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REESE LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
Class
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: THE ENGINEERING NEWS PUBLISHING COMPANY.. C. E. Can. .Bridge and Structural Design BY W. NEW YORK 1905. CHASE THOMSON. Soc. Assistant Engineer Montreal. Canada. Dominion Bridge Co. M.
by The Engineering News Publishing Company.Copyright. 1905. .
of the rolling mills' handbooks. His object has been to teach the elements of bridge and structural design in a simple and practical manner. and the details carefully worked out. 17. Bridge Co. in which the stresses are analyzed. there are parts which intended principally for students and may be of interest to practicing which Art.PREFACE. 1905. Both analytical and graphical methods have been employed for obtaining stresses. This book has been developed from lectures given by the author under the auspices of the Dominion during. in which oneeighth of the web plate is counted on MONTREAL. and to treats of the design of a kneebraced mill building . But few tables are given. . as it was thought unnecessary to repeat information given in any . bridge designers.the past five years. plate as flange area. I to 14 inclusive treat of the general principles of design. Particular attention is here drawn to Art. and the one which seemed best suited for any particular subject has been adopted. and are illuwhile the remaining Articles are strated by numerous examples examples of typical structures. 19 which discusses the rivet spacing and web splices in girders. Arts. Although the book is draughtsmen. March 10. the members proportioned.
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Design for a PinConnected Pratt Truss Highway 6888 Span 14. Examples in the Computation and Compound Sections 1419 of 11. Examples Illustrating the Method Determining 20 2123 12. Design for a Warren Girder Highway Bridge 54~6i 21. 9. The Composition and Resolution Examples in Graphical Statics The Lever and Moments of Forces 23 46 78 910 1 1 6. The Complete Design of a Roof Truss for Building with Masonry or Brick Walls Capable of Withstanding Wind Pressure 2732 16. the Sizes of Beams Columns and Struts Examples Illustrating Method of Designing Columns 24 2526 15. Page Art. The Design of a Plate Girder 4249 19. 5. Radius of Gyration Formulae Relating to Beams 10. 4. 3. Shearing and Bending. . The Design of a KneeBraced Mill Building 3441 18. Definitions i 2. I. Roof Trusses Supported by Steel Columns 33 17. 7. Design for Skew Warren Girder Highway Bridge. and Struts Rivets and Riveting . 13.CONTENTS. Plate Girder with OneEighth of Web Plate Com5O~53 puted as Flange Area 20.Stresses in Beams Moment of Resistance Moment of Inertia 12 13 14 of Properties of Simple 8.6267 22. .
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000 Ibs.. as in bridges and buildings. etc. Tensile Stress or Tension occurs when two opposing forces tend to pull apart the body upon which they act. the stress will not be 80 Ibs. as in engines and other machinery.. as in the tie bars and bottom chords of a bridge. as metal. Thus. but the stress in column will be equal to but one of these forces. There can be no stress without a reaction which is always equal to the force acting on body. then the reaction of the foundation on which the column rests will also be 1. rest on top of a column.BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL Bv W. but only 40 Ibs. . C. etc. THOMSON.: 1. M.000 Ibs. each at opposite ends of a rope. Compressive Stress or Compression occurs when the opposing it. air. Force is the action of gravity. Soc. stone. and if a load of 1.000 Ibs. on the other hand. and is measured in pounds or tons. Mechanics is the study of the effect of force upon matter. and its weight is the amount of force which gravity exerts upon it. ART. DEFINITIONS. Statics is that branch of mechanics which investigates the stresses in a A body produced by forces which keep it stationary. Can.. as in the posts and . viz. body is any piece of matter. investigates forces which move the body upon which they act. CHASE DESIGN. Stress is the effect produced by equal and opposite forces. 1. steam. E. Matter is any substance whatever. however. water. Dynamics. forces acting on a body tend to compress top chords of a bridge. causing or tending to cause motion. if two men pull 40 Ibs. It is equal to only one of the forces. wind. wood.
THE COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF FORCES. and from the point lines parallel to B and B C are drawn. represent the B is the H A B. two or more forces is a single force which will combined action of those forces.2 ART. 2. and B G the vertical thrust of rafter B C. Through A and C lines are drawn parallel to the forces. Z In Fig. in other words. The horizontal lines F and A member. vertical line B is drawn equal to the load W. BC thrust. B as before equal to the load W. interresultant of The produce the same effect as the secting in the point D. 3 one rafter horizontal. or. B D and the vertical com ponent of the stress in the rafter B takes the AB is equal to the load. and the other rafter B C is D D A D stress in AB is equal to the stress in B C. is drawn vertically applied at B. If any number of forces in the same plane meet in a point as in . Then the diagonal B represents both the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces B and D A force of equal magnitude but acting in the opposite direction would balance the original forces. Fig. A gram of forces. acting through the point B. The figure is called the parallelo C B. is the stress in that the stress in B C. the three forces would be in equilibrium. and from the point lines are drawn parallel to the rafters. F the horizontal component of the The force W A B is is inclined. BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. and F D D H GE horizontal thrust of rafters which vertical thrust of rafter is the same for both. i represent both the magnitude and direction of two forces in the same plane. In Fig. In other words. parallel to the rafter B. Then W A A D D E. 2 it is required to find the components of the force represented by the load B applied at the apex of the two rafters and B C. The components of a force are the several forces which by their combined action would have the same effect as the single force. Let A B and C B in Fig. only horizontal A whole vertical load.
and if the direction of all the forces be known and the magnitude of all but two. and the principle enables one to find the stresses in all the members of a framed structure by the graphical method. however. and the the force polygon which is constructed by drawing and equal to the forces A B. 5. This is the usual and undoubtedly the best method of denoting stresses when solving them by the graphical method. The intersection of the two lines in the point e deterlines parallel . 4.000 DE The Ibs. Ibs. 5 there are five forces acting through the same point which are denoted by the letters between which they lie. is called the direction of the forces A force equal to the resultant but acting in the opposite direction in equilibrium. C D 25.. these may be found by scale from the force C 75 ^ B fig.FORCES. If would hold the other forces any number of forces in the same plane and acting through the same point are in equilibrium.000 Ibs. 4a. The closing line represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant. 5a is B C = 12. their force polygon will form a closed figure. This case is similar to the forces acting at the panel points of a bridge or roof truss. direction only of Fig. always acts towards the last force drawn. The arrow heads represent the and follow each other around the diagram. In Fig. This diagram polygon of forces. stresses AB = and and E A. .THE COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION Fig. may be found by drawing lines end to end equal and parallel to the forces as in Fig. their resultant OF. The resultant.000 are given. 5 polygon. From the point d in force polygon a line is drawn parallel to the force D E but of indefinite length another line is drawn from the point a parallel to E A. B C and C D.
The lie.000 Ibs. Finally. The total load on truss will be 20' x 10' Ibs. and from G. the stresses in rafter Bb and bottom chord From the point B on load line. the reaction of G the point of beginning. This force is laid off upwards from F to acts in the opposite direction to the loads. 6 represents a simple roof truss. mine the stresses Bb and bG. and small letters for the internal forces. The load and at each intermediate panel point 10. and E the point indicates tension. Any force acting away from 9. A ART. truss Beginning at the left hand end of handed direction. at the first panel point and deterfrom the end. and trusses spaced 10 ft. C.250 x 50 Ibs. C D.. and any force acting towards it. The span is 20 ft.000 = = 2. truss members are indicated by the letters between which they Fig. Assumed load 50 Ibs. Ibs. The end panel loads are carried directly therefore have no effect on the stresses in the and the walls. and determine the stresses in Cc and cb. 6a. concentrated by purlins. EXAMPLES IN GRAPHICAL STATICS..4 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. bG. These two lines intersect in the point b.. D E is about about 35. The next external and going around it in a right force is the reaction of the righthand support equal to onehalf as it the load on span. rafter the with Bb. and from the point b in stress diagram. by off downwards on the vertical load line. compression. at each end panel point. a line parallel with the botparallel known and two . From the point C on load line. 6a is the stress diagram. The two intersect in the point e. Capital letters are used to denote the external forces which = 10.000 Ibs. B are reaction and the load the of these Two forces. depth at centre 5 ft. A GA A forces. point. Fig. as indicated A B forces the curved B. a line is drawn are unknown. at panel points per square foot of horizontal projection. the lefthand support is laid off from G to four truss there are forces meeting in a of lefthand end at the Now. the stress in bB has just been found. Fig. Next. D E and E F are laid arrow. by truss. a line is drawn parallel to the rafter Cc. At the apex . tom chord bG. the load BC is known and the stresses in Cc and cb unknown. 3. onehalf of this consist of loads and the reactions of the end supports .500 4 amount = 1. centre to centre.000 Ibs. mines the magnitude of the forces D E and E A. a line parallel to the strut cb.
and carefully done the stress diagram will form a closed figure. and the force Dd acts towards it. the is member : is in compression. a line parallel to dc. it necessary to observe which way the stresses act in the stress diagram. It is unnecessary to proceed any further with the stress diagram. In going around any panel point in the direction in which the external forces have been taken (in this case from left to right) if a force in the stress diagram acts towards the panel point. going around the point from left to right. and therefore cC is . it will be seen that cC acts towards the point. The next force dc acts away from the point. in tension. For ex compression the load C D acts towards the point. the stress in rafter ample At the apex of rafters. the stresses in Dd the point on load line. as the stresses in the righthand end of truss will evidently be the same as those in the lefthand end. and from the point c in stress diagram. The two intersect in the point d and determine the stresses in Dd and dc. and so the stress dc is tension. and observing the direction of the forces in the stress diagram. but to test the accuracy of the work if it is the work has been sometimes advisable to go through the whole truss. a line is drawn parallel to Dd.EXAMPLES IN GRAPHICAL STA TTCS. Now to know whether a member is in compression or tension. and if away from it. of rafters there are now two unknown forces. The external forces and stresses are shown on the truss diagram. . From D and dc.
Beginning at the lefthand end of truss. the panel load 2. the loads A to are laid off H on the load I A 7a downwards.. 8a. and c b. A very nice method of solving this problem is to change some of the web members temporarily as in Fig. proceeded with. 7 is an example. BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. socalled from the name of the inventor. Cc. i. b C. as in previous example. The span is 40 ft. 8. and the polygon of forces completed for the panel point at lower end of strut b.500 Ibs. The sign (f) indicates compression. cc.. and c. and the reactions H I and the to upwards point of beginning. 6. beginning at difficulty is t same difficulty is met with. l .6 Fig. and the diagram cannot be completed when there At the lower end of strut b. left end. The stress diagram is then line in Fig. then be changed back to their original form. viz. d where there are now only two unknown forces. from which the stress diagram. the are more than two unknown. Fig. is obtained. and the sign ( ) One of the commonest forms of roof trusses is that known as the Fink Truss. c. Fig. as they have no effect on the stresses. the angle of roof with horizontal 30. The halfpanel loads at the ends have been omitted. tension. and the The web members may stress in the bottom chord member i I. where there are three unknown forces. At panel point B C a slight encountered. viz..
THE LEVER AND MOMENTS. The span is 50 The ft.250 Ibs. but it is necessary to make the stress diagram for the whole truss. that point equal to the amount of the perpendicular distance from the line of a force act on a body tending to rotate said to have a moment about the force multiplied by action of force to the said point. the depth at ends 4 ft. The rest is simple. it will be necessary to use some method for finding an extra force either at the upper or lower end of strut b. other half would be exactly the same. and end loads loads intermediate panel each. If it is 4. 7 B C may be When the truss is the present example. The load at A tends to rotate beam in a lefthanded direction about its point of support. as the points a. symmetrical and the panel loads equal. Sometimes a roof as in Fig. b. d will always lie in a straight line. truss is The stresses are required to slope in one direction only found in the same manner as before. In Fig. 9. each. ii the force F acts about the point a with a leverage equal to ab. and . common form of roof truss is shown in Fig. The span is 40 ft. c Onehalf of the stress diagram only has been constructed. a the beam supported at the point B. and the distance ab the lever arm. and at the other end 8 ft.500 Ibs. it about a certain point. if the panel lengths or the loads are unequal. centre to centre. the There may be two or more forces tending to rotate a body about same point either in the same or in the opposite direction and if the body is in equilibrium the sum of the lefthand moments must be equal to the sum of the righthand moments. There is no stress in the end panels of bottom chord oM and 5M from the vertical loads. as in no difficulty in constructing the stress c. 12 represents . THE LEVER AND MOMENTS. 10. Fig.. each. and at centre 6 ft.500 panel A 1. the depth at one end 4 ft. 2. Fig. as the but t . These members are required for lateral stability. Qa is the stress diagram which is only constructed for onehalf the truss. as is sometimes the case. After which the polygon of forces for panel point drawn. The intermediate panel loads are 2. and the end panel loads 1.250 Ibs. the are Ibs. there is diagram. each. ART. The point a is called the point of moments.
A B moments are taken E = stress in A B X lever W xC E For the stress A C Then C B moments in A B = stress WxAB A D To are taken about the point A. 15 represents a bracket on the load W side of a wall supporting a is at the point B. The principle of the lever here employed Fig.lbs.lbs.M * \vtt* arm levgf arm Mgvetar ' : Pg^^/x^wt^/X. WX lever arm CB = C BX lever arm Therefore stress in determine the reactions for a beam supported at both ends and . 17 to determine the stresses. x 10' = 30 ft. Therefore stress in AB A = D.8 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. in a righthanded direction. so the beams will remain horizontal. The moments. equal 30 ft. 13 and 14 are examples of moment tate the beam its =3 Ibs. therefore. The load at C tends to ro = = bent levers. but are x 6' opposite. and its moment 5 Ibs. Figs. Fig. A lever may either be straight or bent. For the stress in about the point C. then WX lever arm C arm in A C. but no matter what the actual length of the lever may be the true lever arm is the perpendicular distance from the line of force to the point of moments.^^^^^ FifctG fig.
000 loads tend to rotate the ft. The bending stresses cause compression on the upper side of the beam and tension on the .000 40. and the reaction of the support acting upuniformly with a load = w 1 . viz. x 17' are but ments equal opposite.SHEARING AND BENDING STRESSES IN BEAMS. For the reaction at moments are taken about B and A A divided by the span as follows : 5. moments may be taken about A. At each end there are equal and opposite forces acting on the beam. is equal to the reaction at that end. viz.000 x 10 3. onehalf of the load acting downwards. 16. it tion A. each equal to 2 These two forces tend to shear the beam. less the load on the length x .647 Iks. or cut it crosswise.000 ft. as when a plate is cut in a shearing machine. The shearing force at any point. 5. but sum of the reactions must be equal to the sum of the loads.lbs.ooox 2 2.000 113. only necessary to add together the loads. and divided by the distance centre to centre of supports. and therefore counteract each other. the point B in a leftThe with a moment ft. = To as the is obtain the reaction B. B. f. shear at x = w 2 1 w x.000 + 4. distant x from one end.000 49.17' = 6. : beam is subjected to two kinds of stress. Fig. SHEARING AND BENDING STRESSES IN BEAMS.000 14.000 the about the B to rotate beam in a tends point righthanded direc beam about A tion with a 1 13.647 5. Fig. so there is no resultant moment at the support B. ART. and subtract the reacThe result will be the reaction B. 17 represents a beam loaded and bending.000 + 2. thus 6.lbs. Shearing The shearing stress tends to cause the particles of the beam to slide by one another in a vertical plane. or. wards. moments of : all the loads are taken about one support. there are four loads placed Example On the beam as shown.647 Ibs.500 = 7>853 : reaction B. loaded in g any manner.000 + 3.500 x = = = 14= 10.lbs. A loaded w per lineal foot.. The reaction at of direction hand 113. moment These mo6.000 x 7 4.
21. any point distant x' from support. Fig. Shear is al fixed end. ^r~. .. Moment Ma*. T*" from ffw ?nd 1  ^5 free end. Max. Shear D*iagram. is^ . Bam momnt Momcrf a load VI suppotted and at olher end. wed end. Moment at any point distant jt The curve is a parabola with vertex a Fid. and per lineal foot. and Max. Shear at u>. t9fc. isal fixed any point cTtatanl nd.idS. Moment s Diagram. 19. Moment Diagram.2o. . Max. is The curve a parabola *ith vertex at cento. Moment \s at Moment at ^ centre. al f .. Fig. any point distant x from free end. Moment is at centre. FiA2ia.o. Fig. support.2i&. Shear Diagram. Max. Shear at any poirtf VI. Fig.10 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. ^w Shear at centre . VYl x from toad Htx Fig. Moment Diagram. Shear Diagram. Shear at any point distant % from . W a Fig 2ol. fid d\ O oe end.ifx _^_ X  Fi. . shear at ends ^*.. Beam carrying a toad supported and to fixed al one end. ^ Fi$.momnt al Diagram. Beam supported at bof* end. an* carnlna concentrated load at centre.2* *. Beam suppotted at both ends and carrying a uniform load UP per lineal foot.* *$?: Moment at any point x between end and Shear Dfeg< cenfte. Max.
MOMENT OF RESISTANCE. 18. Bending moments and shears Figs. n y= stress per square inch on fibres at distance of y axis. y = distance in inches from neutral axis to any fibre. lower all 11 side. Then n = stress per square inch on fibres at distance of one inch from neutral axis. and the intermediate ones proportion to their distance from the axis. for various cases are illustrated in ART. in a solid beam.MOMENT OF RESISTANCE. 23. is is the moment of all the The following of resistance of a a general method for determining the of : moment beam In Fig. 22. 22 The moment fibre stresses of resistance of a /eam about the neutral axis. and the beam will assume a curved form as in Fig. The extreme outer in direct fibres are stressed most. it is resisted by the . of fibres at distance of y from neutral n yA = )y moment of stress on an element of fibres at distance of y from neutral axis. 19. 6. = distance in inches from neutral axis to outer fibres. entire section. f any section stress per square inch =a small or elementary area. 20 and 21. resisted In the case of an open girder the bending moment is by the flanges but. When a beam is loaded transversely. from neutral n f x y A = stress on an element axis. the fibres on one side of the neutral axis are compressed and those on the other side extended. . Fig. while the fibres in the neutral axis are neither compressed nor extended. n A = on outer fibres.
ART. the of resistance. The outer fibres only of a beam receive the maximum stress per square inch. To be exact. 7. MOMENT OF INERTIA. then M= I = moment of resistance. For the moment its centre of gravity. Each area should be multiplied by the square of its distance from the neutral axis. 6. or n n The factor ( 2> y A) 2 is called the moment of inertia and is repre sented by I. It is obtained by multiplying: each elementary area by the square of its distance from the neutral axis and taking: the sum of the products. This last below the neutral axis expression taken for all values of y both above and is the moment of stress (or moment of re sistance) of the given section. the area of the distance of its each strip calculated. moment of inertia I. the section of inertia of a rectangle about an axis through is supposed to be divided into nar . 2 Representing: (^y ^) by I. is n usually represented is The by factor ( v n ) ' of the moment of resistance R I and called the moment of correct.12 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. The section should be divided into a number of narrow strips parallel with the neutral axis. hence the more metal concentrated in the flange. is As ment stated in Art. and centre line from the neutral axis measured. for the real is moment resistance. The narrower the strips. not strictly n sometimes called the section modulus and represented by S. then the sum of these products will be the approximate moment of inertia. the moment of inertia of each strip about an axis through its own centre of gravity should be added to the last result but this is unnecessary in practice. a factor of the is mo and is represented by The following an ap proximate method for finding the moment of inertia of a beam of any section about an axis through its centre of gravity. which of resistance =Rf. the greater its resistance to bending. the more accurate will be the result. but it will always be a trifle too small.
RADIUS OF GYRATION. bh 12 is In which b = the width of beam and h = the height. plus the areas of the component parts multiplied by the squares of the distances of their centrestof gravity from the neutral axis of the whole figure. if the toial area could be concentrated and multiplied by the square of this distance. is The moment of inertia of a circle about an axis through Tfd 4 of gravity. which is usually represented by r. its thickness=A and the distance of = centre from the neutral axis of y Then inertia. 5 J row strips as > shown in Fig. . . thus I = area used The radius of gyration is principally in formulas for the strength of columns. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The length its of each strip is b. This important.RADIUS OF G YRA TION. the summation of 2 (bAy )=the approximate moment By made is I the help of the calculus.. the result would be the moment of inertia of the section about the X r 2 . 26 is I . The moment its centre The moment its 64 of inertia of a compound section about an axis centre of gravity is equal to the sum of the through inertia of the component parts about axes through their moments of own centres of gravity. the thickness of each strip can be infinitely small and therefore an exact result obtained which 3 . 8. 25. of inertia of a triangle about an axis through its centre of gravity and parallel with the base. and therefore r= \ area same axis . ART. is the distance from the neutral axis through the centre of gravity of a section to a point where. 24. The radius of gyration.
375 9.5" 30".375 4. 2. i.5" 1. 7 and 8. section. 9." = = . the section modulus. Moments. S. Then M= Rf. It is divided into two = follows . are here set forth more concisely. R moment of resistance. EXAMPLES IN THE COMPUTATION OF PROPERTIES OF SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SECTIONS. 10. 6. The student should familiarize himself with the formulae as they will M= f be referred to frequently in the following pages bending moment in inchpounds.. The following notation and relations between bending moments and the various properties of beams.000 9. FORMULAE RELATING TO BEAMS.x 3. : = = = I moment A n r = area of = distance from centre of gravity of section to extreme outer = radius of gyration. and one 3" X .5". fibres.5" . ART. which have already been treated of in Arts. . moments of the areas are taken about the back of the shorter leg as = ^ angle. S Levers.14 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.0 x 25" 3. ART. Areas. stress per square inch on outer fibres. Fig. To find the position of the axis ab through the center of gravity. of inertia about axis through centre of gravity of section.7 represents a 6 X 3^ X rectangles: one 6" X .
03 D" 2 1. and divided by the area as before.5") = bh 3 12 3.5 1. Areas.83'= ab 2. which : the distance from the back of of inertia about axis longer leg to the axi^ cd.59 392 = 423.45 = 2.375 *.59 */ 16.COMPUTATION OF PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS.75 300 375 is 45 D" Then 375 f 4.00 I for rectangle (a"X .5 = . Then dividing the total moment by the total area.25" . .5X6 12 tj ab X .92.= 4. The moment of inertia. . Levere.02 =16. The will be computed as follows I for rectangle (6" moment .54 5.0 = ^X X I 3 . ft]Vcfdf Wa^e * 7* ^ Fig.5" X 1. 28 . rab = * /T~ = *// 16. : For the position of the axis cd moments are taken about the back of the longer flange.08".2 = Moments.59 A . moment of resistance and radius of gyra tion about axis cd are found similarly. the distance of the centre of gravity from the point of moments is obtained thus 9.5") = bh 3 12 = 12 .833".Q2 3 = = = 9.
875* =496.99.area of triangles into square of distance from axis=3.area of triangles into square of distance from axis 2 For 4 3. Fig.00 of 2 rectangles 3.16 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.25^ ^ ^ For 4 triangles ^ lcd= =4! )= 2.33 It is seldom necessary to work out the properties of angles. Its moment of inertia about the axis ab is equal to that of the circumscribing rectangle.25x21. 14 / bh 8 .15x1. etc.99 I #/= 42. of beam MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT AXIS 06. 2088.02 X 1 1 O39 = 428.52X2. R cd 1 I n 42. channels.56 AXIS cd.33 S Q.99 _ = . 2333 bh 8 bh MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT For circumscribing rectangle 7x24 Icd= For 2 rectangles 3. 25x21.716"= 141.25 X .25X542 3 \  36 3. less the moment Area Area Area of inertia of the voids about the same axis.in. 52 / )= 8 . A =1. For circumscribing rectangle 7 X 2 4 !&= \ab= bh 3 bh 8 = 7X24 3 3 \ = 8064.01 42.=2! 3 /2i.36 . beams. 28 represents a 24" I at 80 Ibs.4i7 20.52 = 144.00.28. 15 3.02 I 2088. 716x3. 24X7 3  = 1=124.25" X 22..07 / 2 \ 36 36 2 f.542 of 4 triangles 3. as they are to be found in the hand books published by the rolling mills companies. 95 5975 98 . oo For 2 rectangles 3.67 23.= 42.716 /3. = 643.25x21.02 =174.99 35 12. 1 Area of rectangle 7" X 24" = 68.25X542 542x3. 25 \ area of rectangles into square of distance from axis 141.24 686.716 f = .00 3  . H 23. 3.25X542 triangles Ia&= bh 3 =41 / 3. 7i6 ~ =2 \ j=5547Oi V 36 j.
50 6.92".22 44.80" X o X775 = ~ o 93 93 Totals 93 then = 2. They will : be referred to again in the following pages Area 5.89 4.90 96.25 1.81 ra& red i. 29. 30 Fig. used principally Fig.0 23. Description of three special German for columns. 30 represents a chord section composed of two 15" one 24 [s. the simplest method is about the centre line of the channels and divide by the total area. 17.80" To find the position of the axis ab of the section.3 lab led Hob 9. 8. . $ 33lbs plate X } = = 19.25 7.50 23. thus : Areas.5 23. The result will be the distance from the centre line of channels to through the centre of gravity to take moments of the areas the axis ab.35 ii 15. Levers. which is the distance from centre line of chan 3180 nel to axis ad.COMPUTATION OF PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS. Channels Plate 19.12 2. 01 2. Moments.34 Fig.07 14.55 3.60 29.32 5.41 II.80 12. oo 31.40 1.00 Wt. The following table gives the properties beams with wide flanges. 31 .72 Red 2.
77.47 10.00" To find the position of the axis ad moments : of the areas are taken about the centre line of the webs thus Areas Levers Web plates and angles Cover plates 34" X 12 a" o 8.28 1^=2301. 107447 31. I for 24X % plate about its centre of gravity = bh = .15". 8X9.i5"[s@33lbsabouttheircentreofgravity(fromCarnegie)= 2x312.6 =625.2o Ifor2. I for 24XJ4 plate about its center of gravity = bh s = 24X5* = = .92 =i68.oX483 =28o. 15 [s@33lbs about their centre of gravity(fromCarnegie)= their centre of Area of channels into square of distance of gravity from axis =19.42 n =103.29 =1708.1.46 I fora.00 =18.28 = 191.80 o""^ 5 Si '  MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT 8 AXIS cd. Fig.25 Area of plate into square from axis ab of distance of its centre of gravity 8 i2.00 2 web plates i6X}4 =16. Rr</ = I = 2301. MOMENT OP INERTIA ABOUT AXIS ab.00 16.00 4 angles 6X3>X^ 46. .8oX2.82 1074. 82 2301.28. 31 represents a chord section 1 composed of cover plate 24 X ^ =12.5x24' = 2x8. I R ab I = 1074.23= s 576.20 Area of channels into square gravity from axis of distance of their centre of 8 =i9.47.18 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.47 00=1074. the distance from centre line of web plates 46 to axis ab.25 X = = Moments o 99 99 Totals 46" which is 99 then = 2.
25 n I =270. MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT I AXIS L 8 .37 4. = 5.88 3249. R cd= / I = 3249.25 8 .96 gravity from axis Area of upper angles into square of distance of their centre of 2 9oX377 127.oX933 =i5 6 6.25.00 4X425 plates into square of distance of their centre of 2 =i6.i6x> cover plate about us centre of gravity= bh 8 I for I for web plates about their centre of gravity= .25 =io89.77 12 3249.6X3>X> of angles about their centre of gravity (from 17. I <:</= 3249.=24X .0x8..47 I 1^=1642.i6x Y* cover plate about its centre of gravity = bh =  5X24 8 8 = = = 576.15 =161.COMPUTATION OF PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS.00 I for I for web plates about their centre of gravity = bh = 8 I6X5 .ox8.10*= 446. for 24XK 2.47.92 gravity from axis Area of lower angles into square of distance of their center of 9.0X6. for 24XK 2.36 centre of grav =12.25 .81.0X2. I Rad= _n / = 1642.= IXI6 bh 3 5* 8 =*5 = = 341.15*= 73. MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT I AXIS 06.12 gravity from axis = = = 1642. The location of centre of gravity of angles is 19 obtained from Carnegie.34 46X3^XK angles about their centre of gravity (from Carnegie) Area of cover plate into square of distance of =4X16.52 ity from axis Area of web plates into square of distance of their centre of =16. 16.oo gravity from axis of of their centre Area of angles into square of distance Carnegie) = Area web gravity from axis =i8.98.07*= 586.59 its 66.47 10.
30.000 8 ft. Ibs. 432.000 inchlbs. span. 35 represents a per foot. inchlbs. Fi 36 Fig:.000 LBS.000 360.000 be found that a 10" I ance (or section modulus) of 24. per lineal foot. R= M= f 30.000 = R = 15. 11. . 36.lbs.000 24. R=36. ft.000 inchlbs. 10 ft.5 Ibs. 34 represents a beam of 2Oft. projecting: 12 and loaded with a uniform load M 500XI2 12 4 ft.000 inchlbs.4.000 M = is . IN. 2 = 36. M = ft.= 30.000X12=360. with a uniform load of 600 Ibs.8. EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE METHOD OF DETERMINING THE SIZES OF BEAMS REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS CASES. 75. case requires a 15" of 20 ft. Fig:. ART. negfie.000 Ibs.000 X 12 360. Fig. THE MAXIMUM FIBRE STRESS NOT TO EXCEED 15. 600 X2O M = .000 28.lbs.000 Ibs. with a centre load of 15. PER SQ.000X20 = 75. from a wall.000 Fig:. from point of support.8 15. 2 beam span. of 500 Ibs.000 X 10 30.000 X 12 =900. R=6o. 33 represents a cantilever beam.000 3. I @ 45 = Ibs. This case requires a 12" I @ 31. 32 represents a cantilever beam with a concentrated load of = 3.lbs. it will @ 25 Ibs has a moment of This is resist the beam required.000 ft. 15.000 X 12 = 432. Turning: to the table of Ibeams in Car 15.20 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.
by bending or by both short column will sustain a greater load than a long one of the same section. more than one with hinged (or pin) ends. ft. Columns are usually divi A column or combined. 612. at A. ThenM = 6. A . Floor beams and stringers in buildings are usually stayed at much closer intervals. X 12 n' 3.000 = 40.9.38 of 3. as indicated by curved arrows.000 Ibs. and a column with fixed (or square) ends.600 15. point of tending: to cause rotation in a right handed direction. 12. = reaction at A. COLUMNS AND STRUTS.8.OOO =24.000^20=6. 37 Fig.000 This requires a 10 I @ 25 Ibs.550 Ibs. then 131. I @ 42 Ibs.000 36 represents a beam of 20 ft. about the same point tending to cause rotation in a left handed direction. moments are taken about B. R=24. load. The maximum bending. ft. For the reaction 4. 15. 21 R = 36o. R= R = 58.000 X 9=63.COLUMNS AND STRUTS. This No beam should be used where the span exceeds twenty times the width of the flange unless supported laterally. strut may fail by crushing.000 7.000 Ibs. and the load n Fig.000 Ibs.050 X case requires a 15" = 612. ooo ft.moment will be under the The reaction A acts with a lever arm about this 7.4. span loaded unevenly as shown.050 51. acts with a lever arm of 7 ft. ART.lbs. X/= 51.000 X 5=20.000X16=48.000 131.lbs. thus 3.600 inchlbs. either by other beams framing into them or directly by the floor. Fig.550 Ibs.
whether square or pin. 38 and 39. For convenience. and radius of gyration so some section must be found to be too small or too large it will be necits . 37. and the condition of its ends. its radius of gyration. 1 following table. = = = formula to reduce it to inches. and r the length is taken in feet. feet. P = permissible compression per square inch for umns.000 Ibs. The work is greatly simplified by using the 12. they will bend as shown.000 r 2 In which = permissible compression per square inch for crushing. which is reduced for each special case. F 1 direct col in r least in To find the permissible stress per square inch for a column it is necessary to know if assumed. RANKINE'S FORMULA.. For square ends P= g 36. but Rankine's (or Gordon's) is the one in most general use. and is multiplied by the factor 12 in the essary to try another. in which F length of column in least radius of gyration in inches. for direct crushing is assumed. depending on the length of column. When overloaded.000 r F One pin and one square end P= I 24. . = radius of gyration inches. There are several formulas for proportioning columns. and agrees ded into three In it.000 r* F Both pin ends P= 2 I 18. as illustrated in Figs.22 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. a certain permissible unit stress closely with experiments. = length inches. classes.
COLUMNS AND STRUTS. SQ. INCH FOR COLUMNS Pin Ends REDUCED BY RANKINE'S FORMULA Pin and Square Ends Square Ends I2OOO I2OOO I2OOOO 36000 1 r* 24000 r' 18000 . PERMISSIBLE COMPRESSION PER 12.000 LBS.
9X2=133.oooX = = foundation. which is an error on the safe side and compensates to a cer the factor F= 12. reduced for pin ends by Rankine's formula. ART.000 Ibs. inch be the per square permissible stress for any other value of when 12.000 square inch is the permissible stress when the factor F 15.) (Carnegie) 2 @ 15 Ibs. (for 6^X5^ = I. A Unit column 20 long stress. 13.000.92 15.io"[s. tain extent for eccentric loading and any slight unevenness in the The end sections of top chords in pinconnected bridges are usually figured as "square and pin end" columns.90 144. is required to support a load of 150.000 F (say 15. Fig. Columns in building are usually figured as though they had pin ends.00 (Table Art.000). for example: 10. 8. These rules are not always adhered to and one must be guided by the specification under which the structure is to be designed. per 12. i o) n.92 square inches. For the I least radius of gyration ab=(ior 2.oi /"T <\ lab = * A/ 15.000. The same table If may be used Ibs.81 = 302 . 40 represents a i trial section consisting of I : 6^X5^ XYs 10" [s @ 23.3 : Ibs.80 See table Art.000 Ibs. See Carnegie) 66. The posts are usually figured as "pin end" columns whether connected by pins or otherwise. ft. then io. 12. 10.. and the intermediate sections as square end columns. = 7.24 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.500 Ibs. EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING METHOD OP DESIGNING COLUMNS AND STRUTS.
inches required.28 Thus the least radius of gyration = 3.00 11. Area into sq.8 sq. The radius of gyration The column should be made of Ibs.9. The value corresponding Then to this in table 5. and = r 1 20 3. is required to sustain a load of 45. r is = = 11. 1.50 cd = / " I V ~T A = /I72.. of dist. Ibs. = The area gyration is of an 8 sJ X TV 16 134 I is 8.92 ' = 172. suitable for the purpose.25 The value corresponding to this this in table (Art. Art. in. 12) is 8. ins. get in enough of a smaller size for lack of space. The trial section is slightly too small.02 = 6. f ". f ". See Carnegie) I. very light members to avoid cutting out too much secRivets larger than J are only used when it is impossible to tion. g.900 = the same.6 sq. The area of a 6J x 5^ x 1 and the least radius of gyration. = RIVETS AND RIVETING. long Ibs. 7 2 = 122.90 cd (for 6>6X5>6 of [s. ins.io"[s about c.500 Ibs. ins. per sq. used only in .25". 10). Then 16.000 f to this in table (Art. of their e. inches Columns sustaining comparatively light loads are frequently made of a single Ibeam with wide flanges (see table.g.630 Ibs.92X3.02".00 " A/ 15. r = X 1 16 =12. }" and most general use are J and f The smaller ones are .630 x 8.000 I is 7.0 sq. Therefore the capacity of column is 5.900. per sq.6 sq. but it is only necessary to use heavier channels of 8. 10) = (for 2.000 reduced for pin ends by Rankine's formula. will remain practically the Ibs. 16^ X 5^ X Y* I @ 23. in.190 x 7.00 3. r 2.6. 12) is 5. Sizes of Rivets used in structural steel i".RIVETS AND RIVETING.30X2= 4. which is too small.76 sq.0 sq.. 43.. same size. ins 36.3 2 IO"[S @ 20 = = 7. I 2$ 44. A column 16 ft.34". 14. The least radius of 1. The value corresponding 150.8. Therefore this beam ART.60 from ^=8. is 5.330 Ibs. See table Art.76 18. Unit stress 12.190 Ibs. Those in work are J". 1.
Thus the shearing value of a j" rivet at 7. for f rivets.000 Ibs. and generally should not exceed six inches. shear and 12.000 Ibs. per square inch shear and 15. . Rivets may fail by shearing. In railway work 7.4418 square inches x 7. Strength of Rivets. In tension members.500 Ibs. per square inch = . In compression members. Thus the bearing value of a  rivet on a f" plate at 15. =3. and i ins. rivets should not be further apart than sixteen times the thickness of the outside plates. = 4. that be . multiplied by the permissible bearing per square inch. The distance center to center of rivets should not be less than three times their diameter. and reamed after assembling to 116" larger than rivet.500 Ibs. allowance being made for holes \" larger than rivets. Shearing and Bearing Value of Rivets. Holes cannot be punched in metal of greater thickness than diameter of rivet. Size of Rivet Holes. in line of stress. stress rivets in this 9. In compression members no allowance need be made for rivet holes. In ordinary work the holes are punched 116" larger than rivet. shear and 15. Generally it is not considered good practice to use rivets in tension. but in more particular work they are punched about J" smaller. Permissible Unit Stresses. Ibs. 7.500 Ibs. the area of the rivet holes is deducted from the gross area.310 equal to the diameter of the rivet multiplied by the thickness of metal on which it bears. The distance from centre of rivet to end of member should not be less than one and onehalf times the diameter of rivet or generally I \ ins. and in this case they must be drilled. bearing for field rivets.000 Ibs per square inch f x f x 15. per square inch for bearing are usually allowed for shop driven rivets and for field rivets.000 bearing. Rivets may be either in single or double shear.26 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.000 Ibs. The shearing value of a . Spacing of Rivets. per square inch bearing are the usual unit stresses for shop rivets and 6. but it is sometimes unavoidable to use way.000 In buildings and highway bridges per square inch for shear and 18.000 Ibs. as their strength in this direction is in somewhat uncertain on account of the initial them from cooling.220 Ibs. rivet is equal to the area of its cross section multiplied by the permissible shear per square inch. by crushing (or bearing) or by tension on the heads. for J rivets.500 = Ibs. is The bearing value Ibs. In this first case the joint could fail by the rivets shearing in one plane only.000 Ibs.
Is ill aSi 111 ** ^ ** ^ *5 5s Shop Rivets Field Rivets 00a8i S5 !S ART. WITH MASONRY OR BRICK WALLS. in bearing. in shear and 4. their bearing value is less /""N fS . When rivets are in double shear. 41 each rivet is good for 3. In Fig. THE COMPLETE DESIGN OF A ROOF TRUSS FOR BUILDING 15. 42. 27 tween the two members joined (see Fig. Pencoyd's and other handbooks. before the joint could fail in that manner.620 Ibs. as shown in Fig. in shear and 4. i' 6". Thickness of Walls. r Fig. CAPABLE OF WITHSTANDING WIND PRESSURE.220 Ibs. and so the bearing value determines the strength of the joint.620 Ibs. : Data Width Span of trusses 38' 6" centre to centre of bearings. and they would have twice the value of rivets in single shear. when rivets are in double shear. therefore the bearing value deter = mines the strength. In designing a riveted connection great care must be taken always to use the least value a rivet can have under the circumstances.. If the centre member were \" thick the bearing value of each rivet would be J x x 15. . double shear or bearing.  = whether single shear. /"""N j plane of y sSiesrinft j i/ j. 42 the rivets are each good for 3. so the shearing value governs. they would have to be sheared in two planes. In most cases. ! staaiwfc .220 Ibs. W /"~"N I.310 Ibs. 41). however.e!anto{ r l/ . *H Fig 42 than twice their shearing value. in bearing. Tables of shearing and bearing values of rivets may be found Carnegie's.310 x 2 6.000 5.THE COMPLETE DESIGN OF A ROOF TRUSS. f k /*"~"\ . In Fig. of building out to out of walls 40'. in CONVENTIONAL SIGNS FOB EIVETING IN GENERAL USE IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES.
433. = = = Purlins.3. when posbe connected by both legs. per square foot of horizontal projection. per square inch.16. when necessary to connect both legs. The required areas of the tension memtruss is The of the Fink pattern. will For intermediate purlins 6' I s @ 12. No angle smaller 2.800 * load on truss 38. 15. and connected by one leg only.850 Ibs. Total load.500 Ibs. Compression. Unit Stresses: Tension.s'Xi6'X5o Ibs.850 Ibs. and allowance made for J" holes. Rivet bearing. 12. Then suitable angles are selected from the handbooks of the rolling mills which give the areas for all standard sizes. length not to exceed 120 times least radius of gyration. per square inch.000 Ibs. angle. are all written on the diagram of truss. 7. onehalf load support only panel and. Allowance must be made for rivet holes in members subto small stress.. In the present example f " rivets be used.000 Ibs.\ x 2 x \ will be used. M 92. snow and wind 50 Ibs. reduced by Rankin's formula. Fig. including weight of trusses. The stresses. Total since the 30.800 Ibs. the rafters to be considered as columns with square ends. the area of but jected one hole need be deducted from each angle but where angles are connected by both legs it is advisable to allow for two holes in each : .000 Ibs. = 30. 43. Angles requiring more than three rivets should.700 = f 92. will be used. 6.25 For the end purlins which 7. for which R= @ and the method of constructing the stress diagram is fully described in Art. Rivet shear. per square inch. Trusses spaced 16' centres. be used.000 Ibs.400 inchlbs. which are scaled from the stress diagram Fig.28 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.lbs Span 16 . 2j x 2j x J will be the minimum. bers are obtained directly by dividing the stresses by the permissible unit stress as shown. roof covering. 15.850X16 8 = 7. M= 4. load 3. each panel load 8 3. 6" [ s 8 Ibs. will than . and rafters are divided into 8 panels. per square inch. at the centre where there are two purlins. Slope of rafters 30. and the compression web members as columns with pin ends. 3.400 = R= = 15. and. sible. ft.
Referring to diagram Fig.38 n" gross area a" area of 4 holes .89' Two 3Jfj$a]4 less 4 X 7/8 X X # Ls = % 2. splices. 1 it will be seen that " member a O ' requires 1. 433. then two less 3X2>xXLs 4* 7/8 X % many .75 In order not to make too be used for member b^O. 1. Fig.62 gross area v" area of 4 holes Jfy D "net area. the same angles will be Member d^O requires .57 .THE COMPLETE DESIGN OF A ROOF TRUSS. .51 D " net area. 43.87 1. = = 2.
44" ^3 X ^ 2 gross area area of 2 holes net area. because its radius of gyration would be much less. 1 sustain a compressive stress of 3.43. 06 D ".. The and 6.84 D " net area.940 * 2^ X 2 X # Ls " 2.4 ft.c sustains a compressive stress of 6. Rivet holes are not deducted from the area = % = compression members. Tables of radii of gyral ^ tion for books. X .300 Ibs.67 D ". the permissible stress per square inch 8.700 Ibs. area of two =8 which (in table Art.22 area of i hole . as the rivets are supposed to fill the holes completely. and its Ls are assumed. = 74 By table of compression r 43 values (Art.80". Then r = 6.84 square inches required.12 D which is more than twice the area required.040 Ibs.700 7. l One 2*/2 i less X 2 X X fa X %L= ^ = 1. of Member b. two angles are given in Carnegie's and Pencoyd's hand They are computed for the maximum and minimum thick nesses only.5 sustains a compressive stress of 27. is assumed One 2> X 2 X XL = least r = 3. with length is about 6. and the area of one 2.30 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. Member small it dd^ requires . but values for intermediate thicknesses may be interpolated with sufficient accuracy. but separated about X".22 ". 12) corresponds to a unit stress = . Member Aa length is about 5.350 required.8.40 2 X L i. Members ab and cd each and and their length its is 3. D" then 3. to straddle the connection plates at the ends. 300 r.4 .2 . and its X feet. thus: 1 f. Since the stress in this member is only requires to be connected by one flange.68 " The same angles will be used for members c^. Members bb^ and cc each require .12 = . From these tables the least radius of gyration for 1 two 2^/2 X 2 X ^ Ls as above is found to be .^/2.80 of 7.06 a" gross area " .000 Ibs. Two 2% X less 2 X " X Y^ Ls 2.2 feet (about). 12).350 Ibs. Two 3 X Ls are assumed. Two 2^2 X 2 X the longer legs back to back. and transmit the pressure from one side of the hole to the other. 1. but a single angle would be too small. with 2% ^ .
THE COMPLETE DESIGN OF A JROOF* TRUSS. .
ceeds this area.500 Ibs the bearing value at 15. each.000 * " Therefore the trial section is suitable. At the ends of truss a f " plate is used to connect the rafters with the bottom chord..580 2.500 but it ff 4. plate used (QX square inches) slightly ex member ad there is case are in single shear = a stress of 3. = = The number of rivets required in rafter and the number of rivets in bottom chord 4 rivets are = 27. but shearing value of f rivets at 7.000 = 23. 6. thus 1 f. which latter must be used. 44 is a detail drawing. the reaction at each end will be 30. The area = 2.800 x = 15400.62 " and the least r = .220 = . but the bearing value on #'' rivets are sufficient for this plate is only 2. The rivets are in double shear. the 2 x 3.1 00 = 154 square inches required 18= 162 in bear ing plate. The bottom chord spliced at panel points near centre of span.310 Ibs.580 Ibs.810 Ibs.32 the BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. and 15.520 Two rivets will do here is also.220 =7 4.95. which corresponds to a permissible unit stress of 10. Fig. The height at centre is obtained by multiplying onehalf the centre to centre span by the tangent of 30.220 Ibs. one line. Referring to table of rivet values in Carnegie or some other handbook.310 6.300 Ibs. .. distributes the The bearing plates on the walls must be large tribute the load. = area being slightly greater than that required. for square ends.400 The In f. used in the main angles of bottom chord and 2 rivets in This arrangement not only requires a smaller gus set plate than if all rivets were put in stress much better in the angles. unnecessary to consider the remaining panels of the rafters as the same angles will be used throughout. and 27.. double shear and their bearing value on TV plate l l The rivets are in Ibs. the load per square inch should not exceed 100 Ibs. 10. In member d c there is a stress of 6.620 Ibs.8.55 n required. Details. . Since the total load on truss is 30.700 Ibs. If the trusses are to rest directly enough to dison a brick wall. The rivets in this 3. its It is At the centre of the truss a small angle hanger is used to prevent the bottom chord from sagging. longer legs back to back. = 3. Then r = 95 = 5.800 Ibs. the lock angles.000 is only 4. as well as for cd dd and cc t l Two t member.
000^4. as in Art.ROOF TRUSSES SUPPORTED BY STEEL COLUMNS.240 4 rivets in bearing on 5>X^ is plate Ibs.810 Ibs. At apex of rafters there 19. 13.220 @ 2. a $6 giisset plate and the rivets are good for 4. Ibs. but the roof covering ART.220 @ 2. each. and the value of the connection 3 rivets in bearing 4 rivets In d^O the in bearing on ^6 plate on $X>< }i plate @ 4.900 Ibs. 15. The stress in dd =10.66 i.83 .oo .125 .680 Ibs. is depended on for this contingency. Although the purlins are designed for vertical loads.000 Ibs. per square foot acting in a horizontal direction against a vertical plane.240 stress = 23.810 @ 4. 16.220=5 rivets required. 8.24 ing and snow may then be taken at about 35 horizontal projection.000. = = = = 12. are set on solid brick or When roof trusses sufficient stability to masonry walls having withstand the wind pressure. COEFFICIENTS FOE WIND PBESSUBE NOEMA.220=3 rivets required. Purlins. Wind is usually taken at 30 Ibs. it is advisable to treat the wind force and the vertical loads separately.45 .95 vertical load consisting of the weight of trusses.660 11.000^4. the vertical load being assumed large enough to cover everything. then 10.L TO PLANE OF EOOF. Angle of Roof 5 00000 10 20 30 40 50 60 to 90 Coefficient The . In b^O the stress as follows: 33 is = 20. per square foot of . it is not usually customary to figure the wind stresses in the trusses separately. and the value of connection is : 2 rivets in bearing: on y& plate Ibs. But when supported by steel columns and braced thereto to resist the overturning effect of the wind. Ibs. The gusset plates at ends of truss and at apex extend above the rafters. roof cover . then 21. The stress in Dd=2i. and on sloping surfaces it is reduced by the following table of coefficients which are based on Unwin's ex periments. ROOF TRUSSES SUPPORTED BY STEEL COLUMNS. for convenience they are set normal to the rafters. If unsupported laterally they would be liable to fail through side bending.ooo.220 Ibs. By this arrangement the stresses in them are better disl tributed.000 Ibs.440 11.
" " foot of knee brace 16' = X X 30 Ibs. Wind pressure on roof = 23' X 20 Ibs. pressure normal to roof. per sq.6io Ibs. per sq.200 + 4. But the posts are more or less fixed by the dead load of roof and walls.400 * = 3. has no overturning = 16' X ' X 16' 30 Ibs. = 4. ft. fastened to posts with 3" railway spikes. same as in Art. = X 1.40' o" centre to centre of posts.700 + 1. '. Roof covered with 3" X 5" planks on edge. Its vertical component = 6.THE DESIGN OF A KNEEBEACED MILL BUILDING. also by the anchor bolts. as it knee brace. X . or of contraflexure. Trusses spaced 16' o" centre to centre. This point of no moment. per sq.850 Ibs. and its horizontal component Ibs. 30 Ibs.320) X Yz = 4.360 Ibs. assumed to be concentrated and at base of post. 925 diagram. if properly built into foundations. Horizontal wind force at top of post at top of post. AET. 15.430 Ibs. 45.200 Ibs.400 The intermediate panel loads will then be 7. 4 end loads Ibs. Height of posts 18' o" Angle of roof 30. and the as shown on panel each. ft.320 Ibs. The horizontal forces are assumed to be is resisted equally by both posts. Roof load (dead load and snow) 40 Ibs. Horizontal reaction for each post = (3. If the posts were free to rotate at their base. The resultant of the wind on roof acts at the middle point of rafter. = 7. Horizontal wind force 30 Wind Unit Ibs. Fig. stresses Wind is Stresses. ft. should never be assumed . the vertical reactions due to the horizontal forces would be obtained by taking moments of these forces about foot of posts and dividing by their distance centre to centre.. The last effect on building. each. say 7.34 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.700 Ibs. Reactions.66 20 Ibs. at foot of neglected. The wind pressure on is side of building. 17. Sides covered with 3" tongued and grooved planks. = 1 . Data : Width of building. Consequently there will be a point of no moment somewhere between base of posts and foot of knee brace. of horizontal projection. which assumption undoubtedly accurate enough for all practical purposes.
.000 Ibs.THE DESIGN OF A KNEEBRACED BUfLDING. will have a lever arm of 18" from edge of base. allowing for thread. Ibs. in. X 15. " = = 6. = each. . and of the sides at nection. Oneinch anchor bolts are assumed.800 10" 1 8" " X = = 92.200 in. which.280 Ibs. moment of resistance base = 9. the dead load on post 1 is as follows : Roof Side 6' 1 6' X X 20' 18' X X 20 10 Ibs.280 Ibs. 1 The 10 Ibs.400 2. with a base plate 20" wide. X 7. ft. of at = 7.400 233. are equivalent to It" dia.52 sq.52 sq. per sq. in. per sq.800 140. Taking the weight of roof at 20 Ibs. ft. Ibs.. Total This force is assumed to act at centre of post which is taken F\g.800 Then. 45 It will then have a lever arm 12" wide. of 10" about edge of base. higher than 35 halfway between base of post and kneebrace conexistence of a resisting: moment at foot of each post changes the vertical reactions from those determined by pure statics. The value and it one bolt will be .880 9.
Beginning at the left hand hinge. For wind stresses it is necessary to construct the stress diagram for the whole truss. a line In going parallel with aK.430 X = =+ + 3. and plotted in the stress diagram.700 1. and that aK . These external forces are external forces : The may now shown in heavy lines. which indicates tension. and following the forces in the stress diagram. The plane of contraflexure will be assumed 4 ft.010 = 50 inches. as shown.200 X X X 1975 14 73. sion. moments of these forces will be taken about the hinges. VERTICAL REACTION J K. For the vertical reactions due to horizontal wind forces. it will be observed that Aa acts towards the joint.36 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. above base. and from the point K. as shown in dotted lines.830 Ibs. distance to point of contraflexure = 2OO 2^^ 7 4. where the posts are considered to be hinged. In order to proceed with the stress diagram Stress Diagram. the external forces are taken in regular order in going around the frame in a righthanded circular direction. horizontal reaction multiplied by the distance from base of The post to point of contraflexure will be equal to the moment of resistance at base . without further figuring. and two unknown forces Aa and KL aK. which indicates that the member is in compresacts away from it. From the point A in diagram of external forces a line is drawn parallel with the member Aa. therefore.220 1.lbs. the last force LA closing the diagram. VERTICAL REACTION LA. as the stresses on opposite sides are very different.6oo Ibs. f 40' $ 6.755 ft. imaginary struts are provided.320 From Horizontal Wind forces = " = Vertical Wind forces 3. constructed as follows be laid off and the stress diagram Beginning with the force AB.430 X = + = # + 3.800 38880 128. = = = 9 4.820 z.075 16. From Horizontal Vertical Wind forces Wind forces 6. the two lines intersecting in the point a.610 + 4.220 4. around this joint in a right handed direction. there are two known forces and LA.
/. Next. the two lines intersecting in the point e lf ee^ acts away from the panel point. and from the point K. From the point e in stress diagram. From point diagram a line is drawn parallel with Dd. intersecting in the point d. and from the point with ba. at foot of knee brace.DESIGN OF A KNEEBRACED BUILpING. indicating compression. Dd acts towards and db away from it inthe panel point. a line is drawn parallel member Ee. to be removed. but the force polygon for this joint may be completed by drawing *. of such length that the point /j will be halfway between the two parallel lines drawn from the points and G. a line is drawn parallel with member ff which intersects the line drawn from the point in the point /. with From point E in stress diagram. there are now but two unknown forces ee^ and e. Dd and db. indicating compression . M stress in member H3. and ba At top of post there are it also indicating compression. F . in. The remainder of the stress diagram is quite simple and requires no further explanation. indicating that there is no l F .K. indicating At panel point EF there are three unknown forces. From the point is drawn parallel with the lefthand knee brace. indicating tension indicating compression. in dotted lines K HE DIVERSITY . the two intersecting. The imaginary struts are now supposed stress diagram corrected accordingly. in stress only two unknown forces. This force is supplied is required to complete the polygon of forces. de. indicating tension. Bb acts towards the ba. a line parallel with member the two intersecting in point e. the force K(L) line db in the point (b). . DE. The next joint to be considered is panel point . Ee acts towards the joint. a line is drawn parallel with member ee^. indicating compression acts towards it. indicating compression dicating tension. intersecting the At the foot of knee brace. and from the point b a y now D line parallel with db. Ff. and e^K also acts away from it. and //! acts away from it. a line parallel with member e^K. and the The corrections ^are shown with the points of intersection marked by letters in in stress diagram a dotted line parentheses.in the point b. Ff acts towards the panel point. At the point where the knee brace connects with the bottom chord. The point 3 happens to coincide with the point H. //! and /^. towards panel point under consideration. tension. there are 37 Bb and now but two unknown forces From the point B in stress diagram. . a line is drawn a line parallel parallel with the member Bb. and from point d. Then from the point /. dicating compression and ed towards it.
with stress diagram for vertical loads. 600 Ibs.610 Ibs. ft.38 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. stress The maximum bending moment kneebrace connection.lbs. or span. 45. Bending moment But these spans are = g = 3. If the indicating compression. is equal to the horiincreased to (J3)C.610 X is and divided by the distance from foot of knee brace 8. multiplied by the distance from hinge to foot by the is BC B of knee brace. panel a total load of 60 Ibs. or fixed at the ends.300 12. or panel points. points of maximum moment are at the ends. Loads. Ibs. X 9 ft...000 The continuous. 5 Due to Vertical 497. and is repre sented in the stress diagram by the line J(f). are uniformly distributed. and represented by the dotted line.600 8 = 3.//(/) in stress diagram. At the top of post the force resistance of post to bending. in this case. there are bending moments due In addition to direct compression in rafters.. = Load on span for simple span 5' X  16' X 60 Ibs. diagram should not close exactly at first. is the same as for lefthand post. per sq. will be assumed. which reduces the bending moment. = = 40' X 16' X 40 Ibs. = 25. from one panel point to another 5 ft. and is hinge multiplied by its = 41. ft. the sign tension.300 Ibs. The wind stresses are all figured on the truss diagram Fig. it would be better to work from both ends of truss towards the centre.880 in. to the loads which. At the foot of knee brace the horizontal force to be resisted by the bending value of the post.910 Ibs. = in the posts is at the point of equal to the horizontal reaction at distance from this point. . At 4. Ibs. Bending in Rafters. The total vertical load on truss Fig.200 Ibs. and the end panel loads = i. and those of the same kind added together. and the sign + . The horizontal length." as well as the maximum wind stresses which are " marked W. = 4. 4. there is also a horizontal force due to the B = + = moment of the horizontal force at hinge = 8.800 Ibs. The horizontal force K(L) equal to the horizontal force at hinge. 15." are shown on the truss diagram. The difference (B) zontal force at hinge. The intermediate panel loads = 25.490 Stresses ft.600 Ibs. to top of post at foot of = 4. 46 is a diagram of onehalf of the truss.610 the top of righthand post. plus  = knee brace the force (B) at top of post 8. instead of being concentrated at the panel For the bending moment in each points by purlins as in Art. The stresses due to vertical loads which are marked "V.300 Ibs.
650 Assuming I 2^ X 2 X 1 ^L = 1.6 ft.38 sq. 3 l + 1. due to the = same length but not = fixed at the ends. Then 13. 4.450 5. Then 1. Ls will be tried next. compression Max. then R= X 5.040 Ibs. Max.470 = corresponding to a unit stress of 7.which by table (Art. The knee braces must be designed for 10.100 Ibs. per sq. per sq. required..100 *. a compression stress of 4.000 Ibs.42.14 sq.56 sq. Since the total fibre stress as above Y%.650 v. per sq.8 3. of Members. % angles Assuming 2. in.77.43". This is satisfactory. 880 Ibs.75 sq.210 = double In members e f the compression = 13. required.3 ~~ = 7. area 8.000 in. 2 5' X 3 X TV angles will be assumed with the longer legs vertical. the rafters to avoid splicing. ^ = least r in.8.. in. 2 2/^2 X 2>2 X angles will be assumed. and the moment 1 39 at these points is equal to twothirds of the bend ing moment for a span of the 2.000 4.470 1. ins.42 = = 6. 2 5 X 3 5.000 ft.DESIGN OF A KNEEBRACED BUILDING. 8.62 sq.. in. area == 2. ins.900 *5 Area = is too great.690 6. In members de and fg there and their length is about 3.^/2. ins.6000 + . Then area R = 36. combination of direct compression and bending. or X X 2 with the longer Ibs. 4.8 sq. ins.6. ins.000 4.78.lbs. least r .78 = = 7.95.000 X YZ 24.72 sq. 12) corresponds to 8.350 14.7. 36. bending Area ff = 4. and The area provided is nearly . / = Ibs.210 Ibs.3. ins. . 06 sq. 3. = 7. f* R= 3. will in. = 2. ~= 8..7. ins. required. corresponding to 7.470 Ibs.470 2.6000 legs back ~^ to back. this l l amount.900 = 24. shall not exceed 12.72 24.3 r .700 Ibs. ins. and the same angles is ft. least Then = 3. per sq.lbs.430 1 1. length = 6. be used throughout Ibs. For the rafters angles must be selected Proportioning of such section that the maximum stress per sq. for pin ends.7. Members ee will be made of the same section as ^/.
40 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. Area 2. 880 Ibs. is assumed. s5 9.800 = 497.5 Ibs.26 = 36 =13. in. The posts must be designed for bending stresses as well as direct compression. Ibs. R= A 12 in. persq. 36. then f Direct compression area Bending moment * R = 20. ins. I @ 31. in. 46.250 = 9. The sections required and those provided for the tension members on are all figured diagram Fig.26 sq. .080 Ibs.830 16.
posts receive.800 Ibs. and it must be let down into the foundation far enough to develop an equal resistance. which force the building will rarely.800 *. in. is a safe value for the adhesion of cement mortar to iron. 100 Ibs. The maximum compression 41 as above is greater than that allowed but since it is nearly all due to bending from for the other members. = = . wind a maximum the are as and supported sidewise by the planking. of Anchorage for Posts.300 length of bolt required in foundation. The value one anchor bolt has been taken at 7. this unit stress is not at all excessive.. say 36 inches. It would be better to extend bolts into foundation somewhat deeper than this. and. as the circumference of a oneinch bolt is about 3 inches. the adhesion 26 inches per lineal inch will be 300 Ibs.DESIGN OF A KNEEBRACED BUILDfNG. if ever. per sq. Then 7.
The weight of wall equal to the overturning moment divided by the disits edge. per square inch. in their filled The anchor bolt in resisting the bending moment at base of post tends to overturn the wall with a bolt.. so the 7. = 140. per square inch for web plates.700 1. per cu. " " " " " rivets. = ment latter will is required tance from centre of wall to Ibs. 20. it is evident that the wall has ample * = = 5' X 2' X 150 Ibs.800 is = by its equal to the value of one distance from the further edge of base plate moment Ibs. Load.the wall. When the flanges .000 Ibs.000 " " Bearing. a break about 24 inches wide should be made at each post.000 x 50 is given by the formula. Tension. M= The w I 2 = = i. 4. This overturning moresisted. but that of the earth filling. which is the length of wall required to resist the overturning moment due to anchor bolts.000 ft.000 Size of rivets fin. partly by the weight of the wall.42 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. of gravity of flanges.500 7. X 18 ins. 5 ft. = 12 ins. 10. then 11. 15 also applies to the present example.. The bending moment at the centre 2 4. Data Length. Fig. centre to centre of bearings.400 in. The anchor bolts should then be set proper position by means of a template. 50 Depth. : Shearing. ART. The resistance of the wall is easily figured. = 11. THE DESIGN OF A PLATE GIRDER.8 ft. 7. In constructing. 18.lbs. and its depth 5 ft.around it. back to back of angles.500 Ibs.400 in.lbs.500 Ibs. 250. centre to centre. 8 8 flange stress at the centre equals the moment divided by the depth. and the space with Portland cement concrete. 15. ft.000 Ibs. apart.lbs. = 1.700 Taking the weight of masonry the weight of a section of wall one foot long at 150 Ibs. per lineal foot. As the posts are 16 ft. The width of foundation wall is assumed to be 24 inches. ft. 47 is a detail drawing showing onehalf of truss and one The general method of designing details as explained in post. stability in itself without the assistance of the earth filling. be neglected in the present case.is very indefinite and uncertain. Art. multiplied 140. and partly by the earth filling. Shearing.
and sometimes beyond that point. Figure 50 represents one half of the girder. whose vertex was at the centre.67 square inches. In Fig.000 Ibs.plates=n. In the present example. 50^ a parabola base support of beam. Having decided on the section of the bottom flange.00 Two isXA.000 = The following section will suit the case Gross Area. Two6X3/^X/^ Ls= 9.38 20.250.38 (4X X /^ = 1. quired flange area Now the flange stress at any point. Net Area. the effective depth will be 5 ft. When rivets are staggered three inches or though the holes more only one hole need be allowed for. for.000 16. : Eivet Holes.75) (4X^X^=1. In Art. and height equal to the area required at centre. To construct the parabola.11 in Allowance has been made for two holes each angle. 5 it was seen that the bending any point of a beam supported at both ends and loaded uniformly was represented by ordinates between a parabola.THE DESIGN OF A PLA TE GIRDER. al may not come exactly opposite each other.67 a the points of division lines are drawn from as the line AB. it is customary to make the top flange the same. It may then be necessary to make the top flange wider. and to figure it as a column. except in rare cases when the top flange is unsupported laterally. which is divided into is constructed with a equal panels of 5 ft. When practicable. 43 have cover plates the centre of gravity is usually near the back of the angles. also the re AD BC onehalf the span of girder. the line " is divided into the same number of equal parts 16. in bottom flange = = 250. and the net area required = f.000 f. but it is customary to assume the effective depth of such a girder as the distance back to back of angles. their will not be stagger great enough to make it allowable to deduct the area of only one hole. and the closing line connecting the points of intersection of the parabola with verticals through the points of may be represented in the same manner. As the present example will undoubtedly have cover plates.5 250. Then. the area of the angles should be equal to at least onethird of the total flange area.15. the flange stress at centre 1.52) y% 17. the top flange is supposed to be supported laterally at intervals not exceeding fifteen times its width. and AB equal to BC . Length moment at of cover plates.
44 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. 52 . SI 4r F/g.Q cenltc To cgntu of bearing^ Fig. SQ.
25 ".i8)X 25 16. 2 plate. which will the length of the plate 40 ft.67 ". and it must be thick enough to give sufficient bearing for the rivets in flange angles and end stiffeners. cover A! = area required at end of A = area required at end of 2d cover X = distance from of span to theoretical end of cover X = distance from centre of span to theoretical end of 2d cover = length of span. The angles extend the full length of the The first cover plate is required to the point E. V plate 2 (16.25+4.67 ft.67 = 12. A at ist plate. customary to extend it about one foot beyond this point. On this parabola are plotted the areas of the AB angles and cover plates. . = area required centre of span.67 + = 39. say 28 The web plate must have a sectional area great enough to resist the shear.67 7. required Adding one foot at each end will make the length of this plate 28 ft. errors. The intersections of these radial lines with the verticals through the points of division of the line are points on the parabola. The second cover plate is to the point F. Total length of 2nd plate = (12.8 ft. say 40 ft.9X2) +2'= 27. centre to centre of bearings.18 a". 51.93 = 12. its and because with it there is much less chance of In Fig.25) 2 X25 = 18.. but it is girder. A t =7.8 ft. 1 ThenX^ In the present example A A= 16. X = i2.8'X 2) (16.. Total length of ist = (i8. as shown. ist 2 plate. 45 to the point C.THE DESIGN OF A PLATE GIRDER. make The following simplicity. analytical method for determining the proper of cover length plates will give the same results as the above graphical method but the graphical method is preferable on account of . A A 2 = 7.9 ft. centre' plate. = 25 ft. ft.6 2' s 16.
000 1. lineal inch. 96.000 X 7.000 X ff = 96. web plate rivet on & Vertical shear at centre of panel = 100. any panel is equal to the vertical shear at centre of panel multiplied by its length and divided by the vertical distance centre to centre of rivets.60" Vertical load Ibs. x 2 = 100. When the load rests directly on the top or bottom flange.000 X 2. per lineal inch. Then Bearing value of one = = 2. as will be seen = = presently.000.500 Ibs.610 Ibs per lineal inch. per lineal foot 2 = 330 2 Ibs.000 Ibs..5 90.000 Ibs.000 4.6io + 33O = Ibs.750 plate = 2. i Bearing value of one required spacing As this is somewhat 3. Rivet spacing in vertical legs of top flange angles in panel ad: Vertical shear at centre of panel = 100.000 Ibs. web plate 60" X is all right for the 15 13.250 Ibs.400 = 1.000 A Ibs. lineal foot is supposed to be applied to the top flange. Resultant stress on rivets per lineal inch Ibs.3 shear.000 X = 75. 1.640 %" Then web plate will = 4.690^ 1.7. The rivets connecting the web plate with the flange angles are required to transmit the horizontal shearing stress from the web to the flanges which horizontal shear in . Then the resultant stress on rivets of loaded flange is represented by the hypothenuse of a right angled triangle in which the other two sides represent the horizonIn the present example the load of tal shear and the vertical load. = Vi .690 Ibs.000 r. but may be too thin for rivet bearing. Horizontal shear on rivets = 90. Rivet spacing in flanges.750^closer than desirable. 4.22". load on the span = 4. . required spacing 4.5 = 70.640 Rivet spacing in vertical legs of top flange angles in panel be. then 75.000 #" = The permissi ble shear per square inch 7.400:.000 Ibs.640 on rivets = 4. a yV = Y\ rivet on = 3.500 " a " required.86". the rivets connecting this flange with the web plate are also required to distribute the load. The maximum shear is at the end and 50 is equal to onehalf the Ibs.000 4. = then per . then 100. be used in this panel ^ and also in be.46 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. Horizontal shear on rivets s6o" = = 70.
except at splice.600.000 Horizontal shear on rivets = 50. = %" web plate 3.5 Ibs. then per lineal inch.420 = 16 . Required spacing: of rivets in %" web plate =3.. Since ^ the But 8 pitch should not 72" 9". In the flange plates the spacing will be 6" throughout.94". 750^.. nor should it be more than 6". rivets The ist its flange requires between end and the end the 2d flange plate to transmit to it its full proportion of the flange stress. possible In the vertical legs of angles the spacing will be 2/4" iroma to b.05' maximum plate It is unnecessary to proceed further as the should not exceed 6". longitudinal spacing = = 4. 3" = from b to d and 6" from d to /.500 Resultant stress on rivets per lineal inch 60" = 540 Ibs. .500 2 2 Ibs. then 53. Resultant stress on rivets per lineal inch =V895 2 +33O 2 = Required spacing of rivets in 1 = 950 Ibs. f^" web = 4.000 X ff = 32.000 X 17.950 shear = 4.290 = Rivet spacing in vertical legs of top flange angles in panel cd. 50.420 4.620=6. The 2d flange plate requires the same number of rivets between its end and the centre of the span 14 ft.000 X g = 53.000 X 12.65". and bottom rivet on The flanges will be made alike top spacing to in order uniform as as and simplify the template work.ooc 4.THE DESIGN OF A PLATE GIRDER.93 x 15. The distance from the end of the ist plate to the end of the 2d plate is 6 ft. and the rivets will be staggered with those in the vertical legs of flange angles. Vertical shear at centre of panel = ioo.690^ 1. = 30. The net area of the plate rivets required in Ibs.93 square inches then 4.250* + 330* = plate Required spacing. = Rivet spacing in vertical legs of top flange angles in panel de. Resultant stress on rivets per lineal inch Ibs.5 30. 32. per lineal inch. = Vertical shear at centre of panel = 100. Ibs.000 Horizontal shear on rivets f Ibs.000 = 73. .000 4. in the of lines rivets are there two plate.of rivets in 3. = its pro stress. 47 1290 = y 1.750^950 =3. spacing a of Rivets sufficient in number flange of plates. 72 inches. = V54O f33O = 620 Ibs. rivet in single ~ = = exceed 16 times the thickness of the plate. the required 72".950 The value of one f portion of the flange Then 73.600 * 60" 895 Ibs.
but as the ratio of their length to their radius of gyration is small. and the number plate for rivets staggered as shown in detail.48 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. In case of a heavy concentrated load at any point of the girder. or crimped.60 square inches be used. placed r in stiffen 5 16 will 52.000 Ibs.750 Ibs.. The end shear or reaction 100. will be used with a single line of rivets about 6" apart.690 = 21. n the of number rivets side of Then. although in double shear. The rivets are in bearing on 5 / 16 plate. In the pres ent case two 3 x 3 x \ Ls will be used. of rivets are used on side of splice adjacent to 5 The same " / 16 web Web splice symmetry and to simplify the template work. plates joint.33 square required x 3 x / Ls = 9. and 60 X ^ web plate from c to /. the intermediate stiffeners are sim.750 = = = used.000 ers. If the girder rest on a solid stone at each end. Intermediate Stiffeners. or n rivets in each pair of angles. and the number of rivets required = 100. The plates will be spliced at c and /. Four 5 as shown in Fig. the bearing pressure may be 300 Ibs.690 Ibs. The shear at this point = 60. Two 12" x J" splice plates will be 60. the bearing pressure should not exceed . each side of End Stiffeners. Fig. Web splice at c. Two 6" x J" splice at /. and thus obtain a These stiffeners and fillers should fit against the bottom Between the end stiffeners flange angles perfectly. required splice adjacent to \ web plate 16.3. ply to prevent the web from buckling. the unit stress of 12. shear from the The duty web plate to of the end stiffeners is to transfer the the abutments. then 100. per square inch may be used without reduction by formula. and are usually spaced about as far apart as the depth of girder. fillers will better fit. A 60 X y ^ web plate will be used from a to c.. There is no shear at this point.000 =. which arrangement is best suited to distribute the load over the bearing plate. and no generally accepted rule. but if it be supported on brickwork. They act as columns. 5 a Web splices.000 8.000 Ibs. There is no scientific method of proportioning them. and the web plate 3" x J" be used to avoid offsetting the angles.000 f = 4. bearing on J" plate 3. 53. The rivets. then the value of one f rivet 4. to fit over the flange angles. Bearing Plates. = = inches end 12. stiffeners should be proportioned in the same manner as the end stiffeners to carry this load and distribute it into the web plate otherwise. The value of one f rivet. per square inch.000 Ibs. have bearing on one side of the splice of only J". At the top and bottom they will be offset.
THE DESIGN OF A PLA TE GIRDER. 49 .
these will be spliced near the centre of the span as shown in Fig. PLATE GIBDEB WITH ONEEIGHTH OF WEB PLATE COMPUTED AS FLANGE ABEA.25 = = = = square inches. = 15. which The latter are in double shear and may be counted as 8 rivets. 9 Here.500 15.93 square inches.750 25 rivets required.50 ioo will f BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. on then 73. In the present case. This is . it may be necessary to splice the angles and the first cover plate. In addition to this.000 Ibs. but will readily be understood that it is useless to use more rivets in a splice plate than are required to develop its full strength. area = 336 square inches. the vertical legs of the angles are covered by two 3 x 9 / 16 flats of net area 2. The net area of 4. 17 required The drawing shows 18 rivets.420 = X 108.420 x 8 35.750 f 4. 19. sixty or seventy feet or even longer but. common error is to put a long string of rivets in a narrow splice plate.93 x 15.39 38. Art. The net area of the angles 7. its net area. For the purpose of illustration. value of rivets in splice plates. then 4.39 it = 8.000 Ibs. if the girder is to be made from stock lengths. it In the foregoing example. 53. In these flats are 4 rivets x Ibs. in full double shear which are equivalent to 8 rivets in single shear.25 and 108.000 16" x f x 21" plate will be used its 300 333 square inches. per square inch. = = = = ABT. 18. Flange Angles and flange plates may be obtained up to . = value of angles. but is in It seems to be better pracspecifications.39 square inches net area. conformity with many not strictly correct. Ibs. making allowance for two J holes 5. the 6" legs at least as much A = Then = 5. then 4. The single shearing value of one f rivet 4. the two 3 x / 16 flats 2.62 square inches.39 square inches.950 ~.360 Ibs.01 square inches in splice material for A angles. The drawing shows 18 rivets in the 6" legs of angles. = .000 plate 73. bending has been assumed that the flanges. = A . total number be of rivets should in noted that as in in angle splice is then 18 + 8 It 26.4. which is somewhat greater than the net area of the angles. 13 x J plate is used. The splice plates should section as the pieces spliced.62 + 2. Splice.950 Ibs.420 rivets each side of splice. then 7. and 4 rivets in the 3^" legs.420 Ibs. moment is resisted entirely by the and that the web plate takes shear only. = = value of plate. there are about twice as many rivets = have the 3^" legs. the former condition be assumed then the required area of bearing plate 100. and 2.
Making allowance centres.44 17. in inches. to make due allowance for the resistance of the web plate in designing the flanges. total moment = (f as flange area. The first cover plate requires to be 37 ft. ins. 4inch moment of resistance of web plate f w =A g h. AREA. divided by the distance. =A h. plate may be computed The following is an alternative design for the same shears and moments as before. Rivet spacing in vertical legs of flange angles. of one flange + }i of web plate. centre to centre of the rivets in the vertical legs of the top and bottom flange angles . A %" web = Flange material provided yi of = 16. . h ) + ( A 'h) = Therefore. net. The longitudinal shear per lineal inch. 59# 6 13 2 2 x A web Plate X Z /2 X T7* Ls = X H plates = l = 794 gross (less 4. The moment In which A* h = = of resistance of the flanges area of one flange. long. # holes) = # holes) = 2 3 2 6. The moment of resistance of web plate = " g = 7 h = ~T h. Flange area required at centre ( web + A') h. and the amount of this shear to be transferred by the rivets to the flanges is proportioned to Area Area of one flange at the point. oneeighth of the area of girder. is equal to the vertical shear at the point.41 8. and assumed to be equal to the height of web plate when flange plates are used. tice. long. using the plate will be used throughout.76 gross (less 4. ins.67 sq. 51 however. depth of girder centre to centre of gravity of flanges. In which b = = A"= h thickness of " height area web plate. of resistance of girder Then.ONEEIGHTH OF WEB PLATE AS FLANGE.17 sq. and the second cover plate 26 ft. 9. the net for a vertical line of oneinch holes. at any point on the rivet line.
longitudinal shear per lineal inch on rivets resultant stress on rivets per lineal inch = = 1. per lineal inch.610 X 6. longitudinal shear per = 330 Ibs.. Bending value of web plate Web = 2.iSolbs. Since oneeighth of the web plate has been comSplices. Distance centre to centre of rivets in vertical legs of top and bottom flange angles = 56 inches.41 J/b of 59 >^ X TV web rivets plate = 2.000 Ibs. before. ^ rivet on fy plate = 4.73 sq. Rivet spacing in panel a b. The number and spacing of the rivets will first be assumed. 1. Vertical load on Bearing value of one Then.41 = ^~J^ f330 = 8 i. = 90. . the splices must be capable of resisting the full amount of bending moment attributed to the web. ins. Shear at centre of panel = 90.690 moment when located in zero. 2.32 sq.000 Ibs.32 6.000 in. The required rivet spacing in the remaining panels is found simiThe required rivet spacing in flange plates is determined as larly. as shown in Fig. ins. X X 60 The moment of resistance of the splice must be equal to or greater than that of the web.BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. and Fig. 64. and vertical wide between them.690 Ibs. required spacing of rivets in top flange inches. as well as the vertical shear at the point. The maximum bearing value of one Ibs.220 Ibs.000 lineal inch at rivet line = 1. ins. but its value in resisting bending neutral axis of girder is ^ rivet on $ web = 4.lbs. = 15. Horizontal splice plates 8 inches wide will be used adjacent to the flange angles. splice plates. 54. Net area of one flange at this point = 6.610 Ibs. puted as flange area.088. 12 inches then their value investigated.
its distance from the neutral axis.all the rivets in splice plates on one side of distance. their moment of multiplied by resistance is as follows : 4 rivets X 156 .ONEEIGHTH OF WEB PLATE AS FLANGE. Then the value of one rivet. The 53 distance from neutral axis to top or bottom of girder 30 inches. the joint... AREA. both above and below the neutral axis. multiplied by the square of this Then taking. The value of any rivet will be equal to 156 Ibs. and its moment of resistance will be equal to 156 Ibs. one inch from neutral axis = = A ' f~\C\C\ 156 Ibs.
Ibs. 15. points. per square foot of roadway.280 X 12. 20. The stress in at the point any chord section is equal to the bending. centre to centre of trusses.000 Ibs. 250 150 Total (pounds per lineal foot) Live load. divided by the depth of truss. 7. per square inch. centre to centre of chords. No compression member shall have a length ex ceeding 120 times its least radius of gyration. length of span in feet. reduced by Ran Top chords to be considered as columns with square ends. 15. Rivet shearing. .280 Ibs. Rivet bearing. Then (2 x 50') + 50 mated to weigh 3 per lineal foot = 2 = The dead load per panel The for one truss = 400 Xi2. multiplied . Width. .000 Ibs. per square inch. is per foot (board measure). centre to centre. live load per panel for one truss = 1.s'= 2. per lineal foot.on 3 x 12 joists about 2' centres. and estiIbs. situated. 6' o". Depth. laid. Dead load (wooden Dead load (steel) stringers and floor planking) . BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. lower panel The length of the diagonal members The stress in any diagonal is equal which it is = V6*+6. consist of In determining the dead load. and web members as columns with pin ends. DESIGN FOR A WARREN GIRDER HIGHWAY 55 and 56. per square inch.200 kine's formula. Ibs. 4 panels of 12' 6".6/. 1.5'= at the 2 Ibs.000 2 Ibs. Data: Length. Compression. These loads are supposed to be concentrated c. per square inch. as above. Roadway 16' o" clear. the floor is supposed to 3" plank. per lineal foot. The weight of steel given by the formula 2 x L + 50 in which L 150 Ibs.500 Ibs.moment where the diagonals in the panel intersect the opposite chord. 400 = Then 80 Tension. 17' o". to the shear in the panel in by the length of diagonal and divided by depth of truss and the shear in any panel is equal to the end reaction. of bearings.500 8.54 ART. minus any loads between this end and the panel considered. x 1 6' 1. (Figs.25 = 8. .) BRIDGE. e and g. 80 Ibs. 50' o".
25' horizontally from a. less the load at c multiplied by distance from With the above explanation the following: table of stresses will : readily be understood DEAD LOAD STRESSES. thus .5' =46875 " " e=3 750X25.67 6 ^=3750x12. =2. disFor the stress in tant 25' from a. equal to the reaction at a multiplied by its distance from B. For the stress in ce moments are taken about the point D.67 = 6 cD De= I250X ac ce Moment B 5420 1810 =375X =23427 " " " " " 8. which The moment at this point is is distant 6. 55 The dead load stresses will be considered first.0' 2500X I2. distant 12.75' horizontally from a. 500 X 1/^ = 3. The shear in panel ac is equal to the reaction at a. at a multiplied by its its distance from e.750 Ibs. The moment at this point is equal to the reaction DF e. and the stresses in members aB and Be which lie in this panel will be equal but of opposite kind. or one and onehalf panel loads. and the stresses in cD and De are also equal but opposite. will receive their maximum live load stresses when the bridge is fully loaded but the maximum stresses in the intermediate diagonals is caused by unsymmetrical loading. For the stress in ac moments are taken about the point B. moments are taken about the point e. at c t D t multiplied by this distance. Thus aB will be in compression and Be in tension.25' . The reaction at either end is equal to onehalf the load on span. minus the load The shear in panel ce is equal to the reaction at .WARREN GIRDER HIGHWA Y BRIDGE.5' from a. multiplied by its horizontal distance from D. Shear * in panel 0^=3750 o 2500 6. and the moment is equal to the reaction at a.5'=62400 BD DF 39io =23437X i " 9110 =54687X " 7810 =46875X =624oox " =10400 = = = = The diagonals in the end panels as well as the top and bottom chords throughout. . while eF will receive its greatest Fg its greatest tension with live load at g only. and g only . and De its greatest tension with live loads at e and compression. For the stress in BD moments are taken about the point c. cD will receive its greatest compression. minus the load at reaction at a. multiplied by its distance from c. which The moment is equal to the is distant 18.75' " at ^=3750 = = 3750 Stress in 1250 aB Bc= 375OX 8.
ooox i =29.0'8.000 " cD De= 6. 5=200.000 Ibs. then r = 6. The required area for the tension members is obtained directly and + + + by dividing the total stress by the unit stress of 15. in member Fg is shown on the corresponding. Two and two 4X3X Ls for DF.=12.000 LIVE LOAD STRESSES.Ls will be used for table.000 tr=i2.000 " Z>=i2.ooox [ '= 2.86 which (by corresponds to 10.only =8oooX /= 2. The top chord is supported horizontally at intervals of 12' 6" by means of the vertical members which are braced to the floor beams and it is supported vertically at intervals of 6' 3".67 .member cD. The compression of 2. In the same manner the tension of 2. Two 4 X 3 X ftLs will be assumed.25' 75. is added to the maximum tensile stress. which represents onehalf of the span.000 = = = = 12.56 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. Ibs.oooXi25' " . with the shorter legs back to back as shown. which is called a counter stress. BD ^ \ Assuming the same section for end posts as top chords.500 i75. LIVE LOAD REACTIONS.86 .ooox 6 = 8.ooox 8.000 Stress in a 6. Load at g.86". 4 X 3 X T8. 1 The least radius of gyration =. the resultant com= 1810 1080 as be shown. For the net area allowance has been made for two seveneighths holes in each angle. 57. Bridge fully loaded " Loads at e and^ only " =8000 Xi>= 12.000 Ibs. the dead load live load stresses are summarized.3. 75' 8.000 =8000 X %= 6.890 Ibs. in member eF.000 Ibs.000 c=i2. r = 8.67 6 7 =17.25 = 7.ooox 18.000x25.000 eg= 2. 12) ends. will pression 2890 Eighttenths of this latter amount.25'=i75.670 " " eF Fg= 2.ooo " " " " at ce= 6.890 ac =75 ooo X i =12. Shear in panel a<r=i2. is shown on member De> for this latter member would receive the same stress with live load at c only.000 200.890 Ibs. Since the dead load stress in De is 1810. per square inch for square This unit stress will apply to the whole top chord.ooox6.ooo " =150. due to live load at g. Thus it . Art.000 X i =33>33o J In Fig. requires greater stiffness horizontally than vertically.340 2. Reaction a.000 Moment " j9=i2. Ibs. .170 =25.ooox 12.oooX 6.
51 16.o t7'. 55 126 So'o c. 58 found that the area of two 3X2^ = Ls is considerably greater than required for the stress. with the 3" legs back to back. For member De the same section will be used.67 = =9. as this is also a ^ ..toC.WARREN GIRDER HIGHWAY BRIDGE. per square inch for pin ends. Fig. = 10.1. It will be r Fig.1o c. but if smaller angles were used the length would exceed 120 times the least radius of gyration.oe. Two 4X3X^1? Ls will be used. which corresponds to a unit stress of 6.1. then 95 allowable unit stress =7. cD two 3X2^XX 1 8.1 end bearings  Fig. For member Ls are assumed.600 Ibs.300 Ibs.
5 3.750 Ibs. Then Dead load = 25oX i2.625 X 44. The reactions as well as the shear = = '.790 r 15. per linl. 59.58 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.5* + I7 2 = 21. which was assumed to weigh 250 Ibs. per lineal foot of bridge. The stress in the end .625 2 .620 x end panel i Ibs.620 = 6. The dead load consists of the floor.150 footlbs. The moment at the centre is equal to the reaction multiplied centre of gravity. less the portion of the load on one side of the centre.3 = R required.5 The be used. There are 4 panels of 12' 6" each. The same section will also be used for the next diagonal. = Details. As in the vertical trusses. there is a panel which load at each point c. Fig. allowing for one J" hole .000 = 17 square inches required. and half panel loads at a and latter do not affect the stresses. in the = 3. and g. The verticals Cc Ee have no direct stress their duty is to stiffen the Ls will be used. 19. 35.000 Total. ft.800 Ibs. multiplied by the distance to its Floor (8. sixteen feet of the floor beam. is Laterals. Fig.625  \ 719.5'5oo= 3. For these members two 2^2X2% X .5' =16. Its R=36. pressure V 12.280X12. 1 50 footlbs. 56.1'. by onehalf the span. Taking the shearing value of rivets at 7.800^1 5. 1 Ibs. and 17 Length of diagonals is = deep.625 Ibs. lateral system. 000= A 50 @ 31.500 Ibs. 22 \ ?X 4')= 19. 58. Then 529 . Fig. The wind taken at 300 Ibs. then a panel load 300 x 12.46 21.. will ^19. Its net area. moment is the distance centre to centre of trusses=i7 The re action at each end = 19. ft. 12" I inchlbs.5 beam moment=(^2 X 12 =529. ft. top chord.. plus the weight of the beam itself.790 diagonals = 5. % Floor Beams. as explained on page 56. .750 x = 5. One 2\ x 2 x J L will be used. compression member under certain conditions of loading.625 Xg.s') (^ 4) =44. and 6.625 Live load =1.84 square inches. e. The load extends over width of roadway but . a horizontal truss of span. which is the the effective length for computing the ft.
WARREN GIRDER HIGHWAY BRIDGE.
59
60
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.
per square inch, and the bearing value at 15,000 Ibs. per square inch, the value of one f " rivet in single shear 3,310 Ibs., bearing on f"
plate = 4,220
=
and bearing on J" plate 2,810 Ibs. The number of rivets required are clearly shown on the drawing, and it is only necessary to explain one or two points.
Ibs.
=
=
The bearing plate at a requires to be large enough so that the pressure on the masonry shall not exceed 300 Ibs. per square inch. The dead load reaction 3,750 Ibs. and the live load reaction 12,000 Ibs., making a total of 15,750 Ibs. Then, 15,750 = 300 50 square inches required. The plate used, which is 12" x i6J"
=
= =
198 square inches, is much larger than necessary for bearing on the masonry. It also requires to be large enough for the anchor bolt and to make connections with the bottom chord angle and the
laterals.
At
B
the hip cover plate
stiffness at this point.
with the gusset plate, net area through the splice should not be less than that required It is evident that the in the member a c, viz., 1.09 square inches. whole width of the gusset plate cannot be relied on, as the pull is all
added to give more lateral splice at c is formed partly and partly with the plate on the bottom. The
is
The bottom chord
on one edge, and if the plate were to begin to fail at the edge, a piece of it would soon be torn off. It is only safe to figure on a width of plate equal to twice the rivet gauge in the angle, 2j", and from this width should be deducted the diameter of the rivet " .875') x f .70 square (2.75" hole, J". Then the net area The net area of the bottom plate making allowance for inches. = 1.44 square inches. Then 7 holes = (7.5 two /s" 175) X #
=
=
=
~
the net area through
which
at left
is
a
c
=
.70 1.44 2.14 square inches, The value of the rivets than required. considerably greater end of splice should be at least equal to the stress in
splice
Ibs. Ibs.
=
+
=
16,410 Ibs. Then 2 rivets bearing on f" plate at 4,220 4 rivets bearing on J" plate at 2,810
= 8,440 = 11,240
i9>68o Ibs.
Total
The value of the rivets at right end of splice should be equal to or = 38,280 Ibs. Then, greater than the stress c e
7 rivets bearing on f" plate at 4,220 4 rivets bearing on J" plate at 2,810
Ibs. Ibs.
= =
29,540
11,240
Total
.
40,780
Ibs.
WARREN GIRDER HIGHWA Y BRIDGE.
The
61
is designed similarly. splice in top chord at Floor beam connection, Fig. 59a. The reaction or end shear is equal to onehalf the total load on floor beam 9,810 Ibs. The rivets connecting the end angles with the truss are in direct single shear, therefore 9,810 f 3,310 3 rivets required, whereas there
D
=
=
are 4 rivets provided. In addition to the vertical load on the rivets connecting the end angles with the web of beam, these rivets are re
quired to resist a bending moment equal to the reaction multiplied by the distance from back of angles to the centre of gravity of rivets. The greatest stress, due to bending, is on the rivets farthest
from
ment, divided by the
of this stress
is
their centre of gravity, and is equal to the bending momoment of resistance of rivets. The direction
perpendicular to a line drawn through the centre
of outer rivet, and the centre of gravity of the system. The centre of gravity of rivets and their distances from this point are shown in
Fig. 59a.
The bending moment 25,000 inchlbs. 9,810 Ibs. x 2.55" The polar moment of inertia is obtained by multiplying each rivet
by the square of
its
=
=
distance from the centre of gravity as follows
:
I
=
i
rivet
x
.8"
2
==
2 rivets x 1.922 2 rivets x 3.n 2
= =
.6
7.4
19.4
27.4
obtained by dividing the above result by the distance from the centre of gravity to the farthest rivet, thus
of resistance
is
:
The moment
R=
Then
5
1 = ^=8.8.
n
3.11
rivet
is
lbs.
shown. It is less than the bearing value of a f " rivet on the web of beam which is f " thick, and consequently the connection is
ically as
= 25,000 inchThe vertical load on each 8.8 = 2,840 equal to the = = 9,810 number of reaction divided by the = and obtained The resultant stress graph3,900 1,960
the stress on the outer rivets from bending
Ibs.
total
rivets
Ibs. f 5
Ibs.
Ibs.
is
satisfactory.
Camber. Bridge trusses are constructed with a slight arch called This adds nothing to their strength, and is intended printo offset the deflection due to the dead and live loads. The cipally
camber.
Since there = 50' = 600". Live load for floor beams 100 Ibs. say i". : 4 panels of Depth. . . 17' 6" centre to centre. Dead Total load (wooden stringers and floor planking) 250 2 L (steel (2 X 72') 50 50 104) say 200 . = span. The following rule is taken from Trautwine : 8 d c In which i d c s = increased length = depth of = camber centre. of top chord. d = 6' = 72". / the mean / between the top and bottom halfpanel lengths is combined with // depth of truss thus: length of diagonals = V(6 3 IV ) 2 +(6V ) 2 = 8' 8". ART. 15' o" and i panel of 12' o". CD. is In the present example a camber of i" s assumed. per square foot of roadway 1. Roadway i6'o" clear.62 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. Trusses. The lengths of BC. total truss. BRIDGE. 300 Ibs. DE 6' 3" f >6". camber is obtained by making the top chord slightly longer than the bottom. each top chord panel must be increased will then be i". and increasing the length of the diagonal members in proportion. per square foot of roadway. 60. per lineal foot. 7' 6". To obtain the lengths of diagonals. = + + = ( pounds per lineal foot ) 450 Live load for trusses.200 Ibs. centre to centre of chords. = .) Data Length. at All in feet or all in inches. or each half panel J". 21. centre to centre of bearings. Horizontal wind force. 72' o". then = i 8 x 72 x i . 75 Ibs. per lineal foot.96". DESIGN FOR SKEW WARREN GIRDER HIGHWAY (Fig. 600 are four panels in bridge. onehalf of which to be treated as live load.
SKEW WARREN
GIRDER.
63
Unit Stresses: Tension, 15,000 Ibs. per square inch. Compression, 12,000 Ibs. per square inch, reduced by Rankine's formula (Art. 12). Top chords to be considered as columns
with square ends, and columns with pin ends.
web members
as
member
120 times
shall
its
compression have a length exceeding
No
least radius of gyration.
Rivet shearing, 7,500 Ibs. per square inch. Rivet bearing, 15,000 Ibs. per square inch.
PANEL LOADS FOB ONE TRUSS.
For panel points
c,
e
and
450 g dead load =  X
15
=3375
Ibs.
"
"
live load
=
X
1 200
2
15
=9000
Ibs.
"
i
Length
of regular diagonal
of diagonals
6 e'^and Jk V75 9.60'. Length The dead load reaction at a is equal to the moments of the panel loads about k, and divided by the length of span ok.
is
X \ (3,000 _ __ 12)
The dead

}
+
reaction at k
the reaction at a
= 3,000 + (3,375 x
is
dead load
=5 X
2
=3000 =8100
2
Ibs.
live load
=X
=
2
Ibs.
members
V75
2
+
2
75
=
10.61'.
=
+
{3,375
X
(27
+ 42 +
sum
57)
.
_ }
,
0,405 IDS.
72
equal to the
3)
of the panel loads, less
6,405
= 6,720
Ibs.
In the following table of dead load stresses, the same general method employed in Art. 20 is observed, but both ends of the truss are considered.
The
shear in panel ac
is
equal to the reaction at a.
"
"
"
ce
"
"
a,
minus the panel load
<
at c.
eg
.
<.
k
The bending moments
at
B, D, F,
c
and
e are
obtained by taking
64
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.
the
the
are
moments of the reaction a about these points, and deducting moments of the panel loads between these points and a. For bending moments at H, J, g and i moments of the reaction k taken about these points, and the moments of the panel loads
tween these points and k are deducted.
be
DEAD LOAD STRESSES.
Shear in #=6,405 " "
o
3,375
^=6,405
= =
6,405
Stress in aB Bc=
3,030
6,4O5X
^=6,720
<
(3,375
"
"
+3,000)= 7=6,7203,000
=
=
345
3,720 6,720
zVfe=6, 720
o
75
==
Moment at ^=6, 405 X
48,000
".0=6,405x22.5 3,375XV5=n8,8oo
"^=6,405x3753>375X(7.5+22.5)=i38,95o
"^=6,720X19.5
3,000X7.5=108,550
"
"/=6,720X 6 "^=6,405x15
"
e
=
40,300
=96,000
=6, 405X30 3,375Xi5=i4i,5oo
3,000x15=
12
=
80,650
SKEW WARREN
GIRDER.
65
LIVE LOAD REACTIONS.
Reaction a.
Bridge fully loaded
= [SiooX 12] 4 [90ooX(27+42+57)l
72
72
=17,100
a.
Loads
Loads
at
e,
g
[8100X12] + [ooooX(27+42)] and t=
= =
9,970
a. k. k.
at g
and
t
= (8100X12)4 (9000X27)
72
4,725
Bridge fully loaded
=8100+ (9000X3)
72
17100
=18,000 =11,250
Loads Loads
at
c,
e
and g
e
= 9oooX(i5+3o+45)
:.
at c
and
= 9ooox(i5+3o)
72
=
5,625
LIVE LOAD STRESSES.
Shear in ac =17,100 " " ce=
<gr
*'
17,100
=
9,970
?*.
9,970
4,725
5,625
"
" "
^
/ft
4,725
5>625
^'=11,250
=18,000
75 at
11,250 18,000
Moment
"
^=17, iooX
128,000
Z>=i7, 100x22. 5 9,oooX75 = 317,500
9,ooox(75+22.5> 371,250 "^7=18,000x19.5
"/=i8,ooox
"
41
8,iooX75 6
=
290,250 108,000 256,500
^=17,100X15 ^=17,100x30
=
"
'
9,000x15= =378,000
g =18,000x27
8,100x15= =364,500
z
=18,000X12
,.
=216,000
I/ .66 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.
04 2. 63.250 = 14. x 15' 2. The maximum shear span. Fig. The length of the diagonals V J 5 2 + J 7' 6" 2 23. and require to be latticed. e g is when is at g and DEAD LOAD STRESSES.940 = 3.04 175 2. " live = = " = 150 Ibs. Floor beam connection.700 15. x 15' = = 2. Onehalf the wind force is to be treated as a stationary or dead load.75) (14.250 x 4) 812. x 15' = 3. angles will Floor Beams. Moments 4) = at centre = (8. Fig. g i only.780 in The total stresses. 67. 5. 62: Dead load (floor) Dead load (beam) Live load Total = 250 = say Ibs.74 Then.400 58. Reaction = = (14.250 x R= Ibs.250   o 2.250 x 8. and 6" deep. the areas required and provided are shown Fig.94O lateral 2d 3rd " " = = = 23. Fig. It will be sufficiently accurate to assume that the horizontal truss consists of five equal panels of 1 5' o" each. A 17' 15" I at 42 Ibs.16 = ft. all This will necessitate double gusset plates.04 ft. 60.SKEW WARREN tally. The maximum shear in panel only.000 = 54.970 2.500 24.700 x 12 = 14. 812.lbs.250 X X = 5.500 28. then Panel dead load =150 Ibs. = 67. 60.560 = 1. in panel a c is when when the live load covers the the live load the live load The maximum shear and i in panel c e is is at e. and the rivets connecting the end angles with the truss are in direct = .000 28. GIRDER.400 inchlbs. and onehalf as a moving or live load. ist LIVE LOAD STRESSES.9. Laterals.500 Ibs. R required. = 4.250 Ibs.250 Ibs. The reaction 14. will be used.75oXiX " = == 2.250 X X X 2 X 23.750 750 = 16' x 15' x 100 Ibs.250 Ibs.
centre to centre.5602 The web of beam is f " thick.) Data: Length. 14.5 4.4 = 10 3.52 follows 1 =2 2 rivets x 4. 2. therefore.340 Ibs. = ~. connecting the end angles with web of beam. due to bending. centre to centre of end pins. ^ 2 Resultant stress on outer rivets 4.49O + 3. whereas the In addition to the vertical load on rivets = The centre of gravity of rivets and their distances from shown in Fig. 8 panels Roadway. 64. 17' o". 120' o". is on the rivets farthest from their centre of gravity and is equal to the bending moment. Trusses. thus : 45 45 Stress on outer rivets from bending 2. these rivets are required to resist a bending moment equal to the reaction mulitplied by the distance from back of angle to centre line of rivets. Depth.900 in. The greatest stress.5 450 The moment of resistance is equal to the above result divided by the distance from centre of gravity to farthest rivet.75" = 24. this point are 3. The bending: moment = 14.560 Ibs. The direction of this stress is horizontal.lbs.68 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. 63.310 5 rivets required. Stress on outer rivets from direct = 24. details.900 load = 14.570.490 Ibs. as rivets x 1.lbs. which is greater than the = =V = = maximum stress on rivets.250 in. 22. Fig. therefore. .52 = = 40. 5 shear. the bearing value of one  rivet f" x f x 15. The moment of inertia of rivets is obtained by multiplying each by the square of : rivet its distance from the center of gravity.250 drawing shows 6 rivets. f Ibs. 65. The other ART. are selfexplanatory. SPAN. (FIG.000 Ibs.250 Ibs. 4. 20' o". divided by the moment of resistance of rivets. DESIGN FOR A PINCONNECTED PRATT TRUSS HIGH WAY of 15' o". X 1. 16' o" clear.
.SKEW WARREN * GIRDER.* .
Dead Load Live Load 15. to be Ibs. Live load. 22. . Xi5' = 9.000 Ibs. 20. 1 5. . 12). per square foot for floor beams and Wind Wind hip verticals. Bending. Ibs. per lineal foot to be treated as live load. 15..000 for field rivets.500 for pins. Dead load (steel) " (floor) Total.000 for floor STEEL beam hangers. per lineal foot. " Bearing. 150 be treated as dead load. and diagonals main floor beams. 150 Ibs. Compression. PANEL LOADS FOB ONE TRUSS. per lineal foot. Shearing. Dead Load Reaction = 4000X3^ = 14. 12. 150 treated as dead load. Length of diagonals = v/i5 8 h 2 o 8 = 25'. 10.200 Ibs. . = = 540 Xi5' 1 200 = 4. x 16' = 1. 100 Ibs.000 for bottom chords. per lineal Live load. intermediate sections of top chord as columns with square ends. 540 Ibs.000 IRON 12.000 for counters and hip verticals. to Wind force for bottom STEEL laterals. 75 Ibs.000 Ibs.000 for pins and shop rivets. per square foot. force for top laterals. 9.000 reduced by Rankine's formula (Art.000 for pins and shop rivets. 8.000 Ibs. per lineal foot for trusses.000 for laterals. = 2 x L + 50 = foot = 290 250 Then 75 Ibs. force for bottom laterals. Unit stresses: Tension. " 7>5OO for field rivets. No member to have a length exceding 120 times its least radius of gyration end and intermediate posts to be considered as columns with two pin ends end sections of top chord as columns With one pin and one square end.70 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.
750 Ibs.ooo XA =14. LIVE LOAD REACTIONS.500 ef Moment " at " ^C e B 31. g and h.000x15 " 9. Shear in panel ab= 14.ooox(i5+3o)=45o. LIVE LOAD STRESSES.ooo'X=ii. 9. 500x30 9.500 io.000X^7= 10. But since c and C are the same distance horizontally from a. ' DEAD LOAD STRESSES. Shear in panel ab " " be " cd " " de " 31.OOOXf<T= 2. g and 7i. g.00016. g and h.000= 2. and for the stress c d moments are taken about C. e.oooX i Moment at 8. ooo 4.000x1=6.f. d.500 3 60.2$o Ibs. oooX4S Ef abc 210.ooox(i5+3o+45) . De.6oo Ibs. for maximum stress in Be.000X60 4.OOOX I = 2. 5 o Iks.ooox(i5+3o) 31.000 ^=14.000 in aB Be Cc 17. for maximum stresses in Ee and Bridge fully loaded 9.500 2. g and h.f.000 "= 1 4.500 24.000 For the stress in a b c moments are taken about panel point B.OOO Cd 6.ooo e DE = = = 18.000 22.000= 6.000= 2.oooX3K == 3 I and  Cd.oooxf= 2. g. Loads at d.000X30 4.000 12.000=10.PINCONNECTED HIGHWA Y SPAN.500X15 3 1. Loads at c.500X60 9.f.000 14.000 cfe=I4.000 = 14. Likewise the stresses C D and d e are equal.oooxf= 6.OOO B =i4. for maximum stresses in chords end posts.oooX I 5 =210. 9.000 = 12.oooy^ i/=i6. for maximum stresses in Dd and Loads at/. for maximum stresses in Cc and Loads at e.oooX 15=360.500 6. the stresses in B C and c d are equal.oooX\1 == 23. ooo =14. e.000 Stress 4.goo Ibs. For the stress in B C moments are taken about c.OOOX I Dd De Ee = 2. Ef.ooox(i5+3o+45)=48o.000 7>5oo 2.
The intermediate posts have a much greater area than is required for the stress. BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.25 = 150 deep. The top lateral truss consists of six 15ft.2 5 X 15 ft. The area of top chords is also rather large. 500 = 7.8 ft. x 15 ft. 17. The square bars have loop ends which must be welded.700 Portal Strut and force.500 X "= 5. The bottom deep. Laterals. Top .25oX 2.25oxi^X " = = 2. and the lighter weight of the of only . but with smaller channels the length would exceed 1 20 6" channels has a web times the least radius of gyration. Fig. Laterals.500 1. ft.20 inch. The end posts will be considered in connection with portal bracing. Diagonal = V = 2. 65. live panel load lateral truss 2 Dead panels 17. #X 22. stresses and material are shown tension in Fig.250x2^ X " = = 2. = 2250 Ibs.250 Ibs.8 LIVE LOAD STRESSES. The Ibs. Ibs.600 YX " =3. 22. ist lateral 2nd 3rd 4th " ' " = = 2. per lineal foot of bridge.72 100 Ibs.000 The inches. stress in this member will then be   X 15' = 12. which is entirely too thin. which equal to three Posts.5oo ~io.8 =75oo Ibs. as it is difficult to weld it satisfactorily. The heads on the flat steel bars are upset and forged or pressed into dies without welding. is .2 5 2 = 22 8 ft Panel STRESSES.8 22. Ibs. 65.8 =1500 Ibs. and steel is not suitable on this account. Fig. DEAD LOAD STRESSES.2$oX3#X I725 = 2.900 V. panels.25ox V2.25ox >X " = End is 22.600 Ibs.X i7 " 4. but smaller channels are unadvisable. 2nd 8rd " " =22oXiX=45oo =2250 X Ibs. 65. 10.250X 7. per square foot of roadway = 1. J 5 2 + I 7. Bottom 15 ft. It is assumed that the wind and onehalf top lateral panel loads.500 2. ft.25 panel load = Diagonal = 150 consists of eight 2 = V IS + i7. Square iron bars are used for all and flat steel members requiring less than four square bars for all others.250x3^ X 2. ist lateral=225ox 2> X 22.
PINCONNECTED HIGHWA Y SPAN. 73 .
825 Ibs. This force of 2.. and that the plane of contraflexure is midway between the foot of posts and the lower extremities of portal struts. Then in figuring the portal stresses the ends of ports may be considered to lie in this plane of contraflexure.62 windward side of portal and compression on the leeward side.885 x 13. this force 29. There fore the total compression 7.875 Ibs.500 ft. but in the latter case the applied force of 7. Since the plane of contraflexure is assumed to be midway between the foot of posts and connection of knee braces.950 Ibs. proportion the As the stresses are all light. it is only necessary to members so that their length shall not exceed 120 times their least radius of gyration. and compression on the windward side. The moment at knee brace connection is resisted by a force at top of post acting with a lever arm of 10 ft. and 3. =.885 Ibs.935 = = = = Ibs. The problem of finding the stresses in a portal strut is similar to that of finding the wind stresses in a roof truss supported on and braced to steel columns as explained in Art 17.lbs.500 ft. The posts should be proportioned so that the maximum fibre .950 Ibs. should be added. the moments at these points will each be equal to 3.875 = 10.10' Therefore. There are no stresses in the members shown in dotted lines they help to stiffen the main members. although hinged at the bottom in plane of trusses. are fixed in the plane of the portal. and that it is resisted equally at the foot of both end posts.935 2. The force applied at top of portal 2.250 x 3^ 7. and give a more pleasing appear. It is also assumed that the posts.935 Ibs.540 Ibs.950 the stress in the knee braces is equal to this latter force.875 x \ 3.2 = 10. 2. This stress will be tension on the 8. ance to portal. induces tension of the same amount on leeward = = side of top strut.950 horizontal force at the lower end of knee on windward = + braces is equal to the induced force at top of posts. x 7. plus the horizontal reaction at foot of posts 6.74 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. The side of top strut 2.lbs. multiplied = + = by length of knee brace and divided by onehalf the width of portal = 6. The moment at foot of post is resisted by the direct thrust in post acting with a lever arm equal to onehalf the width of bearing plates.875 Ibs. applied at the top of portal strut. The horizontal reaction at foot of each post 7.5' = 29.
675 1 center. . of resistance about an axis perpendicular to the cover plate Then: Direct Bending stress ** area = moment R= 56. 25% the permis The direct stress in post as shown in Fig. 17. load (floor) 250 x 15' = = 3.500 The area of the section assumed 14. A 15" I 42 Ibs.25 ft.870 + 25% = 9.200 x 8.900 Ibs.600 X 15 = ft.8 = = 3. The intermediate top struts. 12 = M = 14. The permissible unit stress = 7. They are not proportioned for any definite stress. 75 live. and its = = = = moment =538. and relieve the portal wind stresses.7 ==R. x 12 The bending moment as above 354.400 24.675 ft. Reaction = 28. per sq.550 Ibs. Total. Floor Beam.100 inchlbs.750 (beam) 650 Live load = 1.835 Ibs. load.000== 52.. 65. struts and end posts from a portion of their Dead Span.31 354.) 4.200 * 788. @ will be used.000 Total (distributed over a length of 16 = 28.PINCONNECTED HIGHWAY stress resulting SPAN*. * 53. 65. 29. R = 58. inch.31 square inches.lbs. are in this case made similar to the portal struts.9.000 inchlbs. Taking moments about the X 4 = 65. but the assumed wind force is probably much greater than the actual. Fig.100 5. 788.970 6. 60 56.900 Ibs. * 14.000 in.400 x J = 14. from the combined action of the dead load and wind force shall not exceed by more than sible unit strees for dead and live loads only. per square inch.625 14..lbs.400 Ibs. Thus the post is stressed slightly too much to fulfill the conditions. The pins in the bottom chord and the one at the their maximum moment when the bridge is fully receive hip usually Pin Moments.580 10.200 X Ibs. but nevertheless they contribute to the stiffness of the bridge.
5tci\<m ?m o Fig.CT\OK ?\r\ B Fig. 66 S.76 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. Lvng of Tfu% HO^MOHTM. 6? nORtZOHTMStCTlOn Pm c Fig. 69 .
500 Ibs.. the size of pin required is obtained from a table similar to that in Carnegie p. per Pin post is a. Before figuring the pin mo necessary first to find the stresses in all the members which are connected by pin for the condition of loading giving the is maximum moment on and the vertical pin. The sum of the forces acting in one direction must always equal the sum of the forces acting in the .750 Ibs. the joint is sketched to a large scale as shown. and horizontal moments figured separately. which. giving the maximum bending moment allowable on pins of various sizes. The at any point will be equal to the hypothenuse of a right angled triangle whose vertical and horizontal sides are equal respectively to the vertical and horizontal moment on pin. 66. which on the shoe. a downward left towards the of stress in end post 22.900 x 15 = 34. and a horizontal force acting of 17. The horizontal com equal to stress in post multiplied by length of panel and divided by length of post = 56. 77 loaded.100 25 Ibs.750 Ibs.000 square inch. on end force of 22. but the other pins in top chord will be subjected to their maximum moment. it thereto.PINCONNECTED HIGPIWAY SPAN. in the present example has been taken at 20. Fig. a horizontal . Ibs.900 x 20 25 = 45. . members on the so care must be taken to ensure that the bearing pin does not exceed the allowable amount. It is only necessary to are as follows vertical consider the forces on one side of the centre line of truss. and on the chord bar. an upward force equal to onehalf the : component post. simultaneously with the maximum stress in main diagonals connecting ments. In order to determine the distances between the members. The values of pin by the alloware obtained by multiplying: the able stress per square inch on outer fibres in this case 22. resultant moment Having found the maximum moment. = force to the right of 17.050 Ibs. 183.050 Ibs. pin may be large enough for the bending moment and yet too R A small for bearing of all .500. The stresses in the diagonal members should be resolved into their vertical and horizontal components. The vertical component by of the stress equal to this stress multiplied of post depth of truss in end and divided by length ponent is = 56.
100 For the pin moments the stress in the hip vertical and beam hangers will be taken as an ordinary panel 13. : Pin B. DEAD AND LIVE LOAD STRESSES IN WEB MEMBEBS.750 X = #"' = 17. the vertical and horizonof the stresses in the various members connected by : this pin are as follows Members.050 At b At c = 17. 500 X 19.050 X %" = = 17. viz. The vertical opposite direction.78 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.500 X = 6.050 X i#" = inchlbs.000 tal Ibs.500 26. At c = /I7. As stated above. 500 0=45. 500 X f$ = 24.000 only.000= 6.500 De= 6. Fig.500 in separate Onehalf of the above vertical and horizontal forces are plotted diagrams. fibre be found that a 2^" pin has a value of 34.500 be taken together and the as for dead load + 4. and horizontal Then: forces are shown Horizontal Moments.000 40.500 in aB Be = 45. The dead and found live loads total stresses in exactly the = 13. 56 Horizontal Components.500 XH= 8. x 3^ panel = = 45.050 17.400 Dd= 6. the pins in the bottom chord and at the hip Now.000=19. 12. Reaction may same manner = Ibs.000=32. BRIDGE FULLY LOADED. .600x1^=32.000 9. plotted on separate diagrams. It will therefore be necessary to figure the stresses in the web members for this condition of loading before proceeding further. from it will usually receive their maximum moment when the bridge is fully loaded.000 Ibs.050 3 f29. SOD X = 32.600 Cc=* 39.850 8 =34. Vertical Momenta.9ooxf=455oo 13.100 4o. Vertical Components.000 13. When components the bridge is fully loaded.400 table of pin moments in column for 22.900x^=34.500 Cd I X 1=19. End Postal Tie Bar Be Hip Vertical Bb Top Chordae .800 29.500 o 56.500 inchlbs.5oo " " cfe=45.500 = 19. in all floor load. Shear in panel a&=45. 500 " " #=45. The total panel load Ibs. 67. At b At c = 22. stress.6ooxif= 2 4'4oo o 58.500 Ibs.500 " rc?=45.500 Stress 13.5 f " " \\ = 56.900 = 40.850 Resultant Moment.
700 inchlbs.PINCONNECTED HIGHWAY Vertical SPAN. 28.95o~ + 6. Horizontal Components.500x1^=6. and this is evidently equal the bridge is loaded from d to h.ioo 58.900 Moments. o Atb= At c= 1 1.500 40.750x1^" =39. required. 6ooX if =24.525 At 0=17. 69.400 Be Cc 4o. : Vertical Components.800^=48. and E.800 At d =6.75ox 3 i6. 500. is Pin C.000 Floor beam hanger o o . horizontal components of the stresses in the various members conPin c. 450X^=10.600X^1=17. the vertical and Fig. it is only the difference of the stresses in C and C which need be considered. Horizontal Moments. At d='l/ 47. Horizontal Moments. This size may also be used at A 2" is the size D When the bridge is fully loaded. 600 X \\ =17. nected by this pin are as follows Members. as shown on stress diagram Fig. The condition for maximum moment on The stresses this pin when C d are is B Since the top chord continuous at this point.050X1^29. a 2j" pin which has a value of 52. 150 28.. Fig.700 Resultant Moment.500 19. Atb=22.800 At d=22. 900 22. and horizontal components of stresses in members are as follows Members. 65. Vertical Components. Horizontal Components.oo 2 =i4. pin which has a bending value of 17.000 Atb=8.o5oxK =8.6ooXf =32.375 At 0=22.ooo 2 + io.75oxX" =n.575Xi^= I0 . 79 Moments. Consequently. 6ooXfg=22.7oo Ate 10.6oo inchlbs.25oxiX=47. Chord bar be Chord bar cc? Tie bar Post o o 34. is 68. C c and D to the horizontal The vertical : component of the stress in C d.500 inchlbs. the size required. At c=i/io.95o At b=i7.800 Resultant Moment.500 13.150 o Top chord CO Tie bar Cd Post Cc Vertical o 28.
.7l FORCES floorbgam hanger To B fn^ Centre Line of TTUSS e ii . r^tco q 2>x% d r.. ..<& Try ss IWHNfl Tie bar : ' m ''''^ bar cJ rr l l i^^Or^M StCTiOK PVH ^7 LcViowi bar ^~ . gf g^r X VtRTlCAV .So BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN: Hm+H^ KWiW Centre Line eam^ hanger lo of Truss a y Chord jbar <?/> jfrtr YERTICAU HORIZONTAL SLCTION Plrt ^ YORCK> FORCE* Fig7O I 'llCotjinTerp . Y lg. :q_ 1 [Chord bar ^3 ! Tie ba.. CenTrg Line.
250X1^= 5. The average of these distances .500 At 6=6. ooo Atd =23.600 9.500 inchlbs. When bridge is fully loaded. is the size required. which should be the distance to the centre of the two chord bars at b. A 2}^" pin which has a bending. 81 Moments.29. At e = v/36.500* . Horizontal Moments. is about 5". When the bridge is fully loaded. 70.500 + 3 5. is Thus a 2 pin which has a bending value size required. 100 Hip vertical Bb Floor beam hanger a b and b c o o The chord bars should be spaced so that they c as possible.ioo 34. will pull in as nearly a straight line from a to By reference to Fig.000 13. the center of chord bar b c is 6f" from center line of truss.000. 66. of 40. Components.500 Ate= Resultant Moment. At b= Atc= o o At b=i7.600 5. 70.value of 34.000* fc 38. Fig.6oo Atd== 5. 050X1^ At 0=17. At d = 17. 71. 050X1^=23.500 At c =23.25oxi At e=i6. the distance from center line of truss to center line of chord bar will be found to be 3f " and in Fig.000 34. Chord bar ab Chord bar be o o 13. the vertical and horizontal components of the stresses in the various members connected by this pin are as follows TVTAmHArfl : Vertical Horizontal Components.000.750X3^=36.500 Resultant Moment.lbs. the vertical and . Pin d. 69.250 At b= 1 7. as shown in Fig.200 29. Horizontal Momenta.HIGHWAY Vertical SPAM.6oo 3 = 37. Vertical Moments. The object of the spacing angle between the hip vertical and chord bar a b is to hold the top of floor beam at the proper distance below pin.25o=4} o o 16.500x2^=17.000 in. the Pin b t Fig.050X2^ =19. Atb= Atc= Atd=i6.
500X2 36. is the size Pin e. 700.75oX%= At 6=9. Chord bar ef Chord bar de Tie bar Tie bar Post Floor o o 73. ooo 3 = 48.250X1= 3.50x3 Chord bar cd Chord bar de Tie bar Post o o 24. the size A 2j" pin which has a bending value of 52.000 Horizontal Moments.iooXsf 4.600 36.500 At 0=36.iooxf = 6.500 inchlbs.500 24.250x3^=28.iooxif= o 13.250X1^ =25. 9 8. At e = 1/29.450X1=38.4ooxfir=i9>5oo 6.iooxf5= 6. required. Horizontal Components. 8 3 A 2^" pin which has a bending value of 34. Vertical Components.25ox /% At 0=29. 4.800 Atd= Ate= 18. 250 + 38.000 Horizontal Moments.250 At b=36.500 8.500 inchlbs.82 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.ooo 73.500 At d=36.5oo = 34.ooo eF De Ee beam hanger Moments. The size of pins required at the various panel points. members con horizontal components of the stresses in the various nected by this pin are as follows : Member. When the bridge is fully loaded the vertical and horizontal components of the stresses in the various members connected by this pin are as follows : Members. Fig.250 At 6=3. Horizontal Component. o o o Atb= Atc= Atd=9. 72. 8.500X1=18. XM^ 1 4 500 Counter Floor o 13. 73. 58.200.500 Resultant Moment.500X1= 36. 900 o o Vertical Atb= Atc= o o At =3.500 3.900 Ate= s 38.500 7 Atb=29.500 S.250x5+3250X4=29.500X2+2. At e = 1/28.750x4 o o 8. 500X1 36. is required. Vertical Component.ooo Cd 400 Dd dE beam hanger Vertical Moments.500 18. as deter . 8oo + i8. 500X3 36.900 Resultant Moment.
PINCONNECTED HIGHWA Y mined above. and the ends are on over strips guide pass turned down to enter holes in the 2\ x 5 / 16 spacing bars. Then. The pins in the top chords and end posts should be placed as near the centre of gravity of the section as practicable.900 for pins 20. as possible. lineal inch shall not exceed 600 ~ 2 5" 6oc the permissible bearing 95 Ibs. 45. The rollers are turned down at center to shoe and bed plates. The total load on the shoes is equal to the vertical component of strefss in end post + .500 = Ibs. per square inch. 83 at r . 13! = 55 length lineal V rollers ef fective lineal inches provided. The area of the bed plates should be great enough so that the pressure on the masonry will not exceed 300 Ibs. Assuming 2j" rollers. but it would be inconvenient to set the pins at this height as there would not be space enough for some of the bar heads. since the permissible bearing 56. They must also be large rollers and the anchor bolts. work as much order to simplify the shop be used throughout.000 2. In the present case these have been made f" thick. where the space required equals onehalf the diameter of = i%' 1^4" = 2 /%" 7 leaving >6" pin.500 = = = = = = V = There are 4 and the inches 48 required. so they are located onehalf inch above centre line of channels or three inches below top flange. 6 But.000 Ibs. but it is well to make these members quite stiff. The ends of the outer rollers are made long enough to insert cotter . 1 = = = 45. except 2" D example this centre of gravity will be found to be a little more than one inch above the centre line of channels. pins at C.. 3" pins will and E. The the to accommodate enough X  = = 45. then 45. are and d. and 2" at as follows C. This arrangement gives just room enough for the largest bars at panel point B. and the bearing area of pin on these 3 J" x 3" x 2 This is somewhat more than inches. 2 J" at 5 in and e . Fig. Z) : SPAtf. Two 7 x 3^ x J Ls have been used. and this matter is usually left to the judgment of the designer. 2f " 2j" at a. Shoes. square required. The bearing area required 12" x 22" area of bed plates used 264 square inches.. per square inch. plus the thickness of bars.20. 73. The rollers should be designed so that the pressure on them per diameter. as shown. In the present and E. clearance between bars and cover plate.500^300 152 square inches. It is difficult to determine the exact thickness to make the shoe plates and bed plates.27 square inches required for shoe standards. 950 = = Then x 16" of each 4 2j" 13!". Rollers and Bed Plates.500 f.
.84 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.
as shown. forming what are called jaw plates.45 their shearing value 2.900 Ibs.500^20.875 Ibs. The area of two i#" bolts 19.000 = 2.95". therefore thickness of bearing required = 2. .250 The number of Between the end post =29. then 23.3 . bolts should have sufficient cross section to resist the from the assumed wind force in plane of bottom chords. and the permissible pin bearing 20. 85 through the The shoe plates are extended. and their height equal to the diameter of rollers plus the thickness of roller beds 3 #".420 4 in each plate.500 Ibs. as shown. The pin plates on top chord at this point also extend beyond pin.700. then 56..500 Ibs. equals 7.900 x . and 2.PINCONNECTED HIGHWAY SPAN..The amount of thickness of bearing ( 5 / 16 + Vie) x 2 bearing plates will then be 58.In = 3 of pin s . then 58.25014420 = J Ibs. The stress in end post 56. making the total I i".500 x y rivets required = 29. 7.75 Ibs.900 T = = 3". addi Vie" pin plates are used. to provide connections for the end laterals. which are made with forked eyes. the pin plates The = . = Vie".92 on pin The stress in C 58.of making the total thickness of metal The amount of bearing: on the pin plates be in the ratio their thickness to the total thickness of bear ing = 56. .4. In the table of plus lateral stresses the dead and live load shears in each panel each 2.420 are shown " single shearing value of one f 6 rivets required 8 rivets Ibs. 2.000 top chord square inches bearing required. There should be sufficient rivets in pin plates to meet this stress.84 sq.700. per square inch.875 bolts Then = 7. are 5 / 16 " thick. extend beyond the post. = 2.. but the ends of the intermediate rollers just pass spacing bars.700 f. f ii = 23. The webs of the 7" [s at 12. webs of the 7" [s @ 14. onehalf of the wind force on portal strut. rivet = 4. (yV + A) will x 2 =.000 Ibs.250 x 3j = 7.875 X 2^ = at top of portal also the total force to be resisted by anchor and the wind force square inches. is . and 24. inches required. = = Ibs. but are on the inside of channels.i^". At the upper end of posts.84 of the 20.2^ + X = The anchor total shear The fixed end bed plates are made of cast iron.92 f. pins.25 Ibs.. The diameter f The thickness tion.97" B = = thickness of bearing required. = = End Post and Top Chord. and 5 / 16 " pin plates are used.45 x 10.000 Ibs.
The loop ends of the square iron bars are made by bending the ends of the bar around a pin and welding these ends to the body of bar. and the splice plates are required only to hold the members in line.85 Ibs.25 = . Plate washers. The distance from centre of pin to crotch should be 2\ times the diameter of pin. = The stress = .900^20. The posts must be wide enough to beam hangers to pass between the channels as shown. per square inch. The webs of the = f thus no pin bearing are plates required. The heads of the flat steel bars are made by upsetting the ends of the bars and forging in dies of the required size. = = .86 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN.600 x Jf =17. Intermediate Posts. Since this is a faced joint..900 = 8. The bent channels on = 5 in post Cc 22.000^8. The top chord the top chord are lateral connections. and beam hangers 8.000 The hangers are made of i" square iron.20. Pins are turned down or shouldered at the ends and provided with chambered nuts to ensure a full bearing for the outer members. The heads are made round and of such diameter as to give an area through centre line of pin hole 50% greater than that of body of bar. then inches area 1. and threaded for standard nuts.150 Then 17.000 Ibs. therefore 16.14 square 22.85 square inches required. are upset at the ends to ij". bent to fit over pins and upset to iJ" round at ends and threaded for nuts as shown in Fig. f" thick. The number of f" rivets required in pin plates 22. which is equal to 28. to ensure that the whole bearing the top chord is continuous.1472. diameter of pins = 3" then 3" 3" i#" = 7^" = diameter of heads. 2 square inches required in hangers. are used to screw up against the ends of bent channels. Two f" pin plates are used and bottom of at top permit the floor 3>O7O = all posts. The which are J" diameter. Thus the width of bars 3".150 =.000 bearing required on of the The diameter is therefore 2j". and it is only necto sufficient essary provide bearing. and . whereas there are 12 rivets provided. the unit stress for floor The end reaction of floor beams = 16.000 Ibs. Bars. is left and top chord a space of \ n will come on pin. = + + Floor Beams.25 pins.900 Ibs.000 =.38" two channels = thickness of required. is spliced i' o" from panel point D. r At panel point C 2.50 = thickness of bearing required. ". upper pin 1.for the horizontal component of the stress in tie bar C d. lateral rods. the stresses are transmitted directly by the abutting surfaces.
.PINCONNECTED HIGHWAY SPAN.
At the opposite end they are upset to if" round and threaded for standard nuts.000X2= 10.500 4 which requires a if" For uniformity this size will be used throughout. M= Wl 4 = 21. and are upset to if" round at opposite end and pass through holes in web of floor beam d. and cut at right angles to centre line of lateral rods as shown in Fig. and between the lug angles riveted thereto. The pins connecting laterals with shoe plates may be considered as girders supported at both ends and having a concentrated load lateral. The portal and intermediate struts shown in Figs. The arrangement of the bottom laterals is shown in Fig. The lateral connections on the floor beams should be placed as near the top flange and as close to the hangers as possible. The main nuts are of the same thickness as diameter of thread. and between the lug angles riveted thereto. have plain loop eyes at one end to connect with the lug angles on floor beam b. and on the bottom there is a washer plate 4" x f x 8".. The top and bottom flanges of the beams are notched as shown in Fig. These upset ends pass through holes in the web of floor beam b.. The end laterals which are ij" square are forked at one end to connect with the shoe plate as shown in Fig. At panel point b. which are i" square. and the lock nuts are i" thick. at the center equal to the stress in is The distance centre to centre of forks inchlbs. BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN. 74 and 75 need no further description. 7 square. spacing angles are used to hold the beam at the same distance below the pins. Bottom Laterals. have plain loop 3d panel.88 73. 73. and pass through holes in the web of the floor beam c. In one panel adjacent to the centre of the span there will be a pair of laterals J" square with loop eyes at both ends. then pin. The laterals in the 2d panel. These rods The laterals in the are made in two parts and provided with turnbuckles for adjust ment. 74. The floor beams are screwed up firmly against the ends of the posts. d and e far enough to clear the largest bar heads. 74. where the vertical members are rods. and between the lug angles which are riveted to the web of floor beam. 76. which extend below the pins at c. . about 2". which are /%" eyes to connect with the lug angles on floor beam c. At the opposite end they are upset to ij" round.
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JO 7 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY .