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WE POWER THE FUTURE

www.lappinsulators.de Dipl.-Ing. Henning Albrecht Visit to IEC 07. June 2012

Introduction to Lapp Insulators Europe Group

WE POWER THE FUTURE

COMPANY INTRODUCTION

€ 1200 5 manufacturing locations in Europe (integration of Argillon in late 2008) Nr. 1 insulator producer Nr.Sales: Employees: Located: Ranking EU: Ranking WW: Service: Honor: Economic Focus: 130 Mio. all insulator types available Technology leader in the field of composite insulators Lapp Insulators is a German Enterprise having its economic main focus in Europe . 3 insulator producer One-stop-shopping experience for customers.

J. 2007: Joint Venture with Dallian Insulator Co.v. Ltd.Lapp USA 1916: Foundation Lapp Wunsiedel 1901: Foundation of factory Holenbrunn Fa. 2002: Argillon 2004: Acquisition Turda 2008: Acquisition of Alumina and insulators sector Argillon 2011: Quadriga Capital (majority shareholder) -> Acquisition of Lapp Group 2012: LAPP INSULATORS . Schwarz Selb 1889: Foundation of porcelain factory Rosenthal 1900: Foundation of department “E” Redwitz 1913: SIEMENS in Neuhaus Jedlina Zdroj (Sophienau) 1857: Foundation of porcelain factory Julius Schwarz 1859: Porcelain factory Joseph Schachtel Turda 1981: Foundation 1921: Stemag 1936: RIG 1971: Rosenthal / Stemag 1950: New foundation in Redwitz 1945: Company was nationalized 1974: Rosenthal / Technik 1999: Acquired by management 2001: Acquisition of the insulators sector of CeramTec 1985: HOECHST / CeramTec 1996: CeramTec 1996: Acquisition Jedlina Zdroj 2001: Privatization 2001: Lapp Insulator GmbH & Co. KG 2005: Investment by Andlinger & Co.

MANUFACTURING LOCATIONS .

Capacity > 6.000 m Composite Insulators Production Area 100.Rodurflex® Post Insulators . A wide range of insulators up to 1100 kV are manufactured for more than 100 years. the R&D division as well as further important administrative departments for the group.000 m² Employees 300 Foundation 1901 Specifics Headquarters of Lapp Europe Main R&D and sales departments Chemical / Physical Laboratory Competence center .500 t porcelain 350. Besides the production facilities one can find the management.WUNSIEDEL (D) Lapp Insulators' headquarters in Europe is located at the site in Wunsiedel.Rodurflex® Line Post Insulators .Rodurflex® .Rodurflex® Certification DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 Porcelain Insulators Long Rod Insulators Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators Composite Insulators Long Rod Insulators .

and puncture tests thermal and mechanical tests: · temperature range between -50 °C and +50 °C . Furthermore guided tours for schools and universities are offered. Therefore. Building Dimensions 22m x 30m x 21m Employees 7 Year of Foundation 1928 Specifics Industrial monument Type and design tests of insulators and insulator strings according to all IEC-. Lapp Insulators is performing all type and design tests.measurements mechanical tests: · four point bending.SELB (D) As one of two insulators manufacturers world wide Lapp is operating its own high voltage laboratory.and RIV.and elongation tests material tests: · leakage current. customer service and the development and research departments do benefit. ANSI.and DIN-VDE standards: AC testing: · dry until 1300 KV / wet until 1000 KV lightning impulse testing: · until 2100 kV switch impulse testing: · until 1300 kV corona. It is a significant factor of success.

500 t porcelain > 30.000 m² Employees 180 Certification DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 DIN EN ISO 14001:2005 OHRIS Specifics Competence center .Insulators Production Area 19. porcelain and composite insulators are manufactured.SIMOTEC®. Capacity 7.REDWITZ INSULATORS (D) At Lapp's insulator site in Redwitz. SIMOTEC® . In addition one can find here LAPP's expertise in manufacturing the composite insulators . which belongs to Lapp Insulators since 2008.SIMOTEC® Porcelain Insulators Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators Composite Insulators Hollow Core Composite Insulators SIMOTEC® . The factory is specialised to meet the needs of the OEM .clientele.000 pcs.

Besides the production facilities one can find the management.Rodurflex® Line Post Insulators . NY.000 m Composite Insulators Production Area 40.000 t porcelain 100.Rodurflex® .LeRoy (USA) Lapp Insulators' headquarters in the US is located at the site in LeRoy.Rodurflex® Post Insulators .000 m² Employees 120 Foundation 1916 Specifics Headquarters of Lapp Insulators Holding Certification DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 Porcelain Insulators Suspensions (cap & pin) Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators Composite Insulators Long Rod Insulators . the R&D division as well as further important administrative departments for the group including the group holding organization. A wide range of insulators are manufactured since the foundation of the Lapp Insulators in 1916. Capacity 3.

Capacity 2000 t Production Area 42. It was one of the driving forces behind the development of porcelain for electrical applications in the 19th century. is located in the south west of Poland. Today the factory is specialized on medium voltage and railway insulators.JEDLINA ZDROJ (PL) The factory.000 m² Employees 135 Foundation 1858 Specifics coating of longrod insulators with RTV silicone rubber competence center for medium-voltage and railway insulators Certification ISO 9001:2000 Porcelain Insulators Long Rod Insulators Post Insulators Medium Voltage Insulators . which was established in 1858.

000 m² Employees 400 Foundation 1981 Specifics youngest Lapp Insulators factory Certification DQS: October 2004: ISO 9001:2000 AFER: October 2001: ISO 9002:2000 Porcelain Insulators Long Rod Insulators Post Insulators Hollow Core Insulators . Capacity 6.TURDA (RO) The plant located in Turda (Cluj County) Romania.000 t Production Area 57. has a production experience of over 30 years in the manufacturing of ceramic insulators The company delivers high voltage ceramic insulators (>36 kV to 175 kV). therefore supporting the competitiveness of the Lapp Insulators business.

WE POWER THE FUTURE PORCELAIN INSULATORS PRODUCT RANGE .

MANUFACTORING TECHNOLOGY
Continuously enhanced - the production process of high-performance porcelain insulators
Over the decades we have refined the manufacture of ceramic insulators to perfection. Highly sophisticated monitored processes form the basis of a production system in which small customized product runs are implemented with the same precision and reliability as standard volume parts. Our improvement management system ensures an ongoing refinement of all processes and continuous advancement in cost efficiency. Selected ingredients of high purity and homogeneous properties are weighed, mixed to formula specifications, and subjected to a grinding process. Vacuum extrusion presses form the plastic filter cake into cylindrical blanks ("body") which are subjected to a closely controlled drying process to condition them for the following shaping steps. Vertical lathes are used to machine the blank to its desired contour. After a further precision drying stage the unfinished insulator already possesses a high strength due to the clay bond and is ready for the application of the glazing by an immersion process. The subsequent firing stage creates the very hard ceramic structure.

LONGROD INSULATOR
Suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines and railway systems

LONGROD INSULATORS
Porcelain longrod insulators are produced according to international standards and customer specifications. They are used in power transmission lines and available up to 400 kN mechanical tensile load. Lapp´s design experts are also capable of designing complete insulator strings including hardware accessories. Porcelain longrod insulators are also available with silicone rubber coating for improved pollution layer performance. DIMENSIONS voltage class 1 - 1100 kV (> 170 kV in strings) maximum length 2000 mm core diameter 45 - 115 mm flexible creepage distances up to 50 mm / kV end fittings complying to IEC 60120, 60471 and DIN 48006 special types available PRODUCTION METHOD wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70 Experience since 1930 SPECIFICATIONS IEC 60433, IEC 60383, IEC 60672 FACTORIES Wunsiedel Jedlina Zdroj Turda APPLICATIONS suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines and railway systems.

POST INSULATORS for busbar supports. disconnect switches in high voltage substations .

POST INSULATORS Porcelain station post insulators according to IEC. to IEC standards) cylindrical shape (mainly used when dimensioning acc. ultra high strength available C130 HS glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70 Specifications IEC 60273. cantilever and torsional loads during service. Turda Application busbar supports in substations. Post insulators are subjected to compression. LeRoy. ANSI and other standards are used in substations and related switching equipment. Redwitz. Dimensions voltage class 1 . They are produced in single piece up to 2300 mm and can operate voltages up to 1100 kV in stacked configuration. to ANSI standards) Production Method wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain.1100 kV (> 245 kV in stacked configuration) maximum length 2300 mm maximum core diameter 288 mm flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV conical shape (mainly used when dimensioning acc. IEC 60168. disconnect switches (post insulator + operating insulators) Platform supports for compensation systems . IEC 60672 Experience since 1930 Factories Wunsiedel.

HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS SF6 insulated switchgears. bushings . measuring equipment (CT. VT).

Lapp is capable of producing special shapes by applying latest state of the art manufacturing tools and technology. IEC 60672. ultra high strength available C130 HS glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70 Specifications IEC 62155. IEC TS 62371 Experience since 1930 Factories Wunsiedel. Redwitz. breakers (life and dead tank designs). The design of these insulators is tailor-made to customer requirements. These insulator types are produced to withstand high mechanical forces such as inner pressure and cantilever. bushings . Dimensions voltage class 1 .1100 kV maximum length 2800 mm (with gluing technology up to 9000 mm) maximum outside diameter 640 mm flexible creepage distances up to 40 mm / kV conical shape (mainly used in bushings and dead tank porcelains) cylindrical shape (mainly used in live tank systems) Production Method wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain.HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS Porcelain hollow core insulators acc. surge arresters. ANSI and customer standards are produced with cylindrical. Turda Application SF6-insulated switchgears. LeRoy. conical or straight inner and outer appearance up to a maximum length of 2800 mm in one piece. current and voltage transformers. to IEC.

railway power lines .MEDIUM VOLTAGE INSULATORS rural electrification.

EN 50119 Experience since 1900 Factories Jedlina Zdroj Application rural and railway electrification. special colour: green coating of insulators with RTV silicone rubber acc.MEDIUM VOLTAGE INSULATORS Lapp offers a wide range of low and medium voltage insulators. and railway insulators. For applications ranging from 10-100 kV Lapp produces bushings. IEC 60672. line posts. All these parts are also subject to the stringent quality requirements that are adopted from our high voltage products. Product quality is checked throughout production continuously. Production Method wet turning process C130 high strength alumina porcelain glaze colours brown RAL 8017 and grey ANSI 70. To customer request Specifications IEC 60433. string insulators. IEC 60383. Dimensions For detailed information on our medium voltage insulators program please contact us for a printed copy. medium voltage transformers .

WE POWER THE FUTURE COMPOSITE INSULATORS PRODUCT RANGE .

after which the joints between the FRP rod and the metal components are sealed with a special silicone elastomer. The combination of a hydrolysis resistant epoxy resin with acid resistant glass fibers (ECR glass) is a safe assurance against brittle fracture. various shed configurations (shapes. Prefabricated sheds are mounted on to the rod to complete the insulator. A modular system comprising FRP rods of different diameters and any desired length up to 6 meters. This metastable compound creates a perfect seal which prevents the ingress of moisture for an unlimited period of time.MANUFACTORING TECHNOLOGY Patented manufacturing expertise for RODURFLEX® composite insulators The first manufacturing stage is the continuous pultrusion process yielding the FRP rod. spacings) and a wide range of assorted end fittings allows the longrod insulator to be optimized for any specific application. The metal hardware is mounted by a cold-forming process and all insulators are subjected to mechanical inspection. Rods are cut to length and visually inspected before being coated with a seamless sheath of high-temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber ensuring optimum adhesion. . numbers. A subsequent vulcanizing stage creates a durable high-strength bond between the sheds and the rod sheath.

COMPOSITE LONGROD INSULATORS Suspension and tension insulators for high voltage power transmission systems .

ANSI C29.LONGROD INSULATORS The unique modular system of RODURFLEX® longrod Insulators is the key design feature to offer flexible connecting lengths. core diameter 63 mm. 60471 Production Method Modular assembly system HTV silicone rubber. up to 1500 kN SML flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV end fittings according to IEC 60120. ANSI C29. LeRoy Application suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines and railway systems . brittle-fracture resistant metastable silicone rubber sealing optimized shed profiles for all pollution classes available patented shallow underrib shed profile for enhanced creepage distances Standards IEC 61109.12 Experience since 1967 Factories Wunsiedel. Generation III ECR-FRP rod.11. Dimensions voltage class 1-1100 kV (>800 kV serial coupling of single pieces) maximum connecting length 6 m as single design max. creepage distances. shed profiles and a wide range of end fittings matching exactly the customers requirements.

LINE POST INSULATORS compact high voltage power transmission systems .

Dimensions voltage class 1-550 kV maximum core diameter 101.2 mm (4"). up to 50 kNm flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV braced post design for increased mechanical stability available complete assemblies including hardware fittings available Production Method Modular assembly system HTV silicone rubber. Generation III ECR-FRP rod.18 Experience since 1967 Factories Wunsiedel. ANSI C29. brittle-fracture resistant metastable silicone rubber sealing optimized shed profiles for all pollution classes available patented shallow underrib shed profile for enhanced creepage distances Standards IEC 61952. ANSI C29. LeRoy Application suspension and tension towers in high voltage power lines in compact configuration .17.LINE POST INSULATORS The RODURFLEX product range features horizontal and vertical line post insulators with flexible top and bottom attachments meeting all application needs.

STATION POST INSULATORS for busbar supports in high‐voltage substations .

9 Experience since 1967 Factories Wunsiedel.2 mm (4"). ANSI C29. bis 50 kNm flexible creepage distances up to 55 mm / kV DIN. LeRoy Application switching equipment and busbar support in substations . IEC and ANSI flanges available Production Method Modular assembly system HTV silicone rubber.POST INSULATORS The RODURFLEX® product range features vertical line post insulators with flexible top and bottom attachments meeting all application needs. ANSI C29.19. Generation III ECR-FRP rod. brittle-fracture resistant metastable silicone rubber sealing optimized shed profiles for all pollution classes available patented shallow underrib shed profile for enhanced creepage distances Standards IEC 62231. Dimensions voltage class 1-550 kV maximum core diameter 101.

As an option tubes with an inner liner made of polyester for protection against SF6-decay products can be provided.MANUFACTORING TECHNOLOGY Optimized manufacturing expertise for SIMOTEC® composite insulators Latest injection moulding technology is used for vulcanization of the silicone shed to the epoxy resin tube for insulators which can be up to 6 m long. Using a special primer on the tube permits chemical bonding with the shed. . The point of connection between the tube and the metal end fitting is coated with silicone and is generally of a gastight design. In this way LAPP INSULATORS can use tubes that are exposed to combined compressive and bending loads. The exact number of layers and wrapping angle for the tube is calculated to design the tubes for defined compression and bending loads. providing a durable connection under any condition.

COMPOSITE HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS SF6 insulated switchgears. VT). measuring equipment (CT. bushings .

surge arresters. current and voltage transformers. Due to the compact and light design SIMOTEC® hollow core composite insulators play a significant role in the manufacture of high-quality and reliable switchgears. maximum outside diameter 580 mm creepage distances up to 31 mm/kV Production Method injection moulding technology. bushings. cable terminations . inner and outer appearance up to a maximum length of 6000 mm in one piece. LSR-silicone rubber FRP-tubes made by filament winding process for combined bending and pressure stress Standards IEC 61462 (2007) Experience since 1995 Factories Redwitz Application SF6-insulated switchgears. to IEC. The design of these insulators is tailor-made to customer requirements. Dimensions voltage class 1 . These insulator types are produced to withstand high mechanical forces such as inner pressure and cantilever. breakers (life and dead tank designs).HOLLOW CORE INSULATORS SIMOTEC® Hollow core composite insulators acc. Due to the use of high quality LSR silicone rubber these insulators perform extremely well even under severe climatic conditions and under pollution eliminating the need of maintenance or cleaning of the switches they are use in.800 kV maximum connecting length 6 m as single design multi-part designs available. ANSI and customer standards are produced with cylindrical.

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g. EPDM) Ethylen Prophylen Rubber EVA (Ethylen Vinyl Acetat) Blends EPDM/SIR 4. EPOXY RESIN (not in Lapp Portfolio) 3. PORCELAIN 2. RUBBERS SIR (Silicon Rubber) EPR (e.Insulating Materials 1. GLASS ( not in Lapp Portfolio) .

000 mm length) • Traction line insulators • Medium voltage and line post insulators • Hollow insulators • Tailormade insulation applications (fibre optic bushings. 2600 mm length) • Hollow insulators (outer diameter up to 580 mm.. 2600 mm length) • Rotary insulators (operating stacks) • Medium voltage and line post insulators Composite Insulators System Rodurflex ® • Tailormade longrod insulators (up to 1. hot sticks.LAPP Insulators GmbH Porcelain Insulators • Longrod insulators (up to 550 kN..) .500 kN.Company Products . 2100 mm length) • Solid core post insulators (core diameter up to 275 mm. up to 6.

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators .

grinding in tumbling mills: 96% Al2O3. 4% Mg2[Si2O6] Machining Drying Glazing Sintering (Firing) Mounting of metal parts .Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Clay Alumina Kaolin Feldspar Mixing and grinding Extrusion Pre-drying Ceramical preparation our raw materials: kaolin. quartz. feldspar. Delivered in silos.

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Raw material / silo and preparation 25 silos / 50 t each 5 tumbling mills 3.5 t each 70% recycled / 30% new mass .

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Filter pressing filtercake pressing (70% recycled mass. 30% new mass) .

weight approx. length of pugs 4 m. 3 to) .Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Extrusion breaking of filtercakes in the shredder and extrusion of the pugs in the vacuum press (max.

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Shaping electrical pre-drying of pugs and shape forming (CNC). hollows: one-step machining in .and outside .

temperature and air-humidity (in dependence of shrinkage) .Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Drying controlled conditions.

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Glazing dipglazing (grey and brown) sprayglazing of special articles .

firing times depending on the corediameters .Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Firing in reducing atmosphere using shuttle kilns.

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators Cutting and grinding with diamond tools. depending on customers‘ requirements .

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Mounting of end fittings
acc. to customers‘ requirements with lead antimon, sulfur or portland cement; conical or cylindrical with sanded ends.

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Testing
Tension, cantilever, inner pressure and ultrasonic tests (thermal mechanical cycle tests)

Manufacturing process Ceramic Insulators

Final tests
type and design tests in our own laboratory

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex Insulators

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® More than 40 Years of Service Experience .

Introduction Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® .

allow RODURFLEX® insulators to be designed for any service condition .Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® The RODURFLEX® Module System A modular system of variable lengths...... different shed shapes and sizes ...and different types of end fittings for all common SML levels. .. .

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® The RODURFLEX® Module System Station Post Insulators A modular system of variable lengths...allow RODURFLEX® insulators to be designed for any service condition .. . different shed shapes and sizes ..

Production Process porcelain composite Body preparation Rod pultrusion Grinding Extrusion Drying Extrusion Shaping Drying Shed mounting and vulcanization Glazing Firing Assembling Sealing Cutting Grinding Assembling .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Pulltrusion of ECR( Electrical Grade Corrosion Resistant) FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastic) rod Transparent rods provide visible quality .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators THE SILCONE SHEATH IS CURED AND VULCANIZED TO THE ROD CURED AND BONDED RUBBER HIGH TEMP OVEN CURED AND BONDED RUBBER .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Extrusion of seamless HTV silicone sheath .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Rod Cutting & Desleeving .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Data of rubber injection presses : • clamping force : 5000 kN • 2 Heating + clamping plates : 710x1050mm • specific injection pressure : 2160 bar • injection volume : 5200 cm³ ( 8 kg silicone) • time effective double tool systeme High pressure injection moulding of sheds .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Pre-fabricated wheather sheds Rodurflex. seam not crossing gradients. no mechanical stress .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Weathersheds Rodurflex after removal of surplus from moulding .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Shed Mounting .

200°C Vulcanization .Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Duration depending on volume of insulators Temperature approx.

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators Compression of end fittings .

permanent sticking .no gaps: -50°C … +100°C (-58 °F … + 212 °F) .permanent elastic .Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators AUTOMIZED APPLICATION OF META STABLE SEALING SYSTEM .

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators
END FITTING TO ROD / INSULATING BODY META STABLE SEALING SYSTEM

- 2K meta stable silicone (paste) - special end fitting design (lake) - non-RTV (no gap formation at cold temp.) - temperature range: -50°C … +100°C (-58 °F … + 212 °F) - experience since 1981 (development, field trials at RWE)

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators

RODURFLEX® Sealing System Application

Manufacturing Process of Rodurflex® Insulators

Packing

Rodurflex Field Experience .

Rodurflex Field Experience Worldwide experience with Rodurflex® • more than 40 years • in more than 70 countries up to Um=765 kV service voltage .

662 SHIPPED 1999 .000 .KOREA AEP HYDRO QUEBEC LADWP GE/BPA HYDRO QUEBEC CHINA ESKOM – SO AF RWE – GERMANY ESKOM – SO AF EOS – SWITZERLAND UAE.108 1992-2005 SUB TOTAL Equals to approx.SPAIN QTY 168 40 184 213 243 17 14.690 1987-2005 2. Iran.000 1979-2005 11. 8.013 1992-2004 18.EHV WORLD WIDE EXPERIENCE RODURFLEX® POLYMER KV 800 765 765 500 DC 500 525 525 533 DC 420 420 420 420 420 420 LOCATION KEPCO .000 km >90.734 1998 16.2005 1980 1977-93 1980-84 2003 1982 1992-2001 637 1994-96 25.195 1978-2004 2. Middle East VENEZUELA REE .

SCECO.Rodurflex Field Experience ADWEA. RWE 420/550kV REE HQ AEP 765kV BPA/LADWP 145/170/245/300/362kV .

Rodurflex Field Experience 6m Advanced OHTL Designs Study Crossrope Design for 765 kV South Africa .

Fh = 65 kN .Rodurflex Field Experience Advanced OHTL Designs Design for 420 kV Compact Line „Palmiet – Stikland“ South Africa Fv= 22 kN.

River Crossings SML=4 x 1500kN = 6000kNcompare to 420 kV Elbe Crossing in Germany with PLRI: 4 x 300kN = 1200kN .g.Rodurflex Field Experience Extreme SML Tensions Sets e.

Rodurflex Field Experience 2007 Mozambique Phase Spacer Caia-Marromeo .

Rodurflex Field Experience 1980/90s  533 kV HVDC line Cabora Bassa. RSA HVDC .

USA .Rodurflex Field Experience HVDC 1984 500 kV HVDC line Pacific Intertie.

Rodurflex Lahmeyer Presentation Abu Dhabi .

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) Dipl.SERVICE EXPERIENCE WITH RODURFLEX COMPOSITE INSULATORS AT ADWEA (ABU DHABI WATER AND ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY.-Ing. UAE . Peter Kleyersburg former Lahmeyer International GmbH Abu Dhabi.

Situation 30 years ago. Arabian Peninsula Situation with conventional insulators Reasons for the use of composite insulators Rodurflex Insulators as counter measure of pollution caused problems Conclusion .

Situation 30 years ago. Arabian Peninsula .

Situation 30 years ago – A challenge for Lahmeyer International: • 1977 oil boom: increased need for energy in Abu Dhabi • problems with porcelain long-rod insulators. coast) pollution • main problem: pollution accumulation happens in extreme short period of time (few months. oil fields and industry) on risk . even few days) • power supply of expanding projects (airport. open shed profile cd = 43 mm/ kV • new proposed OHTL 220 kV Abu Dhabi – Al Ain as well as power supply to Abu Dhabi airport by 132 kV OHTL (80ies) • common standard IEC 815 – 1986 (still valid today) • pollution problems during operation on OHTL with conventional insulators • typical failure mode: flashovers during night and early morning hours • cause: condensation on hydrophilic surfaces which have been heavily contaminated by industrial and natural (desert. urban development.

Situation with conventional insulators .

with de-mineralised water and mobile washing devices 2. dry and wet.Situation with conventional insulators 1. Hydrophobication of existing insulation – with Silicone-grease – with RTV Silicone-Elastomere (Sylgard) . with de-mineralised water and permanently installed washing devices – energized. of course in de-engergized surrounding – energized. Cleaning of existing insulation – by hand.

however. especially by energized cleaning method (mobile washing systems) cleaning by hand is often required  de-energization of transmission lines generally good experience with use of hydrophobic media on existing insulators (greases. coating). difficult handling and high cost of RTV coatings silicone greases were not widely used due to existing difficulties in service (tendancy to pollution) • .Situation with conventional insulators • • • • unsatisfying results with adopted cleaning methods unreliable equipment.

Reasons for the use of composite insulators .

HTV-sheds and housing.Reasons for the use of composite insulators • • positive experience with hydrophobic surfaces  investigations of composite insulators Selection of Rodurflex composite insulators Generation III which was proven in service for more than 10 years already and therefore had the most successful reference available Rodurflex Generation III (ECR-FRP. meta stable sealing) quickly resulted in an adequate counter measure to all encountered problems due to extensive electrification in the 90ies the customer (ADWEA) „was forced to accept“ a completely new technology due to the existing problems and so they decided to use Rodurflex composite insulators on a complete transmission line for the first time this decision was backed by positive service performance of Rodurflex composite insulators in other parts of the world • • • . crimped end fittings.

Rodurflex Insulators as counter measure of pollution caused problems .

the removed insulators were then returned to Lapp for intensive research work the successful performance of this line was the justification for all later 245 kV and 420 kV lines equipped with composite insulators in Abu Dhabi • .Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL • • • Rodurflex 37 mm / kV not a single insulator related outage after 14 years continuous operation after 15 years of service the OHTL was removed and replaced by a cable due to urban development.

30/39(148)1855 1989/1990 145 kV 132 kV 14 years 37 mm/kV related to Um 225 kN Crimped design. clevis . forged steel. vulcanised to an extruded HTV silicone sleeve.Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL Design: Type: Production: Um: UB: Service time: CD’: SML: Fittings: HTV Silicone Rubber Composite Insulator GENERATION III with assembled pre-moulded HTV silicone sheds.

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL .

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL .

H: horizontal mounting : .84 0.17 0.30 1.78 2989/1 (V) 2989/1 (V) 1 shed bottom side shank nd between 2 rd and 3 shed 4 shed top side 1 shed bottom side shank nd between 2 rd and 3 shed th st th 1.31 3.64 (H) Note: V: vertical mounting.94 0.78 7.85 NSDDi n mg/cm² 2. No.Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL Pollution severity Lab.48 2989/1 (V) 2989/8 (H) 2989/8 (H) 0. Position st ESDD in mg/cm² 0.18 0.18 2989/8 4 shed top 0.

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL Results of electrical tests Values Measured Measured Characteristic per Lab. 2989/6 drawing polluted cleaned polluted cleaned [kV] BIL pos.No. 50% LIFO neg. 2989/2 Lab.No. PF Wet PF CFO Wet PF Dry PF CFO Dry 965 965 [kV] 957 996 985 1024 490 575 355 452 575 590 [µA] Leakage current @ 84kV 325-314 [kV] 969 1004 1000 1004 550 564 590 610 [µA] 285278 [kV] 960 1002 988 1031 410 466 575 598 [µA] 320-318 [kV] 966 997 996 1027 544 567 603 617 [µA] 290280 . 50% LIFO pos. BIL pos.

Example Abu Dhabi Airport 132 kV OHTL Results of mechanical tests (SML = 225 kN) Lab. UTS Breaking Load in kN 275 299 285 304 286 301 Kind of rupture 2989/1 2989/2 2989/3 2989/4 2989/5 2989/6 Pull out top fitting Pull out top fitting Pull out bottom fitting Pull out bottom fitting Pull out bottom fitting FRP rod fracture bottom fitting . No.

Conclusion .

52 mm / kV) • A detailed study on Rodurflex insulators used in service for 15 years showed – electrical and mechanical performance was equal to the new state – no signs of erosion or traces of electrical activity – no signs of ageing since the 90ies ALL new OHTLs in Abu Dhabi up to 420 kV are exclusively designed with composite insulators • .Conclusion • • severe pollution problems lead to the pioneer use of Rodurflex composite insulators in UAE Rodurflex insulators used for more than 14 years showed no problems and secured the interference free power transmission in Abu Dhabi and are by far superior to the conventional insulators  realized with less specific creepage distance (37 mm / kV vs.

Similar composite insulators of other manufacturers have been introduced to the UAE market and also showed no failure up to now. 25% and so the total cost of the line gets reduced by 8% because composite insulators offer equal or superior insulating performance with reduced section length. however. for example the tower cost for a 400 kV line can be reduced by approx.000 insulator years of positive service performance under extreme conditions are available further to just being a solution to pollution related line problems Rodurflex composite insulators help to cut costs. without the RODURFLEX-typical long reference period • .Conclusion • • in total more than 500.

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators .

CLASSIFICATION OF INSULATORS 1. Insulators with passiv surface 2. Insulators with active surface and this means: is there interaction with the pollution layer? .

g.Interaction means: the insulating material interacts with the pollution layer e. transferring hydrophobicity .

What is Hydrophobicity? .

non-polluted stage most surfaces are water repellent = hydrophobic. Hydrophobicity Transfer .Comparision Rodurflex® with Ceramic Surface New Surface New ceramic surface New silicone surface In a new.

G. E.Comparision Rodurflex® with Ceramic Surface Surface polluted by quartz slurry (Pollution Conditions IEC 815) Polluted passiv surface Polluted active surface E.:The pollution layer on a silicone surface becomes hydrophobic.G. Hydrophobicity Transfer .:The pollution layer on a ceramic/glass/EPR surface is hydrophilic.

The pollution layer on a silicone surface becomes hydrophobic. Hydrophobicity Transfer .Comparision Rodurflex® with Ceramic Surface Surface polluted by sand Polluted ceramic surface Polluted silicone surface The pollution layer on a ceramic or glass surface is wettable.

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Effect of Hydrophobicity • pollution layer water repellent • low leakage currents • low risk of flashover • low line losses • no cleaning required Hydrophobicity .

e.temperature .Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Characteristics of Hydrophobicity Transfer of Silicone rubbers (SIR) Effect: .thickness of bulk material .type of SIR material .thickness of surface layer .Recovery of temporarily reduced hydrophobicity.age with Rodurflex silicone rubber no loss of silicone rubber material is measureable Losses: Hydrophobicity .g. by excessive sparking Mechanism: Diffusion of low molecular weight silicone components Speed: depending on: .Hydrophobization of surface/pollution layers .

6 mm Layer on SIR Plates of Various Thickness After a Storage of 16 Days at T = 20 °C Hydrophobicity transfer depends on : Wetting angle  [deg] thickness of SIR material thickness of silicone rubber plate [mm] Hydrophobicity .Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Hydrophobicity of a 0.

Hydrophobic Effect Water Pollution Layer Silicone Shed Hydrophobicity HTV SIR the best solution to have -> excellent hydrophobicity -> good tracking behaviour Molecular Silicone LMW (low molecular weights) Hydrophobic Effect .

Performance and Silicone Compoundation Balanced filling Highly ATH filled silicone rubber Performance of Hydrophobicity Transfer Effect T&E (creepage) Resistance Outdoor performance 41% PDMS 46% ATH RTV2/LSR 30-35% PDMS 60-70% ATH 80% PDMS 10% ATH Silicone content in % by weight 100% PDMS 0% ATH ATH content in % by weight 0% PDMS 100% ATH .

BREAK ? Brittle Fracture .

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Brittle Fracture Normal fracture caused by overload Delamination of the rod occurs .

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Brittle Fracture Insulator with widely used standard E-Glass fibres Brittle fracture: The fracture surface is mainly perpenticular to the rod axis. The remaining fibres cannot bear the load => fracture due to overload. Most of the E-glass fibres seems to be cut. .

(nitric acid) The glass fibre is destroyed due to a dissolving process of the glass network. The mechanical strength is drastically reduced. .Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Brittle Fracture Standard E-glass fibre after 10 days of immersion in 1nHNO3.

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Brittle Fracture ECR( Electrical Grade Corosion Resistant)glass fibre after 30 days of immersion in 1nHNO3. The mechanical strength is not influenced. (nitric acid) The glass fibre is resistant to the acid due to modification of the glass network. .

such as ECR fibres (Electrical grade corrosion resistant).  Brittle fracture resistant rods can be produced by using corrosion resistant glass fibres.Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Brittle Fracture Stress corrosion or brittle fracture can occur if acid attacks glass fibres under tensile load. .  To avoid line dropping due to stress corrosion brittle fracture resistant FRP( Fibre Reinforced Plastic) rods must be used.  Acids are already in the environment or may be produced under influence of moisture and electrical discharges.  Combination of moisture and electrical discharges can result in the creation of nitric acid (HNO3).

Composite Insulators System Rodurflex® Brittle Fracture Test set-up for stress corrosion test of FRP rods ball bearing sample weight (equivalent to 67% SML) acid container (1n nitric acid) The test is passed if no fracture of the core occurs within 96h under load. Back .

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators .

1983 INTRODUCTION 1979 FORMULATION Forged steel 1985 chemical bonding HTV silicone 1979 FORMULATION silicone rubber sealing 1982 .Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Design of Rodurflex® Generation III HTV silicone ECR.

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators What makes a good composite insulator? Materials bad good bad Impossible Usual Case Design good Very difficult Know how needed RODURFLEX® “Kaerner‘s Matrix“ (1994) .

14 • pollution layer water repellent • low leakage currents • low risk of flashover • low line losses • no cleaning required Prof. CIGRE D1.Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Hydrophobicity Transfer Mechanism (HTM). Kindersberger (1989) .

a silicone rubber composite insulator only requires 40.Comparison Required geometrical Creepage distances to obtain the same electrical performance under pollution (KIWIT 1970: „Practical Experience with Outdoor Insulation) Silicone Rubber Composite Porcelain Longrod Glass/Porcelain Disk 75% -45% 100% reference 120% CONCLUSION: To operate under same pollution conditions..Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Pollution Performance . . A silicone rubber composite is Therefore more economical or can withstand a level of 2 pollution classes higher than glass.45% of the CD required for Glass/Porcelain Disks.

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators HTM impact on LCC and Service Costs 250 [$/year] 200 150 100 50 0 132 kV line Calculated by M/s Powerlink. Australia Silicone insulator coated ceramic disc ceramic disc with washing 275 kV line .

lower lifetime.Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Pin Corrosion Glass/Porcelain Disks: not hydrophobic surface  high Leakage currents  DC component in Leakage current  galvanic cell  PIN CORROSION Silicone rubber composite with HTM & hydrophobic surface: not hydrophobic surface  very low Leakage currents  no DC component in Leakage current  no galvanic cell  NO PROBLEMS Maintenance costs. worse LCA Life expectancy: 17…30a .

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Composite insulators offer low weight => low transport and installation costs .

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Advantages of RODURFLEX® Composite Insulators  Enables new OHTL Insulation Design (Crossarms. Installation  Light Weight: offers EHV OHTL designs  Short Lead-Time  Flexible in Design  Reduced Life-Cycle Costs  Proven for more than 40 years .Crossropes etc. Handling. Weather and Environmental Resistant HTV Silicone Housing  Enables Extreme Creepage Designs (Patented Underrib Sheds)  Earthquake Resistant  Brittle Fracture Resistant (ECR Glass Epoxy FRP Core)  Fail-safe meta stable sealing system  Extreme strength classes SML up to 2000 kN possible for single unit  Vandalism Proof  Able to withstand Extreme Dynamic and Impact loads  Light Weight: Easy Transport.)  Superior Pollution Performance (Hydrophobicity Transfer Mechanism)  Extreme UV.

Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators Main Advantages (Summary): .

Saudi Arabia. Oman. 765 kV*) (420. 765 kV) (525 kV*) (420 kV*) (245 kV*) (420 kV*) UAE.Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap & Pin Insulators RODURFLEX®: High Pollution Applications • China • Arabic Peninsula • REE Spain • USA California • USA Florida • South Africa • India • Australia • North Africa • Chile. Peru • Iran * up to (525. Qatar. Jemen . 750 kV) (420 kV*) (420 kV*) (525 kV*) (525 kV*) (420.

Composite insulators offer light weight combined with high mechanical strength and high flexibility. • • • • . Post and Line Post insulators Due to their light weight composite line post insulators may be mounted directly on the pole without using crossarms. Replacement of Conventional Insulators. Upgrading of existing lines or designing Compact Lines Composite insulator strings are in many cases shorter than conventional ones. Interphase spacers to prevent galopping conductors from clashing together.Advantages of Composite Insulators compared to Cap& Pin Insulators • • • • • • • • • • Applications of Composite Insulators New Transmission Lines Due to the light weight and compact design of composite insulators new line and new tower designs are possible resulting in lower construction and erection costs. Silicone rubber insulators offer superior performance in polluted areas. Hollow insulators/Line Arrestors Housings for current transformers. Line hardware need not to be changed. which experienced flashover or require extensive maintenance. bushings or surge arresters.

Long Rod Types Easier to handle Cap & Pin Types 6 times the weight and erection at site limited self cleaning performance optimal self cleaning Performance Hydrophobicity lower radio interference voltage protectable against power arcs (arcing devices) higher radio interference voltage not fully protectable against power arcs .

Long Rod Types no cascade flashovers Cap & Pin Types cascade flashovers possible thermal puncture possible self fractures with glass (shattering) V-strings: angel between two substrings depends on wind/weight load no thermal puncture no self fractures V-strings: narrow strings possible with special intermediate fittings Composite Longrod vs. Cap & Pin .

Cap & Pin .Long Rod Types Price 20-30% lower Cap & Pin Types Composite Longrod vs.

Reseach & Development .

Kurrat Prof. Kindersberger Prof. Grossmann Prof. Hinrichsen Prof. Clemens Prof.Reseach & Development R&D Partners Prof. Bärsch .

„Technology Survey“ 100 10 HVDC UHV Capacity in GW 1 765kV 400/500kV 1200kV 0.001 1 10 HVDC .01 „Smartgrids“ 0.1 Subtransmission 0.Smart 100 1000 10000 Transmission Distance in km .

Reseach & Development R&D: New Design Tools (FEM) .

Reseach & Development R&D : FEM/BEM Tools .

Reseach & Development R&D on Field Calculations (HSU Hamburg) .

Reseach & Development R&D: New Design Tools (STRI Insulator Selection Tool IST®) HVAC HVDC AC/DC Solid Layer AC / KIPTS .

Reseach & Development .

1 0.001 0.01 0.9 0.3 1.1 1.5 14 12 0.001 1.2 1.9 0.0 Rodurflex ® 31mm/kV 28 26 24 0.01 0.5 Glass Antifog 33mm/kV 1.8 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 Insulation Length (m) .6 1.7 0.0 0.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) Insulation Length (m) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) 1.5 0.AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 123kV 1.6 0.6 16 0.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) 30 1.8 22 20 18 0.4 1.8 0.7 1.7 0.

4 1.3 1.0 0.7 1.6 1.001 Rodurflex ® 31mm/kV 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 0.5 1.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) 3.01 0.2 1.0 Insulation Length (m) Glass Antifog 29mm/kV 2.AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 245kV 3.6 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 .0 0.6 1.9 0.0 1.1 1.4 2.6 2.4 1.01 0.0 1.8 1.2 3.2 2.4 3.1 2.2 2.9 0.8 2.001 2.8 1.2 1.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) 30 Insulation Length (m) 1.

0 2.0 4.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) 3.5 2.0 3.8 2.1 1 Insulation Length (m) 5.001 0.0 2.AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 420kV 6.0 0.0 5.8 Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) .8 Rodurflex® 25mm/kV 24 22 20 18 16 14 1.01 0.001 Glass Antifog 25mm/kV 0.4 30 28 26 Insulation Length (m) 3.6 3.0 1.2 2.01 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) 3.4 2.5 4.6 12 0.5 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 0.2 3.6 2.5 3.

8 3.0 2.0 3.4 28 26 4.001 0.2 2.5 6.0 Insulation Length (m) 6.0 4.6 2.0 2.0 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 .8 4.2 4.0 3.4 2.AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 550kV 7.4 3.6 4.5 4.2 3.5 7.6 3.0 0.001 Glass Antifog 26mm/kV 0.0 4.5 5.01 0.0 5.5 0.01 0.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) 5.8 2.5 3.1 1 14 12 18 16 30 Rodurflex® 28mm/kV 24 22 20 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) Insulation Length (m) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) 8.

5 4.5 5.0 6.0 9.0 4.5 6.001 0.5 0.001 0.5 8.0 5.5 Rodurflex® 24mm/kV 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 3.5 7.5 9.5 4.5 30 28 Insulation Length (m) 6.1 1 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 Insulation Length (m) Glass Antifog 24mm/kV Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) 7.5 5.0 7.01 0.0 10.0 4.0 8.5 10.5 11.0 5.0 3.AC KIPTS Natural Pollution Performance 765/800kV 12.01 0.0 3.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) .0 6.0 12 0.0 11.

6 3.0 m 5.6 4.Reseach & Development 800kV Design for Pollution 12.0 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 .8 3.0 0.2 4.0 9.0 m 0.0 Insulation Length (m) Disk String: Heavy: 9.IST Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) Specific Creepage Distance (mm/kVsystem) Required Insulation Length: 13.1 1 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) Heavy: Very Heavy: 5.1 1 Pollution Severity: 2% ESDD Level (mg/cm²) RODURFLEX .0 4.8 4.6 5.4 4.0 2.0 8.001 6.0 5.0 4.8 5.01 0.0 m 10.0 11.6 0.0 7.4 5.2 5.0 6.0 3.001 Very Heavy: 12.2 3.01 0.4 3.0 5.0 3.2 6.8 2.9 m Insulation Length (m) RODURFLEX String: Very Light Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy 15 14 13 12 0.

Research & Development Materials – Functional Properties Electrical Field Control (µVars. BaTiO3…) .

Reseach & Development Mikro Varistors .

Research & Development Mikro Varistors Resistance Voltage .

Reseach & Development µ Varistors – Field Control (prevent so called dry band arcing) Water Film ARC µ varistor filled Silicon Current Flow through Insulating Material „Discharge free Insulators“ .

Reseach & Development µ Varistors – Field Control Black=µVars applied to sheds (patent PCT/EP2009/000983). owner Lapp .

Reseach & Development µ Varistors – Field Control .

Reseach & Development µ Varistors – Field Control Normal Insulator µ Varistor Controlled Insulator .

3 0.6 Linear (A-B: 2915mm) "Referenz 3 x LG 75/22/1270 (A-B: 3215mm)) Lichtbogenzwischenarmaturen U(x)/Uo 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.1 0 0 500 1000 1500 1 x CS160 30/65(134)3000 (A-B: 2600mm) xA-B 2000 2500 3000 mm 3500 .2 0.7 0.Reseach & Development µ Varistors – Field Control 1 0.