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Active Harmonic Filtering Using Current Controlled GridConnected DG Units with Closed-Loop Power Control
Jinwei He, Student Member, IEEE, Yun Wei Li, Senior Member, IEEE, Frede Blaabjerg, Fellow, IEEE, and Xiongfei Wang, Student Member, IEEE
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Abstract —The increasing application of nonlinear loads may cause distribution system power quality issues. In order to utilize DG unit interfacing converters to actively compensate harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach, which seamlessly integrates system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current controller has two well decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, local nonlinear load harmonic current detection and distribution system harmonic voltage detection are not necessary for the proposed harmonic compensation method. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is employed to directly derive the fundamental current reference without using any phase locked loops (PLL). The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts of steady-state fundamental current tracking errors in the DG units. Thus, an accurate power control is realized even when the harmonic compensation functions are activated. In addition, this paper also briefly discusses the performance of the proposed method when DG unit is connected to a grid with frequency deviation. Simulated and experimental results from a single-phase DG unit validate the correctness of the proposed methods. Index Terms— Distributed generation, phase-locked loop (PLL), harmonic extraction, resonant controller, virtual impedance, active power filter, harmonic compensation. I. INTRODUCTION

To compensate distribution system harmonic distortions, a number of active and passive filtering methods have been developed [3]. However, installing additionally filters is not very favorable due to cost concerns. Alternatively, distribution system power quality enhancement using flexible control of grid-connected DG units is becoming an interesting topic [512], where the ancillary harmonic compensation capability is integrated with the DG primary power generation function through modifying control references. This idea is especially attractive considering that the available power from backstage renewable energy resources is often lower than the power rating of DG interfacing converters. For the local load harmonic current compensation methods as discussed in [5-12], an accurate detection of local load harmonic current is important. Various types of harmonic detection methods [4] have been presented, such as the Fourier transformation based detection method in [13], the detection scheme using instantaneous real and reactive power theory in [14], Second-Order Generalized Integrator (SOGI) in [15], and the delayed signal cancellation based detection in [32]. Nevertheless, harmonic extraction process substantially increases the computing load of DG unit controllers. For a cost effective DG unit with limited computing ability, complex harmonic extraction methods might not be acceptable. Alternatively, an interesting harmonic detection-less method was proposed in [16, 17]. It shows that the main grid current can be directly controlled to be sinusoidal, instead of regulating DG output current to absorb local load harmonics. In this scenario, local load current is essentially treated as a disturbance in the grid current regulation loop. It should be noted that DG system normally has smaller stability margin when the direct control of grid current is employed. In addition, for the shunt active harmonic filtering via point of connection (PoC) harmonic voltage detection (also named as resistive active power filter (R-APF) in [12, 23]), the control techniques in [16, 17] cannot be used. Alternatively, the recently proposed hybrid voltage and current control method (HCM) [30] also allows the compensation of local load harmonics without using any harmonic detection process, where the well understood droop control scheme [22] is adopted to regulate the output power of the DG unit. Further considering that droop control based DG unit often features slow power control dynamics [21] and current controlled DG units are more widely installed in the distribution system, developing a robust current control based harmonic compensation method without using any system harmonic detection is very necessary. It is worth mentioning that the DG real and reactive power control performance shall not be affected during the harmonic compensation. To satisfy this requirement, the fundamental DG current reference shall be calculated according to power references. Conventionally, the fundamental current reference can be determined based on the assumption of ripple-free grid voltage with fixed magnitude, and the PLL is used to

Due to the growing importance of renewable energy based power generation, a large number of power electronics interfaced DG units have been installed in the low voltage power distribution systems [1]. It has been reported that the control of interfacing converters can introduce system resonance issues [2]. Moreover, the increasing presence of nonlinear loads, such as variable speed drives, light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), etc., will further degrade distribution system power quality.

Part of the work in this paper has been presented at the Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC2013), Long Beach, California, USA. Copyright © 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permission@ieee.org. The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada. (email: hjinwei@ualberta.ca and yunwei.li@ualberta.ca) and Aalborg University, Denmark. (email: fbl@et.aau.dk and xwa@et.aau.dk)

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Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted. For any other purposes, permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee.org.

synchronize the fundamental current reference with the main grid. In order to improve the power quality of grid current ( I ). B.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. 18-20] are adopted to ensure rapid current tracking * VPWM = Gcur ( s ) × ( I ref . which is synchronized with PoC voltage (V ) as I ref _ f = (cos(q ) × Pref + sin(q ) × Q ref ) E* First.3.. However. Conventional local load harmonic current compensation Fig.V P oC a _ f × I ref b _ f ) where I _ and I _ are the DG fundamental current reference and its orthogonal component in the artificial α − β reference frame.org. In contrast to the conventional control methods with harmonic detection. Content may change prior to final publication. To overcome this drawback. For any other purposes. considering that PoC voltage magnitude often varies due to the distribution system power flow fluctuations. the proportional and multiple resonant controllers [12. Conventional feeder resonance voltage compensation It should be pointed out that the objective of local load harmonic compensation is to ensure sinusoidal grid current I 2 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. Afterwards. and the second one is employed to compensate local load harmonic current or feeder resonance voltage. due to variations of the PoC voltage magnitude. the fundamental PoC voltage V _ and its orthogonal component V _ (quarter cycle delayed respect to V _ ) are obtained by using SOGI [15] as V PoC a _ f = V P oC b _ f = 2w D 1 s × V PoC s + 2w D 1 s + w 2 f 2 (2) 2w D 1w f s + 2w D 1 s + w 2 f 2 × V PoC (3) where ω is the cut-off bandwidth of SOGI and ω is the fundamental angular frequency. Simulated and experimental results from a single-phase DG unit validate the effectiveness of the proposed DG control method. ω is the cutoff frequency of the resonant controller. this paper proposes an improved current controller with two parallel control branches. a detailed discussion on the proposed control strategy is presented... In order to ensure accurate power tracking performance. As shown.I1 ) 2 2 s + 2wc s + w h h = f . where V is the reference voltage for pulse width modulation (PWM) processing.. There is a local load at PoC. the DG harmonic current reference ( _ ) is produced I ref _ h = G D ( s ) × I Local = 2 2 h = 3.5. an improved power control method with consideration of PoC voltage magnitude fluctuations [11] was developed as shown in the following of this subsection. the harmonic components of local load current ( I ) shall be absorbed through DG current ( I ) regulation. 1 illustrates the configuration of a single-phase DG system. Similarly. the DG current reference is written as I = I _ + I _ . P and Q are the real and reactive power reference.7 . Moreover. . Alternatively. A. with simple PI regulation in the outer power control loop. The first one is the fundamental current reference ( I _ ). to absorb the harmonic current of local nonlinear load. relationships between the power reference and the fundamental reference current can be established in the artificial stationary α − β reference frame as shown in (4) and (5) Pref = 1 2 × (V P o C a _ f × I ref a _ f + V P oC b _ f × I ref b _ f ) (4) (5) Q ref = 1 2 × (V P o C b _ f × I ref a _ f . the proposed DG unit also achieves zero steady-state power tracking errors even when the fundamental current tracking has some steady-state errors. the PoC voltage and local load current can be directly used as the input of the proposed current controller. and these power bias cannot be directly addressed in the control method in [7]. and E ∗ is the nominal voltage magnitude of the system. a DG unit using the compensation strategies in the conventional active power filters is briefly discussed. the fundamental current reference can also be calculated through the “power-current transformation” in [7]. the current reference generator in (1) is not accurate in controlling DG power. the interactions between distorted DG current and PoC harmonic voltages may contribute some DC real and reactive power bias [31]. DG UNITS WITH HARMONIC COMPENSATION In this section. With the derived fundamental and harmonic current references. The first control branch is responsible for DG unit fundamental current control.. According to (4) and (5).. its current reference consists of two parts.9.15 å (8) where θ is the PoC voltage phase angle detected by PLL. s + 2w D 2 s + w h å 2w D 2 s × I Local (7) where G (s) is the transfer function of the harmonic extractor. 25]. II. To simplify the operation of DG units with ancillary harmonic compensation capabilities while maintaining accurate power control. permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee. where only the detected PoC voltage fundamental component is used in the calculation. K is the resonant controller gain at the order h. a closed-loop DG power control is necessary. For a single-phase DG system. Personal use is permitted. To realize selective harmonic compensation performance [24. without affecting the harmonic compensation accuracy of the DG unit. However. where the interfacing converter is connected to the distribution system with a coupling choke (L and R ). the instantaneous fundamental current reference (I _ ) of a single-phase DG unit can be obtained as I ref _ f = I ref a _ f = 2(VPoCa _ f × Pref + V PoC b _ f × Qref ) 2 2 V PoC a _ f + V PoC b _ f (6) Moreover. this method may cause nontrivial power control errors. K is the proportional gain of the current controller G (s) . but has not been fully edited. V _ and V _ are PoC fundamental voltage and its orthogonal component. for a DG unit with the ancillary harmonic compensation capability. and ω is the angular frequency at fundamental and selected harmonic frequencies. However.5.I1 ) = (K p + ∗ (1) 2 K ihwc s ) × ( I ref _ f + I ref _ h . Afterwards. The DG unit control scheme is illustrated in the lower part. G (s) is designed to have a set of band-pass filters with cutoff frequency ω .

. which can not address the power offset introduced by harmonics interactions. To address the resonance issue associated with long underground cables. interactions between DG harmonic current and PoC harmonic voltage may cause some steady-steady DG power offset [31]. C. the PoC voltage can be distorted especially when it is connected to the main grid through a long underground cable with nontrivial parasitic capacitance [8. Note that in (13) and (14). P and Q are measured DG power with low pass filtering as PDG = 1 × (VPCCa × I1a + VPCC b × I1b ) 2(t s + 1) 1 × (VPCC b × I1a . k are proportional and integral control parameters.org.QDG ) + ref s t s +1 ( E * )2 (11) I1 I ref VPoCa _f I ref_f VPoCb _f Pref Qref (12) I ref_h Fig. respectively. the harmonic current is absorbed by the DG unit. 26]. Nevertheless. 1. Diagram of a DG unit with PoC harmonic voltage mitigation capability.PDG ) + ref s t s +1 (E * )2 Q kI 2 1 )×( × Qref . k . For any other purposes. the feeder is often modeled by an LC ladder [23. the power control using fundamental current reference in (6) is still in an open-loop manner. the voltage quality at different positions of the feeder can be improved. In this case. 2. When it is applied to the current 3 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. the power offset caused by harmonic voltage and harmonic current interactions is also considered. when it is viewed at power distribution system level [33-34]. E ∗ is the nominal voltage magnitude of the DG unit. the DG harmonic current reference in this case is modified as QDG = (14) where I α is the non-filtered DG current expressed in the stationary α − β frame ( I = I α ) and I β is its delayed orthogonal component. I1 Lf Rf I2 Lg Rg Note that for the local load harmonic current compensation and the PoC harmonic voltage compensation. Personal use is permitted. Diagram of a DG unit with local load harmonic current compensation capability. DG unit should not actively regulate the PoC voltage quality. the instantaneous fundamental current reference (including both magnitude and phase angle information) can be determined by a simple closed-loop power control strategy as I ref _ f = g1 ×VPoCa + g 2 × VPoC b VGrid (10) VPWM VPoC I Load VPoC where V is the non-filtered PoC voltage expressed in the α − β reference frame ( V =V ) and V is its orthogonal component. but has not been fully edited. The detailed regulation law is shown in (11) and (12) as V * PWM g1 = ( k p1 + g 2 = (k p 2 + P kI1 1 )×( × Pref . the R-APF concept can also be embedded in the DG unit current control as illustrated in Fig. the DG unit essentially works as a small equivalent harmonic resistor at the end of the feeder. Consequently. it can be seen that the fundamental current reference in (10) will be distorted if PoC voltage has some ripples.1. τ is the time constant of first-order low pass filters. The gains g1 and g2 are adjustable and they are used to control DG unit real and reactive power. With this harmonic current reference (9). As a result. Content may change prior to final publication. k . In this control mode. where k .2. Although the proposed closed-loop power control method eliminates power tracking errors.1. In order to achieve accurate power control performance in current controlled DG units. P and Q are the real and reactive power references. Proposed harmonic compensation method I ref I ref_f VPoCa _f VPoCb _f Pref Qref I ref_h I Local Fig.VPCCa × I1b ) 2(t s + 1) (13) in Fig. By providing sufficient damping effects to the long feeder. permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee. 23].This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. I1 Lf Rf I2 Lg Rg VPoC VGrid I ref _ h = ( - 1 ) × (G D ( s ) × VPoC ) RV (9) VPWM I Local * VPWM VPoC I1 where R is the virtual damping resistance at harmonic frequencies. Compared to Fig.

15 å I1 I1a QDG I1b 2 K if w c s s 2 + 2w c s + w 2 f I1 VPoC_a VPoC_b g1 g2 PDG Pref Qref I ref_f Fig. Also an accurate real and reactive power control is guaranteed by two PI regulators in the power control loop. if the DG unit needs to be connected to a utility grid with nontrivial frequency variations. It is important to mention that grid voltage frequency variations [35] often affect the power control accuracy and the harmonic compensation performance of the DG unit.. Accordingly. When the local load current or the PoC voltage are directly employed as the input of the harmonic control branch (see (16)). the harmonic current reference in (15) can have three options as given in (16) 2 K if wc s Branch1: power control s 2 + 2wc s + w 2 f × ( I ref _ f . where only harmonic resonant controllers are included. to alleviate the impact of frequency variation to DG harmonic current tracking accuracy.. . the local load current or PoC voltage without any filtering is directly used as the input of the harmonic control branch. it is possible to remove the harmonic extraction blocks in (7). a small proportional gain K is used to ensure superior harmonic current tracking. The diagram of the proposed control method is presented in Fig. Additionally. wide bandwidth (ω ) harmonic resonant controllers should be considered in (15). However..I1 ) Branch1: power control Branch 2: harmonic control (15) As shown. an improved proportional and resonant controller with two control branches is proposed as * = VPWM In summary. These fundamental components may cause interference with the power control branch.5. Meanwhile.I1 ) + Gh ( s ) × ( I ref _ h . permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee. but has not been fully edited. controller in (8). As PI controllers are used in the closed loop power control in (11) and (12). It shows that the PLL and harmonic detection as shown in the conventional harmonic compensation schemes in (7) and (9) are removed from the proposed DG controller. Content may change prior to final publication. further considering that the fundamental current tracking in (15) essentially behaves as an inner loop of the proposed closed-loop DG power ( P and Q ) regulation in (10).org. 3. This is very similar to the performance of conventional DG unit without any compensation. the DG unit still has zero steady-state power control error even when its fundamental current tracking has some errors. the harmonic control branch ensures that the DG current is ripple-free. the impacts of harmonic components in I _ can be automatically filtered out. To overcome this drawback. On the other hand.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. the power control branch will not introduce any obvious harmonic disturbances to the harmonic control branch in (15).15 s + 2wc s + w h Branch 2: harmonic control 2 å = G f ( s ) × ( I ref _ f . I1 Lf Rf VPWM VPoC RLoad I Local * VPWM I ref_ h 0 I Local VPoC -1/ R V VPoC VPoCa VPoCb I1 KP + 2 Kihwc s 2 2 s + 2wc s + wh h =3. the fundamental current reference in (10) is regulated by the “power control” branch in (15). zero steady-state power control error can still be realized even when grid voltage frequency has variations. Considering some non-characteristic harmonics exist the system.I1 ) ILocal Local nonlinear load compensaion ì ï Iref _ h = í-VPoC / RV Feeder resonance voltage compensaion ï 0 DG harmonic current rejection î (16) With the proposed method in (15) and the control reference in (16).. Therefore. + (K P + 2 K ihwc s ) × ( I ref _ h . the harmonic current reference I _ is regulated by the “harmonic control” branch. Personal use is permitted. Diagram of a DG unit with the proposed control scheme.I1 ) 2 h = 3. As fundamental resonant controller is not included in the harmonic control branch. Note that when the harmonic current reference I _ is set to zero. As a result. the distorted fundamental current reference will affect the performance of DG harmonic current tracking... a frequency estimator can be adopted to detect the frequency of the grid. it seems there is a complication.5. In this case. As only fundamental resonant controller is adopted in this branch. the fundamental current tracking will have steady-state errors. where the DG unit current is controlled to be sinusoidal. 4 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. 3. For any other purposes. the proportional gain K in (15) makes the output of harmonic control branch has some fundamental components.

Thus. Additionally. the current source H (s)I _ is responsible for regulating DG unit fundamental current. B.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. On the other hand. 5. the closed-loop DG current response can be given as I 1 = H f ( s ) × I ref _ f + H h ( s ) × I ref _ h . Additionally.V P o C ) = 1 × (V P W M . permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee.5 Td × s × V P*W M VPoC Hc (s) × I ref = H c (s) × ( I ref_f + I ref_h ) (19).5 T d × s × G f ( s ) × G In d ( s ) 1 + e . the delay of DG control [28] is written as V P W M = e . Equivalent circuit of a DG unit using the proposed current control method. Modeling of the proposed current control method It is well understood that the current controlled inverter shall be described as a closed-loop Norton equivalent circuit [27. a modified Norton equivalent circuit with two controlled current sources can be applied to demonstrate the unique behavior of the proposed controller. and (19). It can be seen that the proposed control method ( H (s) ) gives 0 dB and 0 degree response at the fundamental frequency. By solving (15). For the DG unit with the proposed current control scheme. Bode plot analysis The performance of a DG unit using conventional current control (8) and the proposed current control (15) are compared in this subsection. For any other purposes. 4 has two components (I _ and I _ ). the magnitude response (H (s)) is close to 0 dB at the selected harmonic frequencies. 5. When the proposed method is applied to the DG unit. Y (s) demonstrates the sensitivity of DG line current tracking to PoC voltage disturbances [27].V P o C ) Lfs + Rf (18) 5 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. the current source H (s)I _ aims to compensate system harmonics at selected harmonic frequencies. and the detected grid frequency is used as a parameter of resonant controllers and the DG current tracking accuracy can be improved accordingly. For the DG unit using the proposed current control method. 29] I 1 = H c ( s ) × I ref . respectively. the fundamental component in I _ (17) where the gain (H (s)and Y (s)) can be derived based on the conventional current controller in (8) and the DG unit circuitry parameters [27].YP ( s ) × V PoC Fig. Note that the delay here includes one sampling period processing delay and half sampling period voltage modulation delay. but has not been fully edited.1 . the harmonic compensation performance using the proposed current controller is investigated. the current reference I in Fig. Similarly. The closed-loop response of DG current to fundamental current references is shown in Fig. the response of the DG current to harmonic current reference I _ in (15) is also given in Fig. Personal use is permitted. Equivalent circuit of a DG unit using conventional current control method.1 . I1 (20) VPoC H f ( s) × I ref_f H h ( s) × I ref_h where H (s) and H (s) represent the closed-loop response of DG unit current to fundamental and harmonic current references.Y c ( s ) × V P oC YP ( s ) = G Ind ( s ) 1 + e . such as that in [36]. As illustrated in Fig.1 . III. as the grid angle calculation is not needed in the proposed DG power control loop. is simpler than a PLL. While for the DG unit using the conventional current control in (8).1. H h (s) = × G h ( s ) × G Ind ( s ) e 1 + e .org. any harmonic distortions in the fundamental current reference I _ will bring disturbances to the DG harmonic current control. V is the average inverter output voltage. 6. it is obvious that H (s) features low magnitude response at the fundamental frequency. Therefore.5 T d × s . 4.5 T d × s × ( G f ( s ) + G h ( s )) × G Ind ( s ) . Content may change prior to final publication. 7. as the conventional current control method in (8) couples fundamental and harmonic current reference together. Fig.1. First. I1 where L is the inductance of the DG coupling choke and R is its stray resistance. A. YC ( s ) where T is the sampling period of the system. MODELING OF DG UNIT WITH THE PROPOSED CURRENT CONTROL SCHEME In this section.5 T d × s × ( G f ( s ) + G h ( s )) × G In d ( s ) YP (s) .1 . Note that the frequency detector. and the magnitude response attenuates rapidly at selected harmonic frequencies. (18) describes the transfer function of DG unit filter plant G (s) as I 1 = G In d ( s ) × (V P W M . its equivalent circuit is derived as shown in the rest of this subsection. 4.5 Td × s × ( G f ( s ) + G h ( s )) × G In d ( s ) . The detailed expression of terms in (20) is listed as H f (s) = e . (18). Note that for the DG unit with harmonic compensation capability. The corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. . the fundamental current reference I _ in (15) is not necessarily to be harmonic free.

Bode Diagram -30 From: Sine Wave3 To: Gain1 Fig. SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Fig.15 Fig.1 1. Performance of the DG unit during local load compensation. Personal use is permitted. 8. 15) 4. b: DG current .7.05 1. Content may change prior to final publication. 7.15 1 10 2 10 Frequency (Hz) 3 -20 1 1. will cause more interference with the regulation of I _ . 4 & YP(s) in Fig.9. 10 0 Magnitude (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 90 45 Phase (deg) 0 -45 -90 10 Bode Diagram From: In(1) To: Transfer Fcn Value Simulation 230V/50Hz Experiment 115V/50Hz Lf=6. IV. c: local load current . 600 (h=11.8. As a result. 4 (conventional) 0 -20 10 0 -10 20 0 H h ( s ) in Fig. permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee.05 1. kI2 LPF time constant Current control Parameter Proportional gain Kp Resonant gains Resonant controller bandwidth RV (for PoC harmonic voltage compensation ) 20 H f ( s ) in Fig. harmonic detection is necessary for system harmonic compensation using conventional current control method. Simulated results · Compensation of local nonlinear loads 6 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE.4mH.00001.05 1. c: local load current . Closed-loop response ( ( ) and ( )) of a DG unit using conventional current control method in (8) and the proposed current control method in (15). kI2=0.0322 Sec Value 48 1500(h=f). As these admittances have low magnitude response at the both fundamental and selected harmonic frequencies. For any other purposes.) 10 0 -10 1 1.15 1 1. kI1=0. PoC voltage disturbances only have minor impacts to DG current tracking. simulated and experimental results are obtained from a single-phase DG unit. (a: grid current . Performance of the DG unit during DG harmonic rejection.0mH.) In order to verify the correctness of the proposed control strategy.1 1.05 1.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. Closed-loop response ( ( ) and ℎ ( )) of a DG unit using conventional current control method in (8) and the proposed current control method in (15). 5 (proposed) 1 1.10. Rg=0.org. 5 20 0 -20 -70 90 45 Phase (deg) 0 -45 -90 10 1 1. Rf=0. b: DG current . 5. 4 (conventional) Grid voltage DG filter Grid feeder LC ladder with five identical LC filter Sampling/Switching frequency DC link voltage Power Control Parameter Real power control kp1.00001. 9). 900 (h=3.1 1.15 20 0 -20 1 10 2 10 Frequency (Hz) 3 1 1. 13. It can be seen that the shunt admittance have identical frequency domain response by using the conventional and the proposed methods. A.15Ω L=1.1 1.15Ω Lg=3.001 kp2=0.05 1. kI1 Reactive power control kp2.001 0. C=25μF for each LC filter 20kHz/10kHz Simulation 550V Experiment 350V Value kp1=0. Shunt admittance ( ( ) and ( )) of a DG unit using conventional current control method in (8) and the proposed current control method in (15).1 1.1rad/s 5Ω H c ( s ) in Fig. 5 (proposed) Phase (deg) 0 -90 -180 10 1 2 10 Frequency (Hz) 10 3 Fig. .15 Fig. PARAMETERS IN SIMULATION & EXPERIMENT System Parameter H c ( s ) in Fig.6. but has not been fully edited. (a: grid current .05 1.15 -40 Magnitude (dB) -50 -60 YC(s) in Fig. Bode Diagram From: Sine Wave1 To: Transfer Fcn 10 0 Magnitude (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 90 TABLE I. The Bode plots of shunt admittance Y (s ) and Y (s ) are shown in Fig.1 1.5mH.

95 1 1.8 10 0 -10 0. the performance of current tracking can be less sensitive to grid voltage frequency variations.05 1. Although harmonic extractions are not used in this simulation. the DG unit power reference is -500 0 0. 11.15 0. its fundamental current reference adjusted by (10) is shown in Fig. the DG unit with a local diode rectifier load is tested in the simulation.5 3 Fig. the performance of the system is shown in Fig. the bandwidth (ω ) of resonant controllers at harmonic frequencies is selected as 16 rad/s.5 1 1. the reference power is set to 600W and 200Var. The configuration of the system is the same as Fig. 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0. In Fig.1 1. resulted in an enhanced grid current quality with 5. the harmonic load currents flow to the main grid is illustrated in Fig.8 0. In this simulation.85 0.) First. . b: grid current . d: local load current ) 7 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. For any other purposes. where the real and reactive power is calculated by (13) and (14).85 0.15 1. Once the local load harmonic current compensation is activated by setting I _ = I in (16). Power flow of the DG unit during local load harmonic current compensation. 500 0 -500 0.5 2 2.005 0 0 0.05 0. it guarantees zero steady-state power tracking error.5% THD. For the DG unit operating under local load harmonic compensation mode.5 2 2.9 0.2 0. but has not been fully edited.85 0. c: DG current . Content may change prior to final publication.2 Fig. 13.1 0. When the local load harmonic current is not compensated by the DG unit (corresponding to I _ = 0 in (15) and (16)).2 0.85 0. The effectiveness of the proposed closed-loop power control strategy is verified in Fig. 9. 9 (b) that the DG current is sinusoidal with 5.57% THD. permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee.95 1 1.0 sec).9 0.1 1. it can be noticed that the DG output real and reactive power control is not accurate.org. ( =600W and =200Var. 500 10 0 The main grid voltage contains 2.15 1.015 0.95 1 1. 1 and PoC is connected to a stiff controlled voltage source (to emulate the main grid) with nominal 50Hz frequency.8% 3rd and 2. 11 (a).2 -10 0.5 3 Fig.1 1.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. The detailed parameters of the system are provided in Table I. Meanwhile. (a: PoC voltage and fundamental current reference _ .95 1 1. (a: grid voltage .8 20 0 -20 0.01 0.2 0.25 0. b: power control gains g1 and g2).05 1.8% 5th harmonic voltages.9 0. · Performance under frequency disturbance The performance of the DG unit under grid voltage frequency deviation is also examined.05 1.9 0.15 1. It can be seen from Fig. When the conventional open-loop power control in (6) is applied. On the other hand. the proposed method can still realize satisfied local load harmonic current compensation. Personal use is permitted.8 20 0 -20 0.1 1. In this test. As the DG unit also provides 200Var reactive power to the grid. DG unit current is polluted with 201. it can be seen that the fundamental current reference is slightly lagging of the PoC voltage. 12.15 1. 10.13.12. as the proposed control strategy regulates DG output power in a closed-loop manner. As a result. Performance of the DG unit under local harmonic compensation mode (2Hz grid voltage frequency change at 1. Power control reference during local load harmonic compensation.05 1. 9 (a).5 1 1. the performance of the DG unit is shown in Fig. At the same time.88% THD.

05 2.5 1 1. Performance of the DG unit during feeder resonance voltage compensation.05 2. The performance of the proposed controller under DG unit harmonic rejection mode ( I _ = 0) is given in Figs. b: fundamental current reference _ . Performance of the DG unit during harmonic rejection. it can be seen from Fig.8 0. If very larger frequency variation is present.8 10 0 -10 0.95 0.5 3 3.8 10 5 0 -5 -10 0.99% grid current THD.6% THD.17.18. In 8 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE.2% THD. b: fundamental current reference _ . Although the fundamental current reference derived by (10) is distorted. At the time instant 1. but has not been fully edited. permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee.9 0. E.g.14.85 0. 15 (b) that the DG current is sinusoidal with 5. In the case of grid frequency variation.9 0.9 0. When the feeder resonance voltage compensation is enabled by controlling the DG unit as a virtual resistance (Rv=5 in (16)) at selected harmonic frequencies. 2).15.1 2. Power flow of the DG unit with LC ladder. . The DG unit needs to be disconnected from the utility when the grid frequency deviation is out of this range [35]. due to the resonance aggregated in the LC ladder.5Hz. 400 200 0 -200 -400 0.15 Fig.7Hz to 0.85 0.05 2. c: Load current . (a: grid current . As discussed earlier. corresponding responses of the system are shown in Figs.) 20 0 -20 2 10 2. 14 and 15. For any other purposes.5 4 Fig.0 sec. · Compensation of feeder resonance voltage To verify the feasibility of the proposed method in compensating feeder resonance voltages.1 2. It is emphasized here that in a real DG system. 14.15 Fig.) 20 0 -20 0. it can be seen that the proposed method still maintains satisfied harmonic compensation performance with 5.1 2.16. 14 to 18.) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -200 0 0. ( and =0 Var) =1000W synchronized with the non-filtered PoC voltage and its orthogonal component.1 2. (a: grid current . Since the fundamental current ( I _ ) is Fig. (a: PoC voltage . it is also distorted as presented in the lower part of Fig. it can be seen that DG unit absorbs the harmonic current from local nonlinear loads and the grid current THD is only 5. b: DG current . Meanwhile.85 0.95 Fig. respectively.8 10 0 -10 0. the grid frequency jumps to 52Hz.9 0. PoC voltage and the fundamental current reference for DG unit during harmonic rejection. 14.95 0.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal.org.5 2 2. such a frequency estimator will be simpler than a PLL. (a: PoC voltage .85 0. the allowed frequency deviation range is -0.05%. the frequency deviation is typically lower. Content may change prior to final publication. Personal use is permitted. b: DG current .)) -10 2 2. As shown in the upper part of Fig.05 2.05 2. The performance of this system is shown in Figs. During this time range.15 2. a frequency estimator could be used to update the PR control parameters. the DG unit is connected to the stiff main grid with five cascaded LC filters (see Fig. 16 and 17. the main grid current contains non-trivial harmonics with 34. The inductance and capacitance of each LC filter is 1mH and 25μF. PoC voltage and its corresponding fundamental current reference during feeder resonance voltage compensation. the PoC voltage is distorted with 13.15 0 600W/600Var and the grid voltage frequency is fixed to 50Hz before 1.95 400 200 0 -200 -400 2 10 5 0 -5 -10 2 2. for the small PV systems.61% THD.95 0.15 0 -10 10 2 2.9 0.1 2. c: Load current .0 sec.85 0.8 0.

where the real and reactive power references are 200W and 500Var. Meanwhile. respectively.20. Performance with local nonlinear load. 21 (b).09% THD). Performance with local nonlinear load. B. b: grid current10A/div. Personal use is permitted. the magnitude of main grid voltage is intentionally reduced to 106V.) Fig. Fig. In order to absorb the switching ripple of the inverter. the DG current is polluted with 51. due to the harmonic voltage drops on the grid feeder ( L and R ). .64% THD) in Fig.) contrast to the performance in Figs. feeder resonance voltage compensation is slowly activated by changing Rv from infinity to 5Ω. Fig. It is obvious that the proposed method maintains an accurate power tracking even when the main grid voltage varies. the performance of the proposed method in addressing local load harmonic is tested.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. d: local load current 10A/div. b: grid current 10A/div. When the DG unit works at local harmonic compensation mode. Experimental results Similar tests are also conducted in the laboratory prototype. the variation of main grid voltage magnitude introduces nontrivial steady-state real and reactive power control errors. c: DG current 10A/div. while the main grid current THD reduces to 8. it can be seen from Fig. the DG unit is controlled to eliminate DG harmonic currents (I _ = 0). To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed closed-loop power control method. 23 for comparison.org. the fundamental current reference during harmonic rejection operation is captured in the middle of Fig. · Compensation of local nonlinear loads First.07%. the power flow performance of the DG unit using the proposed power control scheme is shown in Fig.0 sec to 1. which is composed of 5 identical LC filter units. In this case. In this experiment.) By using the DAC ports of dSPACE controller. the THDs of DG and grid currents are 5. 1 and Table I. The real-time code for the experiment is generated by dSPACE 1005. It can be seen that the power control is always accurate during the transitions between different control modes. DG unit works under local load harmonic compensation mode. 16 that the PoC harmonic voltage in this case is mitigated and its THD reduces to 3. Fig. a small shunt capacitor (2μF) is also connected at PoC. It is obvious that DG current has more distortions (with 35. DG unit works under harmonic rejection mode. 21. 9 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. 18. thanks to the unique feature of the proposed controller. respectively.73%.21.08% THD. From 1. Performance with local nonlinear load. b: fundamental current reference _ 10A/div. The parameters of each Fig. The detailed system configuration and parameters can be seen from Fig.49% THD. but has not been fully edited. At the same time. 19 (b) and (c) show that the DG current is sinusoidal and the local load harmonic currents are pushed to the main grid side. It shows that the local load harmonic current are compensated by DG unit. 22. For any other purposes. 14. (a: PoC voltage 250v/div. DG current is sinusoidal.12%. In contrast to the performance using the proposed closed-loop power control. (a: PoC voltage 250v/div. The power control performance using the fundamental current reference in (1) is also illustrated in Fig.16% and 41.19. where the real and reactive power references have a step jump from 100W/250Var to 200W/500Var. · Compensation of feeder resonance voltage To evaluate the performance of the proposed method in mitigating LC ladder harmonic voltage aggregation. DG unit works under harmonic rejection mode (a: PoC voltage 250v/div. In this experiment. d: local load current 10A/div. The associated current waveforms during feeder resonance voltage compensation are shown in Fig. The real and reactive power control under harmonic compensation mode is also tested. Nevertheless. 20. the DG unit is connected to the main grid with an LC ladder. permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee. it is also distorted. Content may change prior to final publication. the corresponding performance of the system is shown in Fig. The performance using the proposed power control method is shown in Fig. E ∗ in (1) is fixed to nominal voltage magnitude 115V.0 sec. As the fundamental current reference is the combination of nonfiltered PoC voltage and it conjugated component (see (10)). 19 shows the performance of the DG unit operating in harmonic rejection mode. 17. the measured local load current is directly employed as the input of the harmonic control branch. From the time range 0 sec to 1. Finally. where a single-phase Danfoss inverter is connected to a scaled down grid with 115V rated voltage magnitude. the PoC voltage is also distorted with 9. c: DG current 10A/div. resulted in an improved main grid current (with 3.5 sec.

The performance of feeder resonance voltage mitigation using virtual harmonic resistance (Rv) is shown Figs.49%. b: fundamental current reference _ 5A/div. and PoC are 7.22. Performance with an upstream LC ladder. d: DG current 5A/div. 26 (d) is polluted with 28. it can be seen that the DG current in Fig. 24-27. In this case. permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubs-permissions@ieee.) Fig. it is also distorted.) V.25% THD. Fig.25%.org. d: DG current 5A/div. Performance with an upstream LC ladder. and PoC voltage are 11. Personal use is permitted. DG unit works under harmonic rejection mode. respectively. 5. (a: node1 voltage 250v/div.27.24.) Fig. c: PoC voltage 250v/div.26. Fig. 25 (b). and 17. respectively. In the case of feeder resonance voltage mitigation. Compared to the situation using DG harmonic rejection control. since the input of harmonic control branch is not zero. . Due to the disturbance of diode rectifier at the upstream of the LC ladder (see Fig. 24 shows the waveforms of the distorted voltages. but has not been fully edited. DG unit works under harmonic compensation mode. The voltage THDs of node1. b: node3 voltage 250v/div. Real and reactive power flow using the conventional openloop power control method in (1). 27 (b) contains less distortion as compared to the case in Fig. During DG harmonic current rejection operation. Content may change prior to final publication. the DG unit works under harmonic rejection mode. (a: PoC voltage 250v/div. Real and reactive power flow using the proposed closed-loop power control method. The corresponding performances are shown in Figs. As the fundamental current is directly derived from the non-filtered PoC voltage. 3. For any other purposes. In the first test. DG unit works under harmonic rejection mode. Fig. (a: node1 voltage 250v/div. b: node3 voltage 250v/div. CONCLUSIONS 10 Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. Performance with an upstream LC ladder. The THDs of node 1.54%. a 5Ω harmonic virtual resistance is used in (16). (Under local nonlinear load compensation mode and the PoC voltage magnitude is reduced to 106V) Fig. b: fundamental current reference _ 5A/div. the fundamental current reference as shown in Fig.46%. leaving an enhanced voltage quality. the voltages at different nodes of the LC ladder are distorted. 2). 26 and 27. node3. and 5. the control of virtual damping resistance can effectively mitigate voltage distortions in the LC ladder.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. the fundamental current reference is shown in Fig. 25 (b). the DG current in Fig.25.) Fig.03%. (Under local nonlinear load compensation mode and the PoC voltage magnitude is reduced to 106V) LC filter are 1mH and 25μF. Nevertheless. c: PoC voltage 250v/div. 14. (a: PoC voltage 250v/div. However.02% THD. 24 (d) is still sinusoidal with 6.09%. Performance with an upstream LC ladder.23. It proves that feeder voltage quality is sensitive to upstream nonlinear load disturbance when the conventional DG unit without active resonance damping control is installed at the end of a feeder. DG unit works under harmonic compensation mode.

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