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Tutorial

2006

“Differential Impedance And Insertion Loss Applied To Sockets” Eric Bogatin Chief Technical Officer Synergetix

authors’ opinions and are reproduced as presented , without change. Their inclusion in this publication does not constitute an endorsement by the BiTS Workshop, the sponsors, BiTS Workshop LLC, or the authors. • There is NO copyright protection claimed by this publication or the authors. However, each presentation is the work of the authors and their respective companies: as such, it is strongly suggested that any use reflect proper acknowledgement to the appropriate source. Any questions regarding the use of any materials presented should be directed to the author/s or their companies. • The BiTS logo and ‘Burn-in & Test Socket Workshop’ are trademarks of BiTS Workshop LLC.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE • The papers in this publication comprise the proceedings of the 2006 BiTS Workshop. They reflect the

Will the system work? 2.4 For More Information Electrical Performance of Sockets in Perspective • Performance www.sometimes based on: 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 System level simulation balancing cost-performance-constraints.2 Outline Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Dr.(really hard!) A guess Because it worked in the last design Enough margin for designer to sleep at night Assuming performance is free Incorrect assumptions Information that was passed from engineer to engineer to engineer to engineer…(only one of whom might have an idea of what they want) Simulated with HyperLynx What’s important to know? 1.1 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .com © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . Eric Bogatin CTO. Synergetix Kansas City. TCOO.3 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . 2004 9 Compliance 9 Pitch 9 Cycle lifetime 9 Time between cleaning 9 Electrical – DC resistance – Hi Frequency – Signal Integrity » Bandwidth » Insertion loss » Return loss » SPICE models – Power integrity » Loop inductance Constraints: • Vendors • Corporate Culture • Compatibility: Industry.BeTheSignal. Legacy Cost: $$$.15. Is the socket “good enough?” 3. KS ericb@idinet. 2005 9 What is differential insertion loss? “It is better to uncover a little than to cover a lot” lot” . Risk Partitioning: • Pin electronics • Wiring/cabling • Loadboards • Sockets © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . How do you know before you build it and test it? © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .5 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .Francis Low © Eric Bogatin 2006 www.6 The Socket as a Component • Purpose of an interconnect: “to transport a signal from one point to another with an acceptable level of distortion” • 9 9 9 9 9 9 Z0 TD L C Insertion loss Return loss 3rd Best Alternative Specify values of model (circuit or behavioral) parameters • • Specifications based on assumptions of the rest of the system Specifications are a pre-arranged compromise.com Online Lectures Feature Articles PCD&M Monthly Signal Integrity Column: “No Myths Allowed” Master Class Workshops Resources Published by Prentice Hall. Schedule.com 9 Who cares? 9 What design features influence insertion loss? 9 What is impedance 9 What design features influence impedance? 9 What is differential impedance 9 What design features influence differential impedance 2006 Burn-in and Test Socket Workshop March 12-15. 2006 1 .BeTheSignal.

10 Two World Views Time domain view Transmitted Signals in the Frequency Domain What are signals in the frequency domain? only sine waves incident Frequency domain view incident transmitted reflected transmitted amplitude phase amplitude phase amplitude phase Up to the highest sine wave frequency that is significant © Eric Bogatin 2006 Everything you ever wanted to know about the performance of a socket is contained in the reflected and transmitted signals © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . • Insertion loss has significance if the end use environment is 50 Ohms S21 is dominated by how the impedance of the socket matches the impedance of the test environment! © Eric Bogatin 2006 • Also called: 9 Insertion loss 9 S21 9 Transfer function There is a magnitude and a phase at each frequency © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .15.11 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . 2006 2 . © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .7 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .12 Terminology incident transmitted incident Source impedance = 50 Ohms Most Important Caveat Termination impedance = 50 Ohms What’s important: Vtransmitted Vincident transmitted at each frequency • The source impedance and the load impedance when defining S21 is always 50 Ohms.9 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .8 Is this acceptable? Universally used metric to define “goodness” of a socket: -1 dB insertion loss bandwidth Sometimes the frequency domain offers an easier path to the answer No new information in the frequency domain The only reason we’d ever leave the time domain to go to the frequency domain: To get to the answer faster.

16 What Affects Insertion Loss of a Socket? 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 • freq.7 0.5 0.9 0. GHz -1 dB = 90% transmitted signal amplitude -2 dB = 80% transmitted signal amplitude -3 dB = 70% transmitted signal amplitude © Eric Bogatin 2006 • A better approach (and much more expensive): 9 Model and simulate © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .17 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .7 0. Controlled impedance 3.0 0.0 0.1 0. Matched Impedance 2.2 0.15.3 0.2 0.14 Good and Bad Insertion Loss Insertion Loss (magnitude) 1. rule of thumb for usable operating frequency Should not be used to sign off on a design 9 too approximate 9 too much margin? Too little? 9 Too many assumptions good bad 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Insertion Loss (magnitude) 0.15 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .0 Is this good? Is it good enough? 1.8 0.8 0. GHz Simulated with Agilent ADS • Multiple approximations: 9 Bandwidth of the signal 9 Is the system a 50 Ohm system? 9 Total system budget 9 Allocation to the socket • Is there a difference between 9 good 9 good enough 9 better ? freq.5 0.18 Labeling the Conductors The Signal Vsignal Signal path V Signal path Vin Return path GROUND V Return path GROUND © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .3 0.1 0.9 0. DC contact resistance The Simplest Model of a Transmission Line Microstrip A "-1" order model: Any two conductors with length Length Lead frame of an IC Package © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .13 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .4 0.4 The Value of “-1 dB Insertion Loss Bandwidth” as a Metric • • • Relative comparison First pass screening Rough.6 0. Conductor loss 7. Dielectric loss 6. 2006 3 . Length 5. Discontinuities of load board 4.6 0.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .

23 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . the characteristic impedance increases increase w the capacitance per length increases. the same goes for insertion loss!) capacitance per length decreases.24 Return Path Selection Strongly Influences Single Ended Impedance Return Path Patterns Ideal. characteristic impedance decreases Z0 ~ 1 CL © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . inseparably • There is no such thing as the characteristic impedance of a single pin • Change the return path configuration.22 Characteristic Impedance and Capacitance per Length increase h w = 10 mils h = 5 mils 50 Ohm PCB cross section Most Important Features of Characteristic Impedance • Characteristic impedance is not about the signal path • Characteristic impedance is not about the return path • Characteristic impedance will depend both signal and return path. Lossless transmission lines have just Two Parameters: • Characteristic Impedance: Z0 • Time delay: TD © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .21 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .15.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . you change the characteristic impedance • (Obviously.000 miles per sec v = 12 inches/nsec v= 12 inches n sec 4 = 12 inches n sec = 6 inches n sec 2 • Signal sees an “instantaneous impedance” each step along the path • Instantaneous impedance depends on the geometry of signal and return path • A controlled impedance when instantaneous impedance is constant • One impedance that characterizes the interconnect: • Characteristic impedance © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .19 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .20 How fast does a signal move down a line? v V signal return Instantaneous Impedance Vsignal Signal path Return path ε in air: v = 186. 2006 4 .

dB -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 30Ω Total length = 0.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . GHz 0 200 freq.can be better than either one • Highest insertion loss can be much worse than either discontinuity (> 3x) freq.2 inches 80Ω Total length = 0.5 -40 -1.1)) dB(S(4.3)) dB(S(2.3)) phase(S(2.1)) -50 0 Simulated with Agilent ADS -100 -100 -5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -200 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -150 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 freq.0 Z0 = 80 Ohms Z0 = 30 Ohms Z0 = 20 Ohms freq. GHz freq. GHz phase(S(3.can be better than either one • Highest insertion loss can be much worse than either discontinuity (> 7x) © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 . Keep: 30 Ohms < Z0 < 80 Ohms and insertion loss will never be greater than -1 dB 0 3D EM sim of the pin field Simulated ideal transmission line (Z0 = 42 ohms) Return Loss 0. GHz freq. dB -1 -2 -3 -4 -60 -1. Uniform impedance interconnect 2.0 Insertion Loss.27 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . dB -1 -2 Insertion Loss. GHz • Low frequency behavior is related to ~ average impedance. 2006 5 . GHz • Low frequency behavior is related to ~ average impedance.0 Insertion Loss 0 dB(S(3.30 What if the Impedance is not Controlled? 0 0 -1 Three Impedance Discontinuities Insertion Loss.1)) -20 -0.1)) 100 phase(S(4. GHz © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .15. Match socket to 50 Ohms 3.26 Pattern 2a: current flow at 20 GHz How well do these pins look like an ideal transmission line? ret sig ret ? = Agilent ADS Momentum © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .25 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .29 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .28 All Transmission Lines with the Same Characteristic Impedance and Time Delay Behave Exactly the Same Agilent ADS Minimizing Insertion Loss Principle #1: Match Impedance to 50 Ohms 1.5 BW of the model ~ 12 GHz 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -80 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -2.3)) dB(S(1.3)) phase(S(1.2 inches -3 -4 -5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 30Ω 80Ω 30Ω 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 80Ω 30Ω freq.

125 Æ 2.5 3.31 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .15. Keep socket short (shorter is better.36 Differential and Common Signals Vdiff = V1 − V 2 Vcomm = 1 (V1 + V 2) 2 Differential Signals Differential I/O Standards Supported By Altera® Stratix® Devices 4.4 V 0.0 V 0. Conductor loss of socket not critical 7.0 HyperTransport Vdiff 0. © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .375 v into 27 Ohm load V1.4 1.3 V 0.15 V 1.3 V Comm Signal 3. Optimize (minimize) pad stack up capacitance 4.4 V 2.34 The Highest Speed Signals Are All Differential • • • • • • • Serial Data Interface (SDI): 0.25 Æ 2x Æ 3x Æ 4.uniform cross section 3.33 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .0 1.9 V 1.125 x Æ 1.0 1.488 Æ 1.35 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .062 1. Keep the impedance constant through socket • Match average impedance to 50 Ohms • Design for controlled impedance. V2 Æ 3. 2006 6 .125 Gbps/pin Gbps/pin Gbps/pin Gbps/pin V = V1 .1 V LVPECL 0.25 Gbps/pin Gbps/pin Gbps/pin What is a differential signal? Example: National Semi DS92LV010A Output swing: 1.0 3.7 V LVDS 1.3 V PCLM 3.6 V Voltage (V) Vcomm 2.125v to 1.6 V Note: There Is a Very Large Common Component Technology There is a large common voltage component! © Eric Bogatin 2006 Courtesy of ALTERA Corp.0 3.5 Æ5 Æ 6. Contact resistance of socket not critical © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . but long may be good enough) 5.2 Æ 2.4 V 1.0 V Diff Signal 0.25 2.27 HyperTransport: Fibre Channel: Serial RapidIO™: PCI Express: XAUI Proprietary (Basic) 0.V2 © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .32 Minimizing Insertion Loss Principle #2: Use a controlled impedance interconnect 7 Principles of Socket Design for Optimized Insertion Loss 1.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .9 V 0. Dielectric loss of socket not critical 6.2 V 0. match characteristic impedance of socket to 50 Ohms 2.

2006 7 . with matched time delay of both paths Differential impedance is the instantaneous impedance the difference signal sees What’ What’s differential impedance? © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . ! Very Important Principle 1 2 Optimized high speed performance for the special case: a symmetric pair.41 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . Second Trace Pegged Low Z0.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .39 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . Second Trace Pegged Low Differential Signal Odd Mode State Zdiff = 2 x Zodd © Eric Bogatin 2006 Polar Instruments SI8000 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .42 Other Line Is Tied Low Other Line Driven Opposite S in g le -E n d e d Im p e d a n c e (O h m s ) 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Edge to Edge Spacing Between the Traces (mils) Second Trace Pegged Low +1 v 58 Single-Ended Impedance (Ohms) 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Edge to Edge Spacing Between the Traces (mils) return -1 v Z0.37 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . Both Traces Driven Opposite Z0.40 What is the Impedance the Differential Signal Sees? The Differential Impedance “…It Depends” • No coupling: Z0 = single-ended characteristic impedance • With coupling: depends on how the other line is driven Z0 Z0 Zdiff = Z0 + Z0 9 Other line is tied low 9 Other line is driven opposite (differential signal) 9 Other line is driven the same (common signal) What is the impedance of each line? © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .15.38 What’s a Differential Pair Transmission Line? Answer: …..any two. coupled transmission lines (with their return paths).

48 Another way of thinking about coupling: the return current distribution Current distribution in 2. 50 Ohm microstrips.15. 2006 8 .7 mils Dk = 3.44 Pop Quiz +1 v -1 v return • If there is no coupling between the lines 9 How would we implement this? Differential mode • If each line had a single ended impedance of 50 ohms 9 What would be the differential impedance of the pair? Ans: 100 ohms If 50 ohms is the universally used single ended impedance.46 What geometry terms influence differential impedance? Re-train your intuition Z11 ~ single ended impedance to the return path As coupling dominatesdifferent intuition is needed 150 150 140 140 130 130 120 120 110 110 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 0 0 5 5 10 10 15 15 20 20 25 25 30 30 35 35 40 40 Height Height (H1) (H1) s=2w s=w Z21 Z21 ~ the relative coupling between the two signal lines Z11 Z21 ~ Z11 V2 V1 ~ induced noise on second signal line compared to the first signal line T = 0.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .8 w = 5 mils s = w.43 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .45 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . single ended case © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . 2w Zdiff Zdiff Z11 >> Z21 Z11 ~ Z21 Zdiff = 2 x (Z11 – Z21) Easy: when Z11 >> Z21: no coupling.47 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . @100 MHz s=3xw Return Current in Closely Coupled Differential pair: plane close and far Z11 >> Z21 Z11 ~ Z21 100 MHz s=w h = 20 mils Return currents overlap in the return plane Return plane plays no role Diff impedance = single ended impedance between the lines How much return current overlaps in the return plane? Ansoft 2D field solver What is Z11 ?? Z21 © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 . 100 ohms is the universally used differential impedance © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 There is: • Odd mode impedance • Differential signals Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .

s 20 25 Dielectric thickness very large 100 MHz s w = 5 mils h = 20 mils Current density scale expanded by 10x Plane to Trace Separation. h (mils) © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .52 Return Currents in Differential Pairs Single ended current in (-) pin @ 10 MHz + signal (floating) .2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .mostly cancelled out © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .signal (floating) return Return Current for Differential Signal: Pattern 1a @ 10 MHz + signal .51 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Zdiff Slide . 2006 9 .15. twisted pair.53 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .signal return X o X o X o X Small amount of residual return current.54 Single ended signal in (+) pin @ 10 MHz + signal .49 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . shielded twisted pair.signal return Most return current is carried by the plane when signal to return coupling >> signal to signal coupling Ex: most board level interconnects Mentor Graphics Hyperlynx @ 10 MHz X Most return current is carried by the other signal when signal to plane coupling << signal to signal coupling o X Magnitude of current Ex: most connectors. Planes play no role in diff impedance 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 0 5 10 15 Separation. Return current carried by adjacent trace Differential Impedance (Ohms) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 When signal to signal coupling dominates. sockets © Eric Bogatin 2006 What would 1 GHz look like? © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .50 If Signal To Signal Coupling Is Much Tighter Than Signal To Return Return current is carried by adjacent trace when the signal lines in the differential pair look like two isolated traces as part of a single ended transmission line.all return currents in planes overlap and cancel out.

mm Return current distribution.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . m m pattern 1a pattern 2a An Introduction to Differential S Parameters Very important conclusion: To 1st order.57 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . the differential impedance of a pair of pins is the single ended impedance of the pair of pins © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . as returns are moved away 100 90 80 Diff Impedance. as return is moved away s return 100 90 80 Diff Impedance.15.55 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .60 Characterizing Interconnects in Time and Frequency Domains Behavioral Models From Scattering TDT Incident Wave Transmitted Wave t TDR Wa cted Refle ve DUT • All the electrical properties of an interconnect are described by how signals scatter from it: “Scattering” or Sparameters Port 7 Port 6 Incident Incident Wave Transmitted Wave t S11 Wa cted Refle ve DUT S21 Port 2 Port 1 Port 5 Port 3 Port 4 © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .56 Differential Impedance Between the two pins. differential impedance is independent of the return path Distinct return current in return pins © Eric Bogatin 2006 Distinct return current in return pins © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .59 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . 2006 10 .58 Differential Impedance of Pattern 2a. Ohms 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Spacing to Re turn Pin.signal return When return currents overlap. Ohms 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Spacing to Return Pin. differential pattern 2a + signal .

but long may be good enough) 5.61 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .5 x (S(2. Match differential impedance of socket to 100 Ohms 2.3)) © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . Uniform impedance interconnect 2.S(4.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .62 4-Port Single-Ended S-Parameters Matrix for Differential Channel Characterization 1 3 1 3 (and their return paths!) (and their return paths!) Differential S-Parameters 2 4 = Differential Pair Port 1 (and their return paths!) Differential Pair Port 2 2 4 Sout. Keep the impedance constant through socket 3. Dielectric loss of socket not critical 6.in = Vout Vin Differential Signal port 1 Stimulus Differential Signal port 1 port 2 Common Signal port 1 port 2 Stimulus Response S11 S12 S13 S 23 S33 S 43 S14 S 24 S34 S 44 S 21 S 22 S31 S 32 S 41 S 42 Interpreting Single-Ended Measurements: S11: return loss. single ended S31= S13: near-end cross talk S41= S14: far-end cross talk Response SDD11 SDD12 SDC11 SDC12 port 2 SDD21 SCD11 SDD22 SCD12 SDC21 SCC11 SDC22 SCC12 Common Signal port 1 port 2 SCD21 SCD22 SCC21 SCC22 © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . 2006 11 . Contact resistance of socket not critical Insertion Loss. Balanced Differential Insertion Loss: SDD21 1 3 2 4 single Measure the single ended S parameters values Mathematical Transform 1 diff 2 Sdd11(2. GHz © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 March 12 .66 Minimizing Insertion Loss Principle #1: Match Differential Impedance to 100 Ohms 1. Keep: 60 Ohms < Z0 < 160 Ohms and insertion loss will never be greater than -1 dB 0 7 Principles of Socket Design for Optimized Differential Insertion Loss 1.15.1) .64 4-Port S-Parameter Matrices Single Ended Differential. dB -1 -2 -3 -4 Z0 = 160 Ohms Z0 = 60 Ohms Z0 = 40 Ohms Simulated with Agilent ADS -5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 freq.1) + S(4.1) = 0.3) . Match socket to 100 Ohms 3. Keep socket short (shorter is better. Optimize (minimize) pad stack up capacitance 4.63 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .S(2.65 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . single ended S21= S12: insertion loss. Mixed Mode. Conductor loss of socket not critical 7.

15.68 Summary • Differential impedance will proliferate • Differential impedance target is 100 ohms • -1 dB Insertion loss bandwidth is a universally used metric for socket performance • It is only a rough approximation to the end use performance • Same intuition about single ended bandwidth performance applies to differential insertion loss bandwidth performance The End Thanks for listening! © Eric Bogatin 2006 © Eric Bogatin 2006 www.com March 12 .BeTheSignal.2006 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide .67 Tutorial 2 Differential Impedance and Insertion Loss Applied to Sockets Slide . 2006 12 .

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