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Linseed

Booklet. No.157 Oil Seed Production: OSPS - 13
Contents Preface I. Introduction II. Climate III. Soil IV. Varieties V. Land Preparation VI. Seed and Sowing VII. Manures and Fertilizers VIII. Irrigation IX. Diseases X. Insect Pests XI. Weed Control XII. Harvesting and Yield XIII. Crop Rotation XIV. Mixed Cropping XV. Industrial Importance XVI. Seed Production XVII. Unfavourable Climate XVIII. Economics of Cultivation Preface Linseed is an important oilseed crop of India. Its oil is used in a number of industrial products. It is also used as an edible oil especially in the rural areas. This booklet describes the scientific cultivation of linseed crop. Dr. K. T. Chandy, Agricultural and environmental Education I. Introduction Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) is an important industrial and edible oil and fibre producing crop. Its plants are small, hardy and require less management costs. Its origin is considered to be polyphyletic i.e. originated by natural hybridization between wild flax ( Lmum angustifolium) and cultivated forms. The climatic selective pressure differentiated hybrids into two distinct forms. One is small seeded having more oil content, developed in South-western Asia (India) and the other is bold seeded, suitable for fibre production and developed in the Mediterranean region. The important linseed growing countries are India, exUSSR, Argentina, Canada, USA, Egypt, Greece, Japan., Pakistan, Turkey, Ethiopia, Australia, New Zealand, Rumania, Poland, Spain and Belgium. In India the states growing this crop are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Karnataka, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh with a total area of about 2.5 million hectares. It is a cool season crop which can profitably be grown in the hilly regions also. II. Climate

The plant is medium tall and erect. Hira This variety was released in 1964. The flowers are white with a blue tinge. The temperature range between 20°. On an average 50-70% relative humidity is favourable for its growth and development. Its seeds ' contain 43% oil. Himalini The variety was released in 1973. Neelum This variety was released in 1980 for central and western Uttar Pradesh. Well distributed rainfall amounting to 15 to 20 cm. It is a spreading type. Any soil which retains sufficient available soil moisture in the upper 30 cm soil layer. Varieties Important varieties of linseed are described here. 3. Its seeds are small and brown in colour. rust and tolerant to frost. from October-November to March -April. without rains during its growth period is suitable for its cultivation. 5. 2. matures in 135 -145 days and produces 12-18 quintals of grains per hectare. The crop in India is grown after the heavy rainy season of monsoon i. Haryana. The plant is resistant to rust and wilt diseases. Seeds contain 43% oil. 4. It is most suitable for Punjab. silt loam. Seeds contain about 46% oil. Clay loam.e. Seeds are medium in size. It matures in 130 days and yields 12-18 quintals of grains per hectare. as it requires less humidity. The crop is tolerant to a wide range of pH values i. The variety is suitable for irrigated and high fertility conditions. 1. yields 8-12 quintals of grains per hectare. The flowers are blue in colour.Linseed plant grows in cool climatic conditions. compact growing and 'tolerant to rust and wilt diseases. Mukta This variety was released in 1964 for Uttar Pradesh. Seeds are medium bold. medium and suitable for cultivation under broadcast sowing in standing rice. LC-185 This variety was released in 1970 for Punjab. during its whole growth period is sufficient for successful development of the crop. This crop is found to perform well up to an altitude of 800 m from sea level. It is a cross of H 432 X NP (RR) 9. It is suitable for Bundelkhand (Uttar Pradesh) and can also be grown in the irrigated areas. It matures in about 170 days. The flowers are blue in colour.5 to 7.fuse vegetative development of the plant. rust . It is resistant to wilt. Himachal Pradesh. Its flowers are whit with a pale tinge. It is suitable for rainfed areas. It is fairly resistant to wilt. IV. deep black soils. Its seeds are yellow. It matures in 125 -150 days and yields 15-20 quintals of grains per hectare. light Gangetic alluvium soils and paddy soils are the most favourable for its cultivation. Soil Heavy soil with good water retention capacity is suitable for linseed cultivation.e. It is also suitable for north Bihar. Himachal Pradesh etc. C to 36° C gives pro. The crop is suited to low rainfall areas. Its seeds are brown in colour and very bold. I It is a cross of H-626 x NP (RR) 9. Seed contain 45% oil. silt clay. III. Rajasthan etc. It is resistant to rust and wilt diseases.

Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Rajasthan. yields 89 quintals per hectare. Bihar. Seeds have 42% oil. . bold and flowers are blue in colour. SPS-30-31 This variety is resistant to all foliar diseases such as rust. Plant is moderately resistant to rust. Chambal This variety is suitable for Rajasthan area. Seeds are bold. yields 10-16 quintals per hectare. yields I8-12 quintals of grain per hectare. It is tolerant to rust and wilt disease and suitable for cultivation in West Bengal. It is moderately susceptible to powdery mildew. It is suitable for rainfed areas. It is suitable for Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. The plant is medium with spreading habit and with blue flowers. 12. 14. Himachal Pradesh etc. Seeds have 47% oil content. 7. Under rainfed conditions seeds have 41 % oil content. The flowers ) are blue in colour. Seeds have 44% oil content. 8. It matures in 130 days and yields 11-12 quintals per hectare. It matures in 125-150 days. C-429 This variety is suitable for Maharashtra. Assam. wilt and powdery mildew. tolerant to rust. yields 12-18 quintals per hectare. The seeds are brown and bold. It matures in 130 days. It is a brown and small seeded variety. This variety is resistant to wilt and rust but susceptible to powdery mildew. Neela This variety is suitable for West Bengal. 10. It matures in 125 days and yields 10 quintals per hectare. LS-2 The variety is suitable for Haryana. Himachal Pradesh.130 days and yields 12-15 quintals per hectare. Seeds are brown. It is suitable for both rainfed as well as irrigated areas. It is moderately resistant to rust but susceptible to powdery mildew. It matures in 110. Its seeds are brown and medium bold. small. 6. powdery mildew and alternaria blight.and powdery mildew but quite susceptible to frost. Its seeds are brown. and is suitable for Punjab. 11. 13. Seeds contain 43% oil. It matures in 125 to 145 days and yields 10-18 quintals of grains per hectare. R-17 This variety is suitable for Madhya Pradesh. It matures in 155 days and can yield up to 30 quintals per hectare. Its seeds are brown in colour. Seeds contain 46% oil. 9. B-67 This variety is a selection from an indigenous collection. wilt and drought. It matures in 150-175 days. Punjab. Seeds contain 43% oil. It is widely adaptable and highly responsive to the application of fertilizers. Haryana. Seeds have 42% oil. etc. T-397 This variety was released in 1960. It matures in 120-130 days and yields 10-18 quintals of grains per hectare. Plant is spreading type. It matures in 170-175 days. K-2 This variety was released in 1952. but quite tolerant to wilt and rust diseases. The crop is tolerant to rust and wilt diseases. Seeds contain 40% oil.

It matures in 120-125 days. yields 13-15 quintals of grains per hectare. Jawahar-552 (R 552) This is a hybrid variety for Madhya Pradesh. J awahar-7 This variety is suitable for Madhya Pradesh. 18. yields 10 to 12 quintals per hectare. BS-44 The variety has been recommeded for Uttar Pradesh. The crop matures in about 165 days. Plant is fairly resistant to wilt. It matures in 156 days and yields 13-14 quintals per hectare. The seeds are brown in colour and flower is white. NP(RR)-45 . Madhya Pradesh. 16. The variety matures in 136-160 days and yields 12-13 quintals per hectare. It is recommended for Madhya Pradesh. Seeds contain 42% oil.15. etc. It has 44% oil content. 22. It is suitable for both irrigated as well as rainfed conditions. 19. respectively. It is resistant to wilt and rust disease. Its seeds have 42% oil content. LC-54 This variety is suitable for Haryana. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. and Bihar. The seeds contain 40 to 42. It is resistant to rust and powdery mildew and also to linseed gall fly attack. Rajasthan. It is resistant to the attack of insects. LS-3 This variety is suitable for Haryana. Himachal Pradesh Punjab. The crop is resistant to wilt and rust. bold. The crop matures in 140-165 days. 20. Its seeds contain 43% oil content. and yields 12-14 quintals per hectare. It matures in 120 days and yields 700 kg per hectare. 21. It matures in 120 days and yields 910 quintals per hectare and 11-12 quintals per hectare under rainfed and in irrigated conditions. JLS (J)-1 It has been released for the Madhya Pradesh. Seeds are brown and medium bold. erect. SPS-49-2 It is resistant to powdery mildew. well branched and is suitable for irrigated areas and IndoGangetic plains.5% oil. NP (RR) -9 It is a cross of NP -124 X A17 -1. J awahar-17 This variety is suitable for Madhya Pradesh. etc. Its seeds are brown and medium in size. 23. 17. The plant is medium height. rust and powdery mildew. Himachal Pradesh. moderately susceptible to powdery mildew and wilt disease. Its seeds are medium bold. It is a bold seeded variety. It is resistant to wilt and moderately resistant to rust and powdery mildew. Its seeds have 54% oil content. It matures in 120 days and yields 8-10 quintals per hectare. and 13-14 quintals per hectare in rainfed and irrigated conditions respectively. Punjab. It is highly responsive to irrigation and fertilizer applications. Seeds have 42-44% oil content. rust and alternaria blight. Its seeds are brown. 24. moderately resistant to rust but susceptible to wilt. The plant is erect and well branched. It matures in 118 days and yields 10-11 quintals per hectare. It is resistant to rust. It is recommended for sowing in the third week of October and is good for both irrigated as well as unirrigated areas.

Flowers are blue and medium in size. The crop matures in 117-125 days and yields 708 kg per hectare under rainfed conditions. Plant is resistant to wilt and rust. Seeds have 42% oil. wilt and moisture stress. alternaria blight. 26. Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. 25. tolerant to powdery mildew. erect. 30. The plant is medium dwarf. and yields about 675 kg per hectare under rainfed condition. The plant is erect. and blue in colour. medium in tillering. . No. 55 This variety is a selection from a local stock and is recommended for Madhya Pradesh. The crop matures in 135-145 days. The seed contains 41-43% oil. West Bengal and Assam under irrigated conditions. The seeds are bold and brown in colour. 31. compact with normal early growth. and yields 400 to 500 kg per hectare. uniform in maturity and has high oil content. Flowers are medium in size. It has an excellent fibre content. medium tall. B-96 This variety is suitable for West Bengal. It is a cross of T-126 and Neelum. It is a high yielding dual purpose variety. medium tall. The plant is erect. 28. The seeds are chocolate brown in colour. The seeds have 44% oil content. rust and powdery mildew. The crop matures in 135 days and yields almost 300 kg per hectare.5% oil. 29. and profuse branching. The plant is moderately resistant to rust. seeds are brown in colour. B-37 The variety is suitable for West Bengal and is well grown in alluvial soils. yields 12 -15 quintals per hectare. Crop is susceptible to wilt.4% oil. S-48 This variety is a pureline selection from local material. The crop matures in 115-120 days. The crop matures in 145 to 170 days and yields 10 to 12 quintals per hectare. It is resistant to rust. The plant is well branched. Flowers are blue and the seeds are brown. much branched and grows up to 30-40 cm height. Most suitable for Mahakoshal and Chhatisgarh regions of Madhya Pradesh. The crop matures in 142 days and yields about 9 quintals per hectare. Sweta . Garima The variety is suitable for Uttar Pradesh. The seeds have 42. yields 700 kg per hectare and seeds have about 42% oil. 27. 32. It has a good primary branching and secondary branching generally in the upper half of the stem. grows well in deep black cotton soils and responds to irrigation and fertilizers. Plant is resistant to wilt. Bihar. The plant is tall. LC-36 This variety is suitable for Punjab. branching. It is a high yielding. Raipur-17 This variety is suitable for Madhya Pradesh. The crop matures in 125-136 days. flowers are white.medium in tillering and profuse branching. Seeds have 43 to 45% oil content. The seeds are medium size and brown in colour. The seed contain 42. erect with white flowers. Seeds have 50% oil. erect. lodging and frost. The crop matures in 120-130 days. Plant is moderately resistant to blight and resistant to rust. and seeds are brown in colour.This variety is suitable for Bihar. The plant is erect. Flowers are blue and seeds are brown in colour. The crop is resistant to rust.

The seed rate is reasonably increased under late sown conditions. It is resistant to rust. Delayed sowing results in shorter growth period and reduction in oil content. 33. It has excellent oil quality. The time for sowing differs from region to region. V. The crop matures in 125 to 140 days yields 9 to 13 quintals per hectare. lodging. Assam. West Bengal. They are described below. Shubhra This variety is suitable for both irrigated and rainfed areas of Uttar Pradesh. The plant is medium tall. 1 2 3 4 4. Most suitable for rainfed areas of these states. West Bengal. Bihar. This is necessary to provide good physical conditions for growing and to ensure sufficient capillary movement of water from subsoil to top soil during the growing period.5% oil content. Selection of seed The quality of healthy seeds free from cuts and pathogens depends upon the variety selected for sowing. The crop matures in 125 to 140 days. and is suitable for Bihar. lodging and frost. free of weeds and other debris. Bold seeded varieties require more seed (40 kg/hectare) than small seeded (20 kg per hectare) varieties.e. 1. on an average 20OC). Seeds have 44. its sowing must be completed when there is sufficient atmospheric temperature required for germination (i. Time of sowing Linseed is a cool season crop. less soil moisture. Table-1: Time of sowing for linseed in various regions in India. It is a cross between Mukhta and K2. Seed and Sowing Selection of seed. frost and moisture stress. Land Preparation The crop requires a well prepared seed bed. Seed treatment The selected seed is treated with Agrosan GN or Thiram @ 3g/kg seed in a seed dressing drum. It is resistant to rust. The seed contains 44% oil. yields about 11-14 quintals per hectare. Sl. low fertility soils and in broadcast method of sowing. treatment of seeds. etc. Assam. Some recommended time of sowing for four regions under Indian condition are given in the following table. This is done by giving 2-3 deep ploughings followed by harrowing and planking. 3. as a precaution against seed-borne diseases.This variety is a cross between Mukhta and T 1206.March . Method of sowing Region Peninsular region Gangetic region Himachal region Kashmir region Sowing time September – October November October February . 2. when there are no rains. VI.No. time and method of sowing seeds are Important aspects for obtaining high yield. and Uttar Pradesh. therefore.

additional nitrogen is applied as foliar spray. Rice field is irrigated at boot leaf stage and after 5 -7 days excessive water is drained off. It is grown under rainfed conditions with 15 to 20 cm rainfall during crop season. ii. In unirrigated areas. so frequent and light irrigations are more : beneficial than heavy irrigations at long intervals. Manures and Fertilizers Linseed crop is considered 10 be a poor feeder of plant nutrients from the soil. Field is allowed to dry. it develops a number of cracks and the crop by that time gets matured to the dough stage (i. Rust . In the absence of soil test report 50 kg nitrogen. followed by planking or levelling. Fibre flax should be watered more frequently during the vegetative growth period before flowering. linseed is broadcast. during the last ploughing at the time of field preparation gives good yield. Bihar. small. are sufficient. if applied. IX. Utera method This method is mostly used for rice-linseed crop rotations in Madhya Pradesh. 20 kg phosphorus and 20 kg potash is broadcast before the last ploughing at the time of preparation of the field. Broadcast method This method is mostly suitable for slopy. But this crop responds well to irrigations. 1. i. Small seeded varieties have shallow root system.e. In case of favourable climate and good crop stand.Linseed sowing method differs for specific conditions and crop rotations. Diseases The important diseases of linseed are mentioned below. Irrigation Linseed crop has low water requirement. Irrigation can be increased under drought. Seed enters the cracks to the depth of 5-6 cm and gets suitable environment for its germination. The linseed is sown 10-12 days before harvesting the standing rice crop by broadcast method. Application of 5-6 tonnes of farmyard manure per hectare before sowing. VIII. Karnataka. if no rains occur. Irrigation before sowing improves germination. At this condition of the field when there are maximum cracks and optimum soil moisture. milk stage starts hardening). particularly at early seedling development stage and at flowering stage. to a depth of 4 -5 cm with the help of pora or seed drill. Two irrigations after sowing. These are described here. Line sowing This method is generally used in well prepared and leveled fields. The 2/3rd of nitrogen and full doses of phosphorus and potash are drilled at the time of seed sowing and rest of the nitrogen is broadcast. 25 kg nitrogen. Uttar Pradesh. VII. etc. The seed is sown in lines at a spacing of 20 -30 cm and between plants at a spacing of 7-10 cm. iii. 40 kg phosphorus and 40 kg potash per hectare is recommended under irrigated conditions. occurring due to failure of rains. after irrigation at flowering stage. Seed is broadcast in well ploughed open field. irregtuar field in the hilly regions.

5 g/kg seed before sowing. To control: (i) grow resistant varieties like Neelam. The caterpillar feeds on the leaves. 3.e. stem and capsules. A grayish-white powdery growth on the tip of leaves. Hira. It is a polyphagous (i. Leaf spot This disease is caused by a fungus. It is a vascular disease which plugs the flow of nutrients in the plant. Insect Pests Some pests of minor importance which damages the linseed crop are described below. 4. stem and flowers is seen. K-2. Give three spraying at an interval of 14 days. Pink spots occur on the surface of leaf. 3. Powdery mildew This disease is caused by a fungus. LC. which feed on the foliage of gram and lucerne also feed on linseed foliage and cause some damage during March-April. On linseed. It is caused by a fungus Melampsora lini. (2) spray with Zineb @ 2.5 kg in 1000 litres of water per hectare.85etc. To control: (1) treat the seed with Thiram or Captan @ 2. Wilt This diseases is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyspomm lini. To control: (1) spray Metasystox 25 EC or Rogor 30 EC @ one litre in 1000 litres of water per hectare. Caterpillars The caterpillars. feeding on many crops and vegetables) insect. To control: (i) dust with DDT . The moth is beautiful with golden patches on the forewings. it is active from December to March. 2. (i) spray Thiodan 35 EC @ 1. K-2. 4. and makes holes in the leaf surface and thus reduces the photosynthetic activities of the plant. and LC-185. and (ii) do not grow linseed in the infected field for at least 2-3 years.) in 1000 litres of water per hectare or Nuvan 100 EC @ 500 millilitres in 1000 litres of water per hectare. I.25litres (ai. Linseed midge A beautiful orange coloured. Oidium lini. Mukta. To control: (i) grow resistant varieties like Neelam. and plant dies at any stage. To control: (i) dust 5% BHC at the rate of 15 kg/hectare and (ii) spray Metasystox 25 EC or Rogor 30 EC @ one litre in 1000 litres of water per hectare or 250 ml Dimecron 100 EC in 1000 litres of water per hectare. It lays eggs in the folds of calyx of tender green buds. The floral buds of the plant do not open and a small dark spot appears near the calyx. 2. X.Rust is one of the most serious diseases of linseed. later turning reddish-brown to black. resulting in defoliation and shriveling of grains. linseed semi looper It is a widely distributed pest in India. dipterous fly damages the flower buds.1. arid (ii) spray crop with Dithane Z78 @ 2 kg in 1000 litres of water per hectare or dust the crop with sulphur dust at the rate of 20 kg per hectare. To control. To control: (i) bum all the plants after harvesting (ii) spray Sulfex or Elosal or Thiovit @ 3 kg per hectare in 1000 litres of water. Repeat the spray after 15 days. Leaf miner The larva of the insect is active during warm season in March. This attacks all the parts of the plant including capsules. Alternaria lini. Rira. The floral bud withers and dies.

(ii) spray Malathion 0. Many weeds like Chenopodium album.05% or Dithianon 0. Ploughing fields before sowing and allowing the weeds to germinate and then ploughing again with a soil turning plough to mix the weed with soil. (ii) irrigate the field in the morning hours so that moths come out and are eaten by birds. Some of the crop rotations are given here. The crop is harvested in March-April in Gangetic plains. XIII. shade and snatch nutrients from the linseed fields and cause damage to the main crop to the extent of 35 per cent. Weed Control The linseed is a poor competitor with weeds. year after year. 5. kills most of the broad leaved weeds. Asphodelus tenifolius. and (iv) adopt 3. Adults lay eggs on the dorsal surface of the leaves. @ 0. Seeds are separated after drying. Crop Rotation Continuous cropping with the same crop.5 kg/ha as postemergence application when crop is 8-12 cm tall. XI. After harvesting. . Harvesting and Yield The linseed matures in about 130-150 days. This practice not only reduces the infestation by the weeds but also serves the purpose of green manuring. Generally 2-3 weedings will be sufficient to discourage the development of weeds. To control: (i) dust Heptachlor at the rate of 25-30 kg\hectare mixed with sand. 3. Phalaris minor and Lolium temulentum (narrow leaved) etc. Weeding with the help of khurpi or hand hoe may be started immediately after the seed germination. more than one crop can be taken. In areas where rainfall is higher or irrigation facilities are available. Fibre flax is a tall plant. Pest is active from October to March. Use of weedicide like Linuron @ 0. following practices are recommended. Cut worm The pest causes damage in the early seedling stage during night. The eggs are creamy white and the larvae are yellowish gray in colour. quality and causes greater incidence of diseases and pests.02%.3 kg/ha as pre. To control weeds. Fumaria prviflora. Dusting MCPB. 4. Maize -linseed + wheat -jowar 2.emergence application. 1. (iii) cut the infested plants and burn them. Seeds after threshing are dried to reduce the moisture content for safe storage. At maturity. Seed selected for sowing should be free from weed seed.-4 year crop rotation. Avena spp. Convolvulus arvensis. 1. XII. Bajra -linseed -soyabean -linseed . Pupa is red and is found underground.3%. in the same field affects the yield. 2. 5. Since capsules do not shatter during drying period. It yields about 10-15 quintals/hectare. Carthamus oxycantha. the bundles can be dried in the field. the bundles are loosely tied and kept in stacks until they dry. the capsules and stem becomes yellow. Melilotus spp (all broad leaved). Maize -linseed 3. a weedicide.

leveling and bunding of land Rs 5. Cost of fencing Rs 4. lubricants etc. Heavy rains and high humidity (80% RH) spreads diseases and insects. carpets. ropes. Oil cakes and fibre flax are processed into animal feeds. Rs 3. etc. Iowar -cluster bean -linseed -cowpea -barley 7. gram. It is one of the best companion crops. storage structure. curtains. 3. 7. etc. If the temperature. 2. A. Linseed 60% plus wheat 40% as practiced in Karnataka. Jowar -clover -maize -linseed 6. 1. Cost of farm building. Linseed 25% plus potato 75% as practiced in Uttar Pradesh. Linseed 50% plus gram 25% plus wheat 25% as practised in Uttar Pradesh. it grows in associations with crops like wheat. The crop required for farmers own use for next year can be taken from the selected plants growing in the central part of the field. rises above the average daily records during seedling stage. it causes wilting and reduces plant population and tillering. Unfavourable Climate Hot weather with prolonged photoperiodic days are unfavourable to linseed plant growth and development. Cost of implements Rs 6. Economics of Cultivation Given below is a format for calculating the cost-benefit of linseed cultivation. The crop is susceptible to frost during its whole vegetative development period. Since this plant is tender. medicines. threads. Unseed 61% plus lentil 49% as practiced in Madhya Pradesh. barley.e. Low temperature i. Some of the intercropping system are given here.4. XV. below 150 C and high temperature ie. varnishes. Maize -pea -bajra -linseed XIV. Linseed 50% plus gram 25% plus lentil 25% as practiced in Punjab. 6. Linseed50%pluswheat50% as practiced in West Bengal and Maharashtra. XVI. 4. above 350 C at flowering to maturity period results in empty capsules and reduced yield. 5. mustard and do not get shaded. Seed Production Linseed is strictly a self pollinated crop. XVIII. Cost of irrigation system Rs . fibres. Linseed 50% plus gram 50% practised in Bihar. Cost of clearing. preservatives. Fixed cost 1. Groundnut -wheat -soyabean -linseed 5. It contains 76% oil which is processed and converted into various consumer products like paints. Industrial Importance Linseed is an industrial crop. Cost of land Rs 2. XVII. Mixed Cropping Mixed cropping is extensively practised with linseed.

Rent or revenue on the land Rs 8. Yield of straw Rs Net profit = Gross income -Total recurring cost Purchase value. Cost of manures and fertilizers Rs 2. Farm structure Rs b. Storing and marketing Rs k. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% . Grading and processing Rs j. Irrigation Rs d. Yield of grains Rs 2. Application of fertilizers and manures Rs f. Income 1. Other intercultural operations such as weeding. Junk value Depreciation = -----------------------------------------life span Note: Junk value is calculated only on those articles which are saleable after their life span. Depreciation a. Repairs and maintenance Rs Total recurring cost Rs C. Application of pesticides Rs g. Rs h. Farm machinery Rs 9. Recurring cost 1. Cost of insecticides.B. Training and 'pruning Rs c. Interest on fixed cost (@ 10%) Rs 7. Cost of farm power Rs 4. thinning. The life span of farm building and farm machinery is 15 and 10 years respectively. etc. Any other labour involvement Rs 6. Cost of farm labour Rs (paid and unpaid) a. fungicides and weedicides Rs 3. Land preparation Rs b. Weeding Rs e. Cost of transportation Rs 5. Harvesting Rs i.

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