 years. Diploma in hospital and health management. Diabetology. P. 5.G.Health and family welfare  Vinayaka Missions University: 1. Master degree programmes: M. P.Sc. Doctorate in nursing 16 . Health care and hospital administration. M. degree course: M. Public Administration M. Ph. Nursing Administration. Diploma in Maternal and child health. certificate in food and nutrition. M. Diploma in Disaster management. certificate in environmental studies. Certificate course . certificate in HIV and family education. Health care and Hospital management. Child health. B. G.D.

PhD IN NURSING: 17 .Sc Hons Nursing (+lyear exp.PHIL IN NURSING: Eligibility criteria: M. P. Nursing. Certificate course in specialized in cardiolog  Kerala University 1.) / B.Sc. P.Sc Nursing Duration of study: 1 year (full time). Duration: 3 years 2. Registration: Additional.) / Post Basic B. Diploma in Health Sciences 2. In Clinical child development In Adolescent and family counseling 3. Examination: University.G. P. G.G.Sc. M.SC NURSING: Eligibility criteria: B. G. Diploma in Public Health 3. In Sociology and Psychology  Alagappa University 1. Duration: 3 years. B. 2 years (part time). P.Phil. Diploma course: In Health and hospital administration.  Annamalai University 1. B.Sc nursing (+1year exp. Examination: University Registration: Additional M. Sri Venkateswara University 1. Diploma in Critical Care Nursing M. Post basic. G.Sc with 55%aggregate marks Duration of study: 2 years. Diploma in Medical law and ethics 4. (Nursing) post basic. P.

patients and communities in areas related oncology nursing. Examination: University/ board.  Conduct research in areas of neonatal nursing.Phil Duration of study: 3-5 years.Sc Nursing/ M. allied health professionals. allied health professionals. Manage and supervise care of mother and neonate at all the three levels of care. patients and communities in areas related to mother and neonate care. Duration of study: 1 year. Registration: Additional POST BASIC SPECIALTY DIPLOMA COURSES: Eligibility criteria: R. R. Examination: University. Teach nurses. ❖ Post basic diploma in nurse practitioner in midwifery     Provide quality care to mother and neonate. to Conduct research in areas of oncology nursing. Post basic specialty courses: ❖ Post basic diploma in oncology nursing  Provide quality care to patients with an actual or potential diagnosis of cancer.  Post basic diploma in neonatal nursing    Provide quality care to neonates.N.    Manage & supervise patient care in clinical and community settings. allied health professionals. Manage & supervise care of neonates at all the three levels of care. Teach nurses.M with one year experience. Registration: Additional. Teach nurses. Conduct research in areas of mother and neonate care. patients and communities in areas related to neonatal nursing.Eligibility criteria: M.  Post basic diploma in psychiatric/ mental health nursing 18 .

Manage & supervise care of ill patients.  Conduct research in areas of critical care nursing. Provide quality nursing care to individuals suffering from mental and emotional disorders.  The students after completion of the course will be able. allied health professionals and family members in areas related to critical care nursing.  Post basic diploma in orthopedic & rehabilitation nursing 19 .  Post basic diploma in cardio-thoracic nursing    Provide quality care to patients cardio-thoracic disorders. family members and communities in areas related to mother and psychiatric nursing. allied health professionals.      Post basic diploma in emergency and disaster nursing    Provide quality care in emergency & disaster situations. allied health professionals. Conduct research in areas of psychiatric nursing. Manage & supervise care of mentally ill patients in clinical and community settings Teach nurses. Manage & supervise care-of patients with cardio-thoracic disorders. patients and communities in areas related to emergency and disaster nursing. allied health professionals and family members in areas related to cardiothoracic nursing. Keep pace with the developments in other related discipline for effective management of psychiatric patients.  Post basic diploma in critical care nursing    Provide quality care to critically ill patients. Teach nurses. Teach nurses. Teach nurses. Manage & supervise patient care in pre hospital and hospital settings.  Conduct research in areas of emergency and disaster nursing.

Teach nurses. Manage & supervise care of patients with orthopedic & neuromuscular disorders. Manage & supervise care of patients in OR. allied health professionals and patients and communities in areas ' related. make the best use of its resources and called on all health care organizations and professional groups to promote health care that is safe.  Provide quality care to patients with orthopedic & neuromuscular disorders. Teach nurses. Conduct research in areas of neuro science nursing. Conduct research in areas of orthopedic & rehabilitation nursing. The IOM committee on the health professions Education Summit urged that all health professionals be educated to 20 . CALL FOR CHANGE IN NURSING EDUCATION: It is estimated that between 44. Conduct research in areas of OR nursing.    Post basic diploma in neuro science nursing     Provide quality care to neuro patients. client centered.000 Americans die each year as a result of medical errors. parents and communities in areas related to orthopedic & rehabilitation nursing. Teach nurses. The IOM in two follow up reports in 2001 and 2003 stressed that the health care system as currently structured does not.000 and 98. as a whole. and equitable. This fragmentation leads to a lack of continuity and multiple patient handoffs. timely. allied health professionals and family members in areas related to OR nursing.  4. The IOM (institute of medicine) report focused on the fragmented nature of the health-care delivery system as being the major contributor to the high and inexcusable error rate. efficient. effective. More resent estimates say that these numbers may be much higher. Manage & supervise care of neuro patients. to neuro patients.  Post basic diploma in operation room nursing    Provide quality care to patients in OR. allied health professionals.

quality improvement approaches and informatics. and none in which the possibilities. Nursing has faced many critical situation in its long history. It is evident that the leadership in nursing is of supreme importance at this time. and calls for a better educated workforce has been to expand current educational requirements. both of serious loss and of substantial advance. they are living with chronic illness. 5. One of natural responses to the changes in health care. EXCELLENCE IN NURSING EDUCATION MODEL: 21 . Not only are people living much longer. and credit hours required for graduation from associate degree (ADN). new technologies. The advancement of medical. Each of these prevailing health problems is suited to the nursing paradigm. emphasizing evidenced based practice. baccalaureate (BSN). and other groups external to nursing have called on all the health professions to change the way future health professionals are educated. Despite the growth in these requirements. The institute of Medicine. science and technology has changed the landscape of health and illness. including business principle of health care. clinical hours. and new practice models must be developed. the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. and master's degree in nursing (MSN) programs have grown exponentially. What the will be depends in large measure on the kind of leadership that the nursing profession can give in planning for the future and in solving stubborn and perplexing problems. Their amelioration is what nursing students are educated to do. evidence-based practice. are greater. graduates and employees still identify additional content and experiences needed to practice in today's health care environment. including inter-professional education and practice. American Hospital Association. Course requirements. If past experience is any criterion. New ways of educating health professionals. little constructive action will be taken without intelligent and courageous leadership.deliver patient centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team. but probably none more critical than the situation it is now in. and emerging areas of science such as genomics and environmental health.

Continuous Quality Improvement The program engages in a variety of activities that promote excellence. 22 . exhibit a spirit of inquiry and a sense of wonderment. and excellence Students are committed to a career in nursing. and commit to lifelong learning Students are committed to innovation. Faculty The faculty complement includes a cadre of individuals who have expertise as educators.5. Faculty members are accountable for promoting excellence and providing leadership in their area(s) of expertise. HALLMARKS OF EXCELLENCE IN NURSING EDUCATION Students Students are excited about learning.1. and researchers. continuous quality/performance improvement. All faculties have structured preparation for the faculty role. including accreditation from national nursing accreditation bodies. as well as competence in their area(s) of teaching responsibility. clinicians.

The curriculum emphasizes students' values development. visionary long range planning. Technology is used effectively to support teaching/learning/evaluation processes. Teaching/Learning/Evaluation strategies used by faculty are evidence-based. Educational Research 23 . and creativity. enhance the profession. commitment to lifelong learning. as well as local and global perspectives. an empowering learning environment. implementation and evaluation are continuously reviewed and revised to achieve and maintain excellence. benefit the community and expand service/learning opportunities. socialization to the new role. creative initiatives. Innovation The design and implementation of the program is innovative. The curriculum is evidence-based. faculty development. The curriculum provides learning experiences that prepare graduates to assume roles that are essential to quality nursing practice. The innovativeness of the program helps to create a preferred future for nursing. Resources Partnerships in which the program is engaged promote excellence in nursing education. Teaching/Learning/Evaluation strategies Teaching/Learning/Evaluation strategies are innovative and varied to facilitate and enhance learning by a diverse student population. Curriculum The Curriculum is flexible and reflects current societal and health care trends and issues. Financial resources of the program are used to support curriculum innovation. research findings and innovative practices. continuous quality improvement of the program.The program design.

3. Scientific underpinnings for practice. Health-care policy for advocacy in health care. dissemination or conduct of research Environment The educational environment empowers students and faculty and promotes collegial dialogue.Faculty and students contribute to the development of the science of nursing education through the critique. Organizational and system leadership for quality improvement in systems thinking. 6. and ethical behavior. 24 . creativity. promote positive change. Interprofessional collaboration for improving patient and population health outcomes. and excellence. 2. Leadership Faculty. Clinical scholarship and analytical methods for evidenced based practice 1. 5. students. 4. utilization. A NEW MODEL FOR NURSING EDUCATION: The core essentials are 1. innovation change. Information system and technology for the improvement and transformation of patient-centered health care. and alumni are prepared for and assume leadership roles that advance quality nursing care. and enhance the power and influence of the nursing profession. innovation. values development.

Understanding and facilitating student learning must be a priority for the nurse educator of the 21st century.6. 7. there always has been a greater focus on the outcomes of learning. a typical classroom may consist of second-degree students or second career students (Boomers). A recent survey of nursing students suggests that the content demands of the nursing curricula are so great that little time is left for students to assimilate that content into 25 . Research aimed at understanding how students learn result in the development of best practices in teaching. In nurse education research. In order to facilitate learning.1 EMPHASIS ON STUDENT LEARNING: Over the past decade. Advanced nursing practice for specialty roles 7. Skillful assessment of student learning outcomes is also needed in order to evaluate how students learn and the degree to which teaching strategies encourage meaningful learning. the Institute of Medicine (IOM. In its report entitled crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. The backdrop of needed change will serve as the starting point for discussions regarding essential attributes needed in nursing education. Clinical prevention and population health for improving the nation's health. and informatics. nurse educators must be cognizant (aware) of a variety of factors that students bring to the learning setting. ROLE OF THE NURSE EDUCATOR IN THE 21 CENTURY: There are many national reports indicating the need for change in health care and in the education of health-care professionals in particular. For example. 7. rather than on understanding the processes involved in learning. As its guiding vision. 2001) acknowledges that the education of health professionals in need of major change and asserts that the clinical education of health professionals is outdated and not responsive to the present or future needs in health care. there is some empirical support for the use of concept mapping as a strategy that promotes critical thinking. returning or transfer students who may be in their mid 20s and 30s (Genexers) or students who attend college immediately after graduating from high school (Millennials). Emphasis on student learning. the IOM (2003) makes the recommendation that health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care within an interdisciplinary team that emphasizes evidence-based practice. education has shifted from a teacher-centered to a student centered approach. For example. quality improvement approaches. promotion of evidence-based practice and development of authentic student-teaejier relationships are those attributes that are foundational to effective teaching.

Evidence-based practice is here to stay and discussions centering on nursing education and nursing practice must be strongly grounded in nursing research. The current research suggests that learning and student development are promoted through strategies aimed at getting to know students and connecting to students through more thoughtful. nurses for evidence-based practice and found that respondents reported a lack of value for research in practice.useful clinicaj knowledge. This emphasis on outcomes has led to a national movement requiring evidence based care. nurse educators must role model this behavior for students so that students learn that practice and research coexist and cannot be seen as separate entities. others have carefully examined the centrality of the student-teacher connection in promoting learning. PROMOTION OF EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE: The primary focus of health care institutions today is on the provision of quality care within a cost effective framework. The movement toward evidence based practice requires that educators and practitioners engage in collaborative research. Novice nurses are less aware of their thinking and learning processes when compared with experiences nurses. for example. 7. The nurse educator of the future must form collaborative relationships not only with practicing nurses but also with other members of the health care team. The traditional behaviorist model viewed students as empty vesicles who were eager to receive knowledge transmitted from the teacher. 7.2. Research becomes meaningfully grounded in practice rather than a theoretical topic unrelated to the practice setting. need to collaborate in clinical studies in order to improve outcomes of care. A survey to determine the readiness of U. Since that time. EMPHASIS ON AUTHENTIC STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS: There is mounting evidence to suggest that a thoughtful student-teacher relationship is essential for students to develop and grow. concerted means. nursing and medicine. The humanistic approach recognizes that students have their own experiences that enrich learning while also viewing the student as a participant in learning.S. 26 . With patient-centered care as its focus. Most importantly.3.

3. beliefs. Without such a foundation. SKILLED STUDENT-CENTERED TEACHING: All leaders in nursing education and committed nurse educators have contributed central exemplars toward a prototype of skill in student-centered teaching in nursing education. Several authors suggested that nurse educators develop confidence in student-centered teaching as they develop a "firm grounding in the pedagogy of the teaching/learning experience". 8. The nurse educator is critically reflective about his or her teaching practices. Nurse educators grounded in the tenets of student-centered teaching know that the most significant thing about teaching is that students learn in the context of a learning partnership in which their voice is equal in importance to that of the teacher 27 . teaching skill. The nurse educator of the future will need to establish authentic relationships with students grounded in mutual trust and respect so that students gain the self-confidence to achieve their potential. 2. nurse educators have a tendency to believe in the mode of teaching rather than in their skill as student-centered teachers. Confidence: The ability to teach in a student-centered way requires considerable confidence in one's professional knowledge. it was found that students perceived that the most effective clinical instructors were those having strong interpersonal relationships with students. and knowledge of the learners.1. and assumptions.When investigating student perceptions of effective and ineffective clinical instructors. There are three themes of skilled Student-centered teaching in nursing education. These are: 1. MUSINGS: REFLECTING ON THE FUTURE OF NURSING EDUCATION: 8. The nurse educator focuses on how his or her teaching practices influence students learning. The nurse educator maintains in student-centered teaching and in self as a studentcentered teacher.

28 . Young refers to student-centered teaching as focusing on students'needs. as "letting learn". they explore and discover what they want and need to know. rather than imposing what the teacher believes is essential to learn. The ideal of student-centered teaching is that rather than students expending energy determining what the teacher wants.Focusing on Students' Needs: The authors present student-centered teaching as a journey of creative discovery of what teaching behaviors and responses will best meet the diverse needs and ways of various students. They highlight the need to make connections so that the learner will be able to engage and find meaning in the learning experience.