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3 Sampling
Sampling is defined by Zikmund (2000) as a process of using a number of items or parts of a larger population to make conclusions about the whole population. Sampling is another very important process that should be performed with care and accordingly because if the sample is not relevant, the research findings will be distorted. According to Webster (1985), sampling is the act, process or technique of selecting a suitable sample. Since the teacher-researcher is undertaking an Action Research, a non-random sampling technique will be used. This technique will be adopted as a result of accessibility to the targeted population and will bear no claim to being representative of the whole student population. This Action Research was carried out at Hamilton College (boys department) which is a private secondary school found in the rural, coastal village of Mahebourg. Most of the students come from the nearby villages. The students who are admitted in the school are those who are not ranked in the Certificate of Primary Education (CPE) and they come from low socioeconomic background. The sample to be investigated consists of students of Form V Yellow. The sample under investigation consisted of 16 students, boys of age from 15 to 17 years and would be sitting for the Cambridge O-level examinations in October/November 2011. This class was chosen as I teach Principles of Accounts in this class for up to 2 years. Thus, the sample is regarded as a convenient for the investigation. It is to be noted that the sample students are of low ability, however, among them, there are some students who have a tendency to do better than the others. Nevertheless, attention is drawn to the fact that when high achievers are referred to, it should not be taken in the literal sense of the word as all the students are of low ability. Thus, the high achievers, for the purpose of this study refer to those students who always come out first, second and third in that particular class. And the low achievers refer to students who are normally ranked among the last in the class. All students were informed that a research was being done on the use of ICT at school and most of them did agree to participate in this study.

4.1.1 Data gathered through observation checklist in Cycle 1 Lesson 1 The data collected through observation in Lesson 1 of Cycle 1 is presented in Table 5. Criteria Were all the students present? Yes No  Comments 7 students were absent on that day as there was an outing for those doing Travel and Tourism, 9 students were present Half of the class was able to recall partly of what they learnt previously about “Non-profit making bodies” while the others could hardly answer the questions set to them. Most students remained silent when they were asked questions, most probably due to shyness or maybe they did not know the answer to the questions asked. There was interaction between students and teacher only when the teacher asked questions….otherwise, it was only the teacher explaining through the PowerPoint presentation At the beginning they showed interest in the class, but at the end of the lesson they seemed to fade out, especially those at the back when working out the example. They were even talking and harassing their friends who were following the class.

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Did the pre-requisites used allowed students to recall prior knowledge?

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Did all students participate in lesson?

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Did the use of PowerPoint presentation enhance teacher and student interaction?

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Did the students show interest in the lesson?

students were eager to know when the next lesson would be scheduled so that they would arrive even early in the computer lab and this shows that they were motivated Students could be seen Was there student-student interaction?  discussing how to answer the question set as example. Did the strategies promote active The questioning strategy and  learning? the expository method did not promote active learning sufficiently among all students even though ICT was used as a teaching tool. The concept map given at the end of the lesson helped students to some extent to recall about what they learned in the lesson. Lesson 1  Did the use of ICT motivate the students? 4.6 7 8 9 10 11 After the lesson. There were even a few students who were working in pair.1.2 Data gathered through observation checklist in Cycle 1 Lesson 2 The data collected through observation in Lesson 2 of Cycle 1 is presented in Table 6. . Did any problem concerning discipline Most of the students were  crop up? following the class while the teacher was explaining but a few students started talking at the back. Did students have any difficulty in The low ability students had  working the example?(Formative difficulties to work out the assessment) example and the teacher had to assist them and give them personal attention Students took a lot of time to Was teacher able to complete lesson on  come into computer lab and time? when taking notes. leading to teacher taking students’ break to complete lesson Table 5: Data collected from Students’ Observation Checklist of Cycle 1.

They said that it was amazing that they were learning Principles of Accounts with computers. 14 were present Students were able to remember what they learnt about Accounts for Non-profit making bodies. Students could be seen discussing how to answer the MCQ and specially those who were present were explaining to those who were absent in the previous lesson The low ability students had difficulties and teacher had to show them how to browse and select the correct answer. only the high flyers remained focused. It was more or less like the previous class. they showed interest. but afterwards. working on computer except for the 4 students who were absent in the previous sessions.1 2 Criteria Were all the students present? Did the pre-requisites used allowed students to recall prior knowledge? Yes No   3 Did the use of computer software encourage teacher and student interaction?  4 Did all the students participate?  5 Did the students show interest in the lesson?  6 Did the use of PowerPoint software motivate the students?  7 Was there student-student interaction?  8 Were the students able to manipulate the computer software? Comments 2 students were absent on that day. They seemed a bit lost. though teacher had to do a short recapitulation of the previous lessons for those who were absent in the previous lesson Students were keen to ask for teacher’s help about how to answer the MCQ. Almost all students were actively participating in the class… answering questions. teacher helped students to use computer software without hesitation. On the other hand. some were saying that they found the class more active when they were personally working with computers. The students really liked the use of the computer and when asked. Those . others were engaged in their own conversations.

Lesson 2  4. 13 Students again took a lot of time to come into class. Most of the students were following the class while the teacher was explaining how to use answer MCQ using computer software but a few students started talking at the back because they were not interested. and waited for them to complete some of the questions before moving to the next group of students Students of low ability had difficulty with those questions which were of high order level and involved calculation The PowerPoint software did not promote active learning sufficiently among learners as it seemed that instead of answering MCQ in their books. on time? so instead of individual work.9 Were the students able to follow instructions provided to select the correct answer to MCQ using the software? Did students had any difficulty in  the answering the MCQ?(Formative assessment)  10 11 Did the strategies promote active learning 12 Did any problem concerning discipline crop up?   who were absent in previous classes experienced more difficulties as they seemed completely lost about what was happening in the class Students seeked help of teacher who had to explain each students again.3 Analysis of data obtained from observation checklists during Cycle 1 Based on data collected from the students’ observation checklist for Lessons 1 and 2 of the present investigation.1. and teacher had to take extra 10 min in the lunch break Table 6: Data collected from Students’ Observation Checklist of Cycle 1. some had to work in groups of two. they were using a computer to do so. it was observed that there were a lot of absences especially for the first session as it . but due to distance between their class and computer lab and this time some of Was teacher able to complete lesson the computers were not operating.

Students had difficulty to navigate throughout the PowerPoint software in lesson 2. This is attributed to the fact that they were not attentive when teacher was giving instructions on how to use the software. Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. They were more interested with the computer than with the lesson itself. As a result. Participation in discussions and in questions set by teacher was very poor. 2005). Johnson (1997) also found that the teacher's role during his study on a technology-based learning environment was crucial (Saat and Bakar.coincided with the outing of students in the Travel and Tourism batch. though some of them knew the answers they did not have the guts to voice them out. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms. attended the second lesson as the teacher made a brief recapitulation on the topic and they were guided by their friends about how to go through the PowerPoint software. the communication skills. Some students could not follow instruction in the questions most probably because they were not used in using the software for the construction of knowledge and hence were a bit dazzled by this strategy. all the students were interested and attentive but at the end. Those who were answering the questions were mainly the high flyers. At the beginning of the lesson. Teacher had to explain stepwise for them to understand. when this strategy is used. A teacher has to help students in engaging them to think while performing the tasks given. . In the second lesson. thinking skills and social skills of learners are not developed. At the end of each lesson. It was so may be because it was their first Principles of Accounts lesson in the computer lab. It is also observed that this strategy did not maintain the attention of students all the time. their attention faded out. the teacher had a class discussion with the students and they told the teacher that the class was like the normal class except that the teacher used an interactive whiteboard instead of writing on the normal whiteboard. Luckily most of those who were absent during the first session. many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction (Groff and Mouza. Students were more interested with the computer than with the instructions set by the teacher and this lead to a commotion. 2008). The expository method was not effective as only the teacher transmits the knowledge and the students were considered as empty vessels. The other students remained passive.

. I was amazed to notice that no arrangements were made in order to accommodate my students in the computer lab nor was the laptop and interactive whiteboard properly connected. Moreover. these problems were tackled by the computer laboratory assistant who was present throughout the lessons. Moreover. The lessons did not promote active learning sufficiently as many students remained passive. Students seemed to be attentive and eager to learn. the presence of the neutral observer distorted the normal . In addition to that. They asked for help whenever they had difficulties and did not remain passive compared to lesson 1. Teacher took appropriate measures so that these situations did not arise in the next lessons by already informing the Rector as well as the laboratory technicians one day before the actual lessons. Luckily. Despite having informed the computer laboratory attendant two weeks in advance that I was supposed to use the computer lab for my class (Cycle 1 lesson 1) on that particular day. In lesson 2. it was ensured that all the computers launched the software properly and that such problems would not arise in the upcoming lessons. some computers had trouble with the screens appearing in “black and white” instead of “colour”. 1994). it was clearly evident that they liked the projection of the cartoon picture projected in each PowerPoint slide in the lesson 2.It is said that teachers face diverse problems when integrating new pedagogical practices and new technology (Lakkala et al. while others were having trouble with the monitors itself. Moreover. the latter did not show full-screen. with the help of a computer educator and the laboratory assistant. 2007). as I was free during the first two periods. Moreover. almost all students were able to fill in the correct word/s in the concept map that was projected at the end of the lesson 1. Furthermore. I was able to take the necessary measures in order to remedy the situation. 2 computers could not install the program properly. This is in line with Osborne and Hennessy (2001) who reported that ICT enhances the effectiveness of information presentation and also stimulates students’ interest. One of the positive aspects which could be seen by the use of ICT was that it increased student interest and motivation. it helped to break the routine classes and brought an innovation in the way the lesson was normally carried. From students’ facial expression.. Visual aids help in communicating abstract ideas and concepts and reinforce the message (Heap et al. This showed that to some extent. there were also some computers that were not operating properly. students were able to express themselves more compared to lesson 1. Luckily. the use of ICT tools have enabled students to understand the concepts taught during the lesson.

(2) Differentiate between the concept of “Cash at bank” and “Bank Overdraft”. Some pupils were more concerned in knowing about the entries that the neutral observer was making on the observation grid. Students did not answer these questions using computer set but they wrote their answers on question paper as per syllabus requirement.classroom climate. a student achievement test was administered to students based on the subtopics covered during Cycle 1.1. Thus at the end of Cycle 1. . Table 11 gives the scores of the students and performance respectively for Test 1. students sat for a small test where they had no access to materials like books and notes. students’ names are not given but students are represented by code numbers in Table 11. For ethical reasons. students should be able to: (1) State the importance of cash in a business organization. The marks were analysed to evaluate students’ performance in the cycle. 4. Data obtained from Achievement Test 1 administered after Cycle 1 After implementation of the two lessons in Cycle 1. Such tests were carried out under examination conditions. Date: 12th September 2011 Class: Form V Yellow Subject: Principles of Accounts Level: Low ability Time required: 80 min Class size: 16 Topic: The concept of “Cash at bank” and “Bank overdraft” Aim : To enable the students to differentiate between the concept of “Cash at bank” and “Bank Overdraft.” Learning outcomes: By the end of the lesson.4. A copy of the test paper (Test 1) administered is annexed in Appendix 9.

whiteboard and marker. coins.(3) Apply the appropriate accounting treatment for the concept of “Cash at bank” and “Bank Overdraft”. misconceptions will be cleared. Simulation. Based on students’ answers. Teacher arouses student interest by telling them that today we are going to do our lessons differently compared to the other times that we did the class by using ICT. STEP 2: TESTING OF PRE-REQUISITE (10 min) The teacher will do a brain storming session to help students recall the basic concepts which they learnt about Cash and its importance in our daily life. Worksheets. Question: Who can tell me what is “Cash”? Expected answer: money. Teaching aids: Interactive whiteboard. computer set. Teaching strategies: PowerPoint presentation. notes Question: what do we do with cash? Expected answer: we spend it. Question: Do we only spend money? . The students will be selected randomly to answer the questions orally and the answers will be written down on the whiteboard. Procedure: STEP 1: AROUSE INTEREST (5 min) The teacher greets the students and allows class to settle down in the computer laboratory. questioning. Pre-requisite: Students have already knowledge of “Cash at bank” and “Bank Overdraft” as students have already come across these terms during the completion of other topics. mind-mapping. (4) Build up knowledge in a constructivist approach while visualizing the simulation.

to buy stationery. Questions will be asked about the jargon. the business needs to have Cash.Expected answer: No. is money/cash important in our life or not? Expected answer: Yes. We won’t be able to satisfy our needs. Without blood we die. why do need to have money? Expected answer: to eat cakes during recess. wages. Question: Dou you all have money in your pocket? Expected answer: Yes Question: so. Step 2: Teacher come with another jargon about cash: Cash is the life blood of a business. according to you. we cannot do anything. how can cash be important? Expected answer: to pay expenses. For the smooth functioning of business operations. It is very important as we need money in every aspect of life. Without money. . to buy telephone cards…. we need blood in our body system. Question: so. Question: Why do we say that cash is king? Expected answer: Cash is important Question: In a business organization. creditors Question: What will happen if the business can’t pay all these things? Expected answer: It won’t be able to operate and it will become insolvent that is bankrupt. Question: Why is Cash compared to Blood? Expected answer: In order for human beings to be alive. you don’t have money. Question: suppose. to pay transport expenses. Sometimes we spend money and sometimes we receive money also. what will happen to you? Expected answer: we won’t be able to buy ourselves the above things. The same applies for businesses. STEP 3: INTRODUCTION (5 min) PowerPoint Presentation Step 1: Teacher will introduce the concept “Cash” by a famous jargon saying “ CASH is KING”. Without cash. Teacher will question students about the quote. a business will become insolvent.

Based on students’ answers. The students will be selected randomly to answer the questions orally. misconceptions will be cleared. Worksheet 1: .(Please see appendix 9 for a printed copy of the PowerPoint presentation and also included a CD on which the PowerPoint presentation has been written) STEP 4: LESSON EXPLANATION (50 min) PowerPoint Presentation Step 1: The following worksheet will be distributed to students and they will be required to fill in the blanks. The students have to write down the answers and the teacher will walk around to look at individual mistakes.

Answer: .

. namely simulation 1. If needed.Step 2: Students are explained that there are 3 situations that relate to the concept of “Cash” and these are explained through a mind-map Cash Cash at bank Stable cash balance Bank Overdraft Step 3: Each situation listed above is explained through the display of a simulation. Students are asked to observe carefully the simulation 1 before answering filling in the blanks of the following worksheet given to them. the simulation will be played again to enhance better understanding.

misconceptions will be cleared. The students will be selected randomly to answer the questions orally.2: Snapshot of simulation 1 – displaying concept of Cash at Bank Worksheet 2: Step 4: The students have to write down the answers and the teacher will walk around to look at individual mistakes. Answer: .Figure 3. Based on students’ answers.

Correction will be written on the whiteboard by students. Teacher will walk around to monitor students’ work and provide guidance. Worksheet 3: Answer: .” The question will thoroughly be explained and students are asked to work out the question.Step 5: Students are given a Worksheet to work out a question involving the concept of “Cash at Bank.

namely simulation 2. Students are asked to observe carefully the simulation 2 before answering filling in the blanks of the following worksheet given to them. the simulation will be played again to enhance better understanding. If needed.Step 6: A second situation is explained through the display of a simulation.3: Snapshot of simulation 2 – displaying concept of stable cash . Figure 3.

misconceptions will be cleared Answer: .Worksheet 4: Step 7: The students have to write down the answers and the teacher will walk around to look at individual mistakes. Based on students’ answers. The students will be selected randomly to answer the questions orally.

The question will thoroughly be explained and students are asked to work out the question. Correction will be written on the whiteboard by students. Teacher will walk around to monitor students’ work and provide guidance. namely simulation 3.Step 8: Students are given a Worksheet to work out a question involving the concept of “stable cash balance”. Students are asked to observe carefully the simulation 3 before answering filling in the . Worksheet 5: Answer: Step 9: The third situation is explained through the display of a simulation.

Leading to … . the simulation will be played again to enhance better understanding.blanks of the following worksheet given to them. If needed.

Ultimately resulting in… Figure 3.4: Snapshot of simulation 3 – displaying concept of Bank overdraft .

misconceptions will be cleared. Answer: . The students will be selected randomly to answer the questions orally.Worksheet 6: Step 10: The students have to write down the answers and the teacher will walk around to look at individual mistakes. Based on students’ answers.

Worksheet 7: Answer: . The question will thoroughly be explained and students are asked to work out the question.Step 11: Students are given a Worksheet to work out a question involving the concept of “Bank Overdraft”. Teacher will walk around to monitor students’ work and provide guidance. Correction will be written on the whiteboard by students.

Correction will be done orally.of a business Cash 3 situations involving Cash ? ? ? .STEP 5: LESSON SUMMARY (10 min) Students will be given the following worksheet and they will be required to complete the following concept map. Cash is ………. Cash is ……….

... …. Cash coming into the business is …. Cash coming into the business is …. STEP 4: EVALUATION Formative assessment will take place throughout the explanation of the lesson when students will work out the questions set in the different worksheet provided to them. … cash going out. cash going out. .Cash coming into the business is …. …. cash going out..