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E8NIKO ILiPYMA EPEYNQN INITITOYTO BYZANTINQN EPEYNQN

01 ~KOTEINOI AIQNE~

TOY BYZANTIOY
(7 or; - 90r; at)

THE LAST CHRISTIAN GREEKS AND THE FIRST PAGAN SLAVS IN OLYMPIA

The work on the early Byzantine settlement with its remains forms part of the research project "Olympia during the Roman Empire and in late Antiquity", conducted by the German Archaeological Institute1. The absence of Medieval finds

(7th-9th centuries AD.) from the former sanctuary has been recognized for a long time2. Already the German excavation team in the last century supposed that the end of the settlement The discovery of Christian Greeks should be connected of early Medieval Slavic cremation to the attacts of during the Avars and Slavs on the Peloponnese construction mentioned in ancient written sources3. burials

of the New Museum of Olympia seemed to confirm this supposition.

Thus, it was natural to include these Slavic graves in the investigations of the end of the Christian settlement, if one wants to find answers to some of these questions: What is the chronological relation between these two find complexes? How long did Christian Greeks continue to live at the site of Olympia and what might have happened to them after the Slavs settled down in this area? For how long did the Slavic invaders use the burial ground to bury their dead? Do the finds of the Christian settlement and the Slavic grave finds indicate any direct contact between he two different populations?
1. See preliminary (1994),229-250; reports on this project in Nikephoros 5 (1992), 75-84; 6 (1993), 153-158; 7

8 (1995), 161-182; 9 (1996), 199-228; 10 (1997), 215-216. Athens 1885, 62; Vasso Pennas, H Z(i)nall~

2; There are few coins (17) from the 10th -14th centuries coming from Olympia, see A. Postolakas, .Voj1iuj1oraiv rcji 'E8vlKcji N0j11Uj10flKcji MovuE:io;J 1883-1884, ~zovnv£~ n6f1El~ m~ nEflonovvr\aou: H V0>lla>l0nKn \lopwpfo (80~-120~ 01. \l'X,), in Mvrij1n Martin J.

Price, Bltlfll08nKn m~ EflflnvlKn~ NO\lla\lOnKn~ EI01pEfO~5, Athens 1997 (with eng1. summary) 262 (the 7 coins mentioned already by Postolakas, the other finds are still unpublished). literature only some more recent studies Die slavische Bevolkerung auf der griechischen HaibinseJ. Ein 1978; W. Pohl, Die Awaren. Ein

3. From the abundance mud be mentioned:

of the almost un-surveyable

M. W. Weithmann,

3eitrag zur historischen Ethnographie Siidosteuropas, Munchen

eppenvolk in MitteJeuropa 567-822 n. Chr., Munchen 1988, 94-127; Anna Avramea, Le Peloponnese IVe au VIlle siecle. Changements et persistances, Byzantina Sorbonensia 15, Paris 1997, 67-104.

ed.D. Olympia in and Post-Medieval Greece. This church was constructed as a triple-aisled naos with apse and narthex. Untergangs Olympia: das Fest und seine Stiitte. Th. E. amongst them two with early Byzantine inscriptions naming the donor Kyriakos and the executing craftsman Andreas.F. Vida . Berlin 1892. 35-38. J. Adler. E. Die byzantinische Kirche. Berlin (in press). Boetticher. in Praktika Ileiakou Pneumatikou Late AntiqUity. . Das slawische BrandgriiberFeld van Olympia. Bauer . ed. while the floor consisted of the opus seetile lining of the vestibule of the temple of Zeus. Oepen. a Christian population settled down in the former sanctuary5. the early Christian church which was newly built on top of the former workshop of Phidias. 5. Adler. A synthronon with a raised central seat was built in the curve of the apse. Tsougarakis. F. entrance corridor. The entire and analysis myself4. Athens 1994. the design of the presbyteral zone and the ornaments 5th century6. Aphentra Moutzali. The walls of the church were decorated by ornamental wall-paintings. Adler. VoIling. The old excavators determined two phases in the archaeological record which have been confirmed by the more recent excavations. 260-278. Petros Themelis. Bintliff . A. Curtius volume 6. for giving permission Dr. 94-105. The older excavators termed it as "Byzantine". the excavators the Slavic burials. 4. in New Approaches International Conference. The floor was laid with large marble spoils. and side rooms in the west. The first settlement phase is to be placed chronologically before the destruction of the Zeus Temple and the wall built of spoils. A. F. which will be published soon: T. in Die Baudenkmmer of Olympische Forschungen). Nicolas Yalouris and Prof. H Oi\ulloio 00. I want to present only a short first preliminary report of the work still in progress on the last phase of the Christian settlement in the former sanctuary and a summary of the interpretation presentation of the Slavic cemetery of Olympia. of all finds of this cemetery with a complete documentation will soon be published by Tivadar Vida and The Christian settlement of Olympia Immediately after the games and the cult in honour of Zeus had ceased at latest around the middle of the fifth century A. Olympia I. I am most grateful to both Prof. Together with my collegue finished the analysis of the Slavic finds from Olympia. in Tapagraphie Curtius . 93-98.. The altar and the apse are set off by a barrier consisting of four transennas. This "Byzantine" village was situated in a semi-arc to the west of the Altis grounds around the most important building of this village.Th.In this paper. Tivadar Vida from the Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest of I of the barrier slabs speak in favour of a construction of the church in middle or the 2nd half of the to study and to publish these finds. Volling. KOTO der Bauwerke zu Olympia. The ground plan. Symposiou mv opulIoj3uzovnvn oEpio- 1993. van Olympia. (Corfu 1-3rd May 1998) (in press). Berlin 1897. Proceedings of an to Medieval eds.D. Die Kirche von Olympia (forthcoming . Archaologie in Eurasien 9. Adler.F.A. Geschichte des und Geschichte van Olympia. F. Berlin 1886. Olympia II.

nave and the choir. 8. a mostly enclosed village consisting of densely different from the earlier one. the church and many other buildings. 1) and consisting of densely arranged house complexes with small rooms. A. Olympia. In contrast to a widely spaced group of rather large complexes along narrow alleys developed. when the temple of Zeus. Erlauterung 96. The gaps were filled with marble rubble (among other things. . For the first time. were destroyed. although this later village like its predecessor was profaned by a wine press in the The church was re-built to a minor scale. in Topagraphie und Geschichte van Olympia. The houses were also generally of smaller proportions. observed. A relatively ("nachantikes well attested example is the so-called "post-Antique house" Haus") west of the church (fig. Boetticher. zu dem Bauwerke. W. the wall of spoils was partly torn down and built over. Mallwitz. one of it with a simple hearth. 12-41. raised work benches. 92. the pediment statues). Subsequently. From an open yard. built-in pithoi and a raised working area being recognizable as a kitchen. Olympiabericht. 2)9. Berlin 1958. For the provision of building material many ancient buildings were torn down and their elements ('spolia') were used as a resource not only for the construction of the fortification wall and of the Christian church. Adler. Boetticher. 38. Olympia in Late Antiquity. houses and graves were now built also in the former Altis. probably by an earthquake (551 AD. A large part of the pediment sculptures were incorporated houses. The old excavators admittedcalled this settlement. Lageplan der byzantinischen 96-97. Geschichte des Untergangs. but also for the building of private houses. 32-34. the wall of spoils. there was Built-in pithoi and simple hearths as well as occasional plaster work can be 7. This first settlement phase lasted until the first half or even more likely until the middle of the 6th century. Viilling. a fact which is entirely absent from the older phase. and the Heraion opistodomon. Der Baubefund. Olympia. Fig. inadequately -as they themselves was is significantly placed building the "Slavic huts". a new village emerged with a focus east of the temple of Zeus in the structure of these (fig. Geschichte des Untergangs. too.?)7. This new level of occupation single houses. Adler. 9. in 6. The walls of many houses were built by roughly rectangular spolia from older buildings standing vertically end to end. tiles and stones without mortar but presumably with mud to bind them. 4. Das Gebiet slidlich der Bader am Kladeos. limited to the eastern central occupied by Greek Christians only8. The houses of this later phase are also distinguishable from their predecessors by their construction.To this first settlement phase belong also private houses usually consisting of several large rooms. Diirpfeld.

into villagesll. Vor. Gregory. Ein frUhbyzantinisches Kaiserzeit und in der Spatantike Th. .V. 10. and horticulture and fenced areas for small livestock were established on empty spaces. Rizakis. ed. Idem. in Achaia und EIis in Symposiums Athen. 453-454 No. eds. IV. 41. Strocka. Its westernmost a working platform and a pithos. Major Papers. D. Former transformed winepresses12. Volling. In addition to this. Th. New Rochelle-New 137-154. Befunde Die Arbeiten Lowenkopfen". Lanham-New Ladstatter. 399-418. in Beyond York-London 12. the production of bronze ornaments such as bracelets. Regional Studies in the Aegean Area. C. Archaeology P. Th. von Archiio- n. Athenische Mitteilungen 110 (1995). M. 19. clay moulds and lime kilns point to the working of clay and the production of lime. 373-378. E. A.access to a small side-room and to the residential house separated in at least three room is characterized as a kitchen zone by 10. in Hanna Philipp. also a coin treasure of the 2nd half of the 6th century was found deposited in a spathion The significant differences in the building and settlement pattern between the two occupation phases are not limited to Olympia. Mai 1989.und FrUhgeschichtlern. Nikephoros 8 (1995). Ein frUhbyzantinischer Hortfund aus Olympia. Bronzeschmuck aus Olympia. Th. Athenische Agricultural Implements from Olympia. Olympia wiihrend der romischen 1995. MlhpE~ der Antike. Th. The community of Olympia participated. but form part of a ruralisation tendency recognizable allover the Balkan Peninsula The original settlement structures decayed. Jahrhundert Desintegration vom 5. in Palast und HUtte: Beitriige zum Bauen und Wohnen im Altertum in Early Byzantine Urban Life: The Contribution and Theoretical Considerations 1994. V. G. MXVCilV 14. Russel1. if only in a modest 10. Early Byzantine Mwarivn KO! in npwro!3vzovnvn 'O?Jvpn[o (in print). 13. und Ruralisation der Stadt im Ost-Illyricum 11. D. Kardulias. on the Transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages in the Aegean Regions. perhaps fingerrings and belt buckles as well as the repair of copper vessels tell of the presence of bronze smiths. Athens npwro!3vzovnvn MEaarivn 'O?Jvpn[o (in print). Iron slag and a possible smithy attest the presence of blacksmiths. Papenfuss . Schauer. Volling. small houses were built of clay and stone.-21. 545-566. Akten npCilTOxplonavlKn~Enoxn~ an6 mv Oi\lJl1nia. too14. Sinn. aID U. ed. 10. des 1. rooms of different size. Heiligtum. Martin. im Jahr zur spatantiken the Side. Volling. Fig.. base of the community in Olympia is indicated by several while ovens and kilns were banned to the outskirts of the village due The economic cities were to the fire hazard. Rotation querns and iron tools attest the growing of vine and cereals13. 137-159. N. Here. 111 (1996). T. bis 7. Popovic. Most aus a1ten Mitteilungen A. KO! MEi\EInl1QTa 13. and Limitations logen. Siedlung im vormaligen 171-174. in The 17th International Byzantine Congress. Mallwitz. J. internationalen 1991. Volling. Transformations Evidence. Baubefund. Volling. of Archaeological York 1986. "Neuer Gemach der a1ten Grabung in Olympia. Chr. Mainz 1982. KEpa111K6~Ki\illavo~ TOlJ 50lJ alaNa omv Oi\lJl1nia.

in Olympiabericht analysied by myself as part of the project "Olympia in Late Antiquity" and will be published in Olympische ~orschungen. Boetticher. 251. 15. A. Byzantinische 445. Sinn. Olympia IV. Berlin 1981. Geburtstag. "Der Vogel auf dem Kreuz". or even of marble in the case of the grave "richest" because of its grave goods. i. sherds. Brehm . there are only inhumations. Berlin 1890. Die Bronzen und die librigen kJeineren Funde von Olympia. Martin. Finally. . Veiling. Kyrieleis. U. remischen Idem. 103. Die Arbeiten van 1987-1992. The new Christian era of Olympia is above all affirmed by nearly 200 early Christian burials that are scattered over the entire area of the excavations17. Furtwangler. Syria. eds. and amphorae from the Aegean. bent Laconian tiles that were closed at the head and foot end by smaller tiles or no break in the supply of fine-ware. all the others were west-east oriented. Bronzen. 211-216. Roman and Late Antique Fine Wares at Olympia. and bread stamps. Lamps. Berlin 1994. Often there was more than one skeleton in a grave. belt buckles as Olympische Forschungen 13. 1966. fine ceramics mostly from Northern Africa. 21 Abb. TaL 71. Die Ausgrabungen 1962 bis 9. 208. incense containers. 28. 'Avrlp.e. Hortfund. 37. no cremation graves were found until the present day. This is shown by coins as well as by imported oil lamps. 79. Except for five south-north oriented graves. O. a decrease of imported ooj'ects occurred15. Tile graves were mainly built in a roof-shape. A. 31. 491-498. The Christian grave finds will be studied and 17. H.manner. Asia Minor. Ein frUhchristliches Symbol aus Olympia. Kleinfunde aus Olympia. and Palestine. These multiple burials occurred only in the stone cists while the tile graves -with two exceptionsonly contained one skeleton each. No earlier than in show that people followed changes in the fashion even the 6th century. many clothing or jewellery items are decorated with Christian symbols16. Next to the church numerous small finds with clearly Christian symbols are a further indication for Christianity and how everyday life was permeated by the new religion. Although different types of graves are represented. Festschrift flir Max Wegner zum 90. Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta 35 (1997). 16. in MouaJKo. Th. burials with up to nine corpses having been found.S. in a network of widespread trade relations. The always rectangular stone cist burials mostly consist of eight stone slabs made of shellusually by using four slightly limestone. the body lay on its back with the head in the west looking east. Th. Archiiologischer Anzeiger 1996. Furtwangler. 145-154. but simple trench graves as well as one walled tomb and one pithos burial also exist. Bericht Uber das Forschungsprojekt Nikephoros 5 (1992). Bonn 1992. Olympia. Veiling. 208-213. "Olympia wahrend der Kaiserzeit" I. The grave types mainly consist of stone slab cists or tile graves. The closure of the sanctuary in the 5th century represents well as garment ornaments here in the hinterlands. Klie.

Thus. however. beads. These grave goods fit well into a region extending from Syria and Palestine in the east to southern Spain in the west. 135 No. and necklaces) 18. In eleven stone cistgraves pottery was found. contain only one clothing or jewellery item. bracelets. 102 No. Personal items such as rings (earrings. Most of the graves. A. glass vessels. of Olympia and also beads are present in three 18. To this group of graves with a "better equipment" belongs grave 21. and furthermore two silver earrings and a bronze bracelet19. Philipp. Dissertation. in nine cases it was the only grave good. Die friihbyzantinische tung. 326. in Siidspanien. All the pottery vessels are wheel-made of local Olympian production. zur Definition. 3). 20. 3. Here. G. 358. Florchinger. only a few burials are distinguished by several different ornaments. It contained two small silver pins with clover-leaf shaped or polygonal head and two large pins also with polygonal head. Rahden/Westf. Studien zur Vor. with notes 9-13. True grave goods such as pottery pitchers. the only one in Olympia constructed of marble spoils (fig. Furtwangler. It is interesting pottery and tools (e.Small finds existed in 71 burials (fig.u. Bemerkungen 19. coins or bells were found in 13 graves only. in late Roman traditionmostly for the remaining finds the grave type is unknown. Freiburg 1979. Bronzeschmuck. 957. oder Beriihrungsreliquie. 490 (?). one can see chronological differences.g. 19. 4). A. fingerrings. too. Herkunft. G. Philipp. 359. Wasilewski. connected by a small bronze chain with a cross. Konig. Carinthia I 180 (1990). 209. and crucifixes came from 60 graves. knifes or fire-lighters) are totally absent from the grave goods of the Christian Greek population graves only. in which Christian Romance populations practised the custom of placing jugs in the grave. . 255 No. The 7 finds from tile graves appear to be under-represented when compared to the 40 finds from stone and marble cists. 26-29. this habit can as a Christian rite behind which the offering of consecrated water or that -unlike in the neighbouring Slavic graveshand-made be interpreted oil is suspected as a motive20. because the tile graves -standing seem to be the older ones and thus belong to the first settlement phase whereas the stone cists prevailingly belong to the later occupation level of the 2nd half of the 6th century. Romanische VerbreiGraber Bronzen. pins. Parfiimflaschchen Marburger FortJeben und Umkreis. Bronzeschmuck. 163-169. Friihgeschichte 1998. 106 No. Krugbeigabensitte.

1857). 61-62. 22. early excavators and a modern causing people to hide their valuables. Hortfund. NOfllOflOTlKoi . They indicate a reduced settlement activity seemingly later than the hoard find horizon. According to Avramea. F. 85 n. 425-441. 9. ceramics and coins22. connected to the historical accounts of invasions of the Avars and Slavs in Greece. Yet. but with a noticeable destruction layers like damage caused by fire. in other places. Invasion or Inflation? Sixth to Seventh Century Byzantine Coin Hoards in Eastern and Southeastern Numismalica Annali 43 (1996). Curta. too. but also through ceramics and small finds. Europe. offensive weapons such as triangle arrow heads or skeletons without regular burial were not found.illing. back shortly after that incisice event.The end of the settlement. The end of the Christian settlement abandonment in Olympia is well-established above all through coins. Nevertheless. Nopfupara. Postolakas. 49-90. Peloponnese.. Vi. The last inhabitants of Olympia had retreated to the foot of the Kronos Hill for a short time before finally abandoning the settlement24. Slavic people took the land on the Alpheios and Kladeos in their possession. . Their cremation burial grounds were Amongst all the imported ceramics and personal items such as fibulae and belt buckles there is nothing that is typical for the advanced 7th century I suppose that the majority of the inhabitants hastily left Olympia Certainly some of these people came 21.). Istituto Italiano di 23. The coins were only partially dated by the comprehensive undertaken. However. These hoards attest an external threat evaluation has not yet been are First of all. No fewer than twelve hoard finds are known from Olympia. iron tools. eleven of which are coin hoards and one of which is a mixed assemblage of copper vessels. Eadem. collapsed buildings. NOflloflaTlKoi . Immediately or at least shortly afterwards. some of the widespread coin hoards of the late 6th century21.. Thus a violent conquest of the village of Olympia did not take place. 451-454. Anna Avramea. 24. Interestingly. a coin of Heraclius I is supposed to exist at Olympia (Num.9nooupoill Koi f1EflOVCilfl£vO VOfllaflmO ano T11V nEi\on6vvnoo (LT' -Z' 01. 72-81. according to which the of the settlement is to be seen as a longer lasting process. Mus. the latest coins in Olympia -coins of Phocas23are not represented in the hoards but are single finds. Evpp£IKra 5 (1983).9noaupolll. we find in Olympia. 65-224. there is hardly any doubt that the coin hoards all belong to the end of the 6th century and like many other coin hoards from the Peloponnese The hoards were spread over the whole of the settlement emphasis in the area east of the Zeus Temple.

27 metal objects and 37 beads were excavated. J. ALl 17 (1961/62). 1. Urn burial with additional vessels (8 graves) 25. Studies. 260-264. Anagnostakis. Anagnostakis. I. M. Das slawische Urnengraberfeld von Olympia.1J. 5). the reconstructed cemetery is not sufficient for an investigation of the horizontal stratigraphy. ed. Sp. Natalia ed. which could be reconstructed of the old find notices and the inventory books of the museum (fig. Sources.partially uncovered from 1959 to 1967 during the construction of the New Museum north of the Kronos Hill25. I. neither a documentation M. x£lponofmn~ Century. 287-330. Works of the 6th The documentation of the Here the Congress of Slavic Archaeology 1997. The Slavic cremation burials26. 27. Chronika. BUZQvrJQKO np(i)ro~UZQVllvr1 M£Oanvn KQI npo~MllQTQ m~ LUJ. The Early and Middle Helladic Periods in Elis. finds and their interpretation will be published by Vida . J. There are already some shorter or more detailed works dealing with the Slavic finds: I. neither is the site of the cremation of the dead known. Essays on the Slavic World and the Eleventh 17 (1997). Burial with two urns (1 grave) 3. 114-142. Fig. 33. but some also underneath the central hall and south of it in the entrance area of the museum. 119-125. Ex oriente lux. because graves must be expected also in the seemingly empty gaps in between. in Ethnogenesis and Ethnocultural 3. PoulouH x£lponofnm K£pQllIKnQVOll£OQ amv K£pQllIKn~ amv York 1992.. 43 urns and other pottery. However. . were found east of the museum. At any rate it clearly indicates that the necropolis is likely to have comprised originally many more burials. Yalouris. 352-361. I. Brandeis University 1980. vol. Brandgraberfeld. 26. Blankof!. Moskow Slavic Settlements of Greece in the Light of Archaeological International complete Contacts of the Slavs. The Slavic Pottery (Jars) from Olympia. Burial with one urn (16 graves) 2. by means belonging to at least 32 grave complexes. Erdelyi. Greece. N. More detailed notes on grave rites and types of cremation do not exist. Vryonis Jr. Koumouzelis27. Koumouzelis. ApxQlol\oyfQ. Stefanovicova. in Byzantine Vryonis. Unfortunately. 126-133. B1ankoff. Melanges offerts en hommage au prof. By the help of some excavation photographs and remarks on the find labels at least five different kinds of burials can be proven: 1. By help of the excavation areas reconstructed at least 23 graves can be localized approximately. reader will find all proofs and the literature. New Rochelle-New IaropfQ KQI mv H Papadimitriou.VCilling.1flKra 11 (1997). Bruxelles 1991. 105--107. Diss. of the excavation nor excavation plans by Most of them plan of the nor a map of the cemetery exist. n£l\on6wnao. Sp.

and the two vessels finished on the wheel with horizontal bundles of lines or wavy . The hand-made urns and additional vessels in Olympia display changes of form and decoration that can be arranged in a typological order (fig. At least two vessels (graves 13. Cremations with vessels and scattered remains of the pyre «<Brandgru- bengrab") can be assumed. thick walled vessels of a brownish-grey found. from the lower Danube. 6-12. Most handmade vessels in Olympia show influences in shape. cremation without an urn. their belonging to the Slavic grave finds is not quite certain.4. The clay material of the urns and additional vessels is badly processed and mostly intensively tempered with crushed pebbles. limestone and grog. Hand-made and plain fragments are available. Ukraine and also in Slovakia and the Czech Republic). fabric and decoration that can be compared to the earliest Slavic grave and settlement pottery from the Balkan Peninsula. too. plain vessels with a short. 32) belong to the slowly thrown or wheelfinished group of pottery. 6 additional vessels and other decorated 1. because also Late Roman and older finds were made during the excavations around the museum. Moldavia. 6). Moldavia. Amongst the containers there are also two made on a fast-rotating potter's wheel (graves 2b. metal finds and glass beads are available. it is unknown. Hand-made of lines or wavy lines scratched with a comb belong to group 2. Ukraine and Russia. Although the grave goods in the cemetery are very modest altogether. The bone material seems to have been lost apart from a few remains. 3. from Transylvania. but with dress ornaments and tools (1 grave). 15-30): in the cemetery mainly handcolour with yellowish-red spots are made. However. This corresponds to the regional models of development types of Prague-Korcak Hand-made for the Slavic pottery of the characteristic (7) in the different regions (lower and Prague-Pen'kovka Danube region. the construction relative chronology rests particularly on the typological order of the pottery that can be compared to early Slavic and early Avar find complexes in the Carpathian basin and the Danube region. Three groups can be distinguished according to the mode of fabrication: pottery (graves 1-4. 31). Hand-made lines covering nearly the total surface belong to group 3. whether it comprised animal bones. 2. For a typo-chronological investigation 18 complete or amendable urns. straight or only slightly widening rim belong vessels of a similar type with vertical or diagonal bundles vessels to group 1. because in some cases the remark "vessel found within coal and ashes" was written on the find label (6 graves) 5. there are some dress ornaments and tools beside the pottery. However. For the dating pottery of a vessels.

Die Slawen im karpatisch-donaulandischen fUr Archa. La situation en Valachie. With regard to the developed cemeteries and settlements pottery types of the third group with irregular bundles of lines and wavy lines scratched with a comb. 117-147. Raum im 6. 129-130. 31. T. Jahrhundert. 30. In the pottery complex from Olympia. Balcanoslavica 1 (1972). 353-358. 74-88 with further literature. Idem. Asezarile de epoca dacica si prefeudala. Ceramique slave a Argos (586 ap. Bli1jan. in Etudes Argiennes Paris 1980. Z. Diadora 4 (1968). Suppl.). 138-143. Pontica 1 (1968). 33. Comsa. M. in 28. Bonn 29. 221aus dem Dorfe Kasic bei 246. Only the second pottery group in Olympia is comparable to the settlement pottery from Argos and might be dated to the second half of the 7th century31. Ranosredjovjekova u selu Kasicu kraj Zadra. Cirjan. Elements byzantines dans Ia civilisation materielle des VIe-VIlle sieeles dans Ie sud-est de la Transylvanie. Ciupea. analogies can be found in of the 8th century in Croatia (KaCic near Zadar) 33. J.The first and second group of pottery from Olympia allow a cultural allocation of the cremation cemetery to the complex Ipote§ti-Ciurel-Clnde§ti from the lower river Danube28 as well as to the pottery of the Prague-Pen'kovka culture from Moldavia and from the middle river Dnjepr.I. These pots with a slightly widening rim decorated with finger prints and types with a short funnel mouth show an eastern. 641-652. Prague-Korcak) urns from are identical with regard to shape and fabric to the younger urns of the necropolis of Sarata Monteoru in Muntenia (end of 6th century/early 7th century)29 and the pottery from the cemetery of Turda§ and Girlita and from the settlement of Comana de Jos and Poian in Transylvania30. 73-86. I. there are some vessels different in shape from the typical Slavic types.-C.s. 6). Bruint. Die awarenzeitliche Keramik I.. Un cimitir de incineratie din see. Die ersten slawischen Urnengraber Zadar. This early horizon of pottery from the early 7th century has not yet been identified at other sites in Greece. Dacia n. Jahrhundert. For a more precise dating it is important that the early undecorated Olympia (type Prague-Pen'kovka. steppe-nomadic influence and point towards the eastern European steppes and the Carpathian basin under the early Avars32. 197-228. 18 (1984). J. Dacia n. Vienna 1992. Studien zu Graberfeldern des 6. U. Costea . 32.Fl. C. Alba). Budapest Nekorpola 1999. Fiedler. P. Belosevic. Cs. Zeitschrift (Ve-VlIe La culture "Ipote§ti-Ciurel-Cinde§ti" sieeles). Cimitirul feudal-timpuriu de Ia Glrli\a. Glodariu . Comana de Jos. Dolinescu-Ferche. an der unteren Donau.-7.M. Acta Musei Napocensis 10 (1973). Aupert. Szekely.s. 15 (1971). auf dem Gebiete Jugoslawiens . bis zum 10. Steppenvolker zwischen Volga und Donau vom 6. (= BCH. Die Archa'ologie der Steppe. I. S. bis 9. Vida. Hiea . VIII Ia Turda§ (Jud. Fagars 1980.'ologie 7 (1973). 409425. Jahrhunderts 1992. 373-394.

G. 1995. Cremosnik.D. Other necklaces. Mitteilungen in Muisici und Batkovici. rings. Keramik und KleinFunde aus der Damokratia-Basilika der Steppe. Velikije Budki.). zur Geschichte Studien maja. Innsbruck 1994. 462-485 (with previous lit. Last but not least.n. Summarized Metallkunst. (zu Satu Nou. area of Kanev etc. Studien zu Graberfeldern.). The fastener of the rings can be reconstructed by means of other finds. A M6ra Ferenc MLizeum Evkonyve 39. though of a different technique. 7). 59-64. 36. . Kidd. Mittelalterarch.). Argos. Satu Nou. Scseglova. Dber den ersten Fund der a1testen slawischen Siedlung in Bosnien. Cimitiruel nr. mit a1terer Lit. Aupert. Razdelna)36 and in Greece (Argos. Z. 35-55. z. I. e. Nalbant. E. L. g. Der Silberschatz von Martinovka. Zaharia. These find sites are situated outside the Carpathians and outside the area occupied by the Avars and indicate earrelations to the Martynovka group at the middle river Dnjepr (e. Aluta 6-7 (1974zu Graberfeldern. similar neck-rings are known from Central European silver treasures and find complexes in Zalesie. Peuce 2 (1971). Fettich. 1. One end is shaped into a little hook. Filia§)35. Die im Lichte der Untersuchungen Untersuchungen WissenschaFtl. J. Tulceal.. der spiithunnischen Hungarica 31. Jh. 5 (1975). Bucuresti 1977. Demetrias) 37. A Kozepproble- tfpusu" kincsleletek tanumiinyozasiinaknehany I. 86-92. however. Archaeologia by N. Zemiansky Vrbovok/Nemesvarb6k and Cadjavica dating to the second half of the 7th century39. 221-248. the necklaces were found in male graves. These neck-rings from grave 19 and 26 are wrought of square wire while the two ends are hammered flat and broadened. Studien feudaHimpurie Bratei. Budapest . Monogr. BatkoviCi) 34. F.g. A.Studia Archaeologica Archiiologische 1951.Bosnia (MuisiCi. in Muisici und Zabljak. Next to the ceramic finds two iron necklaces are of great importance for the cultural historic classification of the find material of Olympia (fig. in Demetrias. Fiedler. in Romania (e. Die a1testen Ansiedlungen und Kultur der Slawen in Bosnien und Herzegowina Balcanoslavica Landesmuseums 1 (1972). VI-IX. Bonn 1981. Studien zur Archaologie der Awaren 4. where they are part of a women's fashion 38. There. Simion. Szekely. strap-end fittings with the motive of two horns. Koloskovo. AwarenForschungen. star-shaped with widening ends). Idem. sometimes Martynovka. Idem. u. Archiiologie Azerbajdzan) und der beschlagverzierte 37. und 7. V. Ta£. Asezari din sec. Populatia romaneasca 75). FrUhgesch. Wien 1992. Eiwanger. Similar necklaces (called "grivny" in the Russian literature) belong to the oldest group of the so-called "treasures of the Antes" or rather "Martynovka group" from the middle river Dnjepr dating into the 6th and 7th centuries (Kozievka. Balint. GUrtel im 6. 389-401. Demetrias IV. I. de la Nalbant (jud. in Bulgaria (Garvan. Das Grab von Dc Tepe (Sowj. 375-397. in sud-estul Transilvaniei. des Bosnisch-Herzegowinischen in Transilvania in secolele 420-422 VII-VllI. Furthermore. 91-175. Petarskaja . O. while the other end was made into a ring or was perforated for the closing of the hook. are known from the Baltic region. Necropola Fiedler. Daim.g. ed. 38. Dnyeper-videki "ant regisegek" vagy "martinoka 1. 2 de la 35. hollow sheet metal arm-rings similar silver necklaces with widening ends were 34. Bratei 2. See e.

found in some Early Avar grave complexes of south-western in Villany and Terehegy40. Although some of the glass beads are damaged by heat. the beads are nearly as important for the dating as the pottery. 5. but analogies can be found in early Slavic graves at the lower river Danube. Z. that the knives can hardly be dated to any certainty at present.Studia Archaeologica II. The light green beads with a roundish section. Small iron knives are a frequent grave good found in 12 graves (see fig. (Typologische in vizsgaIata Untersuchung der fruh. 22. The 37 glass beads from 8 graves (No. Perlen in A Mora Ferenc Slovenskd Muzeum Evkonyve . 42. It is true. 59.215. Frauenschmuck Jahrhundert im Karpatenbecken. 43. Also. Budapest 1977. At any rate. A magyarorszagi kora es kozep avar kori gyongyok aus Ungarn). beads found in south-eastern Europe have not yet been extensively dealt with41. 1996. The custom of depositing tools in the grave was not practised amongst the early Byzantine Christians neither in Olympia nor at other places in the south of Greece. they are testimonies of an eastern European fashion tradition unfamiliar within the Byzantine Empire. 10. . 87. 23. 29. 2. tear-shaped date into the late 7th century. bead with a bronze pipe are likely to 40. Cemeteries of the Avar Period (567-829) Hungary. but the type chronology of the period of the Avars can be applied42.3. Kiss. some find complexes of the Mediterranean region are known that might bear some chronological relevance. 5) and also as single finds. 195. A. 43. 78-81. Pannonia. 8) belong to two different time horizons both of which show late Antique to early Byzantine influence43. Pasztor. tipol6giai 41. 25. Acheol6gia 23 (1975).und mitlelawarischen aus dem 7. C1. too. 1. Fiedler. 19. Avar Cemeteries in County Baranya. the shape of a melon-pip and a bronze pipe that are dominant in the cemetery of Olympia belong to the older horizon (7th century). 14. and lived on into the Middle Ages. However. see fig. 648-652). Similar beads sporadically occur in early Avar find complexes (second half 7th century) such as Szegvar-Sapoldal (with imitation of coin Constans II. for example These neck-rings belong to an eastern European women's fashion developed in the 5th and 6th century under late Antique and early Byzantine influence that was popular with Slavs. The blue triple-bead and a light green. The iron necklaces from Olympia may be simple imitations of the decorated silver examples from the Martynovka group. A. Graberfelder.-8. According to their shape these beads are imitations of amethyst beads used for elaborate Byzantine jewellery. PI. Budakal<isz or Nagyharsan y. with fig. Cilinska.

in addition to this. however. very rare to be archaeologically. by thin beads in the made of black or dark blue glass and beads with three or four Similar beads are absent from the cemetery of Sarata Monteoru. From the region of the Christian settlement melon-pip of Olympia quite a number of beads is known. in Moldavia and on the middle river Dnjepr in the 7th and 8th centuries. no Slavic pottery has been found in the Olympian settlement short period of time. So far. The use of the Slavic cemetery extends from the early 7th century until at least the late 8th century. Thin beads of dark glass in the shape of a melon-pip ?ipes. Although there are of course influences of early Byzantine material culture. The case of a direct replacement on the border between late Antiquity and early Middle Ages is. although their settlement and agricultural areas remain yet unknown. none of them with a bronze pipe or in the shape of a that might be compared to the ones from the cremations. A second phase showing the characteristic features of early Slavic pottery of the Prague-Korcak (late 7th/early 8th centuries) characterized by hand-made only sometimes contain small bronze pottery. this is the first site in southern Greece where a Slavic occupation is safely attested for a longer period of time. hand-made ceramics and is According to the evidence of the urns and other small finds. while hints as to the Christian Greek population formerly resident at the site are absent. occupation started in the 2nd quarter of the 7th century A. although documented Olympia known from the written sources. decorated with irregular wavy lines. Now. but are present in the cemetery of Bratei 2 where they are dated into the 8th century. not even for a With the beginning of the Slavic occupation. especially the beads and the prototypes of the iron necklaces. Thus.D. with undecorated the Prague-Pen'kovka type. The Slavic inhabitants at the river Kladeos are attested for no less than 175 years. one of the few existing examples seems to be Thus. one can assume that the two groups did not live side by side. Pelops and the Pelopids once lived rivers Alpheios and Kladeos seems to have expired as was lamented by an unknown commentator . we do not know until the present day. similar objects from the Christian settlement of Olympia and. 6) corresponds with the conditions on the lower river Danube.The younger horizon of the 8th century is represented shape of a melon-pip concave sides. the Late Antique life at the of Strabo: "Salmoneus. Amongst the youngest forms (8th century) are finally vessels with horizontal wavy bands reworked on a potter's wheel or thrown on a slow potter's wheel. the pottery development recognizable at Olympia (see fig. Oinomaos.

RE II 4 A. §16. Paris 1861. dated them without giving reasons to the 7th c. Kaukones and Pylians are not even recalled by a name these days. Strabon. Greek historiography of the east "Scythians" cannot be a doubt about the term referring to Slavs. However. 1932. Geographi Graeci Minores. Aly. because this whole area is occupied Scythians"44. in the case quoted above there are normally dated to the 10th Ausgaben. Epitomator of Strabo (c. Handschriften. A waren. repr. that nowadays is called Visa. In an Antique scholarly tradition. 1965. II. . but Pohl. Hildesheim after Herodotus called all peoples independently of their ethnic origin. Uberlieferungsgeschichte. 152). 109. 583 §21).in Pisa. The Strabo-Epitome century Stuttgart (see W. by 44. Muller. But the Pisates.

.

2 Plan and possible reconstruction of the "Post-antique House" west of the church (2nd half of the 6th century A.D.) (see note 9).Nachantikes Nordteil von Haus Haus im I \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \~ ~ _--~~:~ -- LLLLJL ~T IS.~"""\ Fig. .

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