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Acknowledgeme nt
Many lives & destinies are destroyed due to the lack of proper guidance, directions & opportunities. It is in this respect I feel that I am in much better condition today due to continuous process of motivation & focus provided by my parents & teachers in general. The process of completion of this training was a tedious job & requires care & support at all stages. I would like to highlight the role played by individuals towards this. I am eternally grateful to BHEL, BHOPAL for providing us the opportunity & infrastructure to complete the training as a partial fulfillment of B.E. degree. I am very thankful to Mr. A.K. NIMJE, SR.DGM. of STE Deptt. For his kind support & faith in us. I would like to express my sincere thanks, with deep sense of gratitude to my training officer Mr.D.C.NIRMAL; Dy.Manager of STE Deptt. for their keen interests my project. I also thankful to Mr.P.K.GOYAL & Mr.AJAY KUMAR & to all visible & invisible hands which helped us to complete this training with a feeling of success.

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INDEX
1. 2. 3.
4.

Introduction History Types

Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions 5. Casing & Shaft Arrangement 6. principle of Operation & design 7. Turbine Efficiency 8. Impulse Turbines 9. Reaction Turbines 10.Operation & Maintenance 11.Speed Regulation 12.Direct Drive 13.Speed Reduction 14.Working 15.Steam Turbine Principle 16. Impulse Blading

Reaction Blading Rankine Cycle INTRODUCTION A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam. Similar smoke jacks were later described . who described it as a prime mover for rotating a spit.final-yearprojects. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam.co.cc | www. it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator – about 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines. which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process. History The first device that may be classified as a reaction steam turbine was little more than a toy.www. It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine (invented by Thomas Newcomen and greatly improved by James Watt) primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher powerto-weight ratio.troubleshoot4free. A thousand years later. the first impact steam turbine with practical applications was invented in 1551 by Taqi-alDin in Ottoman Egypt. described in the 1st century by Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt. 18.com/fyp/ 17. Because the turbine generates rotary motion. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. the classic Aeolipile. and converts it into rotary motion.

final-yearprojects.5 kW set up to units of 50. The de Laval turbine (invented by Gustaf de Laval) accelerated the steam to full speed before running it against a turbine blade. Another steam turbine device was created by Italian Giovanni Branca in 1629. for land purposes alone. This was good. Within Parson's lifetime the generating capacity of a unit was scaled-up by about 10. It is also. because the turbine is simpler.5 kW of electricity.000 kW capacity. A number of other variations of turbines have been developed that work effectively with steam. It can operate with any pressure of steam. however. He knew that the total output from turbo-generators constructed by his firm C. . George Westinghouse. The modern steam turbine was invented in 1884 by the Englishman Sir Charles Parsons. had exceeded thirty million horse-power. The Parson's turbine also turned out to be relatively easy to scale-up.com/fyp/ by John Wilkins in 1648 and Samuel Pepys in 1660. considerably less efficient. His patent was licensed and the turbine scaledup shortly after by an American.www. Parsons and Company and by their licensees. making cheap and plentiful electricity possible and revolutionizing marine transport and naval warfare.co. Parsons had the satisfaction of seeing his invention adopted for all major world power stations. less expensive and does not need to be pressure-proof. The size of his generators had increased from his first 7.cc | www. A.troubleshoot4free. whose first model was connected to a dynamo that generated 7. the world would never be the same again.. Parson's steam turbine..000 times.

There are several classifications for modern steam turbines.final-yearprojects.cc | www.www.000 hp (1. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure. compressors and other shaft driven equipment.500.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. These turbines exhaust steam in a partially .troubleshoot4free. Non-condensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications.000. to 2. pulp and paper plants. extraction and induction. These are commonly found at refineries. Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions These types include condensing. district heating units. Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants.co.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are available. reheat.com/fyp/ Types Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. non-condensing.

Tandem compound are used where two or more casings are directly coupled together to drive a single generator. at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser. steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added. Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. Principle of Operation and Design An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process. however. with typical isentropic efficiencies . In an extracting type turbine. Induction turbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to produce additional power. tandem compound and cross compound turbines.cc | www.com/fyp/ condensed state. No steam turbine is truly “isentropic”. A cross compound turbine arrangement features two or more shafts not in line driving two or more generators that often operate at different speeds.www.final-yearprojects.co. in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve. A cross compound turbine is typically used for many large applications. or left uncontrolled. or constant entropy process. In a reheat turbine.troubleshoot4free. typically of a quality near 90%. Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft are coupled to a generator. and used for industrial process needs or sent to boiler feed water heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. steam is released from various stages of the turbine. Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. Casing or Shaft Arrangements These arrangements include single casing. The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion.

final-yearprojects. Most modern steam turbines are a combination of the reaction and impulse design. Impulse Turbines .troubleshoot4free. higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type. The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances. or “buckets” as they are more commonly referred to.www.com/fyp/ ranging from 20%-90% based on the application of the turbine. in a number of stages. Typically. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft.co. generating work. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Turbine Efficiency Schematic diagram outlining the difference between an impulse and a reaction turbine To maximize turbine efficiency. with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage.cc | www. the steam is expanded.

A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor. convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. The loss of energy due to this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving loss". with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature. As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from steam chest pressure to condenser pressure (or atmosphere pressure). shaped like buckets. which the rotor blades. with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor. The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor.cc | www. the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. Due to this relatively higher ratio of expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity.www. Operation and Maintenance When warming up a steam turbine for use. the main steam stop valves (after the boiler) have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly bypass the valve and proceed . These jets contain significant kinetic energy.co.final-yearprojects. Reaction Turbines In the reaction turbine. A pressure drop occurs across only the stationary blades. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor.com/fyp/ An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets.troubleshoot4free. with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor.

troubleshoot4free.co. Any imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration. to prevent damage while some applications (such as the generation of alternating current electricity) require precise speed control. Problems with turbines are now rare and maintenance requirements are relatively small. It is. water entering the blades will likely result in the destruction of the thrust bearing for the turbine shaft. along with controls and baffles in the boilers to ensure high quality steam. Also a turning gear is engaged when there is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even heating to prevent uneven expansion. allowing time for the rotor to assume a straight plane (no bowing). essential that the turbine be turned with dry steam. first to the astern blades then to the ahead blades slowly rotating the turbine at 10 to 15 RPM to slowly warm the turbine. possibly leading to imbalance and catastrophic failure. To prevent this. which in extreme cases can lead to a blade letting go and punching straight through the casing. as turbines need to be run up slowly. Also. which causes the nozzle valves that control the flow of steam to the turbine to close. then the turning gear is disengaged and steam is admitted to the turbine.final-yearprojects. condensate drains are installed in the steam piping leading to the turbine.com/fyp/ to heat up the lines in the system along with the steam turbine. however. If water gets into the steam and is blasted onto the blades (moisture carryover) rapid impingement and erosion of the blades can occur. Uncontrolled acceleration of the turbine rotor can lead to an overspeed trip. Turbines are expensive to make. often spectacularly. Speed regulation The control of a turbine with a governor is essential.cc | www. .www. After first rotating the turbine by the turning gear. If this fails then the turbine may continue accelerating until it breaks apart. requiring precision manufacture and special quality materials.

cc | www.www. Speed Reduction . the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. as may be found in nuclear power stations. In installations with high steam output.com/fyp/ Direct drive Electrical power stations use large steam turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 80%) of the world's electricity. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their generators. but with four-pole generators.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. Most of these centralized stations are of two types: fossil and nuclear power plants. the generator sets may be arranged to operate at half these speeds. As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system.co.

and low vibration are compelling advantages.www. Steam turbine efficiencies have yet to break 50% yet diesel engines routinely exceed 50%.com/fyp/ The Tu rbinia . This purchase cost is offset by much lower fuel and maintenance requirements and the small size of a turbine when compared to a reciprocating engine having an equivalent power.troubleshoot4free. except for diesel engines which are capable of higher efficiencies. This has now been almost totally replaced by the steam turbine because the steam turbine has a higher . their small size. Working – Introduction A steam turbine is a mechanical device that converts thermal energy in pressurized steam into useful mechanical work.cc | www.co. had direct drive from the steam turbine to the propeller shafts.the first steam turbine-powered ship Another use of steam turbines is in ships. but with limited success. especially in marine applications.) A steam turbine is only efficient when operating in the thousands of RPM range while application of the power in propulsion applications may be only in the hundreds of RPM and so requiring that expensive and precise reduction gears must be used. The original steam engine which largely powered the industrial revolution in the UK was based on reciprocating pistons. although several ships. low maintenance. such as Turbinia. (Steam turbine locomotives were also tested.final-yearprojects. light weight.

Steam turbines are widely used for marine applications for vessel propulsion systems.500.final-yearprojects.000kW turbines used to generate electricity. as developed for aerospace applications.troubleshoot4free. .75 kW units used as mechanical drives for pumps.com/fyp/ thermodynamic efficiency and a lower power-to-weight ratio and the steam turbine is ideal for the very large power configurations used in power stations. In recent times gas turbines . These are generally arranged on a common centre line (tandem mounted) but parallel systems can be used called cross compound systems. are being used more and more in the field of power generation once dominated by steam turbines.www. The steam turbine derives much of its better thermodynamic efficiency because of the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam. Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 0. Steam Turbine Principle The steam energy is converted mechanical work by expansion through the turbine.co. to 1. The expansion takes place through a series of fixed blades (nozzles) and moving blades each row of fixed blades and moving blades is called a stage.cc | www. On large output turbines the duty too large for one turbine and a number of turbine casing/rotor units are combined to achieve the duty. This results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process. compressors and other shaft driven equipment. The moving blades rotate on the central turbine rotor and the fixed blades are concentrically arranged within the circular turbine casing which is substantially designed to withstand the steam pressure.

co.final-yearprojects. Impulse Blading The impulse blading principle is that the steam is directed at the blades and the impact of the steam on the blades drives them round. Blades of an impulse turbine .cc | www.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ Two Turbine Cylinders Tandem Mounted There are two principles used for design of turbine blades: The Impulse Blading and The Reaction Blading. In this type of turbine the whole of the stage pressure drop takes place in the fixed blade (nozzle) and the steam jet acts on the moving blade by impinging on the blades. The day to day example of this principle is the pelton wheel.www.

V wa & V wb.z/1000 kW per kg/s of steam . For this turbine principle the steam pressure drop is divide between the fixed and moving blades.com/fyp/ Velocity diagram impulse turbine stage z represents the blade speed . The Catherine wheel (firework) is an example of this principle.cc | www. V r represents the relative velocity.final-yearprojects.V wb ).co.www. wa .represents the tangential component of the absolute steam in and steam out velocities The power developed per stage = Tangential force on blade x blade speed. Power /stage= (V Reaction Blading The reaction blading principle depends on the blade diverting the steam flow and gaining kinetic energy by the reaction.troubleshoot4free.

z/1000 kW per kg/s of steam The blade speed z is limited by the mechanical design and material constraints of the blades.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. The theoretic cycle can be considered with reference to the figure below.co.com/fyp/ Velocity diagram reaction turbine stage z represents the blade speed . Rankine Cycle The Rankine cycle is a steam cycle for a steam plant operating under the best theoretical conditions for most efficient operation. The condenser cooling will condense the steam to water with only sensible heat (saturated water). There will no losses of energy by radiation.represents the tangential component of the absolute steam in and steam out velocities The power developed per stage = Tangential force on blade x blade speed.V wb ).cc | www. or frictional losses in the mechanical components. This is an ideal imaginary cycle against which all other real steam working cycles can be compared. The . Power /stage= (V wa . The feed pump will add no energy to the water. leakage of steam. V r represents the relative velocity.www. V wa & V wb.

h2).troubleshoot4free. .final-yearprojects. (h1.e. The inner boundaries defines a flow process. The complete plant is enclosed in an outer boundary and the working fluid crosses inner boundaries (control surfaces). Basic Rankine Cycle The various energy streams flowing in a simple steam turbine system are as indicated in the diagram below. It is clear that the working fluid is in a closed circuit apart from the free surface of the hot well. Every time the working fluid flows at a uniform rate around the circuit it experiences a series of processes making up a thermodynamic cycle. The energy supplied by the steam by heat transfer from the combustion and flue gases in the furnace to the water and steam in the boiler will be the difference in the enthalpy of the steam leaving the boiler and the water entering the boiler = (h1 . Within the turbine the work done would be equal to the energy entering the turbine as steam (h1) minus the energy leaving the turbine as steam after perfect expansion (h2) this being isentropic (reversible adiabatic) i.co.com/fyp/ chimney gases would be at the same pressure as the atmosphere.www.h3).cc | www.

**It is acceptable to consider rates per unit mass or unit time whichever is most convenient Steady Flow Energy Equations Boiler The energy streams entering and leaving the boiler unit are as follows: F+A+h d =h 1 + G + hl b hence hl b F+A=G+h 1 -h d + Turbine .com/fyp/ The various identifiers represent the various energy flows per unit mass flowing along the steady-flow streams and crossing the boundaries. When the turbine system is operating under steady state conditions the law of conservation of energy dictates that the energy per unit mass of working agent ** entering any system boundary must be equal to the rate of energy leaving the system boundary.co. This allows energy equations to be developed for the individual units and the whole plant.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.www.

co. . That is the energy of the fuel (F) per unit mass of the working agent (water) is equal to the sum of .W i] .www.h w +h d + hl The four equations on the right can be arranged to give the energy equation for the whole turbine system enclosed by the outer boundary.the energy gained by the water circulating through the condenser [W o .A] using the air temperature as the datum.com/fyp/ The energy streams entering and leaving the turbine are as follows: h 1 =T+h 2 + hl t hence 0 = T .final-yearprojects.h 1 +h 2 + hl t Condenser Unit The energy streams entering and leaving the condenser unit are as follows: Wi+h 2 =Wo+h w + hl c hence hl c Wi=Wo+h w -h 2 + Feed Water System The energy streams entering and leaving the Feed Water System are as follows: h w + d e + d f= h d + hl f hence d e + d f = .troubleshoot4free.(d e+ d f) .the energy gained by the atmosphere surrounding the plant Σ hl .cc | www.the energy leaving the exhaust [G .the mechanical energy available from the turbine less that used to drive the pumps (T .

co.cc | www.www. Ghaziabad CFFB .Ghaziabad AA 10108 AA 10112 AA 10622 AA 10723      MUSCO .Durgapur Plate material: Suppliers: .Bombay SAIL .Howrah AA 19331 Ghaziabad AA 19332 ispat.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ The overall thermal efficiency of a steam turbine plant can be represented by the ratio of the net mechanical energy available to the energy within the fuel supplied as indicated in the expressions below- RAW MATERIALS USED AND THEIR SUPPLIERS Bar material:  Suppliers: kissan steel.final-yearprojects.

germany m.tayllor. germany Mobar .durgapur Thysen.u.k.co. AA 10455 Mumbai ( SA 106GrB ) Customers • of the : product Public sector customer National thermal power corporation ( NTPC ) Nuclear power corporation of india limited ( NPCIL) State electricity board ( SEB ) Power development corporation limited ( PDCL ) Damodar valley corporation • • • • Private sector customers: • Arunachal Pradesh sugar mills . Pipe material: • suppliers: sandoz metal.com/fyp/ • AA 10119 ( higher thk) SAIL .www.final-yearprojects.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.

E.co.final-yearprojects.K .COM .troubleshoot4free. BHEL BHOPAL 2. U.com/fyp/ Technology collaboration Earlier (1976 -77):G. STEAM AND GAS TURBINE DEPTT.GOOGLE. Reference 1.cc | www.www. WWW.C Now: ALSTOM .