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Types of Fuel Injection Schemes Direct (cylinder) injection Port injection Manifold riser injection GDI (Gasoline Direct

Injection)

Direct fuel injection

inlet port and manifold riser injection These terms include designs in which the injection nozzles are located to spray fuel into the valve port (right) or into the induction manifold adjacent to the valve port (left).

A Schematic diagram of the electronic fuel injection system

n Engine speed. UB Vehicle-system voltage. P Engine load range. VES Excess fuel for starting. . ϑL Air temperature. QLZ Auxiliary air. ϑM Engine temperature.Signals and controlled variables at the ECU QL Intake air quantity. VE Injected fuel quantity.

6 Air-temperature sensor. 5 Solenoid-operated fuel injector.Mono-Jetronic schematic diagram 1 Fuel lank. 8 Throttle-valve actuator. 19 Central injection unit. 3 Fuel filter. 7 ECU. 13 Engine-temperature sensor. 14 Ignition distributor. . 17 Relay. 10 Canister-purge valve. 18 Diagnosis connection. 77 Carbon canister. 4 Fuel-pressure regulator. 9 Throttle-valve potentiometer. 2 Electric fuel pump. 12 Lambda oxygen sensor. 15 Battery. 16 Ignition-start switch.

D-Jetronic schematic diagram .

Functional schematic diagram of the K-Jetronic .

A Schematic diagram of the K-Jetronic: Mechanical multipoint port fuel-injection system (without electronic control unit). .

. 2 Electric fuel pump. 13 Thermo-time switch. 17 Electronic control unit. 12 Lambda sensor. 10 Air-flow sensor. 7 Intake manifold. 3 Fuel accumulator.The Schematic diagram of the K-Jetronic system with closed-loop lambda control (with electronic control unit) 1 Fuel tank. 14 Ignition distributor. 18 Ignition and starting switch. 8 Cold-start valve. 19 Battery. 9 Fuel distributor. 11 Timing valve. 6 Injection valve. 15 Auxiliary-air device. 4 Fuel filter. 16 Throttle-valve switch. 5 Warm-up regulator.

10 Air-flow sensor. 15 Ignition distributor. 5 Cold-start valve. 17 Throttle-valve switch. 18 Control unit. 12 Lambda sensor. 16 Auxiliary-air device. 2 Electric fuel pump. . 7 Intake manifold. 13 Thermotime switch. 6 Fuel-injection valve. 9 Fuel distributor. 5 Primary-pressure regulator.The Schematic diagram of a KE-Jetronic system with lambda closed-loop control. 11 Electro-hydraulic pressure actuator. 3 Fuel accumulator. 20 Battery. 14 Engine-temperature sensor. 19 Ignition and starting switch. 1 Fuel tank. 4 Fuel filter.

Principle of the L-Jetronic (simplified) .

2 Electric fuel pump. 14 Ignition distributor. . 13 Engine-temperature sensor.A Schematic diagram of an L-Jetronic system with lambda closed-loop control. 15 Auxiliary-air device. 12 Thermo-time switch. 6 Fuel rail and pressure regulator. 7 Intake manifold. 11 Lambda sensor. 3 Fuel filter. 4 ECU. 16 Battery. 5 Injection valve.17 Ignition and starting switch. 10 Air-flow sensor. 8 Cold-start valve. 9 Throttle-valve switch. 1 Fuel tank.

. 24 Pressure differential sensor. 1 Carbon canister. 22 Diagnosis interface. 19 Engine-speed sensor. 6 Pressure actuator. 20 Engine-temperature sensor. 4 Fuel-pressure regulator. 7 Ignition coil. 10 Secondary-air valve. 9 Secondary-air pump. 12 Control unit (ECU). 25 Electric fuel pump. 5 Injector. 3 Canister-purge valve. 11 Air-mass meter. 15 Air-temperature sensor. 16 EGR valve. 13 Throttle-valve sensor. 21 Lambda oxygen sensor.A Schematic System diagram of Motronic MS with integrated onboard diagnostics. 8 Phase sensor. 17 Fuel filter. 2 Shutoff valve. 14 Idle actuator. 23 Diagnosis lamp. 18 Knock sensor.

Motronic block diagram .

THE STRATIFIED-CHARGE ENGINES Effect of Mean Effective Pressure and Fuel Consumption on coefficient of air excess at constant speed SFC: Specific Fuel Consumption. MEP: Main Effective Pressure .

Influence of air ratio on exhaust emissions .

The Russian Gaz-52 stratified-charge spark-ignition engine The cylinders are fed with two separate carburetted mixture streams through separate inlet valves. while a small quantity of rich mixture is fed through the small inlet valve into the pre-combustion chamber . The main inlet valve supplies a relatively weak charge.

the rich mixture is fed into the inlet port through a separate tube. using a special carburettor or metering device having two or more throttles. The main throttle valve would function in the usual manner. One method of feeding a mixture supply of two different mixture ratios A possible solution. and a third throttle valve regulates the con-nection between the large and small metering systems .The IFP Renault-CNRS variable fuel/air ratio process. The encircled numbers illustrate the different sparking plug positions tested The IFP Renault-CNRS system. A smaller metering system supplies the rich-mixture tube through its own throttle valve. In this stratified-charge engine. controlling the main portion of the weak-mixture charge.

The Schlamann stratified-charge engine .

Honda CVCC (compound vortex controlled combustion). An alternative system is to use fuel injection into the pre-chamber. and admit either air or a weak carburetted mixture to the main chamber . pre-chamber stratified charge engines In the Honda engine a valve controls the supply of a rich carburetted mixture to the pre-chamber. while the main inlet valve controls the supply of a weak mixture to the main part of the combustion chamber.

Texaco controlled combustion system TCSS. single-chamber stratified charge engine .

right under the spark plug tip. which is aimed to strengthen the air motion generated by the Upright Straight Intake Port and also to lead a concentrated fuel spray) Detail of curved top piston . (A strong down-flow is generated along the intake cylinder liner during the intake stroke) 2) High pressure fuel injection pump. (The top land configuration is modi-fied to provide a cavity.The GDI consists of the following four basic features 1) Upright straight intake ports. (A swash type axial plunger pump for high volumetric efficiency is used for the high pressure fuel injection which provides high pressure fuel directly injected into the cylinder) High pressure swirl injector 3) High pressure swirl injector. (An electro-magnetic injec-tor was developed to achieve accurate and precise control of injection quantity and timing) 4) Curved lop piston.

just prior to ignition. and controls the injection tim-ing carefully according to the operation range to achieve combustion in the ultra-lean range.GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) Engine Stratified combustion injects fuel on the compression stroke. . Homogenous combustion injects fuel on intake as in a conventional engine. The GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine injects the fuel directly into the cylinder. making for high economy but low power.

less cylinder-tocylinder variation in the air-fuel ratio and lower operating BSFC values . fuel is injected into the intake port of each cylinder.Comparison of the PFI and GDI mixture preparation systems In the PFI engine. and there is an associated time lag between the injection event and the induction of the fuel and air into the cylinder The GDI engine offers the potential for leaner combustion.

Comparison of the fuel quantity required to start GDI and PFI engines at different ambient temperatures .

depending on test cycle) resulting from: -less pumping loss (unthrottled. -increased volumetric efficiency. -higher compression ratio. -less heat losses (unthrottled. 5) Selective emissions advantages. -Enhanced potential for system optimization. emissions. -reduced CO. 2) Improved transient response: -less acceleration-enrichment required (no manifold film). 3) More precise air-fuel ratio control. 4) Extended EGR tolerance limit. -fuel cut-off during vehicle deceleration (no manifold film). stratified mode). -reduced cold-start UBHC emissions. . stratified mode).The theoretical advantages of the GDI engine over the contemporary PFI engine are summarized as follows 1) Improved fuel economy (up to 25% potential improve-ment. -more rapid starting. -less cold-start over-fueling required. -lower octane requirement.

6) high local NOx . 9) three-way catalysis cannot be utilized to full advantage. 12)increased electrical power and voltage requirements of the injectors and drivers. it does have a number of inherent problems 1) difficulty in controlling the stratified charge combustion over the required operating range.Although the GDI engine provides important potential advantages. 3) relatively high rate of formation of injector deposits and / or ignition fouling.production under part-load. 4) relatively high light-load UBHC emissions. stratified-charge operation. 8) increased particulate emissions. 11)increased rates of cylinder bore wear. 7) soot formation for high-load operation. 2) complexity of the control and injection technologies required for seamless load changes. 5) relatively high heavy-load NOx emissions. . 13)elevated fuel system pressure and fuel pump parasitic loss. 10)increased fuel system component wear due to the combi-nation of high-pressure and low fuel lubricity.

as well as injection during the intake stroke for homogeneous-charge combus-tion at full load . Fuel injection systems for full-feature GDI engines must have the capability to provide both late injection for stratified-charge combustion at part load.Typical GDI engine system layout.

(b) piston geometry.The Mitsubishi GDI Combustion System The Schematic illustration of the Mitsubishi GDI combustion system (a) fuel injection strategies. (c) the combustion mode calibration. .

The Mitsubishi GDI Combustion System The Mitsubishi GDI engine system layout .

The intake system consists of both a helical port and a straight port.1. An electronically activated SCV (swirl control valve) of the butterfly-type is located upstream of the straight port. The increased width in the swirl flow direction was reported to enhance the flame propagation after the stratified mixture is ignited.Toyota GDI Combustion System Combustion chamber configuration of the Toyota GDI engine. and is positioned upstream of the spark plug. The wider zone (b) is designed to be combustion space and is effective in promoting rapid mixing. When the SCV is closed. Zone (a) of the cavity is designed to be the mixture formation area. The involute shape (c) is designed to direct the vaporized fuel towards the spark plug. The helical intake port utilizes a vari-able-valve-timingintelligent (VVT-i) cam-phasing system on the intake camshaft. These valves are driven by a DC motor so that the desired valve opening angle can be controlled according to the engine operating conditions. . the resulting swirl ratio is reported to be 2. which are fully independent.

Toyota GDI engine system. .

.Toyota GDI engine system. Detailed SCV operating map of the Toyota GDI engine.

NEODi (Nissan Ecology Oriented performance and Direct Injection) . resulting in a 20% improvement in fuel economy when compared with a baseline PFI engine that operates with a stoichiometric mixture. and a 30% reduction in cold-start UBHC (unburned hydrocarbons) emissions relative to the base-line PFI engine The engine could be operated with stable combustion using a mixture leaner than an air-fuel ratio of 40.Nissan GDI Combustion System The engine can operate in both the stratified-charge mode and the homogeneous-charge mode.

The Nissan 1. . With stratified charge combustion.8L Inline4 GDI engine system. with the aim of positioning the mixture in the vicinity of the spark plug. the fuel is injected in the compression stroke to prevent excessive diffusion of the mixture while the liquid-phase evaporates. The homogenous charge combustion process injects the fuel in the intake stroke to gain time for evaporation and mixing before ignition.

centrally mounted. Dynamometer tests of the Mercedes-Benz GDI combustion system for a range of injection pressures from 4 to 12 MPa indicate that the fuel consumption.Mercedes-Benz GDI Combustion System The Mercedes-Benz GDI combustion system has a verti-cal. UBHC emissions and COV (coefficient of variation) of IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure) are minimized at 8 MPa. fuel injector. .

and realize the optimized mixture formation over a wide range of engine load and speed . which remains the mainstream. tumble air motion attenuating the mainstream at the end of the compression stroke has the advantage of keeping the mixture stratification near the spark plug in light load. 1) In light load. 2) A wider and deeper piston cavity can trap the curved fuel spray precisely. swirl air motion enables stable and adequate mixture formation and leaner mixture operation. However.Mazda GDI Combustion System The direct gasoline injection engine can manage both fuel economy improvement and high power output by changing stratified charge operation injected in the compression stroke and homogeneous operation injected in the induction stroke. Swirl air motion. A hemispherical piston cavity coincides the mixture transportation route of the fuel spray in these air motions. is effec-tive in medium load from the point of view of mixture dispersion.