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Growth kinetics of Bacteria in Batch culture 3 4

Log cell number/ mL



Time (h) Growth curve for a bacterial population is obtained from the batch culture where the nutrient is added only once. 1) Lag phase Occurs immediately after the inoculation and is a period of adaption of cells to a new environment. Microorganism reorganizes their molecular constituents when they are transferred to a new medium. Cell mass increases but not cell number density. Pseudolag phase occurs when the inoculum is small and has low fraction of cells that are viable. This phase may prolong because of low nutrient concentration or growth factors or even the aged cells will proceed this lag phase for long. Diauxic growth is defined as the multiple lag phases occur when the medium contains more than one carbon source. This is caused by a shift in metabolic pathways in the middle of the growth cycle. 2) Exponential phase (logarithmic growth phase) Cells adjusted to the new environment starts to multiple faster and therefore both cell mass and cell number increases exponentially with time. Balanced growth comes when all the components of a cell grow at the same rate. Average composition of a single cell remains approximately constant during this phase of growth. µnet = ௑ ௗ௧ is time (h-1). ଵ ௗே µR =
ே ௗ௧ ଵ ௗ௑

net specific growth rate (h-1). Where X is the cell mass concentration (g/l), t net specific replication rate (h-1). Where N is cell number concentration.

K’d is the first order death rate constant. 4) Stationary phase The net growth rate is zero or the growth rate is equal to the death rate. Total cell mass concentration is constant. Cryptic growth occurs when the cells growth on the lysis products of the lysed cells. where Xso is the cell mass concentration at the beginning of the stationary phase. Yield coefficient: The ratio of cell growth in a system for a given substrate.kd ௗ௧ But µg = 0 in stationary phase. the cell catabolizes cellular reserves for new building blocks and for energy producing monomers. where µnet = µg . = -kd X. where kd is first order rate constant for endogenous metabolism. The exponential growth rate is first order: ௗ௑ ௗ௧ = µnet X where X = at t = 0 Integrating the above equation ௑ ln = µnet t or X = X0 ݁ µ౤౛౪ ୲ where X and X0 are cell concentration at time t and t = 0 ଡ଼బ Doubling time of cell mass: τd = Doubling time of cell number: τ'd = Balanced growth: τd = τ'd 3) Deceleration growth phase Growth decelerates due to depletion of one or more essential nutrients or the accumulation of toxic by products of growth. During that time. Unbalanced growth occurs for short duration of time due to rapid change in the environment. ௗ௑ So. 5) Death phase Cells start to die due to high concentration of toxins and depletion in nutrients. the cell composition and size will change and the τd is not equal to τ'd . Cells are metabolically active and produce secondary metabolites. They expand the energy to keep themselves alive and that energy is called maintenance energy. ୼௑ YX/S = ୼ௌ ୢ୒ ୢ୲ ୪୬ ଶ µೃ ୪୬ ଶ µ೙೐೟ . ௗ௑ = µnet X. the growth rate is independent of nutrient concentration. Endogenous metabolism: during the Stationary phase. but viable cell number decrease. Since concentration of the substrate is large in this phase. ௗ௧ Integrating the equation we get X = Xso e-kdt . = -k’d N or N = Ns e-kdt Ns is the concentration of cells at the end of stationary phase.GATE HELPLINE In Balanced growth. both the net specific growth rate determined from either cell mass or cell number would be same.

qP = β = constant. 3. qP = YP/x µg. Δܵ = Δܵassimilation into biomass + Δܵ assimilated into extracellular product + Δܵgrowth energy + Δܵmaintenance energy Maintenance coefficient: the specific rate of substrate uptake for cellular maintenance.GATE HELPLINE Where. Non growth associated products: produced during stationary phase when growth rate is zero. The specific rate of product formation is constant. [ M=- ೏ೄ ] ೏೟ ೘ ௑ Microbial products can be classified into three major categories: 1. 2. Growth associated products: produced simultaneously with the microbial growth. Mixed growth associated product: produced during the slow growth and stationary phase. qP = αµg + β . Specific rate of product formation is proportional to the specific rate of growth µg.