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Departement Sosiologie en Sosiale Antropologie Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology

S364 - Sosiale Navorsing (2013) S364 - Social Research (2013)

Lecture 3

Lesing 3

Research designs
Tuesday 30 July

Dinsdag 30 Julie

Dr Lloyd Hill

Tutoriaal klasse / Tutorial classes Volgende week / next week
• On Webstudies
– Choose a class & sign up this week – Take note of venue and time (you are committing to this class!)

• Op Webstudies
– Kies 'n klas en skryf hierdie week in – Neem asseblief kennis van die tyd en plek (jy moet in hierdie klas bly!)

Overview / Oorsig • Recap: what is a research strategy? • What is a research design? • Choosing or creating a design? • Linking strategy and design • Designing YOUR research… • Samevatting: wat is ’n navorsingstrategie? • Wat is ’n navorsingsontwerp? • Kies of skep ons ’n ontwerp? • Die samevoeging van strategie en ontwerp • Die ontwerp van JOU navorsing… .

Recap: what are research strategies? • Bryman: “a general orientation to the conduct of social research” • A broad distinction between quantitative and qualitative research strategies • Bryman: “’n algemene benadering tot die bestuur van sosiale navorsing” • ’n breë onderskeid tussen kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsing-strategieë .

Strategic assumptions • The decision to produce quantitative... is gebaseer op teoretiese aannames . . kwalitatiewe of gemengde data te produseer. qualitative or mixed data is based on theoretical assumptions… • Die besluit om kwantitatiewe.

typically ‘verbal’ data. • HOW? • …by what process? • …by what research design? . video etc.Quantitative & qualitative data • Quantitative research produces data in the form of numbers (typically a matrix) • Qualitative research produces nonnumerical data. but also images.

‘n (jou) proposal navorsingsvoorstel gekodifiseer is .. – The (embodied) logic – Die (beliggaamde) of (your) methods logika van (jou) metodes – A ‘method-o-logy’ that is typically codified in – Die ‘metod-o-logie’ (your) research wat in bv.What is (a) research design? • Bryman: “a frame-work • “’n Raamwerk vir die for the collection and insameling en ontleding analysis of data” van data” • A framework & a • ’n Raamwerk en 'n process… proses..

What does the ‘design’ do? Hoe werk ‘’n ‘ontwerp’? Research proposal deductive Research methods chapter / report inductive Logic reading/writing Logic fieldwork Start of research End of research .

. – implisiete kennis – sport analogie... . kennis en vaardighede..Choosing or creating a design? • A bit of both: choosing from among known broad strategies (from literature) and then crafting your own design… • Potential for mixing.. maar.. but… – Problem of tacit knowledge – sports analogy… knowledge & skills… • ’n Bietjie van albei: 'n keuse uit bekende breë strategieë (uit literatuur) en die ontwikkeling van jou eie ontwerp • Potensiaal om te meng.

Choosing a design or a broad strategy / tradition? .

Tacit knowledge .

field experiment e. large and small (2 or more cases).g.g.g. surveys.g. qualitative interviews or focus group research Qualitative Cross-sectional Longitudinal Case study Comparative e. lab experiment. social survey (two or more points in time) i.). single case study e.g.Linking strategy and design Research design Research strategy Quantitative Experimental e.g. social survey (slice in time) e. page 67: “Typical forms” – try to use the logic in this table to think about your topic and how you plan to research it… then read chapter… . cross-national studies e.e. ethnographic or interview-based research of one or more ‘cases’ See Bryman (2012.

WW2) • BUT.either impractical or unethical (problem of ‘control’…e. still serves as a powerful ideal or norm (ideaal of norm) for ‘good’ quantitative research designs… .Experimental design • to establish causal relationship (oorsaaklike verband) between independent (IV) and dependent variables (onafhanklike en afhanklike veranderlikes) • IV manipulated.g. all other variables held constant • random assignment (lukrake toewysing) of subjects (proefpersoon…steekproef) to experimental and control groups (sampling) • rarely used in social research .

Experimental design .

Experimental control & causality .

A misleading ideal? • All social research designs tend to be adaptions (aanpassings) of or reactions to the (ideal) status that experimental research designs enjoy in the natural sciences: a trade-off between: – Synchronic observation and experimental / statistical control in an artificial context – Diachronic observation and “qualitative” control in a “natural” context – Sinkroniese waarneming en eksperimentele / statistiese beheer in 'n kunsmatige konteks – Diakroniese waarneming en "kwalitatiewe" beheer in 'n ​"natuurlike" konteks • See Bryman’s discussion… .

Cross-sectional design .

(Comparative) case study design .

Longitudinal design .

Qualitative research design .

Designing YOUR research… • Are you worried about the content presented in this module? // Bekommerd oor die inhoud van hierdie module? • What was written on the cover of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy? // Wat is geskryf op die buiteblad van The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy? .

and secondly it has the words DON'T PANIC inscribed in large friendly letters on its cover. First.” .“DON’T PANIC” • “In many of the more relaxed civilizations on the Outer Eastern Rim of the Galaxy. for though it has many omissions and contains much that is apocryphal. it scores over the older. it is slightly cheaper. more pedestrian work in two important respects. the Hitchhiker's Guide has already supplanted the great Encyclopaedia Galactica as the standard repository of all knowledge and wisdom. or at least wildly inaccurate.

Assessment • Encyclopaedia Galactica: We expect some understanding / book learning (30%) • Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy: But we are more interested in the applied knowledge (toegepaste kennis) you demonstrate in the form of your chosen strategy / design (70%) … … in a research proposal (… Lecture 13…) .

Use Bryman as a guide Gebruik Bryman as ‘n Gids Design Design Quant. Design Qual. “Studying and interacting at a South African university”(broad theme) Design Design Design .

what research strategies have previously been used (…tomorrow’s lecture…) Preliminary research / reading Research design Built around a focused topic and problem statement Research (fieldwork) Anticipating… Data analysis .e. thinking about how this topic was previously researched. i.Designing YOUR research Tentative topic Reading and initial conceptualization.

Die ontwerp van JOU navorsing Tentatiewe onderwerp Lees en aanvanklike konseptualisering. denke oor hoe mense hierdie onderwerp voorheen nagevors het....) Voorlopige navorsing / lees Navorsingsontwerp Gebou rondom ‘n gefokusde onderwerp en probleemstelling Navorsing (veldwerk) Met die oog op… Dataontleding . môre se se lesing.. dws watter navorsingstrategieë voorheen gebruik is (.