A. DARKOV and V. KUZNETSOV
MIH
P\JJlLIS HE RS
A.
n.
AA PI<OO. 13. H. 10'3H E UOB
CTP011TE.TlhHAH MEXAHf.fE\A
H<I.IJ;A'l'EJtbCTDO •UblCW AII lliHOJIM
MOCI\DA
A. DARKOV and V. KUZNETSOV
STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
Translat~d
from the Russilln by B. l.achfnov
MIR PUBLISHERS MOSCOW
1 98 9
UDC 62t. .04 (lli5.8) = 20
First Published 1966
SecQnd Edi t iQn
COr\'l'ENTS
fnl.l'Od\lcli•)n
Ch:rpl('l' 1. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
15
15
1.1. S npp orld 2.1. Geometrical Slnhility of Fwrnrtl :;t.I'HC .lurc.. 3.1. Stlllii·AII y Dt>t<>mtin:lle Jo't'llllwll S~ru~Utr•·s .
C!Japl(H' 2. BEAMS
17
:m
31
1.2. G(•HI)ral . . . . . . . 2.2. H t•A~ t i on l Hri ti<!CICe L itl("< fr,r· Si rup ly S upp!t~'l(•d f! P.UIII ll ot· Wi Uumt 0\'Nhaug . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
111
\1 il.lt
3(;
3.2. l;:('nding l\l• ~nt•nl aod Sht•:t r Jnfl ncm.,.! L iuc;; for ~uup l r Su pJ'<Irlt"l Hoamo> wi t h (lr \\tlhou t l 'v<>rh llug . . 4 .2. {n (hl(ln r.l.' Lin e!' for Sirn pi(• C'llnl Hover Beaml\1 5.2. In nu~nr.o Uncs in Cn~O' 1 1[ l nd i t'< !Cl Lo!ul t\ppl tcat.u•u 6.2. D(• INmi nnt.it>n of Fon;o:;. an•l ) (ouu; ltl$ wHi t l ht· Atd In·
4V t,g
'o!)
"r
52
7.2. f) P.((>rmiull t\on uf Lh ll Mo,;t Uu l'nvNtral.f,.
Po.i t.i<~n
u( '' Lmul
5~
8.2. D•·t.ct·minnlill n of Ma'>i rn nm ~I OJnonl$ 11nd Fot'CI!~ 11•1111{ Equivalen t l.! niform Lnach• . . . . . 9.2. M n hl~pau Statically Dolt•rtniiU ill' l:ll.'lrll1!< 10.2. D~term in« lion of M•1m onl~ ~n!l t'<.>t·~.es Jnonc.l'<l l>y n ~ y:;t.('m of Fi :n•d Loads in l\hthi:;pa n S lolica lly Dell!rrni!Hllt> Ht>um:> 11 .2. l nfln enr1• T.ino~ fo1 · 1\.lltlt.r~pan Slulict~lly Dc tllrm ill ULI.' l.lt•lllnl! 12.2. l'ltH td in~ lii•>tnt)nts and Sh N\I'IItg Forr.N lntlnc1Hl by Fixl.'d
70 7ti
W. \,I I
f..l>tHis in i'tntir.nll y DeL('J'IllirHll·O
BtiJll.~.
Knl'e
Fwmo·.~ 11 11cl ~15
13cato ~ ..r l' olygonnl J) Mign • . . . .
Chaplet 3, THREEHINGED ARCHES AND FRAMES . . . .
1!'11.
tn'1 1('7 I'\.'I
. . . . . 2.3. Support Ro1u:tio n~ o[ a Tht·l~t\·ll ingcd Arch . . 3.3. Dtlltlrmination of Strl'!>~t~~ in 'l'ht·oeTI ingoll Arc! roo;
1.3. Thrcer1inged Systoms .
UDC 6V..Ot\ (075.8) = 20
First. PubHshM '1!)66 Second Edi t ion
CONTENTS
Jnt,·oduc tion . . . .
Chaptc•· 1. KINEMATIC ANALYS!S OF STRUCTURES 1.1. Support s 2.1. Gcorno~rical Slo~bil ity nf Frnmed S trucL urc:. ~01. S ta lic11lty Dct,(lnniuule F'•ntnNI l:'i tl'llc ln rt'S 0
0
15
15
l'i 20
Chapt••r 2. BEAMS 1o 2. Gcn.ornl 2o2. ll <'tlr t,inn lufluP.nr.t• I.in.:i! fo r ::\ 11up ly !;u pJ~<ll'lt•<l B• ouJl l~ w1th ¢r \\' iUwuL O" c•·hnug 0 o 0 • . . . o . o . . . 0 o 3.20 A<•JI(Iing !\lom"nL ilnd RIH. •n•· l nOau:u<:c LJn<'<~ f<:ir Sml p l~ol:\u pPI•rt cd Ream!> with or \\' itlw11t Qv,•rh:mg . 4o 2. Jnfl ul' nCO Lint'o • fur S implo Clll1t tl t•'' 0' T11•am~ 5.2. luflntHI I' Il Li nes iu Ca:"•:S <Jf l nd imct Load ApJil Jctll.i••fl 6.2. Dl.t·Nil'llllll t ion c •f Fc•rcog nnd M(IIIIOnts \~itl1 th o A ul 11f lunut•lJr..t• Liti!'S . o . o o o o . o . . • . . 7.2. Dl)t.lrn dnat ion t•f t.ho \ ·l ost UJ•fn"m.u·nh\(1 Pu~ iliuu uf '' Lt~~ul 8o 2o 0 ('tl'nuifllll i(\n <If Maximum ) IOIIINtl'l 11nd f'•Hrl"' t '~iug gq uiYnlrn t l' niform Lo:ul~ . . 902. )fnltiqpan S ln lic111ly Dckrnll na tc l:\c1•111~ . 10.2. D cl..rmi nnt itm of Mct!frenl:lllnd Forc~s Jn.JncNl hy n S y<~lelll of F ixl!d L oncl s in ~iultiS (IIIIl ::5 tll lJcnlly Detcrmi r,nt~:> Bennt>; 11.2. In n ut•t u:·l' L i llo~ ror 'l{nlti!>pnll S \11 \icnlly Dot.enni r•ntl' Hwuns 12.2. Bonding 1\lomont:> and Shonl'i ug ~·orcl.'s l ud ucod hy Fi~l.'tl Lon1ls in Slutic.ally Dell'l'minul.t) l3!!u ll', Kncl! F1111ll t)l\ swtl Boamo; ,,( Polygcmnl 01·~igu • • .
0
ill
31
3t} lot)
4R 1!) 52
~•8
0
•
0
0
•
7(1 71i
W.
\11
0
•
0
•
ft5
Chapt~r
3. THREEHINGED ARCHES AND FRAMES . o . o o
lfl't
lilt,
1.3. T11tCtlHinged Systens . 0 0 . . 0 • 2.3. Sttppcrt Hoactions of a Thlot:G IIingocl Arch 3.3. Dt• ltuminatitm of S tro>tses in T hrcoTlingml 1\rclu~~
1M 114
6
Content.•
4,3, \latitnum EconlllllY Arc·h<:>s . . . . . . 5.3. Dl•~ign uf ThreeH inged t\rchos Subj(1C .t('d to Moving Loaols 6.3. Ctwo ~lomont.s. < Hlil Norm,,! StrcSSI!S in Thn~tl inged Arc.hos '1.3. ;\ualy~is C>f 'fltrot>Hingod Tied Arches 11nd Utttt.s
128
12~ 142
144
Chaplt>r
4. THE TRUSSES . . . . . . . . .
1:J(l
150
153 1i4
1!52
1~6
1.4. Dtdiuit.i<·n~ 11ud C:lass iflcllti(l(l of Trusses
2.4. Du·«:c.t. M11tbod s of farc.s~ Dl\te~·mination in \hllllhf'r~ nf SJTnplt~ Tr·u~sos . . 3,4, GI'<IJ>Itical !\!()thod c~f StJ'l•S.S An11lysi.s in tii111ple Tt· uss<'s 4.4. Dir"d '\h•t.ftod of SL!'t>~s Dr.teomiu~tion iu Complic.ntccl Stnt.ic.ully Del<•rmillnlA~ fraJileil Structures . . . 5.4. ::;Lr<"·" Dbl.o·ibut.i\ln in Different Typos of Trusses . 6.4. '\l11l l ~,~is ol' G1•1•motri~al St.uhility o[ (?ramcd Structures '1.4. Iufiol(ll!Cl' Lines for Stl'eS$C'S in Simple }' mmecl St rucluo·es 8.4. Inihtel~<:r. f.invs for Stressos in Complica1(•d F1·amed St.rllel.ou·~s . 9.4. Trn~~s wi~b Subdiv ided Panels • , 10.4. T IHu~t Dlwe>l{lping F'r·n11H:Il St.r·u<:ttJres 11.4. Vat'ianl.8 of Tms!3ed A•·cll(l.. <;
191 HlO 213 216 22.1 23ti
24:~
Chapto:>t' 5. SPACE FRAMEWORK
1.5. G!\ll.t'l'ill
2.5.
3.5. 4.5.
5.5.
. . . SpaC't' i<J·amnwork Supports Tilt• ~·,mna.tion of Stsrtic:nlly Det.erminat.e Spuc.e fo'rmnC\\'Ork Slrl''>l; Aoilly~<i~ in Spnco Fr·an:H\W(H'k • • . . . l~ s:.11uplos of Stro5s ;\n.tlysis iu Sr>aco Fl'amework . . .
24:l
245 2!,1:1 251 257
Chapt11r 6. KINEMATIC METHOD OF INFLUENCE LINE CONSTRUCTION
2!'•1
261 262 266 2G9 273 27ii
27f)
1.6. 2.6. S.6. 4.6. 5.6.
(it \u eral . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . Basic Po·mciplcs of the K inmnatic :'1(11thod . . Hl'plac.:>uwnt of Constraints hy Correspond ing F'orc.:>s Cotlst.nJc.tion of tho Dis plllC·I!ltlOnt Grap'hs Determination of Utl'· Sc.ah l~uc.tor J
6.6. Tlw Sign Corl\' t•ntton 7.8. I~ '\am]Jles of !nflu('nn• Lin() Constr·uction
Chapter 7. RETAIN ING WALLS AND EARTH PRESSURE COMPUTATION
1.7. G l'JIOrnl
• . . . . . . . . . . .
2)\J.
2.7.
Phy~ical
3.7. ..:'\c.tiv~
PropNtics of Granular Material,;; Pr·l'ssur(' of Gran ulat• Mult\rials . .
2·i l 282 2%
Content!
7
2tli
4.7. Graphkal Oetennination o£ ;'l!o.xhnum Active !•ro~urc
5.7. Poncolet.'s Methot! . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7. M(~thod of Direct Computntion of ,the Ear~h f'l't>~sur·o 7.7. Prtl'tic.u lar C rt3eS of Prossuro Computntiu,t 8.7. Passive Pre~sure of Granular Materials
2!l0 21)2
29R 30i'>
Chaptt>r
B. STRAIN ENEROY THEORY ANO PLACEMENT COMPUTATION
1,8. Gonl't'lll
2.8. \V ot•k of
~GENERAL
METHDOS OF DIS
310
310
3HI
Ex lt•mn I Forct•s
Work:~ ('J'h~Ol'Cll'l
or BcUy) ' 5.8. Th!!OI'~·m or lleciprocal Oisplnccanr.uts (Theorem elf MII\Wflll 6.8. Mctltorl ~ of Di:;plac~.>menl Computation 7.8. 'fern pr•rature St.ra'ius . . . . . . . . . . 8.8. lli!!Jllnc~·mont \.omtml.at.iou Tcchnittul"S . . 9.8. Exurnplr~s of Di~pl:~cmnNH Comvutation Using V1•rc·
3.8. Strain Energy 4.8. 'l'IH,'OI'(>J)) tlf Hl'cipn•cal
317 32·1
325 :!27
3..~7
:¥.0
:Y,!'i
:ir~~~
sltc.'hllgin 's )h)thod . . 10.8. Stt•nin Enllrgy Mot.bod of l)i':'plnr..cmont Crnnp11tnt.i"u 11.8. The Ela~tir Loads ) feth ocl 12..8. Simplilicd Rxpre$o;ion I)[ li:la.•Lic Loads for n(lams 111111 1\ igill Frnrne.4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 13.8. Simplilicd l~:tl'r<>ssion of Elnstic Loath for Iiiu~~> ·CI•rtlJC'<:. t.ed
Swnc turc~
357
31\3
;1116
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8. Dl·fo•mnt·ions of St:ttically lkte•miunle Slruc.turcl! C11u~ud by lh<' ;\l nv(lment. of Suppol't.!! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8. Def<u·nHtLin ns t•[ a Kinemtt lic Cit a in f:ausNI by Lito~ ~I utunl TI<•tat.ion of Two Neighbouring LiJtlcs . . . , . . . 16.8. o~nocti(HI'l or Th.recDimt•n;;iuna l FriiJT)!)d fllluctures . . .
372
371l 37lS
Chapter
9. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMPLER STATICALLY INDETERMINATE
STRUCTURES BY THE METHOD OF FORCES
1.9. Gonornl . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~~ :1~3
EqiH\I.iUM Deduc.~Jd by th e Method or )"()f'r,,,~f. Analy~i.s of th1• Simp)pr Hcclundant Strttcture!'. Strc~" In 1\cdundant Structures due to Tempcrn.lut•o Chan~t<'S . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . 5.9. Str"~:<c~ in l\ cd untlnnL Structm·es Cnuse!l by tho )lov<·· ment ur Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9. Diag•·~m ~ iot· Sho11ring and Direct Stresses. Ch(\ckin({ of Di:tgt·orus • . . . . . . . • . . . . , 2.9. 3.9. 4.9,
C~tuonlca l
31\\l
3\llt
408
410 415
8
Contents
7.9. Slr;uns uucl D uflc.cti nns ur ::i tnlic nlly lndotenn inll le Struc•
tUrt 'S
8.9, Th o El11:;~ic. Ct•ntro i\f o > thod . . . 9.8. l nfho onct· Li no!1 fur· tlJCl Simplor liNluudunt S t.ruc turM
'o23 12(i <l31
Cluoplcr 10. CONTINUOUS BEAMS . . . . 1.10. 'J'Iotl(•rt.•m u! Tlo rtl() ~louwnt.s 2.10. Th o Jo'or,,J P<linL~ Mt' tla od 3 ·10. L k ntli ng t.111mont l::nvelopc CurVet!! 4.10. l nO uomcu Liowl' f(•r C toullmwu~ n <.tu.
C~·~·~r
11. REDUNDANT ARCHES 1.11. Odiu i t ion ~. C:lonicc .,f the N<•utrnl Line 2.11. ;\rch<.•.~ wiLh Vur ia l•le Cross~ecl.iun a l Dim oJISit.JM! 3.11 . Conjngnt.t' ::i tat.icuii.Y DL'l•~•·miutlte St.ruoLures Vsod for Stres · AnnJysill of F'ixc.J End Arc hes 4.11 . ....\pp ro.rlmo t.e. ~f(•th od!! of Design llnd .'\ naly$;il! of Fi1o:o•d Enol A rdw.. ~ 5.11. l•; tic~·· t or Shl' lllk~gv aud 'l'CitiJI(' I'OLno•o Changes on Fi.xtld Enol lt <,i nlm·o·P.cl C'.o ncr· ··~l.' Ao• c.hl\S 6,11. Oi r<.•rt Cc •m l'ut~tt iun of ['..rubolk Fixo~l E nd Arch es 7.11. 'l'wc,..J i wg ...d Archu~ .
47oi 41;11
~!> I
li8'.
~· I ~
521
:i28
Chap~r 12. ANALYSIS OF HJO HL Y REDUNDANT STRUCTURES
52H
1.12. Pro
,,f
~ymrl\Ct ry
2 .12. Gn•UJtlll~ uf tho Uulcuown~ 3.12. $ym molrit:;ul a mi Antisyrnmct.~ic.al L o&di ng 4.12. L~>arl 'frn n!!fCJI·uoa ~inn . . 5.12. Accuruc·~· Cc••l tro l of .\II tl\il TL'rm s E nt.cring the Simultaneous
ciJII.<llHllll1
529 533
:'i3U
538
:';t,Z
i\hridgCld ScllutiCIJI c'l' Cunonirnl ~q\h'\lions . Sovt•rrol Pr., bll'tW! i ll S trc:;.~ Aua l y,is of llndun<l.>~ ul J?rames S~a l ic·~ ll ~' f n<l<'tnnn in a I.(' T ru~S(lS . . . . . C••mpul.aUtJ u , ,f Stntically f nd Cl L erminutc Stru c lures \~it.h tho Aiol o [ Ro mpl~w Structures Hodundnnt. to a J.ower Degrco 10 .12. 1Joflu t111t (• r. I!'IOMOllcls f or Cout.irttJ O II ~ l$ 1 !31n!! . • • .
6.12. '1.12. 8.12. 9.12.
54.3 5:'\(J
~75
5l:i l
~1:$5
C.hnptcr 13. SLOPE AND DEFLECTIONS. COMB/NED AND MIXED METHODS
1.13. Ch oico n[ t : nkuowns . . . . . . . . . . 2.13. Dotennination o f Lhe Xumlwr of lJnkn<lWns 3.1 3. Th tl Cc111jugnlo Sy$tc·rn of Horlund<~nL Tlt'nu•;,
588
581:! 59') 593
4.13. Canonical Equntinu s Pt!culinr t.o tho S ll•po and Oc:fl~>c t.i t>n!l Methocl 6.13. Stnt.ical 'M••th ocl "f D~:tct·m inlng th e Cllc )rJicicuts tn tltu Unknowns nnd th e frot' Terms 6.13. Dcturmina lion of Utt• Cocfficionls to the Unk nowns a ncl of th o ms by lhc \<{(>t,Jwrl o£ Graph ,\lu lt.iplicaLion FrQII Te1 7.13. CllC!c.l<lng t he C.:oo!f1ciuut.s t o the l ' 11k11own!< und t he Pn•t• 'l'<Will" l'L> I'loining to thr• ::iimu lt.arwun~ Ertt•nti <HI$ or tho Slope a uti Deflec.l itms Met lt•lll 8.13. C.onst•·uc licm or lh o M. Nand Q Diagrnm~ _ 9.18. Com rJUtilti<>Sl th e TIWT111!11Stm irt~ by Lh oSlopo and Donee
GOt
(lfl7
6i2
or
1\11> IHH
l ion~
Mnthorl
ou:
024
&2~
10.13. Anal yeis of Symm t•tric.:•l .:;tl'ur.turM 11.13. ,\u l!:xnmp ll' of Frtnot o Annly~i:; by lhe Sl••r•· atul Do0L'f'lions Motl1t> d . . . . _ . . . . 12.13. Tlu: Mi ...od MoLlHJ•I . . . . . 13.13. Tlw Cmnbincltl ~{uthod 14.13. Cuns truc.tion of InO nunc.e L•n•• !Jy tht> Slupc aJul [)(lflcctlons
M~tltucl
f,l,1
041.\
C4~1
Chapt.er 14. APPROXIMATE METHODS OF STRESS ANALYSI S FOR REDUNDANT FRAMES 1.14. Clol'l'ifiolltion <tf /qJ]mJxima~c Methods 2.14. The lrTt)lhod o[ llroment Oist.ri outii•u Chapter 15. MODERN DESIGN METHODS
1.15. 11uRic Pt·incitll~s 2.15. D <l~ign of Sl.lltJcl\lly Dctenniunte Ill'lllotS . 3.15. Dc~ign of Statically Jndolcnni na\ " Beam.4.15. Dosign of Hl'ch111dant J"nuno..~ 111111 Arc.h c~ 5.15. D<.>~ign of Tiodu~aclant. 'l'rn..~~l'~ 6.15. l\<:>1 lnn dant S\.IIIC LO t'N~ Subjected t.o Rt~pNtled L•Huling
~
ti54 055
f~i7
llB7
G71
6i5 61.!4
093 694
lndc:x
097
rigidity and s tability of whole structuresall form parts of this discipline. as he proceeded from a false c. the rigidity and the stability of engineering strud. matf. Galilei's ~tudios of beams subjected to bending led him to a num ber of valuable conclusions which have not lost interest up to date .hcory of olasticity. the gt·eat llalian scientist and artist. The simplest form of . l>ut he was unable to dove lop a true flexural theory. These ideas never became widely known and remained confwed to his manuscripts on mechanical resea.lNTRODUCTION Structural mochanics is a science which studios the strength.res which studills t. Neither had Galilei any knowledge of the relation existing between stresse" and strains.oction of the beam is 11niformly extended. He also proved that the d ead weight to ultimate load ratio may differ fot· geometrically similar bodies. mathematician and a!jtronomcr Galileo Galilei (1564.'3 and for improvements in their design. !ltndies in the strength of enginoerin~ materials and strucl. ln those days the expansion of maritime t rarle called for large inacases in the ton·n age of cargo vessel. In those days.ls more strict solutions. the t heory of plasticity which investigates the stresses and strains of plastic and elastoplastic.nts thereof.rin ls.ures 1\nd p.e. Dealing with thesa qnestions Galilei discovered that the ship's overall strength and scawol·thiness c<Juld not be satisfactorily ensured sim ply increasing the dimensions of: het' mernbors in direct propot·tion to her si7.onc.4!i2Hl19). who was the first to formulate a number of valuable ideas on the strength of materials.rch. It was Leonardo da Vinci (1. and finall y the theory of struetu. The strength of materials dealing with the strength. Only partial solutions of isolated problems rc~latNl to the strength of certain structural members could be obtained. largescale St\ldics of problems which form the subject of c.ientiiic. the t.1642) is generally considered to he the father of sc.hc stt·ength . rigidity and stability of isolated members.ontemporat·y struclural mechanics were utterly "impossible. The eminent physicist.urcs. which is concerned with the same problems but giv(.eption that the whole cross e.
c.cd to bonding was discovered in lht> second half of 1 :1te 18th contury as tho out. A L pr1~:sc:. At: pr·csortL arc.e time5 in•me mol'ial.eamships and grcn L buUtlinw. of tbr.s forrn tho main classes of sl.s.! I ttlruduc:lim~ this mlal.. in the cro~ section nf a beam suhject..se ~'stems becarno usod ill sl.orial used fo•· that.::.r·anu. dams. In t. toWN' erun e:. typo tlf st:ruc(:nrc..s and in a largo unnthor of otlwr . Arched systl! ru s made their appe.omes Lite main mat.c artd steel frames being e urren tly used for the construction of s ingle and mu lti~toried industria l and othet• buildings.rength computation and in tho formation of a new ungi nooring scie uco slructura l mo~ h auirs (nlso raflod In th(•ir ~ impl e. rolaining wa lls and r igid ft·ame. Works by J. :u·chcd sy::.'ises.t•elbridgo r. tut'l!S had bct~n a lroady by tho andeuts.•rit!S of wi th gr~·a t. of . Lagrn ngo oud L. Rome.come of a Sl." ("the t+Xtension is as greaL os the force").ion of railwnys. to t•:siu s ic vi:. i11 a11c:it~. lruSSC!1< und trianguJated systems arc widely u~tl in bridge and NHJf c.l.rnc. EuJor w.t.oustl'u c~ion (bridge lind roof tms.y of stru<. At: lhaL t. by GaliJei.pt·e~sNI lt as ''ul.he seco11d half oi tho l9Lh rE:\ntury thr.hod sy1:1torns am widely n. Uwor·y or ~truc:tures}.I tlte rapid t. th<• inln)duction of.iJrH.~sing de mand fM 11 rt•dtH'I.s. powerline tower.le.iun Wll$ di!o\co vcmd in 1678 by Hol• ~:~ l'l Hooko who <lX.iou 11nd in the 20Lh ~~t. the :illllcrtl l' ngin n. t he methods o!' thoir· t~O mpu Ln ti o n r·omailll' d unknown.\Laining wa lls have hel:'n used to provont Ll1e ~liding down of stoep ~ l opes in variou~ bruncltcs of engineer ing act ivities sinc.iJc out•s exist.lling c:. aeri :d 1'llppol't.!!tructures.l y r.s and indm..:$t S rcsttlU~d in t. The evorgr·owing t:O lrl(Jloxil. bul.u ro I mllchanics.. S ign irtcaut aclvann•ll ill highor m alh6matics an<l rn t•chanics ach icv~d iu I hu 18th ccntu1 1' <'ontri buted grtJatly Lo lhtl developmont or :studit>s ill t lw strength of mnteria ls 1tnd struc tm·os. addcvemcJlts among w hi('lt was t lw COl'l'CCt: solution of tlle prohlcm of bending pnt.<:~..tcms.• strength of ougiucoring mRtorial~ and stru(:turc~. whnrc> thoy wore .1:.n tury rcinforcod coucrol. Vigorous growth of ind11sLry in the 1!)lh contury.t• hcc. cnna ls. nL.~uc<:tl!lsfu IJy used fot• the constt·•rcLinn o( nHl~wnry bridgps ancl aquetluet~:.l1t• dcvelopmant of new mol.aranrt. .hod:. 'l'ru. Lhe coul>Lruc:. with by Juod1~rn stntcl. nt. accolNated tbtl stud ies iu tlu.\ll. lnrgc1 st.iou i11 IJoilding co.st>s) as woJI us in LJ:. tural forms and tho pre.~ t form many of these ~truc. bl'idgc. Hf.vn loprncnt.on~ tru c.trieii was consta nt.a lling fornow seiNttiti~. condtH~t<!cl d~.t.amc widespread in modern tinws.:tlcl in many 1r ~MI l( inds of larges pan consLrnc t:ion work.ruc Lures ch~all. thoroughness. 'T'hc f·acl tiHtt ccnnpr~~:llivl' SLI'IlS~es a!' wolla!> the tcno. Rigid frames be.rot.re of portie ular int}lol'lonce in t his tests l'liSPt'·< "!. roinf(Jrcod coJJc.wc.
cl'<~Sfu ll y solvc. I mporlant a d vant~cs ha ve u lso ht>I:Hl mndc in tho stud ius of thinwalled tuhnlar· soctinns which 11re fre quent ly utilir. It form s now a separate branch of the ::. . L Prokofye v. G alerkin. Stre l e~sky. Sm irnov. N. Zhemochldu . Bolyacv .. Of h•Lc the dynami<:::. Papkovich and 1 \ . Gvozdov. A. Snitko.lico. of onginc Jtlting sLrtu>Lur·as have bee n ncqniri ng an ever ioet·cnsing importance. Zavriev. V. Krylov . ha YO been furtlltlr pcrfec Lioncd and si m plif~ed to :. Vlasov .h . V.struet.l'chitecturo.' theory or IHH'a l and neronauticnl a. Bezukhov . meth ods of computation of com pl watccl mc.ig n JH'He. Ponornarov.d.tural m echanics.o the stability o[ structurol:i hav~:~ been suc. : M. A mung the Svviet: scientis ts and resoarch wo rkers the following have made Lhc gt·eatest ~o ntri butions to Lhc devol opmon t of stmctural mechanics: A.ed iu a ircraft eonstrnc t. Bolotin . same as l ht. P. N.ure!. N.t ruc. FilonenkoB orodir.ion as well as in oLber brand1cs of engineering.lundnnl . H . 1. Val'ious problotns rt>latcd 1 . Rabinovich. H . A.I ntrodtu·Uon 1 3 As a rcsulL.uclt an extent th at t:oday ~hey nrc nscd in eve ryday tlcr. K. S.
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s (the upper and the lower one) with a pin in between permitting the rotation of tho upper roc. Thus. in other words.• to the surface along which th~ rollers may t ravel.ru cluw~ .he frict. its magnitude. The im mutabi lity of such systems (their geometrical .iorH. • • In wme cases rnovuble supports acLually consist of a vertical' detneilt wfth hinges nt both extremities.nral systems no poiut or which can bo displaced without a deformation of their element. Let.s of t his type are known as free end or movablr: rolltw supp orts. The first t. us lirst t>Xnro ine the different types of supports which may be enc.her wi th tho applied loads form a balancod syste.ioo developed in the l>caring being usually neglec.t~ .'!lability) with rolation to the ground* is ensured by m<!atiS of supports.1. orising at these supports togot. T he bar is conventionally considered to be of inf1nite length. t.1).1.o11ntercd in planE' structures.ems or st.~. its upper ext remity may mov~ only a long a straight line.tctl. Tho reaction of thi~ type of supporlpa$eS through the centre of the pi 11 and is perpcndicuhu· to the bearing p late surface.drtlurr1 s~tppurts.1 con.ypt> as represented in Fig. · • .t. Rear.ker with respcc. Support. only one parameter of the rr.. SUP PORTS Structural mechanics deals with unyielding ~yst. lho system has two degrees offreedom.m of outer or external force~ which maintain thtl structuw in equilibrium. 1. i. 'fhu:>. has to be known in order to determine this reaction completel y.<>ists of two rockor.kers ean move together on ro llers along the bea. i n which CAse they llr<' mf•~•·rotl to ll!l r>crr. i .te.e. nor mal • The word ground will hereafter •·cfor t o any r igi•l invariable bodv. with such struct. Schematically they a re represented lJy onoba r with h inged ends*• (Fig.t to the Jowet· om•.r~ng pla. 2.nction . KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES 1. At the same time both 1 ·oc.
1.1 Ffg. 2. !U +.l . • U J?ig .1. C. Pit: .1 Jlig. 1.1f.1 F ig . Fig.
2. Tho bar is also regarded as infinitely rigid so that its stra ins can be completely disregarded.ompletely two par~meters have to be found its magnitude and direction (or. a straight line bning a circumference of infinito radius.e l 0 must be regarded as oxtremoly small or tho builtin end of the beam as absolutely rigid. This type of support may be represented by three bars ns in Fig. Tho exact computat ion of trusses with rigid joints is extremely compl·icatod as the system becomes 2. The directions of the bars themselves may be chosen at will as any force may be resolved into two components of any direction. 3. but its direction may be arbitrary.. the top hinge being common to both bars (Fig.1) whose degree of freedom is niL The determination of the reactions developed by this support requires the knowledge of three parametersthe direction and magnitude of a force passing through any point chosen at will and the magnitude of the moment about tho same point.enfatlons of supports is always equal to the number of parameters dett>rmintng completely the reaction at this support.ually slraight. but in this case the direction of this force remains unknown . riveted. the vertical and the horizonta l one).ribed.863 . 2. bolted or other types of joints. h is worth noting that the numbt>r of bars in these schematic repre:.1. 4.s components. Schematically t he second t ype of support may be represented by two bars with hinges at their ends. The second type of supports differs from t he first one by the fact that the lower rocker is fixed and cannot move (Fig. The third type of support is the butltin end (Fig.1). say. the magnitude of two of it. 5. This type of bearing possesses only one degree of freedom. In most cases thtl joints of framed structures are not hinged nnd possess a certain degree of rigidity. 'l'he reaction will still pass t hrough the centre of the pin.t. membars connected together by welded.1. Geometr/cnl Stability of Framed S trudures f7 t o its axis. That fixes the point of application of the reaction which coincides with the top hinge. us:. These two conventions f1t very closely into the actual working conditions of supports of the type just dcsc. GEOMETl\ICAL STABILITY 0[1 FRAMED STRUCTURES Framed or through structures consist of a series of separate. To att.ain perfect rigidity of the support the distanc. whieh"ili the same. It is usually termed hinged immovable or fixed end support. Actually this forms a combination of tho reaction of a hinged immovable support with the reactive moment. Oue of the simplest twodimensional forms of framed s tructures is tho plane truss. and accordingly to determine it c. (i.1).
without aoy deformation of the bars.1) placed along a straight line and connecting joint C with two fixed points A and B. the analysis becomes greatly simplified and under certain conditions equations provided by statics alone will suffice. when rigid joints are.1a. Hereunder we shall refer to systems consisting of two bars placed along a straight line (see Fig. In the first instance let us examine a system consisting of two bars (Fig. Should. It follows that if the extremity C of one of the two bars moves over a very short stretch along a perpendicular to AB. In this case the circumferences mm and nn have no common tangent. Thus. for design purposes ordinary trusses are always regarded as being hingejointed. 9.1) as instantaneously unstable. while the extremity C of bar BCalong the arc nn. . the system will continue to be unyielding (Fig. 8.e. Tests carried out as well as the results of theoretical analysis indicate that in general the conventional introduction of hinges does not lead to any substantial errors in stress computations pertaining to through structures loaded with a system of forces acting at the joints. and. the quadrilateral system. 10. If the rigid joints are replaced by hinges. conventionally replaced by hinged ones. we shall obtain a system whose shape can be altered (Fig. however.1a.IS Kinematic Analysis of Structures many times statically indeterminate. the extremity C of bar AC would become free to move along the circular arc mm.. even the slightest displacement of joint C is impossible without a corresponding deformation of the bars. 8. 7. 7 . The situation would change entirely if the two bars AC and BC were not in alignment (Fig.1b) without any deformation oi its members. undergo the same treatment. 9. 7. Let us now examine a system consisting of three rigidly connected straight bars as represented in Fig. If the bars AC and BC were disconnected at point C.1b). these systems becoming rigid as soon as a small shift of point C along the perpendicular to AB has been completed. therefore. shown in Fig. the system is geometrically unstable.1). the other bar will offer no resistance. The simplest unyielding system consisting of a number of separate pir1jointed bars is a triangle with hinges at all the three vertices (Fig. Therefore. Let us establish the rules governing the formation of geometrically stable systems comprising more than three pinjointed bars. the two arcs having a common tangent at point C.1b). in other words. i. as its shape can be altered without any change occurring in the length of its members or.. it will be uncapable of undergoing any distortion without the deformation of at least one of the bars. On the other hand.
n . . .~f.2. 9. A /al p (a ) Ff~.'\.b)\ ~.. .. JO. .. . { m I• / /n ~ ~ ''c \ sf. \ .1 ':t · ". Ceomctrtcal StabWty of Framed StructrlrU 19 p "" . A n m Fig. •...1.v · lm I I .l 1/ . I' I 'm ' n Fig.. I L..."'9 I I I I I I I I I I I I I ' {b) ~·.
The basic triangle consists of three bars and three joints. to which a number of additional joints have been successively attached.20 K inematic Analysis of Struc.1.1 belong to the simple frames. any system developed from a hinged triangle by successive addition of joints. viz. Any 9 s 2 1 triangular combination of three 70 7 pinjointed bars may serve as a basis for verifying the geometrical stability of simple framed structures.. eac. by rejecting one by one all the hinged joints together with the two bars ab11tting to each of them. usually derived from the former by replacement of a number of bars or by 9 7SJlo b superposition . Consequently. 11. All the plane trusses represented in Fig.h by means of two separate bars not in alignment. in the sequence indicated. framed structures in order to distinguish them 0 c 2 't s 7 !J from the complicated ones. As stated above.3) are ~~ 7~ ~ . numbering (K . 1. will be geometrically stable (invariable). each new joint being connected to two existing J ones by two bars not in alignment. Systems so formed will be called hereafter simple. Fig.1 Let us now establish the relation between the number of bars and joints forming a simple truss. each having been obtained 8 fj 3 b successively by adding hinged joints to a basic pinconnected triangle abc. Thus. any system consisting solely of triangles is obviously unyielding (geometrically stable). This property 7 may be checked with eq11al succes~ in a reverse order. Let S be the number of bars and K the number of joints. If in the outcome c a a pinjointed triangle is obtairwd tlte system is geometrically stable.tures It follows that each additional joint forming part of a geometrically stable system must be attached thereto by means of two separate bars the axes of which do not lie b 1 J s 6 s m on the same line. pinjointed triangle. such a truss consists of: ono basic. all the othor joints.
The truss shown in Fig. this sixth bar would be redundant from the viewpoint of geometrical sta bility.em will evidently be unstable.1a is unstable although the number of its bars totals exactly 2K . as shown in Fig. 13. the total number of bars in J:\ simple truss will be S = 3+2(KR)=2K3 (1. Should Fig.1 we introduce a second diagonal bar which would give a total of six bat's as against four joints (Fig. though necessary. is not sufficient to ensure the geometrical stability of a hingeconnected system. 12.1c). 12.2. 13. This example shows that we may encounter geometrically stable systems for which S > 2K .1b has an even greater number of bars but still remains unstable. the truss represented in Fig. Therefore.3.3. Conseqtumtly S =4< 2K3=2x43=5 This quadrangle may be converted into an unyielding system by adding a fifth diagonal bar. This is due to tho fact that the righthand panels of both these trusses consist of hingejointed rectangles. 19.1 lho syst. 12.1) If the number of bars S < 2K . 12. Thus.3.1a) characterized by S = 4 aud K = 4.. It should be noted that the condition S 2K .1 GeomiJtrical Stability of Framed Structures 21 attached by means of two bars each.1b.3. Au example of such a system is furnished hy a quadrangle (Fig. > . the truss does not contain a number of bars sufflcient to ensure its geometrical stability and 0[2]~ (a) (b) (c ) Ptg.
14. Let us now con~ i der the proble m of connecting geometrically stable systems to t ho g1·ound by means of supports. 15. 14.. (Practically such a displacement may become quite appreciable.) Once this movement accomplished. Fig. 15. the supporting bars will no longor COJlcur at the sn me point and all fut·ther displacements will .. l In the majority of cases a plane structure (which may be regarded as a r igid d isk or plate) will reston Lwo hinge supports.1b).).one Jllovable and the other ftxed (Fig. indeed they may have none (Fig. JJ.1a.~ is fu lftllcd may he instantaneously unstab le. However.1a).1 structure and ground is geomt~trically stable (unyielding).ures for whkh tho con· d iLion S = 2[( . It is not essential that two of the throe ~up porting bnrs should have a common hinge.'22 K tnemflltt Atmlysts of Structures 'FurLhermore. this point will constitute an instantaneous centre of rotation a bout which the whole system will be able to accomplish an infinitely small rotary movement.ases framed str·uct. This type of connection between Commof1 hif1ge (b) Fig. in certain c. should the directions o£ all t he supporting bars intersect at one and the same point (Fig.
t'lb le $Lructures (or rigid plates) between thom. ~ach of tllesc hinges connecting one pair of plates (l<'ig. However. three nonconcurring and nonpnrallelu' bars will al ways provide a geomeLrically stable support..1 Al l Lh~ above a pplies equally to t11e connedion of any two geometrically sl.1). 17. 16. even very small external Loads rna y stress tlae instantaneous1y unsta ble systems very ben.vily. l t.:d Slrrut"r~s 23 bcc.t.2. • • Parallel lim>s hnving a ]Joint ot intersection in tile infrniLy. follows that two disks may be rigtdly connected together using one hinge and one bar provided the direction of this bar docs Mt pass through the centre of this hinge.omc i uqwssi hie wi lho11t a corrc!'pondi ng deiorma tiou of these bars.1 Fig.1 is instanlaneously llllSlable. 18.l the system represented in Fig. 17.1 ). G'tomt•lr~cal Stabill(q of Fram. • On thH contrary.~ystcm connected to the ground in the way just do~<'ri bed wi 11 bo instantaneonsly unstable and.ommon hinge and one bar (Fig.cl.t a common point of intersection.. the intersections of the bars connecting each pair of p lates • As will ho shown in Art.. Alternatively th e same result will be obtained by placiug six independent bars (Fig.ingl al tJ1e cent.ed by means of OM c. therefore. 1f a hinge is placed at the point of iutersection of any two or the t h1·cc bars and is connected to the plate.re of this hinge. the system will remain unyielding and may he regarded as consisting of two separate plates comwrt.1. 6 . 1 \ . P. as each hinge may be replaced by two bars iutersec. 16.selvcs th11s pcnnitti ng to formt1la te the following rule: two rigid plates will form a geometrically stable (unyielding) system if they an: connected together by means of three bars which are not parallel and do not converge a. 1:Ub).tg. Three plates muy be connected to form one single unyielding syslem with the aid of three hinges placed at the vertices of a triangle. • . such an arr·angemont of supporLs cannot he ·toleraled.
Kinematic Analv~ts of Structures (i ) Flg.1 .1 (j} Fig. 20. 19.
. Bar II rests on two uprights standing directly on the ground and is attached to bar I by means of the insert ab. Another illustration is afforded by the structure of F ig. 19. Thus. 9. A plausible arrangement of a statically determinate multispan (cantilever) beam is illustrated in Fig.ed Structures 25 being in alignment. l<'or this purpose. instantaneously unstable. respectively.1. three rigid plates connected together with six bars.2.2).1. 9. 21. t herefore. 21. GeometricaL Stability of Fram. The lateral parts I and I II may be regarded as simple stays AD and CF. the hinge e and an upright connect the last member ef to bar III and to the ground. 20. This system is. Let us check the geometrical stability of this beam. In the system under consideration bar I is rigidly connected to the ground with the aid of three bars which have no cornmou point of intersection and which are not parallel.1. and then it becomes apparent that plate II is connected to the ground by means of three bars (one vertical B and two inclined ones AD and CF) all of which intersect at one and the same point E. Consequently the system as a whole will be geometrically stable.1 described in greater detail in Art. Fig. let us first select sornc unyielding portion of the structure rigidl y connected to the grou nd and then let us see whether all the other geometrically stable pat·ts of the structure are connected to the former by means of a st1ff1cient numb(:'r of bars. Bar III is connected to bar II in a similar way. This system is similar to the one shown in Fig. It should be kept in mind that the ground and any portion of the structure conneeted to it with the required minimum of three bars constitute an unyielding combination and therefore it is quite immaterial on which of the two the connecting bars will take support. will always form an unyielding combination.1 (such systems being Fit:.1 shows a number of systems constituted as just described. Finally. provided each pair of plates is connected by two bars and provided also the intersections of these two bars do not lie along one straight Une.
Any plane structure will be externally statically determinate (i. an unyielding connection of a structure wi Lh the grouna may be schematically represented by three nonconcurrent bars. 23. statically determinate with reference to the supports) if the number R (a ) / " ./ / / / / R I ' I '. / '. !M" = 0). The supports i n the following examples fulfil this condit ion: (1) A combination of one f1x. t · S'fA'!'lCACLY DETE!Uili'IATE :f'MMED S'!'RUC'l'UHES As has been stated. This type of connection is statically determinate as the number of reactive forces in these bars is equal to the number of equations furnished by statics fo r coplanar forces in equilibrium (for insLance.ome insufficient for the analysis of ·such structures.ia). 22. 22. (2) A combination of three roller supports for the same type of structures resting on three fulcra. i:. i..1 of parameters determining the reactions at these supports is equal to three. Equations provided by statics bec. ' // . Having formulated the conditions under which a structure is externally statically determinate.e . Directions of support // ~ reactions ~~ ~ t.1)..ally indeterminate or redundant Wig. {b) Fig. three of which have no common point of intersection and arc not parallel. .1 b). 22. If a geometrically stable system rests on four or more supporting bars. provided the directions of the three reactions are neither concurrent not· parallel (Fig.X = 0. I '..ed and one roller support for twodimensional structures supported at two points (Fig. ~y = 0. additional equations based on the study of deformations or strains becoming indispensable.e. let us now examine those which 1 ·ender a framed structure internally statically dotcr mina te. the structure as a whole is static.2!> Kinematic Analysis of Structures 3.
:JL. 25. 26. 27. S tattcally Dr.~.1 . 1 1 ~ { (]) \ (O ) (b) Fig.1 (b) Fig..1 Ftg.termiMle Framerl Structu re3 2i L J>T. 2/1.1. Fig. 24.1 Fig.
It follows that forces N will act along a line connecting tllC hinge cen t. its equilibrium will be ensured only in the case when t he forces N acting on the bor Lhrough the h inges a and b are equal in amount but opposite i 11 direction. 24. 26. It may be easily shown that stresses in the bars of a hinged truss subjected to concentrated loads acting at the joints will be always normal to the cross sections of these bars. Consequently.28 Kitumatic Analysl$ of Structures such where the forces acting in all of its bars may be computed using equations of equilibrium alone. say. These forces wiU always pass through the contres o£ the hinges since in our analysis these are assumed to bo frictionless.1)}.1a). these will be subjected to bending moments in addition to the normal forces just mentioned. each of its joints is also in equilibrium (Fig. 25. 26. having separated one of t he bars.1b). Statics will furnish each joint subjected to a system of concurrent coplanar forces with two equilibrium equations and ~Y=O If the truss contains K joints. any simple truss obtained by the successive addition of joints to a hinged triangle. let us analyze the conditions of its equilibrium (Fig. we may form 2K equations of equilibri um which must provide for the determination of all the intemal forces in the members and of the throe unknown parameters of the reactions. this is the same relation as the one giving the minimum number of bars of a geometrically stable system !expression (1.1). Accordingly.1a. Any other equilibrium equations which may be formed for the truss as a whole or for any part thereof can be derived from the above and consequently will contain no additional information. if the number of its bars S ·is equal to double the number of joints f( less 3 S=2K3 (2. Hence the truss will be statically determinate. bar ab.res and. the external load applil'd to any joint and the internal forces in the bats converging al Lbis joint must be balanced. Indeed.1) As will be readily observed. Should the truss contain curved bars. b). the maximum value of Lhese moments equalling Jllm 11:c = N. therefore. When the truss as a whole is in equilibrium under the actiort of external loads and reactions (Fig. each joint being connected by means . the cross sections of bar ab will be subjected either to direct tension or to direct compression. If no external load is applied d irectly to this bar.f Wig.
.
i ) and therefore the wh ole system 11\RY lw (aud in this c. expL·ession (2. in other words.c. 1.4} . A structuro of that type is represented in Fig. S 101 (including the supporting bars) is equal to 1() which sf\tisfies equat ion (3.omo Stot=2K (:~.1 . when counting the m1mber of b~\rs of a truss. thau 2K . structurr: there is not a single superfluous (rc·dltndant) member. 28.1) will bcc.onsiolered in cletail later (see Art.3) is connected to the ground in such a wny that together they form a single unyielding and statically dctel'lninnte systl'm. in such a. If. Thus tbe structure is uustnhle for while However. + •The nna lr5is of suoh S)•~>tems is c.$ both geometrically stable and statically determinate. 'W hen a geometrically stable system contains more bnt·s than js s trictly nec.1) 'l'his fo rn111la llecomes particularly useful when the slt·uct. * ln a statically determinate system all the bars are absolutely tndispensa. The theory of s tructures anal yzes on ly geo metrically stable systl'JIIS both statically determinate and statically indeterminute or redundant.i bel ong. The rend~r is invited to find out on his o wn Lo which of these two categtll'ics tl1e s tructutas represented iu Fig. 6. 27.cssary it becomes statically indeterminate or redundant.ble to ensnre its geoml!trical stability. those forming its supports were a lso taken into consideration.v Ktnemultc Analylls of Structuns of two bars rwt tn alignmPnt. .ure though being geometrically un$table (the num ber of its bars totalli11g les:. Here K = B while tho number of bars (s upporting bars are omitted) totals 12.nse actually is) both geometrica lly sLable and slntically dotermio11t.
'3uses compression of the top fibres of a beam nnd au extension of the lower ones.2 . the latler will also be subjected to forces N nol'lnal to its cross lSI!CLi ons.2. 1. shearing ani! not·uut l force~ are sbown in Fig.2. The same methods are used in structural m!'chanics. GENI::IIAL The t·oadtH· hnving already st\1died the strength of mattrials must be fnmiliar wilh methods pcrmittiug tbe determinatio n of stresses actiug over the cross sections of statically determ inate simply supported beams. Positive directions o[ bending moments.· will tend to roLnte cnch portion of the beam clockwise with res1>ect to its olhor eud. These wm bl! regarded as positive when they COltS<' tmsile stresses and rtcgatiue when thtsc stresses are compressive. It will be seen tha t a positivu bendiug moment <.* • Jn cerlain treati~«•s on th(' stnmgth n! materials. positive bending moments arc plotted em tho sillc o£ compressed ftbn•s. The following sign convention will be adopted hel'eunder: Tlu. while a positive shoru. • . It is good prncLicc to indicate prominently on the stt·css diagrams the signs of tile corresponding stresses. 7'he bendlug moment M tvill be reckoned positive when it ttnds to rotate the kft extremity of the righthand portion of a bewn clockwise and thi! right extremity of the lefthand portion courtterclockwise. their positive values shall be scaled off below the xaxis and the negative ones above iL. thus. BEAMS 1. When the loads are not at right Hngles with the ax is of n beam.~ shearing force Q (or simply the shear) will be considered positive when tt tends to uplift tlw left extremity of the rlghthan. When plotling thl! diagram~ of shearing and normal forces thllit· posi Live values sJ1ould be scaled off above th e xaxis and Lite negal i ve ones below.d portion of a beam with reference to the right extremity of the lefthand portion. bendiug moment diagrams will always appear on tile side of tho extended fibres of the beam. as well ns wi tl:t the construction of d iagrams showing the distributiou of these stresses along n beam subjected Lo a system of tb:ed loads. As for bending momeuts.
of moments of all the e.ceed 00°.e directed upward!$. Ftg. 2. using the following rule: The shear is positive in.2) . provided the angle of rotation does not ex. 2. 1'he bendlng moment 1\1 in a.2 Assume.2) L Q=~Y=~Y (1. the shearing force is positive. ~hat it is required to find the sign of the shearing force at cross section x of n beam. whose bending moment d iagram is represented in Fig. in cross sections close to the righthand extremity of the beam the shear will be negative.2.ny cross section. the axis of the beam should be rotated clockwise in order to bring it in coincidence with the tangent to the bending moment diagram (the direction of rotation is indicated by a dotted arrow). The shear Q tn any cross section is equal in amount and stgn to the sum of projections of all the external forces acting to the left of this cross section on a normal to the beam ·axis passing through this cross section.2) *The index z may be omitted. However. any cross section where the superposition of the axis of the elenumt with the tangent to the bendlng moment diagram requtres a clockwise rotation of the former . I n this case. for example..32 The sign of the shearing force can be also ascertained with the aid of the bending moment diagram. or to the sum of projections of all the external forces to the right of the cross section on the same normal but taken with an opposite sig1L n the projections being reckoned positive when they a . 1. for the superposition of the axis with the tangent would require counterclockwise rotlttion (see ~'ig..th an opposite sigrl M = 'fM: = .2 Pig.:t:lernal forces acting to the right of this section but takm wi. • L n .i:. 2.M~· (2. hence. is equal in amount and sign to the su~n of moments about the zaxis (this axis passing through the centroid of the cross section normally to the plane of the beam) o} all the external forces acting to the left of the cross section or to the sum. .
2) R these projections being reckoned positive when they arc dircclccl from right to left:.~:axis is from l eft. General 33 the moment.it~ relation can be represented as follows Q= d:t d. is equal t.on on the bea.os from left to .2) in other words.cy apply not only to beanls but equally lo bents and frames of var·ious types. Similarly decreasing bending moment diagram ordinates will l:'ignity that the cOI'respondiug sheat·. the shear is equal t. rn a.kwiso.ross section cloc.!Ction but taken with a. ~\lcgative shears < lOI.n tho beam aXi!. or to the sum of projections (on the same a:ris) of aU the extema.1. • . ~X L (il.on~ity of the d istributed load appl ied normally t.'fCSilond to decreasing bending moment values. Tlut normal force N is equal in amount and slgn to the sum oj projections of all the external forces to the left of the cross section under consi(lerati. while the pvsitivo diwcl. to right .. dQ (5.o the lirst derivative of the shear.·iglat.he l'irst derivative of: t.s being rctkoned positive when they tend to rolato the c. "1. *It is rlet~"mcd unHccessai'Y to dwell in ilQtail on Lho corrllspoudiug demonsLralions.2) whkh means that Lhe int.~. The fo ll owing 0an he onsily deducted from those two r·elations*. these relations facilitat iug Lbe plottiug of: thnsc curves and permitting !.l fon~es to the right of this sc. indicated l1y an inr.he bending moment in terms uf dx (Lheorcm of Zhuravsky). in ftH'ec for 1 11 and Q.is.heir veriiicaLion.. These relations arc of great importance for th. Tht~re is a set of relations between the !11 and Q diagrams aud Uw loading of ·Lhe benm.1\'loretWN'.o l.Y=~X ·· .:r.s ar·o ·ro~itivc . the distdbnted load heing reckoned positive when it is directed 111Wmrcls.. The lnH.iOIL of the .tll~r Llw relation q .n opposite sign .M (4. = d .rcase of the hooding momerrt diagram ordinat. the ~ign conventioll as set out above 1·emain~. thl:!re is cqu. .
lJeams 2. of l.load. .he area of the distributed lo:Jd diagram over the same beam lengt:h. etc. every ct·oss sec. 8.ra ted loa(]s cause breaks in the direction of tho bending moment diagram and jumps in the shear diagram.t load must be so placod as to <.is nil.he shear occurring over a eertain·porLion of the beam length is equal to t. T hus. etc. 3. for the Jattct· is numerically equal to tbo JlaLurnl tangent.istl'ibuted loads intervening) forms a straight line.ly distributod load .. the greater· in absolute value is the shear. overhead cranes and oLher engineering st. the shcat· diagram becomittg in that case an inclined straight line. unfavourable posil.mum or a minimum at those cross sections whore tho shear .in tbe diffot•ent elements of a structure depend on the position of the moving . Concen t.he bending moment diagram i~. An example of a moving loacl is furnished by a t.~a use the greatesL possible stress in this particular member.n hori7. The convexity of t. '.·uctlll'cs. Moving loacls are frequently enwunl:ert!d in tho r. The bending momcn t diagram lu~twecn two concentl'a terL loads (no d.omputation of hrhlges. The bending moment will pass through a maxi.>.al. fi. 9. the moviu~. The change in the mugni tude of t. Tn order to determine the maximum design stresses. always tul'lled in the direction of t ho distributed loads. A distinct most unfavourable load position can be always found for each truss member.tion of a beam. Tho change in the magnitude ofth~ bending moment occurl'ing over a cm·tain portion of the beam length is equal lo the area of the shear diagram over the same beam length provided no external moments are applied thet·eto. A conic parallola for bending moment diagram will correspond to n nnifnrn. when designing the c. Stresses and strains . while thaL of tho shear reduces to . generally inclined.l. This loading position is usually referred to as the most unfavourable or dangerous.he angle Jo r·merl hy the tangent to the diagram and the beam axis.ross section of any truss mombcr. 4..ion of the load or loads for the element concerned.'ho steeper tho slope of the t:angent: to the bending momt111t dingra111 . it is a lways necessary to know tlle most.r·ain travelling along a railway bridge. rn the present ch apter we shall study the methods or stress corn putation in croi>S sections of simply supported beams carrying moving loails and in those of multispitn t~antilever beams subjected hoth to tixed and moving loads. or an overhead GL'ane moving· along erane tt'llck::. ~rhe rises and falls in the latter case are equal in amount and direction to the magnitude of the concentrated loads as met when moving from left to right a long the heam . f.ont. 7.
c.* We shall start with our analysis of the effect of moving loads with the simplest C<tse possiblethat of a single vertical unit load P moving along a simply supported beam (Fig. external forces nonnal to th~ cr·oss section and Mher types of lul!ds moving along tht> ~tructurc. diagram which depicts the yluctuation of some particular parameter (say. graphically the nltorations of the parameter chosen in terms of the load position . bending moments. The design of str:uctures subjected to moving loads is greatly facilitated by the possibility of applying the principle of . the total stress in each mcmher will he ('qual to the sum of stresses caused separately by each of tho two groups. It doP. flhre stresses and strains r=l Fig.) when the load P = 1 travels along the structure.s not apply in the case of buckling with honding. We shall represcnl. In fact.an also be plotted for unit bending moments. thiR remains true not only for st. (~t:llernl l t should be noted that. but also for reactions at Lhe supports. bending moment in a particular cross section of a beam.h!> material dre6 not follow Hooko's law and in some other cases. the beam's deflection at a cEn.ho latter represent t. Let us investigate the changes sustained by each of the parameters under consid~ eration (reaction at the support.post~ tion. in all cases when t. The. This m('ans that the internal :forces. et.re!>~es.1 .e Jines should never bo cnnfounded with the stre.rur.2). the ordinates to t..re:>se.~upet.lw variation o[ the parameter under c.ure by different loads will adu to one another. of tlw heucling • '.. 3.t. It also follows that if two different groups of loads are applied ton structure. for deflections and so forth.onsideration (say.2 caused in a s t.'lS diagrams.2 . temperature st.l'ho principle of superposition applies nnt only tl> thu case of concentrated loads lint equally to distributed loads. 3. the stresses and strains set up by this load will increase in the same ratio.t ain poin~.c. etc. • . if some particular load increases a certain number of times. •• I nOuenc. is termed the influence ltne for the said parameter. internal force in a tt·uss member.. It follows that. h Influence lines ropt05onting the variations of either stresses Ol' strains r. the bending moment in a cross section of a beam) when the load P = 1 travels along the structure.
the l'ight. = Al .~ of x.hartd 1'.r X This equaLion givt1s 111. to l when il is over the lefthand one. e~tnblishetl we obtain the innuen<~o line l'or the reaction A at lhe lefthand Sll{'port.ho cqnation of equilibrium of moments of all the cxtornal forces ahout. 'i.he righthni'H1 support.ate 'the variation of a p<H'arnoter (say. LlNES l'On . 111~1\CTION INFLUENCI!. Thi~ distance wi ll Pi g. 2. lhHn A "'= T = 7 ·(. to nnothor.01'0./Jeams moment) in all cross sections of the beam for one definite })osition of the load.he relation j11gt.SIMPT. Y SUPPOilTIW II€A \·IS WITH OH VVITI1001' O\'gJlHANC L(!t ~~~ assunw thnt a unit load P = 1 moves along a l"imp ly supporLNI beam AB (Fi~. .(1 t. of the same Leuding moment) in one particular cro. 4.upporl:. Sinc. l.) and lot us designate by .~ection whon t..r the di~ tarn:e rrom th e )(lad 1.<:S . In ordt~r to determino the reaction ~tin lor· m.2.1.c this equation .l':r.he l11w governiug the variation of tht> t'eacLion A as the load f> = 1 ~hifts from one point.M.2a.. when the load is di•·cc. we c. whereas those of the iufluenco line indic. ::sinc.= O wlwnee A =tP:r However.2 vary frolll 7. Plotling out t.Lly over this support.an wriLo t.e P = 1.bo load uui ty lravels along the whole length of Lhc beam.
c line.e line for the reaction A at a.nd support.ol t•~ now proceed with tho consil'IICLion of llto inOucnco liul• for •·cacLion B.hen or . Some scale mus t be solectecl in order t. furcc P 1.· the valu.2 .e of the said reaction at the instant when the unit loa1l P is placed directly over thi.2. ronctiou A whl'n Lhe <lislanc~ Lo the load P = t as measured from the righthand support equnlF< x . whtwc A = 1.Nms o[ x. T. Accord ingl y. in 1 c.~ litw at Lho point. For this purpose we mny equate to zero tho sum of nil Lhe lllOlllOiilS of oxternal forc.tion A cot•rcsponrHng to n givon position of tho loo<l P = 1 can he oht. 11<'11 (1 /on lnfltU:I~<'t Liru~ fo r Sunply Supporud 11eanvo :rT is o[ the firl>l: dt!.length . giuen eros.~ to seal. t'J.hc magnitude of. In order Lo trace tho influence lillO. Should a m1111h~ r of t..~ cro..fluew.atiuu.es.~s section. we adopL a sralu of 1. let us put I'.2b) 11 11 d fot· .o plot the inrlu(luc. In ot.~ section represent. due t:o ench of t. lh~ innuoncc line will ht• rectilinear (Fig. of loading (this ord inule.m . lntl(l) }Jy l.. lhc totn l roncliou A wi ll be 'f'ounrl as Lhc sum of separate roMliom. for insLanct>. we shall lay off 1 em ovor Llw lofHtll. ud support wi ll equal ~ . Tlti~ ordinattl \\ill be numerically equal t.he r~acLion A will ho obLainetl by multiplyi ug the ordinate Lo the influenr·. the ordinate to the in.onccntrllt()d vortical L oads act on t l1 e beam ~i mu l t~~r• cously. A meusut·cd a d istaneo x from Uw •·igltth~t.her words.for Lhc n•ncLi011 at. Uto mn~n i tud"' of the renc. H. as already mMtioned. rcpn•sentiug lhc react ion A corresponding to a u uit.r~=O A ~ 0 for x= l The ordinates to the inilue. The ordinate to Mw inflncuco l i no .o t lu.nce line for the reactiou arc llimensio11less.hnse tliffcren t forc.g•·cc in l. \Vlaen the load actually applied l.o tho beam amouuLs w P~o 1.a incd by simply scaling off tho ord inate to iho in flucncu line at the point of load applic.cs ahoul the hi nge ccnLre at A : leadi ng to B= P (lx) l = 1 (l l x) = l:c l This equation represents bhc vnria liou reaction IJ in terms of the position of lond un ity P. for Loth :r and l arc expressed in units of .
Jt should J..ponding to tht~ given ordinate.h its maxim 11m wh(>n load P 1 will stand d irectl y over the lefthand support.2 The signilic.> line for the reac. . ' ::mnifr I I : .... Hence we cnn de termine this reaction for a load unity by simply measuring tho ordinates t o the innucJlCB line.2a. Let us consider now tl•e influence li ntts for tho react ions of a ho. :Jj&nnnv ' .JZuencc lin(• u/ill depict solely the vartattons of the paratnf. Thn:.38 /]eam~ and x= l t hen Fig.. " I I I I I I .tm cantilevering over one of its suppo r~ as s ho wn in .ion B when the load P 1 i~ applied to Lhe righthand s upport. 5. 4.ale should be l hc same as for reaction A.i  Pig . (o l (t. howevllr..ctio11s A and B will conve}' inforu1ation 011 t:heso rc:>nct ions respectively.. '.. J .for which it has been plottf'd.2b and cis greatly enhanced by the fact that t ltey permit immediate dctcrminnlion of the load position causing Lho greatest reactions.2c represonts lhe intluenct.tion B. for t'P. The ord inates to t his line aro again dimensionless and the. 'l. sc. ... These ordinates represent the amount of reactiou B when u unit load is a pplied at tho cross section corre. when i t coincides with tlw maximum ordiu11t:e to llw innuenctl line.rivod [rom equation 'LMIJ= AlPa....: .e kept in mind.c line.. . .L"ig . t tho reaction A will roac.5.e. the iulluence Jines fo1· rca. it is rc:>adily soon tho.anco of inlluence lines t·eprosented in Fig . I .acLion A will he de. .ter . The sume is ti'Uc for roact. II . i. that each in. 'fhu:. The influeuc..0 .
<~ to the influence line at pBttinent points arc + for x = O A =0 f(Jr x = l for x= l .2.= T This equation ic.(L+l•) = l _!!. as the influence line is rec tilinear and in this c~ ~B the k nowledge of only two ordinate valu os (sf\y.ply Support~fl /leams 3U whence (with P = 1) Pz 1._ l . Jleoctlon /nfhuncc Lines for Stm.. . P (l . 4. Ltlt us now determine the ordiuate val ues of this inn ucncl' line for x=O for x= l B =T= 1 L.z :r: A = l .4 l>y simply laying off the ordin ntes obtained {Fig..2b shows that the ilr::st one ean he easily obt niued by a si mple extension of the lat ter until its intersection with the vettical passing through the end of the overhang. the only difference l'esiding in the limits between which x may vary .2.B l+J>(lx) =O whence _ B.2b). I t should be noted tha t th ore is no t·oal nccess iLy to <lt~tormine all Lhe thl'eo ordinates. identical wiLh that obtained before for a simply supported beam.l B =z=0 L B = 1. The . T he ordin ate.following cqualion will be usod for the construction of the i nlluencc li ne for reaction B = ~ MA = . with tho sole difference that in the latter equatioll x c11.:r) _ 1 (l x) 1 z= z L.z Comparing this equation with Lhe one relating to a simp I y SUJ >poded beam we find that they are exactl y the same.n vary from 0 to l while in the present case it can do so from () to (l k) where k is the length o£ the overhang.LJc Wt• can now proceed with t he construction of the influence li ne for reaction .nt x = 0 and at x l) is sufficient. :>. A comparison of an iill!uence line for a beam with overhang with tlu~ influence line represented in Fig.= ~.
ive Ot'. 7.gal. l 'he bending moment in this section .ion A.2 T h~ rac. in otl•cr· wMds.ho ordinate for x = l k provt1:' supttrn uous.ion of 1 ..2a).ited to write U1e.lw mac!. Th e influence.hc t'lHtc. Tho reader is in. [1. (§lJliiW'" Fig.tio u B .. 6. BENDING MOMEN'r AND SIIBAH IXFLllENCE LIN ES FOH SIMPLY SfJ[•POHTED BEAMS Wl'!'H OH Wt'l'IIOUT OVI1RHANG Let llS now <tnnlyzo (:he constt•uction or inllnence Jines for bttnd ing moments and sh eRring fol'ccs ind uced hy n moving load inn s impl y supported beam.t Lhat !lome of the ordinates t..y o f tho overhang.s in the oaSLI of roar.t.2 r·epl'esonts the influence fin o.hes<~ ordina tes as iu Fig. iunuMce. fi.o the. t ho reaction IJ ilsol( is ~tl~o uegal.stntr..iou B of 11 htmm with overhn ug can a lso he derived from tho m1e perlai ning to a simple beam by exten<l:Utg tho line until its intersection with the vertical drawn t.~ righthand suppor·f.ed d ownwmxl s.rhangs. 3. + I I I I I r I I I .40 JJeatrn. tiH('S an~ this L unc ne..hc 1 levcring o ver iL.nlllwnu line for the bmding momr11t in cross sediou I 101'·1\led a distllnce a from lhe lefthand ~'llp)lor·t nud a dista nce b from tht~ righthanrl one (Fig. Fig.l'ing t. Plo l... •t. T he sam(> proco<luro as dos(·ribc<J ah<lYO should bo followed for :eactions of a hea rn c~ulti tho con. <'<trresp<lllding equntions on his own.2. dil·ect.tioll of influon(:e lines for t.2c we obtain the influence Jine Jot roac. L heso ncgativt~ ordinnlos.i ve indicates that when t ho load point coirtcidos wi tJ.s for t. Wo shall begin our· iu\·('stigation l>y examiuing t he i. the compu~a l.t~ I 8 I I I .hJ·ow!l• the e::tr('mit.Liuns o( a hl'llnt with two ovc. line Jor t.
when Ftg. I I Accordingly tho inO ttcucc line for t:his bending moment may (c) ho derived from the influence line Ior rllil..:csX sion (2.tion 1. th o load passes to the l t~ft of sec./' 1 ill ~et. lv.t ~ b (Rig. long as the load is si tLLa ted to tht:\ r ight: of section' (Fig.1 ({) U~>iug these valuos Wt' can now trace the righthand portion of tho influence line [or j1f. \Vhon..c to the lelt ill the mnction A autl tbt:~rdorc the bending momcn\.2a. rn that case the bending moment M 1 = . i.'l~ conY t• nieut to usc the equations pertaiuing tu t he righ thand portion of t.. Le.e . . Tt$ ordin a tes will fut•n ish the values of the bcud.3. opposite s ign [Sl'tl ex p.o nntcrclod{w:isc and is therefore negative.2c). for .{g) ing JI\Oment in section 1 when Lhe \lnit loall is situal.2 we ollt. A::. nltltougl. 7.ction A by m u ltiplying its ordiuatcs by cL. (Fig.2.. the only external fon.2)1. Bending Mum~nl oncl Shtor lttiluenu Lltus 41 is equal to the algebraic sum of moments of the oute1· forces lo the left of this :.2b) it hccomas nt O I.1' ± Tho g•·aphicn.·\.l reprt•l'entn. Lhe moment of reaction B about the coutroitl of section 1 acts c. (d) Suhstituting fot• A i t:s valm1 found in Art . ion .).c ~"" b ab X·" .I is oqna l.Jw bea tn . I"' i. o.2 b. to Aa.tion of this l'quation requi•·es t. 7.s centroid or to the s n m or moments o( forces to its right but taken with an.2)]. 7 . when . tho hending mom ent ca used: by it in the bea m remains positive fsoo expression (2.B b fo•·. 7.cd to the ~r tght of this set~tion.he knowlodgo of two distinct values of M 1 for x=O M 1 =0 (e) J \tf1 = . 2.ain . ns Jong as x ~ b.ection 11hout it.
7. Should t heso lines be extended until thoy meet with tho wrtic.l Lo b (Fig.II a.ly under cross section l. b=O l l .e lint• {Pig.2c a nd d) are now brought togetbcr (Fig. i.e equa. to the rtghtha. This can be easily provell hy sub~titutiug 0 and l for x in the expressions of tho righ t.he same scal e may bo adopted for both tl1e beam length and the lHmding moment inflnenc.1:t b 1 For a graphical representation of this expression.nl<> passing through tho support~ they would in torcopt thereon the foll owing ordina tos: over the lofl.2)1 we obtain Nl 1 = .2t) they will wtersect under cross section I. 7.b T hese data permit the ct•nstt·uc. Accordingly. = l M1=1b = lN1' 1 =. rhe ordinntes to the bending molflent influence line ore expressed in unit.!. (2.tion of tho lefthand portion of .ltand one a11 ordinate.=!:. 7.gai n find two values of M 1 for x=b for x.e.Beams Substituting tho value of B !see Art. in practice the 1'11 iniluence linl' is frequently constructed in the foll owing way: ordinate. i.~ u:ith the zero ordinate polnt at the ba. Hence t. 'l'llcrefo re. .and lefbhand portions of the infl uence line respectively.the influonco line for M 1 (Fig. the two lines intersecting exact. The above procedure mny lle simplified ns follows: first draw the line corresponding to an11 of the tu/o portions of tht! influence line (say. equal to a. This for example may be seen from the fact lbat the ordinate over the left i!upport is taken equal to the length a. It. a and b being respectively the distances jrorn section I to these two supports.ht~ bend ing moment values for section I when l oad u nity P is to tho left of the section .e 1i11e .te. 1'his being done two straight lines connecting r.ndcd .2d).nd one) .and the righthand portions of U1e inOHenc..uee line i~ abovo the beam axis tho lower libres of tlto beam ar(~ cxte.2e). other b'Upport (in our case at the lefthand one). of lcttg tlt. and ove r the righth aud one an ordinat. e. •Ortlin:ttes of positivf! bending moments ore directed llJlWard~.he bondin~t rnoment iuflue. • .r the lefthand support and ordinate b over the righthand one. wtwn x varies from b to l. a is plutled or.<.~ of the othe1· are traced. and then connect its potnt of intersection with the vertical pltsslng through the section concerned with the zero point at the. we shall onco J. * ff the left.arh of these orditUJ.s ordinates will furni8h t. when t.
> S intX\ B= l z t lz QI hccomes .e.e. = T b for .o the left of the scc.2. or to the sn me su m tak~ •L with the oppo~ ilc sign anrl p ertaining to tho external forces to the r ight of this seclion [sec expression (1. . It should be llorne in mind that the intluence line for 11'! 1 CX.terna l forees acting t.onstructod . i ts ord inates giving tbP v alues of the shear i n section 1 when the u nit lond is to the r igh t of this sec.nation of the bending mom.2)1. i. (2) l n the second case.3. Accordingly the determi..ion I ancl the other when it is to the left of it. As already stated .2a) the equilibrium equatiou relative to the lefthand portion of thl\ hen m fu•·Jiishcs Q1=A=T Graphic.e.on:sidorations as above g ive Q1 = .'rfoment and Sh4ar ln/lrunct Lmes 43 Any ordinate to the influence li ne for M 1 will fumi. Bending .t .he measurement oj the influence line ordinate at the Load point. E. 7.· influence line corr ll.2b) the snmc c.t ion concerned. If it were r~>quired to ftod the law governing the variation of Lhe bending moment in some o tbQr section.'ds and is therefore positive.B [o. the shear in any section is equal to the algllbraic sum or vertical projt~clions ()f all ox. when .Sponding to th at parlic11lar sec lion should be r.u represent ation of this r(']o.. 7.l)L"esses tht' variation of lhe bcndittg moment only in section l.Let U!> now examine the construction of the shear influence line fol' section J.t.lthough reac. wben .2) 1.tion B is directed upwal..2/).x ~b . a ncv. when x ~ b (see F ig.:r:= b "lsing these values we can construct Lhe ri. we f•nd : (1) I n t he l'rr!>L case.~h the value of t he bendtng m oment in section 1 when the unit load is situated over this particular ordinate. one when the load is lo t he r igh t of sec.mt in section I for a given position of load P = 1 l'eqztlres solely J.. i.\:nmining two unit load posit ions. 7. i..x b (fig.ghthand porllun of t he Q1 influence liM (Fig.lion. it must he taken with th e minu~ $ign. in accordance with expression (1.tiou requires tho corn p utlltiou of Lwo distinct values o£ Q1 fo•· x=O Q1 = 0 Q.
ivc to the righthand anrJ to th~ lo[thnud porlivnll of t..\ Lwo lines will h e parallel.>. the amount of thP.·d.tls su·o ncgativo they aro p iott. t. as sho wn i 11 Fig. Construction of the ·influoncc Ji nes for a cross s~ctil)O looaled lle. that.s ancl the s hc•ars lrcing expressed in llollt cases throug h the reac li(li1S A and B. as in tho case of a simply .. and :.ion wil l .ing two disti nct vai U(\S of fol'x =b [or :r.he influence line. he11cfl their scale rnay be tho Sltllle n~ in t ho Ctl~ of alm lrucnt I'twdion i nflrH. Two luad pvi r1ts.e at the load poiut.oad P acting in the section corre. i . Therefore.lively.dsn be negntivo for ~h is position of tire . lf. ·(:onstrucl<.n.w:clil)n I ari.ly and by joining each of the two point.o.·h ear valw. us now irtvcsliga.arn with no U\'e1 ·hung. It.2g })y plotting file ordinates + 1 (upwards) and 1 (dou.s the t:orresJl<lndirrg inLen·opLs would equnl : at the left l'upport . . t. i.1.T Qr ~ lb 1 (t Or= 1 1 . Thjs boing ilona.g. 2a.2j we oblclin the loft.~ing frorn w~lt l.suppo1·Ls A and B ro mains t:~xactly t ho samo as in tlw previous ca~e.~ing throu. r.fi!.fro sedion and 0(10 to iLs lofL should be ro usidored . 7. shl?arin~ forc~·s tn J fo r a J{iven position of the unit load P can be obtairu:d by s!mply lll•!asurtng the ordinate of the shear influence lin.e L he equations of the a lHttmcnt reat~tion ini11Jl\llcc l ines aro tiro s~1nre fot. Let. t.h<:>. Sho uld iL llo required to find the shea r vsniation in soml' oth<. a ve l'tkal .lween thr.1.'l' ~odion.ion nrlder considoration as in Fig.hc honding mollH'nt.~t!Ction to lht! said ordinate . l'ollows that Lho shear· in f!ucnl:e line cnn be constructed as i ndjcntod in l•'ig.supportod br.... ] tis ohviou:.heAr inOuonco lines for a banm can li levering over Lhc left SllJlport.1~ t irr the equat ions relot. is negativt'. a m•w irrfluencc line wo uld havt' to be. = Ortlt. Lht~ ordiuulc at Joad pojnl..s.ates to the shew i.orsection wit lr lhl• ' 'or·ticals J)assi rrg through l. Sinc. lrho shear in tho seet.lJeanLs Compul.'2. . 7. The ordinates vf th~ shear influenoo lines are dimonsionll\SS.IrrC!! I i nc. until !hait· int.onn t·o tho l'ight of t.l.~ponding .t e bond ing m o ment.=l Or .oall .hc ordinnt.gh the lefthand and the riKhthand supports respective.\lOrrdcd the influcrrcc Hues obluinod. 'l'ha vrdin:1tos Lo the Or in!Juonce Hne l'epresent the shoat' V:J l'iation only in »nc:tion l.:.nfllH!lUX' lines represent !he . Had Wl' P. respec..hc suppol't. and at th& fig ht ouo .·nwttrds) alMg the vertlcals pa.l'need through t he scct. This can bo easily proved b y substituting a: = 0 1tt1<l .NI dowrnva r·ds).hnnd . = 0 and plotting t horn ns in fig. pol'tion of !lao she< H' influeuce line (as t.'s in.· a s i ropl y snppor:ted hoam wHh or withoul' <)VOI'hilllg .<: so obtained with th<~ bas~ point at lite other support. >3.
3.> I I I (f j I ln(luence line for au 1 1mmm111 Fig.~ection I I (Fig.ions for the kuding mornen~ nnd shear will1dso he the same fo1· IJolh typos ol' beams. '.s !'ee what happens in section II situated a d istance c frnm the left end of the overhang (Fig.y <. i\"ow let u. the corresponding eq11nt.lcft of licction f f and tho•·efo ro .nd&ng Jfom~nL n11d Sluur I nfLrwut UltCS (sec Art.t CfiSl\ fwm 0 to l./c). l l. whid1 vario1l in the lir::. This will :.2 words. (1) '/'he load point IS to the right of . 2. 8.w . in othHr (a) (bJ (c) ((fl I reJ.2a).ructivn Qf shear. with tho solo difference tl•aL a:.2).1~ l.ho overhartg Wig. Once again wo must ('Onsidcr two positions of the unit lond P.2. In this cast~ l. il is ohv iou ~ that. 'those liuuli willsiu1ply have to he extended lo the loft cxlrolllit. Hnd ~~~~ uding monwnt infhtcnce lin~s in 1hc samo way as lho~ for the reactions.!Teet Lhc const. l\ JntlvenceuneforMu t.2c and d). 8.2a).L'he reader i s once again inYitHd Lo check himself analytically tho influence Jines so obtained.hcre arc no ext~rual forces to thc. will 110\\' V<ll"Y fro m 0 to (l :. 8. 8.
<ction. (2) The toad i.cction JJ to the support at B) is represented in Fig.~ to tM right oj the ~>ection t.~ to the left of section II (Fig. (1) As long as thu load remain.111/ll = . res pecliYety.2. 8. For these two exlrome values of x 1 W<• h ave. 1'his portion of the i nfluence line is represented. Tn this ('aso t h ere is only one force t<l the left of t.2/ g ives tho shoar infiuenco line for section II iu itsentirety. 8.~ to the left of sectton If.iot) of t.iced. Fig. Two scctions correspoull to each snpport.'nce Jines for a number of sections of a baam cantilevoring over bothsvpports .2/ hy a line paralle. 10. coinciding with tho lofthand an1. (2} When the unit load i.tions situated between the supports. As will be 110t.he dilltance fl'om tho loud point to ~ctio n /1.II. in Fig. Fig. 8.axis. di stam~e = . prov ided it lies to the left of the SE. Tl1is may vary from 0 (when tho load point coincides wilh thesection conc. as all the ordinat.hcre arc no force8 whatsoever to its left and therefore Q11 = 0. hence the bendingmoment in s~ction If will be whore x 1 is t.es are nil along the wh ole stretch fron1 section II to the support at B.2e represents the bending m omont inftuenee lille for section 11 for any position of the load. J l1 11 =.he influence line is re presented in F ig.2/ by a horizontal s~retch coinciding wHh the xaxis.x. n!'gat ive shC'ars bning p lotted downwards.1 ·c. sections !Ia and VIa being immediately Lo the left thereof.46 the b~nding mo111ent in this sectioll is nil.hc sec tion. sections I I and VI. and . 8 .tion . Thus.2a by a horizontal line coineiding with the xnxis. tho shear On = 1 which means that the shear remains constant irrt!. nogaLivc ordinates boing plottc>. The appropria te port.s pe.d downwards.L to the .2b). and sections lib and Vlb immediately to the right.et·ued) to c (when the load reaches t he er1d of the ove rhang).(.. 1t will be noted that shear influence lines for sections Jla and III> as well as for sections VIa aud Vlb are quite d ifferent. Let us prvceed wit.2e.h tJ1e constructiOJl of the shear QI r infl uence lin(! for S()C.ctivH o i' t ho position of tho load point.2 we I1nvc represented th o bonding mollwnt iont)E. 8. 8. respectively . 9. The sbear influence lines fot thesame sections are presented in Fig.t rig hthand supports. In Fig. 8. This portio n of the influ e n c~~ line is represeutl'd in Fig. tho bending mo mon L and shear inn uoncc lines for $eCLions selectod w ithin tho overhang dHrer very substantially from those relating to sec. The corresponding par~ of the influence Hue (from ~.
.'...(Jr O ne'· . .2 ..... 9. 2 · .• M l'l7: Ftg.'b b. ~ (b) Pig..+ ~ .. I . '1· _ ..(··· Fig.._ ' or~_ I I I I ln/luefla! l1ne for I I I  . .nefiJf' i1 11• I 1 I I 1 I I I ln~luence line for Mn 1 ' I I I I~ r*mm ~ ::..___ _ !_ _ _. . I I : 1 I I I tnflllefll.. 11...2 ... 10._J lfnftue nceline.~.
2a).he hlm<liug moment aud shpnr innuence for . (b) le. we can t race F ig. m.. tho t·eaction A will equal (seo Jo'ig. Pi r~t c.211.2.e !till' for :~ectiou. (1} whl'll L lw Jond is Lo tho right of section I (sol id linu in F ig.aiucti through the sam() prOl'.t th(. fo1· any position of t. Aclopling an appropriate sc.!Jt't/11111 l' rol. tht> UJlit lo<~d !' Lnp:elling from r W 11.lle m.2.or l't(Ual to a. Tllis influonco line is ror•·e. It is l'l'quii'O!llo ll(>UStruct (.pnding mocn~?ut in r$ wi II L"l''a I s~:clion '" for uuy pu.ug Iunmunt iofluonc. !=:.anchion JJif . 12.12. i.2b.\'etlLou iu Pig. J1 .2 Lhe inflncll (~e 'lino ~hvwn in.l innuom\e Jirw (()!· reaction A.onstr·ur.2. Solutton.h~•HI cxt n>miLy of tho l.2c. 2.d in Fig.h(\ santl~ way as in t. tho ben<li. Bourn rs being J'igully c•nmectod to lll•tllll AD by mean~ of tho st.t:.ecliuum of a !Joam relH'CSCnte. 12. we shall prfH~cNI in t. · 12. 11. The t'quiJibri um lHJHation for tho verlicaJ prOjl'CtiOilll Of tho <•xttwua! l'orecs gives ~Y= I I I l+A = O hen co Accor!liugly.ale m as explained in Art..lll~ cas..t. load P thf:} reactiou remains equal to 1.Joam.t conslnnl !act<. lu ol'dOI' Lo l'ind Lhe bcn<ling moment inlltH.! of a beam with ovorhang rcproscnLcd i11 Pig. o[ application of tuo Uuit. .2b) 11110~ A = ~ lz l>rn~u Tho J.l)lmli~gly .l lm geonwLto thal ul tho JefLhaud mtlCtw u. wil. H. i\l'.he JlOilll.'d by . tho latter · ~ ol'd•natL' vahu!s beir•g lllnlt ipli!. INFLUEXC. ' IlC·tl line for socl~ i on I loeated 11 distalii'O c f•·orn tho l Pft. fINBS FOH SlllfPf.'!i liuu of the 1111iL lootd on .o.1·l 1n =AII 1'1Cillly ~mnlur .2a} ! IIIIIIMIIIIIII Influence line 1 I (or MA I Influence line (or Q11 \ • I . (a) The shcllf influcrlco Jim• will be ohL.E CAi'\TlLEVJ~l:l l:lt:AMS I I I LN us first lind the inflncncc Une for roactiou A a L tho support (Pig.ion A.l:duro and will diffl•r in nu n•Rpcd from ti1 11L for J'l'ac./<'ig.
I n practice.rihocl in 1 J1o previous article.2.ases when t he external loads were applied directly to the beams.2d. (2} WJ1en the unit load is to the left of section I the shear Q1 = = .t:: LINES IN CARES OF lNDinECT LOAD APPLICATION T hus far we have been consiclering c. (1) When the unit load is to the right of section I tho shea r i!< nil.c.2e) . For obtaining t he sho11r influence line we shall proceed as dcse. we shall obtnin tho i nfiuence li ne or t hl' fix~dend momont M A· This line is shown in Fig. 12.wvn 4!l (2) wh en t h e load is to the left of section I (dash line in Fig. as long as 4. lt has exactly the same shape as the one for .1. 12. reactions as will bo readily seen from the.·e applied directly to the girder (Fig. 8.2a). 8. JlO forces existing to the left of t his sect ion.853 .2a) M 1 =1·x1 =x 1 where x 1 is the distance from load point to Sl~eL.2. especially in bridge construction. 12.5. it will be transmitted to the girder only a t these two points. the loads are u~ually transmitted to lhe mairL beam or girder by secondary or floor beams.c The corresp onding influence line is represented in Fig. which in their turn support auxiliary beams or stringers (fig.section I I in tl1e cantilovoring pa1·t of t he beam with overhang shown in Fig. When the load is applied to the stringer somewhere between panel points m and n.2b and c). each s tringer span be ing called a panel 1md each point whe.2c. 5. influence Lines in Caset of Indirect Load Appl. 2/. for x1 = 0 M 1 = 0 forx1 = c M 1 = . which means th a t the ordinates t o t he influenc. H section I is chosen direct ly at the support A (c being equal to l). equilibrium equat ion of moments about any one of the supports.he load we. 12. 13. The s tringers are singlespan simply supported beams. 1NFLUENC. The influence line for tho bending moment will a lso remain unaltered for a ny cross sect ion I lying within the panel rnn. Hence tl1e i oOucnce lines for the reactions will be exactly tho same as if \.inn I.re a floor beam bears on a girdera panel point.l1 line will remain constant an d equal to 1 over t he wh ole stretch from section I to the left extremity of the beam.2P. T he shear influence line Q1 is represented in Fig. lL is quite similar to ~ho bend ing moment infl uence lino ror a section with in t he cantilevering portion of a beam wi th an overl1ang (sec Fig. 13. This mode of transmission will have no effect on t he girder ab utment.
.1. we may shade the nrclls r bounded by portions A1n and Bn of this line indicating thus (C) that these portions are definite (Fig.2b) and using the method of superposition we cn u write the following equation A f 11. being equal to the corresponding reactions of 1 .)_ and A . obtained in Art.1 for section I as explained · . and therefore 1 ~JnfwCA:e l•ne 1 bav1ng constl'llcted the bond~ : ing moment i nfluence line fbJ .2a.. . shown in dash lines in Fig.be stringer beam. Thus.:. its components Rm and Rn.a) when Floor beo:rr f LSl rtoger _ jB th e load point is hetwC'on m . in section I situated a distance a from the l!l(t support M 1 = Aa when the load point is between n nJlCl " "' B and M 1 = B (l . 13.. as long as the load is situated out.side the panel containing the section under c.50 /Jev..onsideration. when tho load is within the panel mn.z =. let us fmd the value of any function S 1 set up in sectiop. "'.!.. However.. In ordet' to fi nd the shape of the influence line when the Fig. 13.ms the load point._ d d d . I above. ::  where Rm= p... I by a unit load (P = 1) situated as stated above. :d '''if. 14._=. i4.2 load is within the panel containing t ho section.. In other words. These two expres~ions fa! d:""r~ 1 I I r ~ coincide exactly with those ~ 0 Ci~<ter . the bending moment influence line may be drawn in the same way as in the case of d irect load applica· tion. This is easily confirmed by the corros]>onding cxprossio ns of the bonding moments. its 1:1ffect will be t ransmitted to the girder at panel points m and n..:!. 1 nar~ beams. 3.2 for ordi1 fR. Assuming that Ym and Yn arc the ordinates to the intluence line at the corresponding panel points (Fig..2d). is either to tllC loft oi m or to the right of n.
1 '4 1 .. I ntluence Lin~s in Casu o.2d.2.. .jRn I z ( a .. Thus. z = distance Irom t he l oad point lo the righthand panel = panel length point. :T..z Accordingly.oftd A pplwztion 5I and where d ]l~ . obtaining thus t he influence line represented in Fig.''. Substituting the values of Rm and Rn in the llrs t equatiOTI. The const ruction of the shear influence line for section I is quito similar.. Within the panel mn which contains the cross section I the influence line will be represented by a straight line connecting the ordinates at panel points (Fig.n~:~~ d~~~~ n~ ~ ~ ·..I P~f [ ~a~~ .'f17 r=.z =cl.2 mm~~~hn Hence t he influence line for such a function is a straight line connecting the panel point ordinates Ym and Yn· It follows t hat in the case of the influence line for bending moment M 1 we must simply connect by a straight line the ordinates at panel points m and n determined previously. J ' ( b} L·. 14. = P (dz) cl = '1 (d . From A to m and from n to B the ordinates t o this line will be exaetly the same as if the load were applied directly to tho girder. 13. t he !unction S r varies linearly wit h z from S 1 z d. 13. when the load is applied through an intermediate beam the inDucnce line may be constructed in the following sequence: (1) first draw the line as though the load were applied directly to the main beam or girder. .Yn m ·and n.2e). when the load is situated between the panel points = ·Yn for z = 0 to S 1 = Ym for z = d. we obtain S 1=d Ym+a.1)..1 Fig.z) d d. 1~.f Indirect l.
us now e. Case of concentrated loads. and other deformations). G.hap tt"r. 2.2 rep1·esents tho inUucnce line for Jl. 15.II NATION OF . As already explained in Art.52 lJeams tlllml l f ~ I I I I I ' 1 I I I I ln/luence lifle for Mu  I I nt{ueflce line far Fig.2.2. 15.xnmino the determination o£ forces and moments with the usc of the~ lines (tlwy can also be used for the det~rmination of strains. Two cases will be considered : (a) concentra ted loadl" and (b) uniform loa<ls. DETElU. tel. deflect ion!'. Influence lines for the reactions have been omitted as thoy clo JlVt dil'fer in any respect from lhose of a beam S\Jbjeeted to direct load ing.2 I Orr Fig.FOHCii:S AND MOME?\TS W l T H THE AID OF lNF LUENCE LJNES T he construction of influence lines having been discussed in delail i n tlu~ previous arlicles of this c. tlw dotNmination of any function caused hy a load P 1 requites the .f and Q corresponding to sections I a nd II o( a beam with an overhang.
Ph= Pth1 +P2h1. these OL'dinatcs being then multiplied by the ml'lgnitude of tho ~orrosponding loads and the products summed up. (since this ordinate is negative.2a). met•·es. _ :Influence line 1 I ~ I I ( b) (c ) Ftp.6. Pz and P 3 will equal M 1 = "i.P 2h. 1S. tho product Ph representing the bending moment will be expressed in tons. the load P 2 by the ordinate h2 and the load P 3 by the ordinate h3 • The bending moment !csulting from lhe combined action of loads P 1.2b) we must multiply the load Pt by the orclinnto h.. 16... say.2c) Q1 = P 1h. if the l oads are measured in tons. h~ and h~ al'o the ordinates Lo the shear influenco line under the loads P 11 Pz and P 3 • . + P3h~ where h.+P3h3 Tho ordinates to the bending moment influence lino being measured in length units. the ·product P 1 h 1 will alc.2 T hus... Delenni>lalion of Forces antl Moments 53 llleasurcment of the ordinate to Lho influenc. . 16.2.o l ine for this function and its multiplication by the magnitude of load.n Fig. A similar procedure may be used for the determination of tho shearing forco Q1 in section I (the influence line for Q1 is represented in Fig. ·l 6.multiplied by metres. in order to obtain the bending moment in soction I (the infl ucncc li no for jVJ 1 is represented i.o be Mgative}.... . ~::~ I JJe I :a~ .ill (a) ··· ~·· f. the full value of the function in a section he obtained by measuring the ordinate under eac~h load . If the structure carries several loads at a time (Fig.
0+ 10x 1.0 tonmetres The 6rst term of the righthand pa rt of the equation is preceded by a minus s1gn. The moment in section I due to this"load wi ll amount to q dxh" where h" is t he influe nce line ordinate . they must be then nmltiplied by the respective loads. Thus. The bending moment in section I equals Mt= P1h1+P2h2+P 3h 3 . the products so obtained being finally summed up. Let us replace the un iform load acting along an infinitely sma ll length dx by a concentrated load qdx (Fig.2b) .2a. The sequence of operations is illustrated by the following example: a uniform load of intensity q is distributed along a certain length of a beam represented in Fig.0=16. 17. Ordi nate values at load points are shown on the influence line. the ordinate h1 being negative. 17 . shear. T he support reactions can be found in a similar way.under the load. 17. 18. internal force in any tr uss member. bending moment.2a and it is required to determine the bending moment in section I (the influence line for Jl.f I is shown in Fig. This beam carries three co ncentrated loads the amounts of which are also indicated in the same figure. 18.2a). F1g.4X0.2 influence line must be measured at all the load points. etc. Proceeding in the same way we ca n replace the whole load distributed along the beam by an infinitely great number o( concen . Solution.) arising under the action of several concentrated loads the ordinates to the corresponding Fig. but they can also be scaled off the drawing or calculated.Beams The ordinates to the shear influence line are dimensionless and therefore the product Ph' giving the shear value will be expressed in the sa me units as the load P ..2b determine the value of th is moment in section I of the beam shown in. Using the influence line for the bending moment llfr represented in Fi_g. 18. in order to compute any function (abutment reaction.5+8 X 1. using the relevant influence lines . · Case of uniform loads. Problem.
2 is an elementary area shaded with slanting lines in the sa me figure. The integration limits c and d indicate that the summation must be carried over the whole length of the beam section .s a result of the application of a uniform load.6 .2. the intensity of thls load must be multiplied by the area bounded by the influence line.2b) for hx dx F tg. D etermllllltioll of Foreu lllld /lfo~lltl 55 trated loads qdx and the bending moment in section I due to all of these loads will be then obtained by a summation of all the products qdxhx or M1 =~ qdxh. the xa:xis and the ordinates passing through the load limits. If we denote the whole area by w the bending moment in section I will be Th~. 18. 18.. the total she ar ~in section . When the inOuence line within the load limits changes sign the areas will be t aken with their signs. in order to determine the amount of any function arising in a given section a. the ordi~atcs corresponding to the limits of loading and the xax is (this area being shaded vertically in Fig. = q~hxdx the load intensity q remaining constant. along which the load is di!tributed. The ter m ~ hx dx represents the area bounded by the influence line. Thus.
~d r~~c~i:nt~~ the left su pport using the influence lines represented in Fig.2c) will be obtained by summing up t he areas w1 and w2 Q 1 =q(w1+w2) w1 being reckoned negative .:au:.2 Solution.2b.. Assume that a simply supported beam is uniformly loaded over . As this load is sp read over th o whole length of the beam the areas bounded by the influence lines must bo calcula ted for the entire span. Determlnalion of rtactlon A .7·1·48 the bending moment will equal M r q~=~ . The area bounded by tho infl uencelinobeing 1 I jZ =* wz .~·.:)bei~s . ~~~di~~~~~f~!~:e:!~hth~ 1 ~h:~/i~e~~~t>:n1d\:~~g ~~ .. Problem I. The area bounded by the influence line being th e abutment reaction equals Wt""'+·l·1 ""'+ A=qw 1 Dtt ermination Of t. (d)~ ~ I 0 rr' fn{l uence line 1 I I for Ql I ~.__ IJ Fig. 18.56 B eams I (the corresponding influence line is dra wn in Fig. c and d ..hc bmdlng momtnl MJ. 19.. 19.
3.0 tonmetres 1 Q.6.. 2+2 m x3. 0 tons .4mz 'l'hert~fore \oa~ed stretch totals the required hendiog moment will amount to Aft = Ph 1 +qro 1 1 .~~:~:r~'{id ~~~ ~dl:~teu:f t1~ ~~rG~d~2S 11 the area w. u~d':.s .n Sf!(.. 6+2X6. Determine with the a id of influence li n~s the bending moment and the shear in section 1 of a ~imply su pported beam wtth an overhang loa ded.o!.6.3 X 0 .2a.. Fit. mo~e'~r~~::~: t/n: ~n~~~dth! :.u:~:~~O. u indicatedln Fig.e ~~iD~e~~~ ~ . SaluUon. .+} Therefore Problem 2.. The inO uence line consists of two porLions bounding areas equal in size hut opposi te in sign WJ=+·+·+f. under the inOuence line of t ile uniformly rot=}x sx t .f'.8.2 Start hy draW ing the inOuence lines for the bending momen t and" shear i. w.tion 1 ( Fig.h~rs~ ~h~i~~::a "t:~n~: 1ine over the uniforml y loaded portion of the beam i ~ b~~~~~.":~': J~:/~ '!.20.3x !. Dettrminallon Df Forttl and D t ttrmf114! li on of lht 1hea r Mom~n/1 57 Q.}xsxo. 20.7. 20..2 .2.211and e).6 . 2 Accordingly QI=Phz + qW:~ .
2). the moment being equal to tho moment o£ their resultant about tho sam() point. ln effect let us coo:Sidar the influence l il1e for fnnctio rt S presented in Fig. S = Ra0 tan a = Rh 0 • + + + . 0 (Fig.ol 1 ... the expression in parentheses represents the moment of the l oads P 1 . Consequently. P 2 ..2) h 1 = a1 tan a... 21. P 2 .2 and r .) may be used for the dete·rmination of the value of the appropriate function for any given position of a load. i. .. 21... Pn auout point 0. h 2 = a2 tau a...58 llr.r.. cl t rrrrr~ . . P 11 with a resultant R situated over the s traight portion cd of this iniTuencc line. shears. .. etc.he ..Ph=Pth.. tan CG Substituting these values in the formula giving the value of function S wo obtain S = (P1a. I Fig. •• • .2. P2a2 P 3a 3 P. DETERMINATION OF THE MOST UNFAV OURABLE POSITION OF A LOAD We have just seen how the influence lines foe various functions (abutment reactions... = a.an) tan a As will be readily seen.. .j 0 I I I ao :! :. 21. . Let us express the ordinat:cs h1 . of this system of loads multiplied by the ordinate h 0 corresponding td this resultant. n2 .tll'"'. P 3 . to the point of intersection 0 of the line cd wi L h t. • • • .. 21. 4···.e. bending moment. I I 1 "E  I tr1.. etc.ams We shall now show that the function S of any load (whether concentrated ot distributed) acting over a straight portion of an influence line will be equal to the resultant H.. h~~. + 7.h...P2h2+Pahs+ . h3 = · a3 tan a.a:x is (Fig. +P..2 a set of concentrated loads P 1 . Then S=i:. etc. • • . h 2 . in terms of their distances a. to fla.
for instance. Posttton of a ~oad 59 We shall now endevour to fi. 22. When tho uumber o£ loads is not very great the problem is solved by trial. .. Such a case would arhie. Fig. etc.and as the latter is smaller than m 1n 1 the sum 'i.. Case of a single concentrated mov~ng load. F ig.sponding to the positive pa rt of Lhe line.he negative maxi mums or minimumsby the largest. Q. Hereafter the maximum positive values of the function will be d enoted by A 11111 x. the set of Joads being shifted from one position to another.Ph wonld also he ..7.he position of the load producing the maximulfi value of functi on S is found very easily. where k stands for the ordinate to t he inOuen~o liue corresponding to the respective load P.2a represon t. When tbe maximum value of the function is sought the loads are made Lo co incide al ternately with the maximum positive ordinates and when the minimum one is required. if it were desired to find Sma.Ph is ob tained whl\O ~be left wheel coincides with the maximum positive ordioato.cst value of 'f. Positive maximums oi the function are furnished by t he largest positive ordinates whilst t.x.2 ordinate to the influen ce line..rable. It coincides with t he position of the maximum Ftg. whilst the maximum negative values by 4mi.Ph.2 shows tbe most unfavourab le position of a twinaxle bogie with equal wheel l oads for va1·ious inUuence lines.2. Deurminallon of the M ost Unfal>eu. negative or4linates. Such a position is usually termed the most unfavourable or dangerous position. By multiplying the amount of the load by this ordinate we shall obLain the maximum value of the fUJI C ~ion under consideration. a locomotive) whose total length w·ould exceed the length a corre.with the negative ones. In this case we must f. 23. Should we bring the rigJ1t wheel over this ordinate.nd the position of the load corresponding to the maximum v alue of the function considered. 22. 2..x for an iD O uence line represented in F ig.!i the loadiug corresponding to Mrmax· In this case the great. Jltfmi n • Qmin• etc. the left one wo11ld shift to ordi nate mn. It may happen that the loads will be simultaneously situated over the positive and negative portions of t he influence line.2 due to a set of loads (say. 1.. M max. 23. Case of a set of concentrated moving loads. nd ~ uch a pos ition of the given set of loads whieh would prov ide the maximum value of }. In this case t.
2 Fig. 24.60 lJcams Ftg. 29.2 .
23.~es tluough it~ most unfavourable position. a 5 und o.romcnt of i "=='l'l> the function S (and accordingly the snm . Any other position of the set of londs ~. c.~igo.oly close to ~ction J from its left and therefore the amount of this Load must bo nrnltipliod by tho ordinate ab1 (Fig.2d) . As will be seen. T hus. c. Assuming that the whole !'Ot of loads is shifted over a distance x to the right ("position II). ln the ftrst case it is a:.. the inc.2) Should we shift tho set of loads again by 6x to tho right (position III) the now increment of function S would still be given by Lhe expression (6. * whiltl the iucremont of function S will equal ~n b n . th~ ordinate h 1 . Assume now that position II correspond~. ln the second case il. Let us consider now the infiuenco line for· a function S c.2c and d indicates Lhe load positions conespondiug to tho maximum and minimum values of the shearing force.2. As will ho easily seen from expression (6.orresponding to a load P 1 . a~ .on~isting of ll.onsidered would equally lead to a smaller value of the bending moment.. 23.S will be positive when the set of loads is shifted from position I to position II and negat ive when the loads move from position II to position Ill. uumber of straight portions intersecting at points a.2b shows the po~ition of tho same set of loads providing for •Vrrnin· Fig. when tho :let of loads pa~.Nl by the ordinate ab (Fig. chnJlge •In Fig.a2 . Fig.7.2 . b.2c).he funetion S . . • <%3 .2).i = !:.1'<!. D etermillation Q{ tl1e. 24. negativ~c~.. none of these loads staud over tho vertices mentioned above. e.S may occur only whun one or more loads which ** i~t 2J Pi tan cti} must. will be increased by t:.2 th<> angles a 1. and g and n set of con centrated loads as indicated in r'ig. 23. a change in sign of the increment t:.e most unfavourable or the most dangerous one). that this position is th. 9.2).. 23.x· 2] i= t Pt ·tan cx1 (Q.sumed that the lefthand load stands an infmitesimal distance to the right of sel~tion I and therefore its amounL miJst be multipli. 24._ tlS = )J i1 Pt · :1h1 = 2] i= i Pt · tlx tan Ct. Jn that ease the increment D.x tan ex. the loads being in position /. and ai are positive whilst tho angles VllhJeg **The samo remalns true for minimum of l. f.! to the maximum value of the function S (in other words.h1 = t:. Most UnjatJourable Position of a Load 61 smallor than it\ the first case. d. is assumed that it is tbe righthand load which is inlinit.
ion.2a only. Hereafter both the load and the apex io the influence line overwhich this load must stand to induce a maximum of tho function under consideration will be termed critical. while points a.3 • Thus. Let us assume now that position II is the most unfnvoura'hleone and that it occurs when t he c. 24.s the search for the most unfavourable position of the loads. e. I t should be noted that the intersection points of an influence· line which form peaks when tho maximum value of a function is. ln that case a rnarirnurn will exi~.cvorAA. 1L follows that a dangerous posttton of the set of load. ang g of the influt1nce line form peaks when S m.ritical load P 3 stands over the critical apex c of the influence line (Fig. th o function rClllains ronst. as it reduces the number of trials to the cases when one or several load points stand over the said apices.~ or peaks. for initin\ly this maximuu. in Fig. I n order to asccl'taiu the 11ature of the extreme points a and g of the influence lino tho xaxis· ::should be extended in both directions (as shown by dash lines in. tho slope of that portion of the influence line which is to Lhe left of tho critical apex must be greater than the slope of the portion ~ituatr cd immediately to the right of this apex. This condition is satisfied. the same t·emaining true in the case wben the minimum value of a function is sought.~* will occur when one or more load points cotnctde with the ordinates passing through the apices of the influence line. This important remark greatlyfaci1itate. nn apex.(12 Btams wcr·e previously situaLed over one rectilinear portion oi tho influence line have shifted to an adjacent porl. We must also have P 3 ·tan a 2 > P 3 ·tan a 3 which leads to u 2 >a. d. It follows that a critical point in the influence llne will always coincide with one of its convex apice. occurred when the critical load (ur loads) stoocl over an apex (or apices) of tho. and f would becomo such were the minimum of S required. Thus.nnt during the passago of certain loads from one of the apices to the nc. • in0u()nce line. sought cease being such when its minimum is required.2). (6. This again reduces the number of trials necessal'yt o fmd a dangerous position for a given set of loads. but the rule just •nontioncd still holds good. and vic. For t he same reason.t even though AS is nil and no l011d is at. .ax is sought. n the sum ~ Pi · tan a 1 must be posiLi ve when the loads stand to i=1 the left of the dangerous position and becomes negative as ~oon as they have shifted to the dght of t he latter [see exp. 25. In that case the increment liS must be positive when the system of loads shifts towards the right from position I to position II and it must bo negative as soon as the load P 3 passes to the r ight of point c. 25. in Fig. b. • It may happen that having reached i\s maximum.xt one. ic.2c points c.2)1.
8 No.2..2 No.6 1 . ~ ..) ...<il ion of a Load r. l . li 1 ..6 Nrt7 No.on I){ the Most C•t}aoonralll~ Po..... '<') c.J Nn..S..6 1 . 25... n [. 26... ~ .... (0) (6) . f'oj ~ Pig./j !... 27.2 Nn.O 1 . l":) ~ ' Q f'o'"..a ~g.'i No.6 J...o ~ ./ No.) 'I..lf No. "'..nntnat /.2 . .f. DclP....5 l..7. .2 Fig... d (c) f Fig.. .
25.8 We know that the most unfavourable position of the loading '("a11not occur without at. This aL'>O .2 providing for S max when t he innucnc. tan a 3 = 1 . 26.. .2... . t.u 2j ·I P1 X tan a .Pig.ca:x:is..ilineat· po1tions as shown i11 Fig. b Ftg.simplilics the determination of the nwst unfavourable loading.4 = w . 27. of tho inflnenco line*. As stated before when the loads pass throngh a dangerous posilio u. 1 tan a 2 = 0.2 AJ3 an example. will remain negative as long as nil the luaus are situated over porL ion8 be and cd of the inf1uence line forming negative angles with ·1 ho . * t\ pices a and d do not form peaks anti lhcr•ofor·e the pasMge of a load ovtw o ne of these t.al hP 1• tan u 1 will be !Wgaltve when the loads are to tJu> left of their dangerous position and positive whm they are to its right. The ta ngents of the angles formed by these throe port. i . l t is clear t hat when S min is required. us fmu tho most unfavourable position of :a system of loads $hown in Fig.k b orr. let.wu p<Jinls is of no danger.is posiUve when the set of loa(ls is sitrLated to the left of its most Ulljuuourable position and negative when this set Jws shifted to the right of the latter.c line for S consists of throe rect.is are Lnn a 1 =+a.n 'No have already stntod that when ~:>oeki ng Smax the sum .2c). + . i=: n The Joads being shifted from right to left the sum ~ P 1 tan a .25 1 . tlwse portions being considered as part of th is influence line wi th zero ordinates. Accordingly.x. this sum mu!<t change sign and become positive.. 2$. thu sum f a.ions with tho xa. we must continue to movo the loads in the same direction. least one of U1o loads coincid ing with the IJC3.
So long as the loads remain to the right of Lhi:s position i=n •~ • ~P 1 tana.. Let Pcr denote the critical load.2. .. the sum 5853 i~ l 2] P.he fust dangerous loading occurs are considerably greater t han all th~ other loads and total 15 tons ~ach.ion sligh tly to its left ca11ses a change in the sign of the increment !1S from negative to posiLive.2. 1 =~{:L5f3. Let us consid~ cr the loading re11rescntcd in Fig.2 i~ a dangerous one and load S is a cri Lical load.ll. Suppose now that the loads Xos.5+3.5 + 3. 28. In other words. 28. the position rept·e.2) which arc still beyond the limits or our structure when t. and ~ .5} ~ (3.5) ~~~ i= t T his means that the passage of the set of loads from a position sl ight ly to tht: right from tliC one indicated in Fig. the moment one of these loads passes the peak b it will change sign agai n. :2j P tlw S\lln of the loads situated over the left~hand portion of the influence line.Pthe sum of these loads over the rightn hand one. Let us n ow consider the case when t he influence line fo rms a triangle as represented in Fig. for which the value of Sma:x should he ngain 0aleulat~l. J n t hat ease if the train of loads is shiflccl further 1.5 + 3. Therefore. T he larger of tho two maximums should be adopted Jor design purposes. 29. · tan ai js positive and when it shifts to the l'ight the sum becomes negative. 8 atJd 9 {soe ~'ig.5+3.:< U (3+3)T= But as soon as they shift to the left this sum becomes i=n ~P 1 tana. 28. would again become ncga~ tive.7.sentcd i11 Fig. from right to left until this sum he(:omos positi ve.5) ~ (3 .5+3 . L t:1 left of its dangerous position.2. 2ti.i=(:~. Determinal ion of the Most Unfal)()urable Position of a Load 65 i. Accordingly there would be a i'jeco nd dangerous position o( the set of loads considered. and at. vVo have shown prev iously that when the set of loads is to tho l=n.2 to a posi~ t.5) 1 16 1 17 3.0 the loft so t hat loads 8 :md 9 would reach portions be nnd cd of i =n L hc influence line the sum 2] Pi tan a.
&m .'i 1. J .l lGm • . tl0.&m l&m f.. 3.. l&m 4. ..&m J. 32..tlli Fig..2 .0m Fi~t.5m ...2 .2 F ig...
2) and !.e to l..x for tan aL and.P . 5• . a bridge) from both sides. of tJu MoRt U11{n uortrn bl~ PosiLiou of n /. 29.~ ) + Lanan ZP > 0 L n and tanaL~P + Lanan(!. and to each of these c.P .. these expressions will t>asily l'educ.!:. >:.ases there will correspond its own mnximum value of the function S .ing l (or (a + b) and denoting the s um of all tho loads by ZP. Dtten m Mtton.11111'~"' "' a 1 for tan an (se. IP L Pc.P Pcr.owl li7 in tho present case tnn aLCZP + P. p ) a ·1 b L T ab > L ~P+l'cr1~P L b u and 'ZP ~< L ab .nd J. wo g ot and t o hot h + cr (!.iou:::.P + Pr..P s ides of Lhe se<:ond one.2) {8.2.. a locomotive) may <'ntor the structure (say. we obtain 'EP + P cr L a > nb b :EP a. p .he critical load is the one which renders the sum ~ p L + p cr greater thaJ~ ~p +. provided that ~ p L is smaller than the.~ L L (7.7 ..P '· < /1 n b Adding to both s ides of the fir!:lt oxprc.ases tl10 moving lund (say.I.P R b Snh'5titu l..) L R <0 SuLstitutinn. .e Fig.P + Per > !._ L l These two inequalities show thnL !.2) and canying onl. ln most < .in the above t1xp ression s hm<>.ssion !. some elementary 1 trnnsformal. latter..J> < 'f.
67 h 5 = 1.i33 1 h1 .5 tons.h=3. Problem.1 would ho cu:prcs!. 29. On the other hand.2x+=0. 82.ons Prr=3.375 tons L and i:P=3.. if thoso ordi I r the ordinates of the in(hcenco line were measured in metres.375 tons '!'his shows that t.3i5 ton:> L Tho mo~t unfavourable pos ition of LI IC train of loads thus found is inJicntcd in fig .liS Reams In order to obtain the larger oi these two values the front wheels of tho locomotive.2+1+0. we shall lind "Zf+Pa>H. h 1 =0.4 lj. 31.r.2 h3 =(L6x2+1. h 3 .EP+Per=3.5<4.2) tnn r.oz=hmax=1 ~ =0.2) and (8 .0 >4.5 (0.5 = 17.4 \an cr.=(1.<tx conCSJIOnding Lo this loading ld us lind Lho ordinate~ h 1 . f5.467 +0.3i5 tons < lt . Case of a moving uniformly distributed load. should be placed ovor the lefthand portion of tho influence line when a < b (sec Fig.ed in tnnmi)Lrl!s. EITcctivoly.2) and over its righthand portion when a >b.5x ~ ami 1:P L Cil!l<l llltt.ho second load is tho criticol one fot• only iu that both of th e iucqualiti~s ht!COruo satisfied.6 x2 +L2) ~ ~=1. which are usually the heaviest.2) = 9. tt = 2 m and hma"' = 1. In Art.Ph=l'I.=(1.2 with respect to the influence line for function S representl)d iu Fig. and h:. tho function l'XJlre~sed nates wtJru 11imcnsionluss tho rr.!i+3. :J0. 3. ln order to find tho value of Sm. t hou . let 2:: P = :1.1 Smax = $l. It is tequir·ed to fu1d the mMt dangerous position of a train of lottds sltown in Fig.G+ L2)6'=0.2 we havo seen that tho value of a function S induced by a uniformly di::~tribuwcl load is equal to the product of the intensity of that .2)tan~=(1.2. Tho sum of lo:Lds which crtn find pluco on a span 8 metres loug Cl[tlllls R = 5 X 3. Solution.2 =O.=0. h2 . Shifting the train of loadsfrolll dgltt to left and making use of the inequalitic~ (7.l =<'1.5 LOAS.5 t.osult obtah1ed would be in tons. It.2 t1m wherefrom Sm<•x= T.terized by l = 8 m.2 and charac. ~}.G+1.5=7. 733+0.
33.e. case b for M 1 .2.bo limits of the load. over which t.he influenc. • . '!'he intensiLy or the load q being constant.* I 1 I l I I ~) r ' ~~~~~~ 1ln{lllence line for QI ~  Fig.7 ..2 we have represented the most unfavourable cases of loading for a beam with overhang carrying a uniform load. i.he maxi mum of w which in its turn will occur when the load q will occupy the whole of that portion of the structure..n · It will be noted that in all Lhe four cases these portions of the beam which correspond to the positive or negative parts of the influence line are fully loaded .n.rablo Position of a [. case c for QI max and case d for Qrml.2 In F ig...oatl (l~ load q by the area ro bounded by tho influence line and the ordinates passing through l..l) li ne does not change sign.tl that thl' loads may be distributed over a stretch of any length. the maxi mum value or t ho fun ction will correspond to t. • It is assume. !JiJ. Dtttrminntion oj lh•: M ost U nfavou. Case a indicates the load position for M 1 mar. S = qw.
.TfON OF MAXJ.o typical loacling schemes and to l:hc more CIJrumom shapes of triangular iniluonco lines. all the operations rnay he cousiderably simplified through t ho usc of soca llod equivalent toads.d load which wUl induce in a.tly nowhere.o line and will alter only with a cha nge in t he length of that portio n vf the structure which carries the loads and with a varialion in the posi tion of the in£Luence line apex with rospccL Lo it:> oxtremiLies.h1 l. T he equivalent load may be defined as a uniformly cli.<~bulatlon (or re prcsontotion in lhc form of graphs} of cqu iva lont load intcnsitio!l pertaining t.X<H:.e lines. In ~his case IJ<q = 1X 8 = !1.enuiuo tho maximum va lue of the fnll(:. whoso v1tl n es can be tnkuu fron1 appro]lriate tables nrtd gt·n plts.ulations due to the noces~ity of finding the most unfa vourablc position of the loads.JI:"Qrti\J LOADS \Vc have set•n that tho rloLerminntion of the maxirnnm value of a function by the d irect application of a train of concentrated loads to the innuence Jillll invo lves a eonsidet·a. given member (or secUon} of the structure undrr con. Jn Lbe c. '''or a triangular i nfl uence line the intensity of an equivalent load Ior a g ivon 1:\l'.lar· loading.e. 1 T = 2 . fo. 2 wo have found that for tho Lt·ain of loud!'l c. position.L of c:oncentrated loads is indopendont of tho a.t ion hy triu I.ne. Denoting by qcq Lhe intensity of the equivalent lonu and uy ~~ the area bounded by the infitwnce line.~ideration the same force or moment as the corresponding system of concentrated loads in their most unfaoourable.1 !J. DJ::TEfllVII NA. This permits computation ancl t.~tributr. [n roaliLy this is not so. we may wriLe tho following equation fL·om wb ich it may he sccu that thcJ:o will be al WHYS onl y one dofinite va.tual value of the ordinates to the influcuc.\IU~r MOMENTS AND FOI:lCES USI NG E:QUJ't.7(1 neams 8.ble amount of calc.aso of triangulal' influe. 7 .n I)Ut' e xample of Art.2.1. S(ll vi ng the ahove equal.ALEN'l' U:.ion for qeq we obtain q~q = u !P.l' in or•der to tind an « lquh·alt)Ji t load we rnust lhst d(~ t.ousidor·od Lhe rnaximum value of a certain function S totalled n. lu d~od.Juo of Lhe equivalent load for t~ach pa r·Lieu.275 to us per metre • r It migllt ~ern that this leads 11s c.
. = l:l'i lli.ultiptylng those of lhe other by a con.~taltt factor.i ns lhR same.::!a and b rcprtJsents two such lines. all.l/tlll o( 1~fn:r imum J \{omntts rmd Foret•• it L<'l us co. respectively. tor cq. ( a) {b) Fig. =nh· qeq {}' .2a. 3/!. Tho (1quivalont load fot· the line in Fig. :33.tal l.ed l>y m.2b is . Suhsliluting Q' and hi hy thtlir values expressed in terms o f Q and h we ftnd for lino a.~ for two simllar li111•s rema.2. wtd Q at·c the ordinate aud the area of the influence line rcprcsunlcd in Fig. D t:ll'rmintr. the base l~Jnglh::. with hi.o n. ' and whtlL'O Q' =U .(lll·t ItS show that the inten.vlty of the equivalent lootl.S . 3!1.ll similar twl) inflnrnc:e lines when the orclinrtles of one of thl'm may bt: obtttin. 34. of thost• liJws »ro the sanltl wltile their onlinatos diffl•t• by a constant J'lH.5nh(a+b)=n~2 h.2 Fig.
.......J' t>er ·::Plt'(..)<') .. ..C'<INN .... "' .....)  "' ret ' e TraiN H~. NN ">~ .................. ....... As wi ll be observed.....:::i~ TrOt II }( .R.. Lhc vnhtc or Llw equivalent load may he obtained by inter·polation ... ....... N<N """" ... for designing railway bridges are tab ulated here under. .C. nanwly when the latter is over the edge.""' Co"<) ~tN:............'/'S pe!" ~!'t'f' 't! I 2 J 4 S G 7 8 8 tnou... .... ~ ('<..1 "l~it 't.. ..nsity of tho equivalent l oad depends 0 11 three fnctors only: (i) tho distri bution ancl magnitude of the loads........... the table COltl:ains (.. . (2) tJ10 length of the loaded portion. .B eams We have thus proved that e quivalent loads for similar influr..:. ~~ t:)~ . .... .. Co.... ~~ ~~ . ................. /' ( O". n1etre ''"'...........jC"oo.. q. '"'.. .."". · NC'o....l train H 1 (Fig... 35.... l ond~ for various l l:'ng(:h$ of the loadt>d portion (up ttl 200 m ) and fvl' three different po!..: <::><:::....S... ~~ ......of C(j1li\'<l lcul... ..: ~~~~~ ......2 Intensities of equival ent loads co mputed for a slaHdar'!..~ ..... ....... ...... The rlistancl!s between loads iu Fig.S j¥......' ....1· ~r a. .... at quarter span an d at midspa11. ..2 urc given in • metre~........ The inte. ~<::> N N "':00.....S. ~ ~ .) ... 35...... .. ....~ y... .... 'to. k U)I'I.lrNN Hll ~ . (13) tho position of tho apex of tho inl1uence line ovet• the span (or over the loaded portion of t he structure). ....:i.t".. .... 3ii... ..:. ~~~ Train H? t...Mto:i<"i _ ....... _.....' 4 Tr'lltn ....... .........:i..... TrauT """~ """ V') ......twe lines are identical.... t'l IN 8 tons· Pi!!.he va lue::........ 6' t .... ..:: NNC'#NN ....:.....:::....l""" ......itions of the influem~e lim• apt•X.... .....:..: ......f<'.~.cle are given /'I I ons Fig..~ 'ton tilr ""$ ~ ""'$<") '="') r>ro.. <>oOO ~...2)* used in the U.........t')'Q ""'"">~ .......... When the <1pex falls at sornc intermediate poi11t.....~CO...
HI 1.2 Equivnltmt Luuds per Running Mt~trc or Trllck fur Slandnrd FT1 Train in l 'uns Type and s.:m 2 . Sti :w 'oO I .G!J 1.n 1. 7• 1 2.2. 15 :!.55 1.·'o5 :1.{1 8 1..52 1. :i:! 1.51 ::!.20 I.07 !. 1.5~ 70 80 f \1(1 uo 1. :s7 1.16 1. 74 ·t .12 1..<11> 1. '171J ·1811 1!~) 1. 1 1 1 .88 I. 7!! 50 · ~) ·1.01 ~ 7.4(\ t.11) ~ L:=::::. 70 1.18 1.18 1.l!i 1. 10 1. iti 2.06 1.22 J.61 '1.0?1 1.. 4/o 1.ll0 2. Tabk 1.37 1. 61 ·1 .~ 2.l1. 7i I I 1. 20 1.> 77f..05 1. 5:! 1 .&8 1.2!1 2. 4~ t.10 :!VI) 1.06 1.5!l 1. 2:} 2.IA!r1 ~ 7 .1 (j 7 8 !I 2. .41 1 .51 2.13 1.50 2.24 i. 21 ) 2. of ]tln:rfnwm Jfon~e11 ts and Force. 5(1 3. (.:n 1.05 . !1 5 1 . I!) 2.1H t.ket ob or inCiuence line Apex a t t ho extremity f.26 1. 1.{ 7. :3. (18 ·l.21\ 2 .1li 2.46 iO 5(1 (~) 1.fl3 2.1. za l.!!{1 L!il L46 1. .27 I HI 120 J3(1 1111) 1.CO!lt b Apex at quarter s p~ n AileX in the 1111<1<1 It: or t he l!lm l o<ll'tiOO ''•at. 88 1. :\.. 00 1. til t.. 21 1 .43 1.~1.:w 2.41 2. ~l) :1. :~t.11 t.00 ..57 :!.15 1.37 1.. D('lcrmina tion.82 1. 32.j 4 3 . (15 1. 1!!i 1.a::s 1.2H 1.14 1.(1(1 I 4! .'i2 2. 07 1.2() ISIJ l(i(l LV.) '" 2.:al '10 12 11l H) 2. 27 1. 77 1.28 2.
90 l<HIS"' D.2k tons rn~r nrcLru..il>u of the :!pun corn•sJJOtHliug to tho posiliv<. ll!Clhod of ~>quivnleut loads llot<.l axle loads of tho s tandard 111 Lrniu l.tSC 2.• ordilwtc:>~ of lhO influence z 6 d =J I// I . aH. 31l.> ~tretch ~1\'Cr UtQ nr~at ivc · por·t ion of thl' inflnl.' 1 .1y a l'acLor lc whidt characterizes the clnss of loadin~.wmiuo th o stress produced hy " sL:utdar<l11 7 train iu rnerubcr 1.'nce li nt~ ..5 of 11 :>inglo track bridgo lrn~ n •Jircscnl<. obtuinorl by loadi ng the:> wholc.is (.\k. we shull obtain loading ~chom o.~ion '\ill hr.J th is 111 ~· tio n t.ot. + * Tho or .ho oquivahmt loads in Tahle 1. t•.0 m . i .2 we fend t hat factor 2 in front uf tlw l"fl.2 'l'nhlt~ Gm  } "''"' 1~ " Mit.s for different c l asst~s of trains.i __ _ s I il '  I I 1 I In fluence l lne far !J11s 1 I I s I I I (b) Ia If ~{ Ptg. l u cc > h unn 3 t> f l tue shccuhl Lt> lt> i. Prom 'J'abl l.u.rack brlJgc .d·. the ll.2 are giv1•u for onE! tra<.rur1 k Hnes . tin~ cor·rrSJII>IHiillg influOIIC e Jino bl'ing iliown in Fig.'S Of U si uglct.j ug thr._. !!5 Lons Tl•o maximum com)Hcs.7l llcanu Hy multipl yillg aU thl. Thus.his ()Xpres.l<l the wltctlo purt.2 Wtl liucl lhut tho ~quivall'ftt lo~td for t r11iu H1 wcoulrl equal in th at c :. lu onll'lr to ohtniu thn maxiirHtm volue of thn t cul'!iou iudur. Sol ••·lit~fl .f.hnud term t. ~ ~  . 3G.~ion is due tv 1 .5 X 39. 5 =0.2SX ~ X ~ =~9.2b.'n~t\h r. the design ~>f 1 ._. produced hy au 117 trnin will then ho dcrinul frotn the fullowing (>Xprc~ssion :W~~=kqqqU = 7X2. Tho maximum tensiun.h11 fact that t. [or hoth ll'USSI.90= 19.•d Ill Fig.2cz ..arried out for trains ol' class 7 or 8 (H 7 OI' H 6) whilst lines or local importance are designed for H 0 and II7 train!'. l'ruhl em 1.cds 8 ..
2 in ~ar.th of lontliug e•toHII in this portioulnr caso to the wh ole !. l )etcl·m i flll tlon of M 1 max· Tltc }(•ngth nf the load ing sh oulcl ho tuk<' u equ nl to th e wb olt\ ~JliiH of the gi rdor.ho tno)tliOd <•f ~quivnlt!lll loads lintl Nf r l!lltx• Q 1 mllx• nud 0 1 mi•• otri!o!iug in . tho raiL<> hcin!X fixed to . aL i. Accordingly tho OJquiv:olcntloud for one jlirilcr wi L bo hair of that givNI in 1'nble 1 . i.('1 1 .c~nl of thO) ~irdcr r.c linl' npt'X to the u~amst.2.~tringo.$.:i. Solutiou. 1 12 tons l'r•tltkln 2. .·s and cross oomns su"\"ot·tool IJy Lwo pnrallel g tt'd!!.162.L..42+ (2. Tho l>ritlgl' is again a single track 1111o.tio:m. X ~ = 11.rs .t length of Line aJIO.8 ~..0 m . 57 tons per mot r() (sec c!!lumn 3). /. :17.[ on l'f1 train .2b) a = distonco from llco inOcocuc.o gird<!r tfuund in Ta hit• 1.. ~q0) l~l =2.J q" ~ CI!Uinll.!11j dur·iug the J.o~. D etermirlilfton of M u:r.'< CJVI'l' LflO lr>!t oxt.~ Wh<!IlCO . cncl o f \ho girder l ~ lcmo.0 m with tho iuflul'nc.'17.2 0.. 5 x 11.nss. As the opcx of lite lnlluence line fnlll! b<"twN·n the •ltoartcr !. For· an 11.tn enrl StiJIJ"'rtod plat..:· = o•ctui ~ldcnt lconcl for u L oallr.'... J or vu e gmlt~r lll'OI'()Jll'Cr<onlod in Fig.() girdc•· hriclgo) ( l:'ig .2.2) s nm o equivalent load hut.:. Th~:~ maxiunun comprc.pan p<Jiut nnd tho encl of tim gil'd(\r t ho cquivnlent lon cl nutst bo fO'lm<l hy inlor·polation. 57 X .2t tons por mdtx• \\hen• y0 'II ·1 ::. 2ti X 0.h l = 4 trt the oJC)Ilivu lout luad i~ 2.o.pnn ot tho gil•clo. t o 10. The iuflucmc. lruin IJ"=qo 1. 2.pau (as in Fig. fur· nn influence line with the) npox at qcoal'ltW·!'>Jian (nl so found ia Tnhlo 1. t'siu~ t.. 37 .2b and c.remity co( the 10.:!4.tmu m M om et>t l artd /lorc~s 15 ·for u l<!ugt.~ic>u will Utcll ho givt'n hy 'lfJ•~=l"le•JS!=1 X 2.2) load for thr) case when tlw inrtu(>ni)Cl line upo:x i.c lino~ £n1' beltdin~ lltomout and slwar ( a) ~o=zml I' • I lt\_ II b =Rm l "' !Om ~ ' I F tg.~ = O.1:!)~:~= ~ 2. .2'• tuns D.7.ro .
The theory of tho multi .4 tons per met1·o.1i3 tons per metre For an ll 1 train this loarl will increase se\'onfold and will total 7 X 2.e. Table 1 .2= 29. i.. Tho areu hounded l!y tho positive portion of the shear inn uenco line ~~qnals c. For nn H7 train this must l1e increased hy 7 01· to 7 X lo..12 = ~ xsxo.2 tons pc.SR Lonmotres Otterminfltion of Q1 ma>:· rn order to find the maximum positive /\heAr in . Hence.2 tons per metro.q1 =.20 = 29.8.7.7G For nn H 7 train tho equivalent load will amount to fJa X 7 =2 .r metre.63 = 18. 't'ho at·oa · under \he bonding moment i11nuence lino for sl'Ction I equals w1 = Conseq uen LIy ~ X 10 X 1.2.nc~! line apex is at its righthand c•xtromity . t tons per metre..G =8 mz M1 max=fJsWt =7. 1 Lho load shoul<l cover the (•otit'l' posit. 735 X 8.4 ft.2 rn ami thordoru Ormax =IJ2Ulz=9.n5tons pcrmetre. a7. 92 = 9 . Single beams constituting theso structures might be oitht~r of plate g irder or trussod construction or both. Tho at'OII under tho ncgativo portion of the Influence line e<(Uals = Wa=..o 4.2 an equivalent load corresponding to a starulard H 1 train equal t.2c) .2· 1 X 7=1::iA7 tous por n1etre Fot· oM girder it will reduce to ono holf. anti Ior one girder it redu ce!:' to q3 = 0. For this caso wo ftnd in Table 1.x is over its left extn1mity.2 yie lds the following vlllue for the oqttivahmt loall correspon•ling to tho st:mdard Ifi Lrnin q0 =2.. 37 .e. '1'he multispan cantilever beams also hclong to this class of beams constituting a particular caso thereof. Such beams m ight be also called nmltispan hinged beams. The greatc~t negtttivc shear in ~clion 1 will occur when that portion u[ tho gi rder where the ordinates to the !:'bear influcnc(l line art: negati ve ( Pig.:.2 m 9.3.<H tons Detennlnation of Q1 min .a lly stable structure consisting of a series of s imply supported beams with or without overhangs connected togtJlh<•r by means of hinged joints. MULTlSPJ\N STATICALLY DETEHMINATE BBAMS By multispan statically determinate cantilever beam we undorsla nd n geometri<:.ive llOrtion of tho Or Influence line (1'ig. . X x 29. X2X0 . This portion is 2 metres long and ~he influe. i.o.2 x 3. 0 =0 t.2 = 0 .7 tons 11er metre. while for ono girdN this should be halved.1.cctlon. Tho longLh of this portion is equol to 8 metres 1tnd tl1e inflncuco lino npc.2c) is loaded in its entirety.
38. In the first instance let us t. This may be illustrated by the following example: assume that t wo equal and adjacent spans AB and BC 10 metres long each have to .Illlllllll A (/) ) ~m q =2t/m 'i C 8 ''J III.9.puw!Il~jl:J. .!UIIII=.. Benms of this type arc usually more econo mical than a series of di scon u ect~d simply supported beams spanning tho sa me opauing..2a). M•tltispan Statically Determ iuat•• JJ~mns 77 span statically determinate beams has been developed in 1871 hy tho eminent Russian engineer G.ross the span BC (Fig. and lot us use a beam wilh a twometre overhang BD ac.ry separate simply snpporled bearns (Fig.8=2:> tonmetres ql~ 2 X 102  Tho diagrams of these bending moments arc represented in Fig.2. 38. The bending moments at mids pan of ca<. Semikolenov.2b. 38. .IIIIIIIIIIl !" A 8 10m C (d) ~~m+mnrm~ww~mm~mnrrm~ ~ II ~ ~ Mnm: JGtm F tg.2 be bridged over. the design load being evenly distribut~d and equal to 2 tons per metre. :)8.2c).h beam will amount to Mo= g= . Now let us envisage a doublespan hinged beam .
(8x 2 + ~ z) = 20 tonmetres l u tho midd le of the span HC t t..= 2x 8 2 2 tO tonmetre. 2d.Lrcs 8 2 but this is no longer a dangerous section. T he llSO conLinuous beams also leads lOa SllbJ'> taulia l rcdut:tion <1f bt\ nding m omt~ uts as c.•nd thcroftH·c . Mn=. t. Jrom the l'ighLham. 1t wi ll he obsorn·d thai iu ab~o luto va lun Lhe.ruclurcs. this distance bci11g dl'l'iv<•d from the following equation Qx = C + qz . ror tho max. d ing•·nm for Lhe doublHRpan hinged beam is •·opr('SCIIIl'd in Fig.o obtninecl inl.78 tlti. ..iderod in the f'11·st place nnd therefore tht> <loublt•s r•a n b eam is obviously mor(' oconomical.tions have l ed to fairly wirle 11se of muHispn11 canW ever beams in engineering sl.roduc.8X22X:.cl'luinnte ancl will not bo influenced by any settle ment.1'=. The maximum bending mome nts (positive and n(>gative) in tltc most clangorous cross sections of those two beams will be: aL midspan of Jleam AD M1 = sz . ovcdumg bei ng hiugcconuecta<...c hoarns coiH.he multispan s ta tka lly de terminate beams p•·es ont C l•rtai u ad cl i tioual Hd vantages: (a) their 1elati vel y shorL mom bot'S aro well sui ted for proral.<> Ovt:r tho !iuppnrt B of baarn CD (henm AD Lrausrn i Lting a coucuutratod load P=8 tons througl1 hinge D) tho bending moment.intu m momont must coitlt. () whertl (.haud ahutmcnt roactioH equal to C .ornpared with single l.~8 .l SllpJ10rt. hut. u11iug s tandard h oisting equ ipment. or . (b) a ll the forces i nduced tberoin al'O stat. tranSPortation and installation. bend ing mome.! X 1 ·1 ··:! X 10 X 5 111 =B to ns .2 X 4 X 2 = 16 ton111et.lrication.ill lll.u n similar COJl l.lliS henrn.ms. Stnticnlly determinate multispon l1cams may always J.l to the end of an 8 met1·c heam AD.. is tho righf. of the ::f!IIJLJOrls . Tho a hovo cousidera.lt•a. ido wi th :wro s hear ami tho lat.4 mt!Lros T he hcndiug mnmcut in this s~ L io11 wi ll bt• 8 X 4 .o ht•ndiug moment wi ll amouut te> 2 X 10~ :tl) ~ M 2 = . = . number o[ hinges inl.nts in Lhis hca nt am smaller t han in each o[ the sopa rat.8 + 2x = 0 Mrrm x = .= 1:> ton mP.ing 0.ieally de t.tcr will occur at a distance :r.res Tho handing momtml.
..y n of the ho1un wt ll ho oqunl to n = C. t" _.....m . lhe heurn MC. into the hc:>n m t'Q IHill' it~ clOgTt'll or redundancy.. thlHI the tlegrcc of rodundanc. whe11 tho numbc•· of hingog introducocl..ontre._.. ll ~ y_.. J.. 1n order to de tt•nn inc Lhc forc..at. 'fhis beam has a degree of a redunda ncy equal t o fou r ..t.Le unkuowns may ho obtuinccl in that ••nsc with t. Hence..:.hernatically replaced by seven hi ug~~ ~~ har·s.:.n:.. ·~ B .vcspan con Linuous beam whoso collst. "_ ·• _ _ _ __:.. 0 ~ ~ 0 J.2.t .:. J....lw· of redundancy of the continuous beam..ntic.f' .o t.2a wo shnll ohtnin n = 7 .~ (f) ~'. thist~qunlion oxprossing that the sum of momcnl:s of nll t....t 0 J. Fig....es acling in thesu hars we hnve oul y three independent eqni librium equations nnd therefore th<: stt·es.•:.O for all t.. Applying tl1is formula to tho bcnm in Fig.t: ~ (cJ \~ ~ ~ o (dJo~ 0 * 4 J.·.:.tl_..rndu<:cd either in the span or over n suppnrL of n co ntim1011S hcnm provides for one ndd itional oquatioJl of st.:...'0'<~ 0 Fig..:.:D_P.2a represe llt.:..3 = 4. 3H .n...:.. 99.s. .n.Ont05 stnlicn Jiy fiOII~r ntinaf..S._ _ _ _ __ 9... 7!} /\!! will be showu lnMll' the uumber of hingms musL hH cq1m l t...:Ie. ·~ ·~ 0 J.. computation for Ibis beam cannot be carried out with the aid or statics alone.in_.. 0 0 k J. (0} (b) J..'l:.. dog1·~e ·~ ·~ .2 If we tlenoto hy C t he number of <:OnsLrai ntH IlL Lhc snppnr~s.ra in ts aL the supports may bo sc.:.hc oxi....:..C><)J.:i. 0 J..~J..rm.. k ~ J.<. 3!l.....ic:... '\..S a ii.... Ear h hinge int....o th~· l<.1ft of llac hiuJ!o nllOut ils r.a'. "..:..ht• aid of: thll cquntil)OS or statics nlonc.:.....i". ...:.:.. oquals zero.. ('e} 0 ~ 0 ~ I.OI'IIal forct~l\ appliod to L he h~um either to l hc right or t.
The hinges mus t bo distributed along the beam in such a way that t<ach par~ of the struct. Ac<:uruingly tho total number of cons traints of the ben rn is C = 7 .ed in Fig.* Soveral ways of transforming tho continuous bonm r·oprescntod in Fig. 40.s is equal to two as indicated in Fig. H!l. The iukraction of its clements is re present. tho totnl uumber of cons train ts of this beam is C = 8 and its dcgl'oe of redund a rrc. c.Jso to get o clear picLnrc of its work under load is to rcpresen~ schcmalie.3 = 5.. I n nrdor to make t his bcarn staticaJJy •le terrnirrate it would bo necessary to introduce five hinges.atit.3 = 4 . 2 . portion AB of the trnnsforrued beam slill remains s t. for each o [ its constituent mcmhorl' is a simple beam ·with OL' without overhang e. beam ABE is (:.l so equals fom· and therefore corresponds to tho deg ree of redundancy of the inilinl beam. f<'>IH hinges should IJo introdllcod ns illustr·at. drawing show)) clnarly that tho whoJe beam is geomctricully stable. Fig. rcrucmhercd that a builtin end is equivaJ<' nt lo thr(<e :. This schematic. 2/ gives an example of an unsatisfac tory hinge !I is tdbution for al t hough their number in this c.rairr ts as rep rosen tod schematically in Fig. *A rrtothod o£ inve$Liguting tht> geometr·icnl stability of a multispan hinged t.2 b. One way of distributing these hinges is shown in Fig. 44.ure should become statically determinat.y equals n = 8 .re shown in da ~h Jines.cd in Fig.~uti its degmo of redundancy is n = C . (The pol'. 39. • .2.2b.2.ase o.ally indeterminate while portion . in order to trHnsforrn this ben rn into a s tatic. Assunw for ins tance that it is required to i nvestigate t. 1:0 rr ti nuons boa rn with two b ui I tin onds is represented in Fig. 44.ally tho interaction of its sopurato parts. ::!9.o and rmnain geometrically stable.ed schcm a ~i ca lly in F ig.onn~cted l:u the gr.2a.1. The lwBt way to frncl out whe~her a mu!Lispau beam or tlrnt t.ofore at this end tho uumher ol' r·ostrainl. where alJ th ~ intcrmediaw ltingos arc roplaccd hy fixed h i nged ..onnocted to the ground by means of Lhrt\C supporting hnrs and is therefore geometricall y s table.3 = 7 . statically determinate one are illus trated in Fig.ound or to another part of the structure whose s tnbiJity is ons urcd by means of throe nonconcu rrent hnrs.g r·co of freedom ns it can movo horizontally.sible displace men ts of th at portion of t he heHlfl u. /\. Thc .2b.r~um w:~~. E ffectively. 2a: tlrtl rightl1and end of this beam sl:ill re L~tins one dfl. 43.lrould be. d and e.ally dete rminate ono.he s tability o f the beam roprcso nted in Fig.lJC has become uns table. 40.2b. 42. 41.2a. pt·~:scntcd in Art. 42.2a into o.u ~Jport < :onst.) A contin uous beam wilh ono builtin end is represent. Thus.ype j~ stahlc or· not nnd o.~ opports connecting the ~tppro printc bnarn members. TllltS. I I :.
2 . J:(a) J: 0 :71 . 41 .2 F ig 6Sl\3 43.2 i ~ I Jmc I ll OJ: Jll.. 42.t J: J:(~ :x.Stat ically Dctcrrninall! Bl!am.o {a ) (b) ~ c ~ Fig. 40.9. Fig.~ ~1 ~ ~ 0 I. Multisprm .2 Fig. 2.
A F :k Jm D D Flg. !11._ J£11..2 S · Jm p1 :1: ~ Ll. __ (a) ___.Q.___. ...2 Fig...qu I I ~ ~ _.. .2 .Seams A c A.. 7/k B £ (0) f { A A a A (b) c J7ll. 4!1.g...jiinA.. 15...2 (!J) F'i. 46... (b) A Ftc.
s cnse the introduc. 46. 46. This would require tho installation of mobile hinges which offer no resislanc. the interaction of its e lements being schematically indicaterl in Fig.2b.9. An example of a statically clnterrnirtato beam with three fixed supports and two movable hinges is given in F ig. (2) there must be no hinges in the spans adjacent to the one provided with 2 hinges.s where all the supports but one were ftoee to move in a horit. Tho examples presented above lead to the establishment of the following rules relative to the distribution of hinges in beams which have no builtiu ends: (1) there may be no more than :t hinges in each span.o to horizontal displacements. Let us now examine caficS where twu or mote.have eongidered case. Tn Lhi.2a.:with the exception of one of tlte extreme spans where there sho1dd be no hinge at all.tion of ordinary hinges become~ insufftcient for the LransfornHttion of: the con tinuou~S beam into a statically determinate one. Multisp"n S U..2.ic.. 45. 47.2. Pig. Tln1s far we .2a. One of these hinges is represented ~:>chomatica lly in Fig. supportfi arc fixed and will allow no hori· zontal displacemeut. 6* . The supports of beam FD arc exactly similal'. The most commonly used multispnn hinged beams arc represented in Figs. Tho reader i!1 invited to establish on his own the relation between the number of lixed SUJ>purts and of mobile hinges in a statically detel'lninate multispan beam.2a and 48.al bar :<Landing directly on the ground at C.follow each o/Jwr.tt eally Determinate Beams 83 The heam ECF is supported hy two bars at its end E and rests on a vert. l:hus ensuring its stability. 2 (3) spans containing one hinge only may . 48.anlal rlirection.
* It consists thus of a series or beams with two overhang. d.2 It should be noted that Ute favourable effect of the overhangs may be. 50. DETERMI NATION OF MOMENTS AND FORCES I NDUCED BY A SYSTEM OF FfXED LOADS lN MUL'l'ISPAN STAT ICA LLY DETERMINATE BEAMS The design of statically determinate multispan bearns will b~ now illustrated using as an example the h inged beam represented in Fig. The rcac..217. 49. R 2 .Beams The first one is c. Fig.ti vc whc n di•'ectcd upwards.2. while the forces R. 48. The second beam is characterized by the presence of a hiuge in each of its s paus with the exception of the last one.lt a system will be found in exactly the same wny as for 1111 ordinary statically det.. 50.haracterizt~d by alternating doublehir1ged spans and spans devoid of auy hinges.2 tons per metre and also t.2b conta ins the schematic drawing of the interaction of its sClparate members. R n. taken advantage. e. The reactions R A. 49 . R c. m. 1 shows all the separate elements of: tho benm as woll as all the forcos acting on t hese elements. the irltet·action of ils elornonts is represented schematically in Pig.2c.tions of suc. resung on the "cuntilever arms". F ig.s supporting ·suspended' simple beams. and R 8 arising in the hinges from tho interaction of the dHferent elemeuls of the hoam will be considered such {see Fig. Each of its outer spans is auchort~d do'lvn at the shore and overhan~s into tho contrnl span about one third of its length. 10. • . Tho suspended span. R D will be reckoned posi.2.o the reactions at the hingos •The usual threespan cantilever bridge belongs to tbis typo of structures.ho l'emaining third of th(l central spnn. All tho reactions and forces indicatnd in these drawings are positive. T his element is subjected to a uniform load whose intensi ty q equals 1.2a.erminatc multispan beam. 50. occupios t.2b) when the uppor element exerts a downward pressure on the lower one. 50. Ptg. We shall start with determining the reactions R 1 and R 2 of the upper most simply supported element H 1 fl 2 spauning a Jeogth of 1. of not only in ordinary solid web beams but ulso in trussed systems sucb as ind i<:ated in Fig.
.10. f) etermltt ation of . k" 1Ro I v 1 1 I I 1 z I I (h) I ~ 2 ' · ztm M graph I Q.2 . 8*9tm~ I~ I F ig. I l~· 2m I ~l: I I I : o...J5 tm I~ I 0 I 1 I I 1 I I I 1~. 50. 58S tm I I I.. II ' I I (f) I I I I I I I I I I I ' I I I I I I . tm 0.2 .:IJ?lt I l 1 • 2m I I I I I I I I I (d ) I I I I I I (e) I I RA I I I I I I I I I I I I 113 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IM0 I' D~ ..r=lSml ~" !RA I I I I I (bJ I I I I (C} 7M I I I ~J I I I I D~ I' I I I I I Pr=zt I I I I I I ~. \ JHJ 0 .M omrnts and Fouu 85 Pz=Jl (0 } Mo .
lltf'11 = fldal+l!)+qa 2 .8 =0 Tlm:.4 tons The equWbrium of the mOII'll\nts ahout point.~2 + H1a 2 1RA·l1=0 and Lhus J>1 RA = (ud· l1 ) ~R 1 a 2 ll .P1ad 0 i )+ R (lt ·lIla) Rnl = 0 1 1 qa2 ( l 1 + £) + R1 (ld lt ·az) BR = = ~ [ 2x 1.___ _ _ = 2.+1.1>(2 + 1)]=1. fi0..efrom .o:: 2(1+2)1. B yields 2:.< (seo Fig.nts ~y = Plqa'l.tions R A and R 13 aro correet.2e..4= 3. the forc. 50.2 t. This heam is 1mbjcctcd to the action of loads and reactions indic.86 /Jearn. R1 +RA+ UIJ= = . From the ccpiilibrium of moments we obtain · ~M11 = .2x1(2 + ~)+0. 50. The equilibrium equation furnishes again whL'rl!from .es and the ronc.P1a 1 + qa~ ( 11 + whcr.ting 011 this beam arc shown in l• 'ig.BB 1 si tuated just below the element /11Jf2 and constituting a simply supported beam with two overhangs.~i X l __:.4+ 1.tions ac.hecked using the cquilibl'ium equation of the vertical c()rnpont.2d) totalling ql2 I.6+2.= .8+. Consider now reactions R c and R ~ o( the simply supported beam with overhang ll 2CH~.2X ~ O.2c. 2 X i O '" t R 1= I'•2 =:r=2 .atod in Fig.2 X 10.4 tons 2 2 The val uos of thll two reactions just found ean be c.3.u 011 Next we shall determine the reactions of the element A. t.ho values of tenc.
() (1.qa3 .5 = /L)74 tum.f the corresponding diagrams. There are two wa ys oi ca r.2 X L2 := i1..5)+ ·1.Ptas + Rc (a. From t:hu equilibrium cquRtion :ZY = R3+RD = 0 we get RD= R3 = 0.a5 3 0..il18 =  R2 (as+ a. we may now prooeed with the de termination of ~boat'S Q and bending moments :If at. 50.2. f•0.!l5 = .. Next com<:ls Lho turn of tho cantilever beam H~D loo.P. 2+ I +t..5136 X 2= tonmetres Th~ ncgal:ivo vnhw of the moment obtained indicates that this rnomout acts in a direction opposite to th£> one indicattld in Fig.~a4 t.+11l) T qa3 ( ~ +a.61.2 X 1.R3 l3 ~ 0.566 ton Having delorminod all Lhc rNtctiOJ\S at the supports and all tho pressures exerted by the lil:lparat. Delumtnation of Moments and P orus 87 The other equilibrium equatiou gives 2:.04=0 whicJ\ shows that all the computations were carried out correctly. + a&) qa3 C£ + a4 + a5).Pd· Rc+ ~= .5) +3 X 1.MD= leadiug tu 1 lfo R~l3. (1} The sheariug forCNl Q and tuc ht>nding moment!> .2/.MD = 0 .hesc compu tations.1+ 1.1.ying out t.10.!:.. two r Mctions will he chechd M above ~y = Rz.2{) . 5 Th~'Se (\22i.dod at its free end by t he vertical pressure Ra (see Fig...2a) may be detcrnlincd in tho same way as for an ordinary statically determinate hoam taking into considt•rntio n only the .'11 for the multi8pan stat i<:~'llly de~mninata hon •n undur ronsidrra t iou (Fig..23+ +0 ..04+5. +a~)= 0 w lu:rd!·um Rc Hz(a3+ a. 50.474= 5.+a6 ) .:.ting in ttw various cross sections of tho hoam and with Lhe conslruction o.1 :~2 = .566+4 .0.e olomllnts of the h!jLi fJJ on each olhcr. From tho equilibrium of the moments we obtain ).
2m): Qm =~Y= P1 +RA+Ruq(x .onstruction of the Q and itf g raphs for each of these c llltncJlts (Fig. beam consisting of a largo number o£ eloments. these computation:.3)= L =Portion IV 2+2.onstrnc.. The values or expressions of the shearing forcos Q and the moments M may he then u~ed for tho c.41.RD= 0. Disregarding the i ntermediate hinges.he methods j ust dt.4 ton L 11 Portion I J I (3m < x< 6. the benm under consideration may be divided into five portions charactorized by different expt·nssions for the shearing forces. In our case the first of the two methods will bo used for the construction of the shear diagram. e and f).7m) :Qv = l:Y = .4+1.41.2 tons b Portion IL (1m < x<3m) :Q =l:Y= P1 +RA= 2+2 . 50.434 tons Portion V (7 .:x<.2g. the following equa tions for each o[ the por tions mentioned will then be obtained.7 . (2) The shearing forces and the bending moments may be rielermined separately for each of the elements constituting the multispan hlla m allowing the c. Putting together these grnphs will give the corresponding diagrams pertaining to the full length of the boam. The f1r!<t of t. Porti<m I (O <x< 1.4=0. .* If carried out correctly.2m. Those portions nre denoted by corresponding ciphers in Fig..0m): Q1 = l:Y = P1 = .2c. 50.tion or the corresponding graphs.scribcd may be recommended for beams with a reduced number of spans whilst the seco11d one is hettor suited for the.2(x3) =5.Rn+Ps= R =+ 0.2 ~x< 10.566 ton n *These intoractions have been already taken care of in the determination of tho reactions nt tho supports. Lot x represent the distance from the cross section considered to the }@ft extremiLy of the beam. must show that the bend ing moments at all the binges arc nil.566 + 3 = 2. d.2x (6.88 8eam11 loads applied and the reactions at the supports hut disrogardiug the interaction pressures at the hinges.2m) :Q 1v = l:Y = .
5+ 1.P 1a 1 = 2 tonmetres and over tbo support n it ~:~quais . described. All these separate graphs when placed together will furnish the bending moment diagram for the full length of the beam appearing in Fig.g.1>1 (a1 l 1) JlAlt = 2 (1 .15 tonmetre.4 tons. This grnph will he rectilinear along thl' lofthand overhang a. to the reactions at the supports R A = = 2.& ton (see Fi. Within the portion BI/1 (righ thand overhang} the bonding moment diagram will be concave. 50.2e}.5 = 0.566 X 1.2 tons per metre. and to the int. . At both extremities of the beam (hinges Il 2 and f/ 3) the bending moments will equal zero. The reader is invited to check tho Q and the M diagrams using the expressions mentioned in Art.4 X 2 = 1.2 toum~:~tt·es.oraction force 0 . The bending moment diagram for the element H 1 H2 will be hounded hy a conic parabola exactly similar to the one obtained for u llniformly l oaded similarly supported beam (Fig.tnation oj Moment and Forces 89 The values of the shears thus obtained for a ll the five portions of the b('am will furnish the shear diagram represenlcd in l'ig.58!i tonmoLre!l n. 50.2h. 1 = 1 metro and over the span l 1 = 2 motrl'S.132 mat the wall as showo in F ig.C(ing through zoro at point H 3 and through the top of the ordinate Jlll 0 = = . 'l'h 0 C 8 for the clement H 3D will be bounded by a straight line pas. at the f\upport A it will total .2h for the corresponding element.) . to 1hc uniformly clistdbnWcl load q = 1.Z = 0 .1. l'he corresponding graph for lho eloment ABII1 will be derived from tho moments due to the acti<>ns of the for~ 1' 1 = 2 tons. 50. 'fllese data will be again used for the constrnction of the bending moment graph pertaining to the element H 2 CII3 (Fig.0) 3 X 1 = . 50.2.2g. 1. The data so obtained yield the diagram represented in Fig.8q9 tonmetres and over the support Cit will amount to R3 (~ + a.566 (1.·1. no distrihuted load acting alo11g these parts. Under the lotto P2 the moment will equal f(. lll/t te .Oro.2h. for this portion of the beam is suhject~ d to a distribt1ted load acting in a downward direction. 50..2h). Tbn hMding JllOment diagram will be obtained hy tht~ S('C ond of the two method~.2e).2 Dl'term. · + + + Over the lefthand overhang tlu~ graph will be curvilinear while between tho supports it wiJl be represented by a straight line . 50.as = 0. Wl tagmm .2) 2.2c). Its maximttm 1 'll equa1 g= ql~ LZ X 1· ord .10. At the ll•ft exlrcmity of the benm the bending moment will be nil.4 tons anll R 11 = 1. 50. 50.P~ = 0. Using the same procedure we shall obtain the bonding momont diagram H 2CH 3 (Fig. At the l'ighthand extremity of lho elemen t ABII 1 the bending moment will again equal 'l.
J.k J. ?. . • 52.. 53 .c tbe bendi ng mo ments at midlength o f . :.2.ntod in Fig...9:'1 Beam• Four different continuous beams are shown in Fig.2 load ing to the c..onst1·uction of the bending moment and shear diagrams for the beam oi F ig.ral alternative s d1emes ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ .. . 52..k J. J. l 1 whit h would cq ua li 1. Ftg. 51.. 53.. He is also invitod to cany out all tho computations Jm Jm Sm Fig .2 and to find the length of the ovarhang 9\ Fig..2 P1 =70t <>f rendoring each boam statically determinate by introducing intermcdinto hinges. 51..2. It is suggested that the reader should find seY(•.t J. .... J. .2 tho Lbrcc central ~:~pons of thn hllam rGJlro~e.
load is applied al. We shall show now that in this respect influence lines for mnltispara statica ll y determinate beams are quite simila r to those just nu~n tioned.hcsc two points. JJ and C of.2e. the influen~~e line will h e triangular in shape with an Ol'di•Htte at st\c.haptor we have shown that when the load i. it is fully lr. When the ]oacl unity shifts to the lofL or to the right of point2 the pressure at this joint will decrease beeoming nil wlwn the load reaches point . Assume that it is required to draw the inOuence lines for reactions A. 2<t.2a.ill be directed downwa r ds and will r.n Lhc tmit load P is app\icd hetwenn abuLmcnt 1 and joint 3. 54. 5. in othct' words.2d while that for tho roa<".ro oa:dinat. Accordingly.c reaction at A v.2 of the present c. joint 2.l ong the clement DC the pressure exerted at hinge J) will equal 1 / .ontod in Fig.lion I = 1 (Fig.s trau~mitted through secondary beams (stringers) t he influence line for the mailt endsupported beam remains rectilinear.e of lhc load from one of t.1.2.2. A~ l'eganls the reaction at support A its value will he the same as for an ordinary beam with ovorhaug as long as tho load unity is applied between points A an(l D . ~!i .2c. 54. thi).a1fluence line for reaction A of tho ldouwnt OC will he . the influence line for r£~acLion C will have the shape indicated in Fig. .Z or point 3.rt\et. 54. it will have the same value as though it wore 2 transmitted to tho same point through a stringer antl cross hcarn. beam AC represented in Fig. the value of the saitl pre~>snrc diminishing proportionally to tho distanc.f then bec. ze.ht~nring [oree only wh•f. ·when this load is applied at point D tb.11. Accordingly. its other end . bnt when the load shiJts to beam AD the reactions at puints D and C become nil. Accordingly..e at poinl C.oming equal to .tions I and 11 of Lhc structure schematically t•cprosentcd in Fig.h a.oa(:. When the nni t load is applied to the element CD the reac.onion . When the load ·unity moves a. Let us consider now tho construction of the influtmce li11c for the shears in sec.ted to tho action o( the t.2b).h its maximum negative value.tio ns at points D and C will be exactly the sa rue as in tbe case of a simply supported beam. Wlwn.ilinoar wit.tion aL point B is shown in Fig. INFLUENCE LINES FOR MULTISPAN STATICALLY DETERMINATE BEAMS In Art. This influence line is repru:. Section I will be subjct. 55.ansrnittcd to tho overhang of the main bearra with tho shear in :. IMlllellCe Lines j!Jr ilfultispan Statically Determinate JJeams 91 11. The element CD of t his beam is freely supported at one end. 54.being hingeconnected to the end D of the cantilever beam AD. the i.
5~.2 .!)2 Beams Fig.2 Fig. 55.
2b.11.oterminate beams of more than two spans. thQ latter vnluo corresponding to the case when the load reaches the abutmont..construction will bo carried out exactly in the same 'way a!l f11r .2c). respectively.!J.2a represents such a beam. bL 7f7 I~ F II 'I I .<.Om . I I Influence llne {or A I ?» I 1 I I lh lk I 1Influence line I I {or MD (d)' I I aI O. Between points 5 and 6 the influence line must remain straight.Z2 or (a) I I t ~ . Fig. 56. I I .2.t the influence line for the reaction at support A (Fig. The variation of any function being 1ineat• when the load shifts along a secondary beam.calLy Q. c1 und c2 • When the load unity is applied to the terminal hoams . t fml. 55.ltispart Statically Determinate Beam.. For that part of the beam from its left extremity to the hinge H 1 the . .t:.. Tn such cases 'it is always recomrneuded to begin with tracing the interaction ·scheme.lO with the points or zero ·ordinate 1 and 11 (Fig.asm ~ d Ftg. its ordinates h 5 and h 6 h£wing already been found and therefore we only havo to join point. 56. The corresponding portions of the influence line will therefore be represented by the tines ac1 and c2 b which cut the verticals passing through points A and Bat +1 and 1._ I 1011 tho value of the sh<~aring force in section .~ 93 In· ·section II the shearing force will be exactly the same as in the case of a direct application of the load as long as the latter is situated between points 2 and 5 ot· 6 and 10. the interaction scheme of its four clements being shown in Fig.2 Z. we may simply connect the ordinates at points 2 and . Let us fttst construc.. 56.2c).. . Influence Lines for Mu. Let us now consider the construction of influence lines for sLati. (h): g ( C) I :i .fJ will vary fr·om ih 2 (or h 10) to zero.S I I Ib I I t I I I 1 I ~ I I I I I I I I ' ~~~~ r o.. 56.
he right of the hinge J/ 2 ..Oab = L"·T = 1Xy= 0.r cons ideration is c.48=0.: = 2x0.. the reac.5 LL•t us How c.r=vgh = Lk· 2 = t x 2 = J . triangles will permit us to fi1td the· ordinates to lhe pertiOllllt points of Olll' influenc...3 3 .tly· in the same way aft for a simply supported boam (wilb or without.i mpl y connecting the ordinate b over hinge II 1 with a point or 1.e line iii 1l.t ion with tho vertical pa . <1.!nt 11<:Ling ove1: SOl'tionl) of Oltr beam (Fig. = 1 when the unit load is applied at hinge H 1 to zero when lt reat~hes hinge H 2 and thorefore the inOncnt~ line OVOJ' tht~ portion H 1H 2 of the beam may he obtained by ~..er·o when the load is o\·er this poiut.tion of the i11flu.H 2 • • .2 ===. and tho last portion of lhe lin<> llelweEm hingM 11 2 aud JJ'1 will be obtained by conuec.e line ft•om Jf 2 to D will als<> ()qlJal ·w rn.xac.)   1. The similituclo of.2d).ion A will be oqual to the orclinatc ab nmltip!ied by the prossuro P 1 exerted by the dement Il/1' 2 on the beam ABH1 • This prt·~~UJ'O varies linearly from P.96m 2 .Les of tl10 in.ing point e wit.oustr·uct.cnr.h a point of zero ordinalo at the bingo H 1 • The similitude of triangles pe rmits the computation of the ordinate cf as IolloM< e/ 1.2 whcuce .2).2 H.e line will be exat~t ly the~>n rne as for a cantilever beam with n builtill t>nd (~cAr t.tion aL point A will equal zero* and thoreforo the ordino.d "'· 5 whence ef = cd· .s hinge. When tho loud travels along portion 11 ~D the c. therofme thu inllucnct• line over this portion will be reptesontcd by a line eonne<·ting point a with n point of zoro ordinate at C. When the load uni ty is applied !>omewhero hetwee11 points H 1 and 1!2 tho l'~llt:t.ispan statically detenninato beam may ho cmlslructcd following the procedure outli ned hereunder: (1} The ioilucnco line corresponding to that portion of tho beam whidl contains tho section unde. 2.. is apparent tha~ the iufl uoncc line for any function in any l'ec. overhangs) .~sing through thi.2) . . • This f<Jllows froltl the eqHilibrium of ol()ml:lnt ll.tion of a mu lt.onstruc.t.J ~ ali 1 ':'T: 1 1 ik =2 wlw!iC. !)6.Ouenc.ling this line until its i nter·scc. P H~'iing to Jlortion H 3C we notice that the pressure R 3 vnrit•s propurtionnlly to tho distanc.oro ordinate at the l1ingo ll2 • Once the load has shifte1l to l.(JOe. Point e under hi ngo 1{2 will bo o'btnintHl by oxtent.on5lrucL tl1e infltll'llCC lim~ for thQ l1undiJllt mom<.e of tho unit load from point C L'Nlehing 1.Beams a 8im1'ly supported beam with two overhangs (~co Art.
ed that the expressions ol)taine~ tor Mr . tbe lvrt end of tho element BC will oqunl 11 =l':Y=0 Q L N 11 T.Mt J\ATE BENTS.12.Nl:E FHAi\JES AND BEAMS OF POLYGONAL DESLGN Thl• detoTmiunt ion of reactions aril. Tho inturnnl fiH'Ces acting over any section a ilistnuce. c nnd d. Solu.2 re main valid.t'OHCES l='IDllCI.2. N and J \1 diagrams for structu•·cs in question.2.{ . Klement II .X=l> L M 0 ='f.W· BY F£XE:D LOADS IN STAT£CALLY DETfm. an aswriljk).M. BENDfNG MOME~TS AND SHEAH I NG . sign conventions and (lqu ilibrium equations rucnliou~d in Art. Having cloc.ornprising verLicaJ ekmonts it i:.~) througll (11. m url< it wilb an asU~l'i::~k. 1. u~c l'X. N and i'r! diugrams fot a beam roprO. Thf' following examples will illustrate the construction o[ Q.2b.:!Clllod in. c.ldcil to consi1h1r the lowur extremity of the elomont AB as the loftrhanc'l one . Whon •lenlingwith knel' framer> or other struc. 5i . l!:ltment I. tho influence line over the more llislant elements of the beam.> expressions are roproduced i11 Fig.. l'rohlcm1 .s.2) fol' t. K..'< nud bea ms o( polygC~nn l desigll.2 and 58.am c<lnslsting of two ole· tnen ts.'lf = . All t. tho uppt'r eu d of th o e lemt'nl AlJ will be Q 1 = l:Y = P N 1 = l:X =O n n M 1 =:E.he formulas. 'l'he reader is invit~d to che~.21'1.J/ diagrams are carried out in lhc same way as for ordinary of i nternal Jorccs art.tton.P:r1) = f'x 1 l/.ing over their eros~ sections and Lllo Lraciog ot rec tilinear bl'ams. (3) The ordinates t o tho p&rtine nt points of the inOucncc line may he dcri\•ed from t ho similitude or tL·io. ~ { r cJm. Pig.lw determination of tho shearing· ancl uormal {or~s 11nd (I( the bending moments in t>ach of the~e eil•ment. good practice to dedctc beforehand which extremity of such all element wiiJ be considered as the lefthaod one nod to mark this extremity by so JHO convcnLional sign (for instance.Jlres~icm s (1.e it. 5!J.'ing at the ~up pori$ or s tntically delermiualo h~u l.ngles which COrlStiLu(. 12. the computation Q.ting over 11 croPs section a dif'taneo :r1 from. X and . nequired tho Q. 5~1. T lw same pl·occdure may be followed in orcler to oblain. The inLornal fm•ceP nc.k tho inUuouce lines re presented in Figs.2. B t Pldmg Mome11ts nnd Sluartng Porct:s 9~ (2) The ordinate obtained at the point where tho beam member contawing the section meets with the ndjacent one is then comtedcd with a point of zero ordi11ate under the at~cond 11upporL of this latter elt•mtmt. Tho bt'. lt sho11ld be not.tUl'm.. Pa L Graphs obtuined with the aid of the abov~.
.'i7..2 1 I 1~11 .B eams (a} (b) Vntl:~enc~ lffle forJ I I (C) . I (d) • . I 1 : I f (Cl) n I ~ llnfluence liJJe for I I ! (d) Mn : rl.or 1 i M1r I I I l. I Ftg• .nI luence ltfle.2 .<IQ 1/nflue!lce line fori I I I I I I I Mil I I I 11 1 I I (e) IIIII~ ~I ~7... 58. " 1 : .~: Fig.~l Ilfl{luence line (or I ...
lt should b(\ reml'mhor(\d that equilibrium cquat.~tomtmts lind STteartr~g F<Jrcef1 an d 'Zhm·ttv..t.lJJll positiv L• Yalue~.t. \vhilo the rolt•dM renwms .hc theorem of t·ndu<·d .Qn.2 del'ivecl fwm t.h ow~ that all the illi.+ N. . from righ t to }C)ft.is iluc:. provide() all tho (!.t·o the fact (haL inl.pl'<':S. {b) I· .cad of $ltS WHl\ Thh>.rop. Pmblem 2.2i of lnt.ilf11A.t~sns •· .o t·i~:lt t.Jy.t.. iu !>l.ing it Irom t h ~ other parts of the struotnre aud a pplyiug at llH~ cuts tlw iu lernnl fcn·r os compt•trrl ahovc wo ohta i11 tlte f(ll lowing E Htnilibrium !lquntious (fig. </ •lo r•ot :.! rnoasurcd froTH lt•fL t. .t.~ky .. N nnd 1 \f d1agr<'lm'> f<u' a kneo framo r<.f the ah~(· i~ measured do wnward:. Ro<JI!iretl tv tmce tlw ().!qnilihrimn of join\ B. at•e duly taken cat'e of. [ (c) I N 9roph P M graph ~· L!'l u~ now chock tla• (.ection I of the be.o .1...>pnrat. Bending ..ly to t. 1. S<.h $. El0. ve uv:>c. .her word::...'dt~malloads nppliod di rer:. t J'U(\ <on 1y wl 1en l"'~itl .2.his joint.JJc=.2e) 'iM 11 = .mterl in Fig.i(lllS m11st Ill' sa tisl\~d whatevor the numher of ltar:lm~diug 11t one joint .P+P=O whic.Jinc = z>a+ Pu= O ~Y = O :3X = .J2.2n..Onl<'ll forces wen> computed col'•·ec.i~Iy cX pJ'('~ion ~1 ... tu:.. 59. Uon Q = dX nn.
/1 / (Q) Hs p .2 Fig. • • '1'1 .98 Beams .2 . cJ (C} {d) Fig. 61. I) . (6} grwJh [?" . 60.
Subdivide the knee frame itself into four separate portions and write for each expressions (1.EM B=RA2a+ Pa.12. .e1minate frame repreSQntt>d in Fig.~1=2 Portion Til Portion IV QlV = ~Y= qa. Portion I QI =:EV=qzt L Portion II N 11 = l::X = qa H liJ 11 qa?. It will be easily obst•rv()cl that all tho eqoilihrium equations for this joint aro satisfied. = 1:.~) Pa+M=qa (x4.2e represents joint B subjoctod to the internal forces ancl moments acting at the cuts. Fig..) The cliagmms obtained using the above exprosl!ions are represented in Fig. B~nding Moments and Shearin{( Ftlrce.i'IJA= R0 2a+q2aa 1Pa=O and thus RH= 2qa2+qa2 2a 3 Tqa .2a utili?. c and d.~) qa:!.2.ing Solution.. and II s shown in Fig. n 1 the wellknown equilibrium expressions . 99 Solution.2a. 60.q2aa=0 wherefrom romemboring t hat P=qa we obtain 2qa2qaz a RA= 2a q2 t.2) t.ies.2b. qa2 3 l:llfa = qa'l. Nand 111 graphs for the sUltically dct. Determine reactions TI. Choosing onco again the lower ends of the vertical elements as their lefthand oxtremit. 60 .qa2=0 2 2 + l' robhmt 3. = =qa (x4. . 61.s. 61.!(l = qa (x4.EX= PHIJ=O giving .2) giving the shearing and normal forces and tho bending momcot.hrough (3. Required to constt·uct the Q.A. mark them witlt asterisks. n N 1V =:EX= P= qa n M 1v = T. + qa:!.
omcs nil wheu :r3= ~ anti rtc. when x4 = 0 when . N :mu .V and J. li1.f diugrilm~ for u hoallll'l"!)n'~enwl in Fig. .7071 Pxll.liA= a · ' ~ ~ .tOO Beams Mar·k again tho lower ends of tile vortic.MIV = V MIV = 2Qa 2 The c. N 1v = R8 = .. Po rtlotl I Q' = O.his ~<Ntion th rout::h a mnximum or a miuimum 7 M 1/I =q ( aZ 11~T = .I.cortJingly tho bondillg mom!!ul will p:1ss i n t.2a. giviug for Port iOtl Ill wlwn z 3 =0 when Z3=a om = q Qlfl ~ MTII= .2b.2a consiclori1Jg them to l'orm the l llfthand extrornitics and suhdivido the ht>am into fuur· portions for cnch of whic.7(l7P and determine reaction RA wl1ich will suffico in lbe Cil~ under consid(lration t.ll th() following cX (l ressitm~ ar·o reaolily obtaiM<.qa'l "' lt4 11I = .. N 11 = .M a rt• representcd in r:'ig.qu..orrespomling diagrams ftw Q. 61.g<J•l2 0 11! =q Xs) 4 all) J> ortion IV Q1v=lln=z1Ja.nl dements by an nstcrislr as in Fig. P roblem 4.2 Mill= 2t]a2 or"= q ~ wh()n zs = 2a The shearing force = _ 3 qa 2 ( .~ q11. Portion If Q" = P = ..P·Cos45"' =0. Btntuin•d to con~>truc.= qar~ .t tho Q. . Soluttor~.70il ~ 0 + .tJ<l.llf~.. c nnd d.2l + P 111.~= R. = 2a 111IV=n 11 :r. hcr.~:. 62. Hoplrtco tho inc line<l load P by its vertical nntl horizontal components P 11 rutd P" P:r: ~ P 11 .
7071 + 1. 62.72.707 PxJ t 2 1 .7071 .853P.2 P ortion 1 Q 1= liA=0.ts whereftolll RA = (1 . For each uf the thrco portion~ o{ the loeam the following equatious giving the vnhJCs of the slH!I~ring and normal force):' nnll of the heolling mou·w nts may be now written as (a) Q graph (b) rnijlllllllllmllllllllllllll 0.r2) wht>nz2 ::0 Portion J'!l 111 11 =1. 707P (d ) Ftg.707. 707 P P N graph (c) ti!!!!!!ffi!l!!!!~ Pl 0.707 XO 707 P = 0.2.0..707l.0.. N 1=0. fil'ntUug Mumruts and Shearing Forr.853P F*lll lll' X ~ 0.&:~1f>xt when x =0 M 1 = 0 whon XJ=2l M 1 =1..70t\Pl 1 Portion I I QII = Py=0.Px= 0.707P.707 Py ~0.701l .P (·1..853 p The negativo va lue of this reaction indica tes that it is directe1l downwm·c\s.707.:RA~t = 0.Px0.2)= = .707P Mil = .707Jll whenx2 = ! M 11 =l'l . Nil = . M 1 .707P (0.Pu (1.r2)= .70710..
63. p / a (C) >.2 . M..2 ~ '' "' ' .(: " ' '' p Li' '' '' p (6} ' p b a p ~ / (e) Fig.t02 Beams (0 ) f] .)~ p p ~ F ig..
2b. The reader is invited to (1) check the sign of the shear diagram represented in Figs.11 diagrams !or the frames represented in Fig.2.2 through 62. N and . c and d. N and M graphs represented in Fig. 63.12. Bending llfoments and Shearing Forces 103 The corresponding diagrams are represented in Fig. (2) check the Q.2. (3) trace the Q. 59. 1. .2 which stipulates that the shear is positive when the axis of the beam must be turned clockwise in order to superimpose it with the tangent to the bending momont diagram.2 using the rule mentioned in Art. 62.2. G4.
s the latter can itself be regarded as another rigid plate. (These two components .3) the central hin~e C wiJI lie on this llXis of symmetry and the hinges at the supports A and 8 will bo at one and the same level.1 these bars are ~traight or Lshapcd ..U) that connections of this type are eharac tct·i~tic of geo mcLrically stable structures. 1. wiLh twohiuged supports A and B resting on the ground . .3).3d). it may he said that a three.3a). in the eve nt Fig. conn(•t.ed together hy mea ns of three ldnges.1 and Fig. the system becomes a threehingt. the vortical V and the horizontal H.hi. 2. 2. 3. 2. In the first case (Pig. The distnncn l between the centr·<~S of th11 hinges at the supports is c. We have seen proviously (see Art.d truss or spandrel arch (Fig.3a).i\. Nonsymmetrical systems may have tlloir suppo1'ts at different level1> (Fig. 2.3). A threehinged system may or may not have a vertical axis of symmetry. THREEHINGED ARCHES AND FRAMES 1.3.nged system consists of three plates connecl. When the plates I and II consist of curved bars the system is called a threehinged arch (F ig. finally. 4.3b and c).t<:l! together hy moans of a hing~ (hinge C in Fig.cl system consists of two plntcs (T nnd II). 1. Jn threehinged systems the reactions at the supports A and B will bo characterized by two parameters eachits magnitude and direction or by any two components of the&l reactions. the system will he called a threehinged bent or frame (Fig.re of the erown hinge to the straight line passing through tho forrner two is c.nl!cd the span of the arch while the distance f from tho c.. when these plates are through strncturcs.allcd its rise (Fig.3.ent. THIUJEH I NGED SYSTEMS A ihreohingP. 'H. 2. say. these hinges not lyiz1g on one ~traight line.
... a t hreehinged system is always statically determinal~ . 2.3 These may be obtained from Lhe throe equilibrium oquatiou.. the reactions of a threehinged arch will hl• [ully determined by four parame ters .._<.. about any hinge must be eq11nl to zero.T_:h::. ... \Vhen a system of vertical loads acts on a threehinged system tho horizontal components H A and Fl 8 of the reactions at the supports *This is due to the fuct that in any hinged systcnt in equilibrium tbt> momen t. • .:re~H inged Sll_. expressing that t he moment of all the e:n~rnal forces ac. Fig. H'rr.tance.:. .ting to the left or to the right of the ct·own hinge about i ts centre mus t be nil.t. VA and V 11 (Fig..ste!". for in~..t.:.:._ _ _ _ __:J_:·.S. 4.. ure frequently rt~ferrcd to as the vcr.* Thu~._ of external forces (including the reactions) acting upon the sysLem and from a fourth equation.kal and horizontal rNH~tions..) F ig.3 Accordingly.3). 8.:.. the amounts of lhe reactions I!A.
• .$ span and carrying the same load .. Accordingly. A huge 30 m model of Kulibin's bridgo was tested by a load of approximately Sf> tons and approved by the Russian Academy oi Science. when the spans are small. some hundred years before the creation of the science of structural mcchnmcs) by the 1lminent Russian engineer I. In the threehinged systems considered thus far both supports wc.·~t to determine the interaction of oxternal forces and stresses in a threehingod arched system and to use a funicular polygon for tho determination of the shape of his arch rnany years before this mothod became widely known. threehinged arches are more economical than ordinary beams. the threehinged systems usually develop a thrust which must be absorbed either by tho supports or by some other arrangement. ho designed an arched wooden bridge 300 m long spanning the whole of the river Neva at St.apable of absorbing a horizontal thrust. 5. Euler checked all the computations and drawings of Kulibin's hridge and found Lhem perfectly correct.106 ThreA·Illnged Arches and Pr<1. as their construction is rnore complicatod and the provision of hinges both at the supports and at the crown requires the use of more intricate arrangements. Jt will be shown later that tho bending moments and shoars acting ovo1· cross sections of threehinged arches are considerably smaller t han Lhe corresponding stresses in a simple beam covering the same . The great mathematician and lllcmber of tho Acadomy L. Therefore.re c:. On tho basis of general principles of theoretical mechanics. In practice it is not unusual to encounter similar systems in which one of the hinges is movable.A~~ (Q) ~ Q • (C) • Fig. threehinged arches become less desirable than ordinary beams.e. Kulibin. Petersburg.* However. particularly for largespan structures.mes will not r!lduce to zero. He was tho fi. In this case the geometrical stability of the system •'l'h•: first arched systom for a large span was fii'Oposcd in 1776 ~i.
In addition to the three equilibrium aquations supplied by tho statics for coplanar syste rns. 6. Fig.erminecl in all . It is recommended to avoid as much as possible H imultaneous solutions of several equations with several unknowns. in tho case of an ordinary arch ropresonted in Fig. and Fig. SUPP011T REACTIONS OF A THREEHINGED AHCH i.· 2.3ba threehinged arch with an elevated tie.2.:. Let us designate the vertical rcactious by V A and VB and tho horizontal ones by If A and If u.3a) a vertical and a horhonta l roac. or in other words..3b) .3 (bl to be dct. that the !lum of the momonts of a ll the external forces acting to the right or to the left of this hinge about its centre is nil "ZMc=O or L ~Mc = O n Theso four equations of stntics will determine compl~tel y the four reactions at the s upports. respectively (Fig.3a represents a th reehingou tied or bowstring arch.3. this equation expressing that the bending moment at th{l hinge C equals zero. a fourth equation can be used in the case of a threehinged arch.3ca throehinged tied bent. tV a Hs ~ (a) Fig. S1~pport Reaction$ oj 11 Tltrce·H ingl'd Arch 107 is ensured by tie~ established either at the level of tho supports or ~omewhat higher (Fig. !J.3dn similar b('nt with an e levated lie). when a system of vertical loads is applied to a threehinged arch (Fig. For instance.3. 5..Sa we may fu·st write the equilibrium1]equation for the moments of all forces about hinge B which will coutairt only one 11nknown vertical reac . ANALYTICAL METROO As has a lready been stated. 5. Fig. 6. 6.ti<llt will arise at oach of the two supports making [out• rllnctions 1 I I ll L. 5.. 6.
1(\8
T/u"l'cll iltged Archc.<
a11d
Frames
tion T!A. When this is known we may solve the equation~ Mc=O
e~pres~ing that th~ sum of mon1ents
M a ll forc.es ac:ting OJl tho Lett pal't of the arch ai.Jou t hinge C is nil. this equation containing the roocLion l'A which has just bNm determined and tlae unknown reaction HA. \Ye may then proceed with the solution of an equation o.x.prossing that tho mo•ucnt of aH externa l forces abouL hinge A is
L
!v.t
(0}
F ig. 7.,Y
wro which will giVt.\ 1as the valtm of roaction V R itnd thou obl.ain the tna!{nitude of H Jr equating Lo ~e•·o tlw projc~~tion of all the externa l forcA>s on tho horizontal. The co mpulalions just doscribefl may hl' chncked using tho equations
LY =0 and "f.Mc=O
R
equaLion LJ }II{ u = 0 would c.outain two unknowns VA a11d IJ.,b thus r~qui~·ing the rolution of a system of two equntions with twouulcnowus. This can b e easily a voided if hoth reactions wcro rosol ved inlo componcnl.s ono of which would follow the lino connecting the two l'uppOI't,o; A aud B (Fig. 7.3b). Whl'n. tltese components v:~. v;~. H'1 and Hi; nro dllt<>rmined, the verLit·al and hori1.onlal compononts wil l be easily found using the oxpre!;SiOnf:l
U the t;wo s upports wore at diiTo•·cn t levels as in Fig: i.3tt, the
VA= v;.. +HA.sin et;
11,~
= HA cos a;
V 11 = V.isIl'nsill et lJ 11 = ITjj cos a
2. vRANIICJ\L METIJOD
'l'ho graphical determination of the reactions requires that tho resultants R 1 and R 2 of all tho forces applied to tLe lefL and to the right of the central hinge should be found in t he firs t place. '£11e reactions induced by ench of these resultants R 1 and R 2 will then
2 . .'1.
s,~ppllrl
RctutlOII$ of
Tltrt~Hlnged
Ard.
be dl.'termincd, their summation giving the fmal value o[ tho reaction required. We may start with determining tho roaction.s ot. tho sup(>Ort causud lly the application of tho force R 1 • In this cas~ the reaction al the righthand support B 1 mnsl puss through l.ho hinge at this supJ>Or.t and the hinge at the crown (f'ig. 8.:~a.) as otherwise the ri~hthand portion of t.hc arch whit~h is subjected solely to tho reaction at B 1 and th~ intet·action of hinge C could not remain in equilibrium. With reaction A 1 arisi ng at the lefthand su pport, the arch as a whole wi ll ho in equilibrium under the action of three fc>t'c(.·s .1 1 • B,, n,.
Fig. 3.9
Theoretical mechani c~ .states that. three coplanar Iot·cos acting on a body in equilibrium must ncc~:~ssarily concur at one ancl the samll point. The uf;e of this theorem cnnblos us to fmd immodiatoly tho d irt,ction of reaction .,:1 1 whereaftor t.h~ force pol ygon (!fig. 8.3b) will give us tl:te magnitude o r both support reactions A 1 and /3 1 • Tho support rcactionR A z auu H 2 due t,o tho application of tho L'ightlumtl restJll<\nt ll 2 will be found i1t exactly the same way (see Pig. 8.3a). The method o[ superpoR i~ion will enable us to obtain the rl.lsul~nt reactions A and Bat both supports. for this purpose a line parallel to the line of action of the reaction A 2 will be traced through point 3 ()f H forc.c polygon (Fig. 13.3b) and the magnitude of reAction A 2 will be. laid off along this line. 'Jhe point 0 so obtaiuod will then be conneetcd with point J, thus giving t he magnitude of the full reaction A at the leflhand suppor t, the full reaction B at tho righ thand support being obtained by the sarne method. Tho vertical nnd horizontal component.; VA, //A, V 0 and H 11 can he obtain\'d tllt>rPa[ter in lhe usual way. 'l'lw graphical method of d()tcrmining lhe reactions at L hc supports of a threehinged arc.h cal'!'ying a number of vertical londs is iJlu
HO
ThreeHinged 'Arches and Frames
stratcd in .F'ig. 9.3. At the outset resultants 1? 1 and R 2 are found using tho method of force and funicular polygons whereafter the procedure followed does not diller from the one just described.
Problem 1. Using both methods described above determine the support. rcnctions of a threehinged arch supporting two vertical loads as indicaw<i in Fig. 10.3a. Soluti011. 1. Analytical method. Replace the support reactions by their components l'A• JIA and Vn , ll 11 (Fig. 10.3b).lll order io detei'DliM the magnitude. of VA equa te to zero the sum of all the forcos acting on the arch ahout point B whence
(13)'
l·l~L't1 M 11 is the moment o[ nll tho external loads about tho hinge aL the righthand SU]lpOI't. '!'he magnitude of llA will he obtainod from tho equilibrium of the moments nf all cxtomal forc.es acting on the Jeft hal( of the arch about the crown hinge C ~Me= V Al1[{Af  Pl (lt D ·J)=O
whonr.c
L
(2.3}
Horo M~ is the moment of all the loads (oxc.ept of H A) aoting ou the !elLhand portion of the arch about point C. '! 'he V()rtical roaction V 8 will be obtained by summing up and equating to r.P.ro the moments of all tho external forces about hingo A whence
!.M ..... =  Vnlj.. Pza2+P,al=O
l'.a
(3 3)'
Here MA is the moment of all the loads about tho leftband suwort. The last unknown roaction IIR will be found by projecting all tho forces on the .xaxis 'J:.X=HAliR=O whence
(4 ::i)
The lttst Iormula shows that the thrusts arising at both supports of threehtngerl symmetrical arches subjected to vertical loads are equal in size and oppostte in tlirectton. S ubstitut.ing in equations (1.8) through (4.3) the numorical values of all the paramotors we obtain V __ 4 (10 3)+3(10 6) =~= 4 tons A 10 10 4x3+3x6 V8   · =3 tons 10 NA. = H 8 =H= 4 x 5 I,(S 3) 3 tons 4
:t.H. Support
Nencl.ious ()/ n 1'hret::·lf iiLg~d A rrh
11 t
0
8
( b)
Fig. 9.9
I ~ = 4t 1
8 r,
H11 =Jt
I 1
(e;
s
~:Jt
I I I 7I ...._ _ _ _
H8 =Jt
Scule
I
1
I
z
Jt J
F tg.10.8
H2
J'hrctHlll#etl
Ar~hr.&
and Frames
Frorn the expressions (1.3) aml (3 .3) it wtll be observed that the v~rtiral suppurt rl'ac.ticms of threehinged arclu:li rarrytng verttcal load$ al011e have the same valu(:$ oiS lhe reactiMs of simply supported bcau~11 oflht ·•ame span ami loaded in the ~;au~ IJ' O!J (Fig. 10.3c). Tile bending momout n"t midspan of this boam heing t:>quul to the thrust (It the arch supports may be obtained by dividing th is bcmltng moment by the ri6e of the arch (SilO t>quations (2.3) and (4.3}]. 2. Craphtr.a l method. Using the schomntic drawing of th() arch (Fig. 10.3d) ll't us connect hinges A n111l [) with the c.owu hinge extending these lines IJiues I a nd II) to their intersection ,,.ith the d irect.ion of forr..e~> Pz antl P 1 , r(>'>P< •r..tivcly, 11t point.s K 2 and [( 1• 'l'heso points al'e then connected ll ircc.tly tu ~·oin ls A (line H l and 11 d in<l ITT).
Md•
c.
pmrrurn:nmlJ7ITLI1J:f q
II:~~· ~ .. .
~fL
I
~
I
~vB
Ftg. 11.3
1.E>t us now lny oli'\.o sc:1le forces 1' 1 and P 2 (voctors l2 and 23) along a v< •rticnl a!l in ..ig. t0.3e. f'orc11 P 1 is then resolved int.Q two eomponcnt 8 .;1 1 , B 1 parallol tu the Jino~ ill and I! lseo Fig. f0 .3d) for which purpol!t! rays 2!i and 15 are tructld through its en <Is. Forco P 2 i~J rcsnlvcd in llw st•mo way thus obtaining a ray 24 oqunl in amount to A 2 anrl parollcl to the 1ino I and a ray lJ# ('qunl in amount to B ?.. and pnrnll el t.o l ine 1 Jl, Tluweaftcl' rays 4(} and 5(J :~ro tracod parallul to lines 2~'i und 24, rct'pectivoly. Hay tJ1 will 1>< ) l'lfuaJ to tho reaction at A :md ray 3G to the l'ea<:tion at IJ. The vertical onrl lwl'izoutal componcntll of those reactions l'A, V 8 and l/A, HB a rC) easily found. Pro blem 2. Ootormine aun lyticnlly the thnu!t of au nr<: h ro pre~t>nl.ed in Fig. H .3 uniform!~· loaded o\'t:>r the en tiro ~pan w!LI1 :w inwnsity q. Solr~tio11. Start wi t.h dcumnining the nmct1ons at. the suJ>J>Orl.~ usi11g tl• <1 following IIIJili I ibriurn oquntions 'i.lld a=O a nd .EM.... =0 In tho
ens~
unJilr consideration these equations hocome
!:.U 11 =V...lql
~
= 0
~M·o~~...., whooc.o
l'11 l+ql
~=0
i VA = Vn =7ql
l n tho caso of vertical loads alone tho thrust. FIA=Nn= H may bt> determined hy !'qna ting to ZQro tho moments of all ().Xtl•rnnl forc.e.s &cling
2.H.
Supz,orl Reflcl iolts of ct
<~rch
T/in~l· 11 ingrd
Arch
on lin• ldt hal[ or the
~:ii<:"'=' V A ;zllf'l2'7;=0
ahouL tht• crown laingo C l l l
wlwnru
Probl em ~. l'lr!quirod to dr!lonni rw hoLh gr·aphicallv rtud unnlyticall y the rnactirm~ induc.ocl at tho ;;uppMt,s of tho Lhn•oltingt;d lll'clt r·t•pt'<'S<'rlll'll in Fig. f 2.:~a hy llll inclined furct• P = 5 LOllS for cos a  ().(i aud !!in ex ~ ().~.
/(
H;;"om
~=f'lm
ScaLe
0
(0)
1
z
r'ig . .z2.H
Solution. I. A nnlytlrrt l method.. Let us r{•;;olve tho force P int.cl its V<:J'lkol allll IHu·izrrr\l.nJ c.ornponents Py=f>X0.8.=4 tons; P,=:ix(l.fi=3 ton~ The vertical rt~action V_ot may the"' bt~ dotut·mincd frrm1 tht> oquilibrium l!'! u:1lion of tlw mOnltlnls a bout poi11t. JJ 2:MR=12VA 9Pv+31'x = 0
Whl'llCI'
afi\1 27 a= i = 2.25 tons 2
Til<! ; rencLi rm alcuut p11inL A
vJJ wm
[ho ohtllinod from tho equilibrium or mmn•:nts
!.MA
= i2V1!+3Pu + 3Px=0
1.75 tons
wl1cncr•
V  ltxS+Sx 3 II12
\\c• tnny now detcrmim• Ll11! h~~rizf>ntul reaction lT A t>IJilllting to 7.(;ro lit' morrwnts of all furcrs acting on Lhn left lwlf •>f the arch about tlw Ctowll hinge C
1'14
H
Thre.i>Hinl!ed Arches and
Fram~.<
A
_ 2.25x63 x 14X3
4
_
. ton 0 375
'rhn n()gativo sign ohlainod indic.'\Lcs that tho ruactinn ll A 'is dirt•cLod towards the ldt. T o dot\)l'ffiiiU! t!10 reactiorl H n l(lt us eqU<\tc t<J ze•·o the su111 or horizontal projections of all tho forces;
whenco
'2X=IIAtPxflo=O
lfn=0.375+3=2.ti2a
tun~
2. Graphical method. Tr·acQ line TI t.hrough hinge,s Band C until it~ inlt•r~c tion with the dircc.tion of forr,c P nt point K ( Fig. 12.3a). Point/( willllwn IJo 1 >on nocted by line I with the hinge A. Thon lay to !;Calc fol'cc P plll'allel to its direct.ion as shown in J<'ig. i2.3b and through it.r; end.s trace rays 1 H and 23 pnrallel to lim1:> 1 and II of Fig. 12.3a, respcc.tivt~ly . Tlte~o t.wo rays will l'ept·nSE:nt. to scnlo ttw re.1ction s at tbe supports A and JJ; thoir· horimntalnn1l verticAL components aro If A and H n, VA and l' n·
3.3.
DE'l'.BifMIXI\TfON AHCTl8S
METHOD
OF STHESSES
18
THIH!:EHI NCED
t. ANAT.Y'l' ICAL
The int&rual forces or stresses ac.ting over tho cross sccLions of a throehinged arch consisl. of bendiug moments '11, shears Q an1l normal forr.cs N. They may be (~om puted on the basis M loads and reactious acLing t.o lb.e loft or to the riglrt of the section con~idercd. Wo shall use the same sign conventions for lhll throehinged ;w·he.s as aclopted in Art . 1.2 (axprossions (1.2) through (3.2)1 for or·uinary beams, with tho exception of the sign ol' the normnl foree whic.h in this case will h<J rcdwned posiLive when producing a cornprcs:;ion. In the computation of slrt\Sses auxiliary <:oordinate axis will be n:::ed f(,)r each eros!' section considered, the axis of abse.i.'!:::as n coinciding with the tangent and tho axis of ord.inatt>s v with the normal to lhc c.e nt.r:~ lin~ of the arch at t his &:lc.tion , Tht.·· projol'tions of l'orecs on these axes will be d()signated by U aod V. 'vVith the~;e e.orlV\:lTitions cxpr·cssions (1.2) thr·ough (:~.2) b<Jcomc Q=2:V = :EV
L
Tt
lVf=:EM= L.M
f.
It
N='i:.U=  'ZU
f,
Fl.
('1.3)
Jn these cxpres.'lions the moments will be recl<oned po.siti ve when they tend to turn the section clockwise, the compon=>nts V w lHHI they
3..'1.
Detl'rmi!lat io11 of
Stres~t·~
in J'hrP.tH inged A rchtu
1111
are directed upwards and the compon~ut::. U when they are d irected from left; to right. Using expre~sions 1.3 let us determine the internal forces acling over a c.ross section [( of an arch represented in Fig. 13.3 Q = ~V = V A cos cp  JJ A sin cp ~P 11 cos cp ~P.,sin cp
L L L
Iv/ = "£]11 = l' AxH Ay'I.Py (x  x 1 ,) 'ZPx (y yp)
L L L
N = "i.C ,... l/_..1 s in (f'
L
J If,1 cos <f'  }'.;P 11 sin
I.
cp + 'ZP.x cos q•
L
(2.3)
where x and
y =
q,
coonliuaL~·s
of point K on the contre line of the
angle between Lhe tangent to the centro line of the arch at point K and a horizontal P il and P x = vertical antl horizontal components of force P, re~pecti vcly x 1, and Yp = coord inates of the point of application of forco P. In the expre$$ions for Q, Jl! and N tho summation must co mpr.ise the componen ts P~,, a nd Px of all Lhe external loads and forCtlS applied
jjl
=
arch
I
.
HA
FlJ!. 18.3
to the ar~h to the loft of section K. ln the case of the arch represented in F ig. 13.3 only one component of forc.e P 1 (P 111 or P 1 x} will enter into each of t hese equations. It should be noted that the stresses Q, M aud N could be expressed with equal success using the forces to the right of ~ction K. Tf vertical loads alone are applied to the arch (Fig. 14.3a) all tho horizontal components P" are equal to 1ero, the vertical componen t.s P /1 equal P an( tho thrust 1f A = H n = H . In this case ex
s•
1'111
prossion~ (2.::1)
Thr<'PI{tl!{!P.d Archn and Frames
beeo rrw
Q=·· (11"1 L:.P) ros q: If si11 q:
L
M
=
'VA.t:ZfJ (xxj)) lly
L
N = WAl:.P) sin rp + H cos (p
L
The t~.X[ll't•ssio n (V,1
.~po udiug

'2P) r·oprest\nts Lito shonr Q" in Lhe co l'l·eL
section of au undsnppor ted "rder·c ncc" beam subjcelod
H
raJ
(b)
t8= Vs
to lhc S:lllll:! loa<ls as !:>hown in Fig. 1 4.:~b a nd the cxp ro.~il ion
LV Ax 'i.P (:r. 
x,,l'lthn bending momenl Jl10 in the same sec.tio n
nf t.ho same hou m .* W ith those rlesi15na t.io n~ the above e.qln•ssions hN:omc
Q ... Qoc.osrp/lsi r~ 11•
111  lvJOlfy
*Q11 might b(• callod lht•
lliOml·nt.
•
N .. ~ Qo sin 1p +H cos <p
IJB•1tn
(3.3)
l:\heM·ing fo•·c~. and
M''
tho htmm bonding
.1••~.
TJ~terminatiott
Of Stresses in Thrrl'lfingcd Archrs
11 7
Om·e L he magnitudes of Q, M and N havo been de~cr mineu for a sufli cionl uumber of cross sections, tho graphs of those fun c tions will ho easily cons tructed . Whe n vcrlicul forces alone act o n tlw nrch, any of Lhe three sols of eq uations (1.3), (2.3) Ol' (3. 3) ma y h l' used, in othor cases use should be made of expressions (1 .3) or (2.:1). Jt will lw Jl Oted that i n t he evunt of a vurtic.ul loading oli Ch gl'aph may be o.btaiued by the summation of twu othel' graphs. For ins bHH:.o, the bondi ng moment diag r·nm may be ohtt~inerl by su mmin ~ up
,_
_ _ .o!.,_
Hs
Pfg. 1.1 9
t he bonding moment diagram Jlf0 for rofor•cnce bo:un with tlw grn ph
of the a rc h onlinutos y multipli+Jtl by (H ), t.his illustrating \Cry
clearl y the cx t.ent to which the bending moruonts the nrcllos.
ar~
redncod in
Problem 1. HcrjuirNI w detenn ilw tilt' ··~nct i•ms <~l· tue suppol'tS o ~ \ II• II o.~ tho houdiug momont, sh~::u· Hnd nur·mu l ((H'CtiS uct.rng 1>vco suction K of A tlort·r~ h ingr•d AI'Ch o·opl'tlscntNI in Fig. 15.:1. Tlw corrLnJ lirm o! t.hG ard• follow.~ n Cllfoic;
pumhol11 give11 hy t.ltc cquat.wn
y
,_!!..!._ [ _
l~ (
X) J
'=
4;(4(12  .r).T =(12.r.);r; i :!X 1:.! !:1
Tho abscbAA :r1, o f )JOint K is 3 metre:~. Solut. on. l<'i rl!l determine the ordinllte <'I p<lint K
( 1:.!  3)3
Yl•=
9
3 mutrc.s
Tht~ lungt' nt of the angl e forml'll hy Ute tangent to the C<'li lro lino tlf lhl" nrch und tho axis of ;tbscissas will ill! given by t he ftrst dori vati vo <•£ ll111 pnralrol11 1 12 2l'
ta n
cp~·'"' !l
=o
H8
Three Hinged
Arch~s
and Prnn~s
For point K (x = 3 metres) this tangent will be given by tan q;,.
122xs
9
S
2
2
from
th<~
Tho cor responding sine and cosi no will bn
Sill
d(l.riv~d
foru1ulus
*
.
<Jll<
=
tan 'flit :;"/'f"=;:5;:=~ 1/1 ·r ~an::q:lt
sJ/
r
4
0.555
i +g1
=.o: 0.832
1 cos <ilk = ::7==:::::::::==Vt , tau2 cj•l;
·(1+{
The froactions at the supports will be dctermiMd using tho following equations IMn= V A12q6X9 Pcos a3P sina3 =0
v ;~._ 2x6 x 9+8 (0.S+0.866J S _ and accordingly
11 , 73 ons 12 1:Y=VA q6Psina fVn=O
t
V 11 = 2x,6; 8x 0.86611.7iJ .,., 7.20 tvns
l:Mc= v .~.6 q{i x 3 H Ali=O
tbeu
L
leading to
34.38
=8.60 tons 4
ZX = ITA  Iln=  P
co~a=O
Hn =8.608x0.5 = 4.60 tons
The bending moment in so:ction K will amount to
Mx= V ....sH A3q3X{ = 0.39 tonmetre
whilo thl' sheAr in the. sumt' sec.tivn will total QK= VA cos<n,HA s in (jlf<<73 CDS q:•h=O und finally
th~
normal force N IC will ll<;
N11 =VA s in !Jilt +H.~. cos {j)k.q3 sin !I'll =10.34 tons
Probl em 2. Required to construct tho diagrams of bonding mrHm: nt~ M, she11r.s Q and normal forces N for :~n nrch rt•pres(•nt<.> d in Fig. 1!l.3a and following a conic parabola whose equation is
Y=
~~
(lx) x
*Their values could also b<' found directly using apjlropriat.o tables.
•
.'1.'J. DetJ?rmin ation of Stresses in ThreeH t ns:rd Arche.~
1H)
(d l
M 0 graph, tr,
(fl)
Q graph, t
(h)
0
Mgraph, tm
,Fig 16.9
1:!0
Sol~ttwn. I~\
1'/lr u U wced
Arch~"
and Futmes
us ch:wrmint' fisrL the r•:nctiuns at. tht\ sup)ln rt.s VA a1111 v,
.EJI1n=V.~tl  T X~;t  flb =O
ql
;;
...
,. \' ,~. vA T. ,. l  p= • 11IJT
VA _. 8 ql
I)
wlwnc<•
3
7 y
b
P  IU tuu s
l V n =IJ :x t P  V 4 ~ li w us
l'hc• lh r·usL .If will
t.c~
dL•rrH·d from Llu. • ~quatiou
' l '1ifo .., VA 7
 :f" X 7;'  lf/ ·= 0
ql
l
.
wlu.HICL'
Fig. ·fli .3b rQ llrm;Qui.S 11 sirnply .;;nppvr·t.u<l r·ef<w!.'lH'n h(.>~lrl• )u;rdL·d in l.lrt.• ~111110 wuy a,. tiH· arc.h und Fig. w.: {t ullll d rep•·os<,nLs Lho •l iugram;;; .. r lire ~hc:~trl" ()•' ancl hr.nding llllllllt:rots .MO. All ful'l.lrer' crunpulnti ous ur·o entt•rud in TuhJ c) 1 . :~ . c·c•ltu11n I e~w~airli ng tlw ahsc:i~:~~JIS:t of the point~ along tho •u·ch Cl'ulH.l l<nr) LalkL·u at. llt<C mc.ot.rt' rttC.f't•rnout.;., ~ ucl colum n Z C ·Onlninillg the cor·n>:<ptouding OJ<liucrt~··'• culr ulatNI ll l<liiJ:c thO CXfii'\'S~lOII ~/ 12  r u= ll(lz) r ..   z 11 Column 3 cont.ains t.hl· vu l ut~~ of tan Cj1 cmnputod from 41 ll :c t.Ml rp .. y' .= 1i" (l2:r.) = :1 .,  
I 1'1<<1 (lr.·h C ;lrry iug \'CrLic.al !!lad:; alone, t>XJll'to~si ous (:$.3) nHI) lw con~l.r'IH'I.inn <If t.he (J , M aud Jli gntplr ~ l'l•llllil'<•d.
v l 1[12 lly ~ fl =  , .. 11
tons
lt ~L·d lor·
L lu•
whilo Uw. foll vwing thmt: coltrton!'. m ntaJ·u t,lrl' v alul•s <1f q:·, .\'in 'I' mrrl c·c" rr·. Thc•. value~ nf QU nud l\1 0 tuhnlatell in chlrunn!! 7 and 1il are takl' ll rlm:•·LI.\' fr ·11m tho co nm;ponrfi11g dia~r·a rn.~ C\•produccd in Fig. 1!i.:\,• aud d. Cvhuw rl' IS tlll'lnrgh 12 Ctlllla in th o v mduc l~ of the: ~:~heRr (JO untl t he thru :<~ 1/ hy siu c r , cc1" 'I' " " ' ' t h<> urdi natcs <•f llw C.t!liii'C line of tho arch. Tho lust tJu·cc crolumu ~ of Tallltl 1.3 (c ulumn ~ 14 ,15 and IOl n111 tui n t hl' va luos ,,r Q, ,~t and N acting over lhl' corrl'.~pcllld ing cross I'(>C.t i(•ll" ,[ t.lrc rtrr h. Thl'Y lra v•• bee n c.omr!Ulcd u~ing fonnulas (3.;J) , whic·lr llll'llll.i.' that tlr11 rnagult.o Hi o of Q wn.s o hLaiucd hy snnuning up ciplror:l app<'ari.ug in r.olumns li owl 1(r, t.hL• '' al 111\ o( M  hy Stllllllliug 11(1 dpllllni or < :<llumns 12 lmd 1il, anrl t.lro vu lor r• l.of Nl.hose Clf colurnnl! ~ und ·1 t. Tho l'hc:ar• , hcntlin,q mmuont uud normul fMco dingrruu ~ n ii J'It~ar ing in Fig. t(j .3e, f and g have bc~n <~onstruc.terl using thE.• data cont:rinoc in tlH• !a..~ thr~o e<>lu mns of Tahlo 1.:i.• lu those th l'()C diugr·arnll lh~> (!rdiuott\~ lott Vt~ hoon htirl colT frrttu a (I(H'iwnta l axis; in udrlitlot< tho h~ndi ng llllllliL 'Ilt cliagr~rn rotu• csc•nt.l'd in l?ig. IH.3h lras b~ll cu nxtruc lcd hy layiug r; lf Lh l•<p ordiuat.t•S fmrn t ht\ c urvt•tl r~·utrl' linl• of tiro arch .
" Fm· C<HIVonic~ncc, tlifTc)r•cnt. ~calm> ha ve hr:t~fl adnpterl for difTm·c~nt. cliugr·ams .
•
Table 1.9
=I
~
E :::
ol o t 11.2221
I ; I 1.333 1
~
9
I
= ;;
o.743
~
UH
I
:>3~'w I M~) I o.ti\XI
1R•o1'
J
I
~
0
"
"'
I
J
fl<' [8.001
8
~ I s ~!! o. Ig§
5.!141
u 3.98
..
0~
em "' 0~
,
..
~i
fl.3s
I
:: I~
_ . ..
<::
g.
:!>
== ~
s~
 · ~ «: .:,
~
t "'
1.:. :
::;E
J
o<>
.5~
=.,.,
. ..
0
I
" :z
"' ...
'
I  4.1({)
0.669
I ·\.4\i
13.6uJ o J·LotJ · 7.::!3
o
I Lznj
J
I
.:
~
"'
o JrL60
J.li1j9.Ht•
[ n
0.8~
zj2.222j
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t 7 3a represonts a threehingod arch loaded by forces P 1 and P 2 • Only one force acts to the right and one to the left of the ~entral hinge C and therefore we need not bother about the determination of any resultants. 17.3 of Arl.arc determined graphically using the force polygon in Fig.3b.3c} corresponding to the force polygon already mentioned.APIIICAL METHOD Tho graphical determination of internal forces Q.122 ThreeHinged Arches and Frame& 2.3 for explanation. M and ilf acting <1vor the cross sections of threehinged arches is carried out by con· .slructing the socalled funicular polygon or polygon of pressure.8 Lot us proceed now with the construction of the funicular polygon (fig.3c) until its intersection at m with the dir(3Ction of force P 1• Through the point of intersection we shall trace the string II' parallel to ray II o£ the force polygon. . For this purpose we shall extend the direction of reaction A (Fig. 2. 17. 8. :17. Fig. the latter being the resultant of reaction A aud loads P 1 and P 2 • • *Sc() Fig. this ray representing the resnll:ant of the reaction A and the load P 1 • J~e t point rt be the inLers~ction of the string II' with the line of action of the load P 2 • Through this point we shall trace the string III' paralle1 to ray ll 1. T he reactions at the supports . (H!.1 and B . * Fig. 17.
the polygon of foroes and the pressure polygon permit the determination of all the stresses in any cross section of the arch .IJgon or line of pressure as each string c. .3b tho resultant of forces A and P 1 will be g ivon by tho length of ray II measured to scale.om the centre of gravity of the cross sect ion . in Fig.{ Jf all the operations were carried out correctly. lt is clear that ray 06 will represent the shear Q and ray 6.c.tion of the prossure exerted by one portion of tho arch on the other. 17 . For instance. their resttltant passing through the point of interscctiort of stri ng 11' with force P 2 as string II' is itself the resullnnt of forces A aud P 1 • Therefore.oincldes with the direc. Determination o.. This may be illustrnted by Fig.li'I'. In the case of section k 3 k 3 du~ rc will be already three iorces A. this resultant coincides with string .In oroer to determine tho shear and the normal force acting over sectiou kclc 1 the resultant of all the forces to the left o£ this section {ray I or reaction A) must be resolved into two components. 17 . At thB same time string ll' ropresen ts the resultant of these two forces .onsidered. . .ction of the reaction at B will pass through the pin of this support..<~ . Passing to section l£ 2 k 2 we note that thoro arc already two forces A and P 1 to its left. Hence these strings will coincide in direction wiLh the resultant of n L1 the forces acting on the arch to the left or to the right of lhc seetion considered. Thus.A and P 1 wilt pass through the centre of hinge C whilst the string III' whoso direction must coincide with the dirr. one parallel to the tangent to the arch centre lino at this section (ray 61) and the other (ray 06) normal to the same line. The magnitude of this resultant may be determined with the aid of t he polygon of forces.ion. the bending moment may be obtained by multiplying the resultant by its distance to the centroid of the section undc:r <:onsidcra t. 'l'hus.3c where to t. Accordingly.~sure polygon A mnB represmt. any line in the pre. the string II' repre. polygon will coincido with the direction of force A which is the resultant of all the forces to the left of tho c.L'/.ross section c.lar. Th~ funicular polygon I' II' Ill' (Fig.~ the direction of the res!tltant of all forces applied to tJw left (or to the right) of the section under consideration.ho left o[ section k 1k 1 there is only the maction at the support A allll thus string I' of the funicu.l the normal force N in our se.3c) is frequently termerl pol.«enting the rcsul tant of force. 17.Ae where e is the distance to the line of action of force A measured along a perpendicular droppod on this line fr. 17.lirrht•s 1:1.f Stresses in Thrce1/inged.3c) the bending moment M will thus equal. P 1 and P 2 to its left.Lion . In section lc 1k 1 {Fig.
hese ecccutrkitie:..h. 18 . t hcso lvads will induce noi Llu~ r lu}udi ng rno mcnt. 17.1'/tr~~ /ftnged ArchP. (2) nex t iintl J .. 9. Thus. Whr.. (It) liua lly cons lntcl the Coree pol ygn r1 and L he Hue of pro~snre laking iulo r•.errniuc the ~'l'tl'rttl'ic itr e. H ereunder we sha ll <lcsil. * + • Eoeh ray or tlw Jlltlygun of rurces (}'ig.:1.':!!.n theseloads are di.i:lc shows that tho forces acting on t.he righ t or to the left of n l'.ted tlu line of prl'!l. act!' on n thrt~ h i n~ed arc.rnatc by thf' lorm rational ~u c h a eourrgu rotion of Lho CNlLrc li ne of an arc h whith will cnincidn with tlte li11o o f pre~sure eorrospo nding t. (3) llltlrt dolcnnino tho r·eaclious .> ud to inaeaso the curvature of its r ighthand portion where Lho res ultant is boJow t ho centre line.'ig.u ltnu Ls R 1 a nd .hc J'(.d.rvl'.he right ol: 1.\tt' same hi 11g<.his purpose it would Jw nec(. tho co nstruction of the pr!'~uro line wil l bo carried ou L in tltc following soq uonc~: (1) llrst.\1 the detonnillatiou of intorr111l [orccs acting ovel' scution k of lhi!'.(}clion wi ll a lways equal the thr·ust JJ.h.urc f11r an arch wft oso roactious wr!l'e doletrninod in l.: nnd Frames T ltc li ne of prC.t oi luatls applied to a tJm.0.ant R 1 or all tho oxt.If N .l/ 2 ju ~l determined. t0. arch.o ruleeting Logc.r the points obtairw.ross soctions and then dct.ht\ crown hinge.1. 1'2 .•. · tl10 rornt u 1 u<."(.~ure bl'com~s a . When vertical lo11ds a lone aro a pplied to tho arch.'HUl tant ii 2 of aH tho ex terna l loads a [lp li od to I.Jer of (. When a :sysl<'m of ve rtical Joad~: P 1 . I laving laid off t.s s ub~lltnLial advautngo11 llSpcciaUy for 111asonry or r'OIIcfnl.l on1l B indnc..od hy the I'O!. Fig.hc nn·h t.rng a e .hn fii'()SS HI'()· line purtairring l. tho Jtorizont. A!f and th1l norrmd Ior<:e N in u nurni.wnooth cu.he et~ ll trn I i ll(l of ~be areh Wt'rC to w ind de wil. It :. along the nor m a l~ t o t.t.hould ho noted l.nrc.~lribu. F'or J .hat t lw lino of pressum can Hlsu ho (thtnincd a11al ytir:ally.o a ny Jlartkula r sot: of loltds.m·o providos n Yt~ry c:lear picture o f t he wo.ho line of JHessnre will be obLa ined by simply r.l/'Snry to lind t.he tHag r~ilnde uf tho Lending moment. Jr t. ftnd th•~ resull.crnallonds applied tu tho left of l. P 3 . t.lte Crln lrt} lino of t ho a ~e h .<. Thoro i ~ a lwnys onl y onu polygon or· li n~ of pr~ssuro < ' OI'l't·spomlirtg to a n y sn.lh<.OJI!il.h l..3 rQprescn l.!agc.'ll cornponont or any resultan t of fr)rccs to t.3b) has tho ~>nmo blll'i·w nta! cumporumt 1!IJU \l l to l. while the curvaluro of th ~:> lc ftllluul portion will dcc n..od ill Fig.hi ~ th ru ~t.·k o[ nn nrc. . Fi~.ted to nm·ma l hJJ'CtlS :durtl'. The c.·ortic~tl loads P. 1. etc.ion uf 11 li ne ol: prcs!'.o tho cl uo d load .'hingcd arch.tl arches.s nor 1)hetu•ing for~~es in tho ao~:~s scnit)n •1f t hll arch which wi II then be subjoc:.on:sidcruL ion all tho ~ 1mra te . 'J'Ir is prnvid<.3 is illusLr·al.'.
3 .• 12!) Fi.8.8 (] (b) (c) Fig.ation <). Dl'lcrmin.~.8 /li g.il.f Str ~ssts •n. Th recHiiii!Pd A rch~ . 20. 19. } .t.
L<:t n:< replace tho u niFormly distri buted load applied to the left h a lf of tltl\ a rch Ly li concl'u trated forc('s nmou nting to Z lous ouch and nc~itlg n t t..ces fro"~ the centre line to the line of pres. 22. 20. 11U lh.~~ aml to clct.om p11t. 21. 1.(\.alc•ll in !1ig.llat le t us cou:. T ogether with tlto sra le o f lengths and fol'ce:i 1tn addi~ionnl sc.a le to whic.forces acting to tho left or any cross sect ion wB re resolved i nto its vertical and h orizontal c.in ~ec tinn k iuclie.~ of tlw arch. 21.31.o pol ygcu1 u!>ing the valuos of tb l.h tht> bonding .'l l'l':lc. Fig.~1 rl'prcscnls ~nrh a diagram portainiug to· Lh~ arch shown in F ig.ed in Problem 2 an1l t.ti ons c.ud in Fig.s in fig.3h.s in!. H is r~•qnircd t o con!!t.crruioc the ~otrc&!l'<.\Uia.he centres 11f l.tJ·uct th& fo1·c. In many rcspec. Accordingly. when vertical loads alone. in Fig. Drnwin~ot (a.lt>I)Uil l portions cnc. 1. are applied. AfU>l' t.mre represent at a certain scale tlw bmding moments acting over the corresponding Flg. if tho resultant of a ll tba . the diagrau1 is located next t<1 ~h(> compressed lilorc.3) the benrling moment in t his section wouhl be equal to the tltrust 1l multiplied by t he distance measured vertieaJly fr om the centroid of this section to tho line of pressure (tho vortical component iuduc.'!> as was the case. 16 . Probl<:m 3.aHy (Uds was reflected hy a h atching uormolto Lito centre Hue).o a diagram of Lht> lHmding moments wiLh tho s•>le differenct) Lhat i n this 1. lout di!Tor~t hy th~t fuel th at in tho 1atll11' case the tlistancos h a d ~o be JUel\sured norm ally to tl)() 1 :cnt J 'e line of the nt·clt and uol vertir.h 1 motre long. Moreover.tead o f the uxt.cll in P1·ohlcm 2 (see Fig. those di~<laut'.vtan.3a) a series of strmgs parallel to thoso rays \\l' ~h a ll oh tnin n JI01ygou of prussurc.ruct graphically the pr11SSUI'E! lin e of lh& o rch a unl y:c.ing no mornent in this section).~uro s hatled vor~icnlly Ju the figm(l jus t ment ionNl repre!'t>nts ~ho d iagram of lwuding moments !If.3a.12G TltrcrHingcd Arches and Frames Thet·ofore.he Inoels actually appliod and let us tra ce tho rays I Llm11Jgh VI Il nR in Fig. t/11: vertical tli.lls co ns~itut.omponou ts S nml II (Fig.t~ it is analogous to th(! diagram ohtnimul a rHilyticull y in Problom 2 a nd repr!lSent.aso tho diagram will l1e situated or\ the side of the cQmprcsscd fibres. The aroa between the cent~ li n<' of tho arch :tnd the line of pn!:>. 22.nrled On!.3 section. Solution. 22. ln other words.c.
.. I ...<gths _ {. I ..1 Z (b) . = tZm I St Jm ::. Ho o :. I ' 1 Noments 0 g 12 18 tm (a) Fig. 22."'1 ':I I .P~ 4t Zt 2t Jm .. ~· Loads LfJ. 0 ! ScaLe 4 ~ .
ncuno:rtt nrdinaL~~ should bo muasured in tho ~raph is indicut. wo should have Y = 'l Let us ~xami rlll tho case of an ardr s ubjected Lo vcr·ti('a l loads o nl y Wig.u 7. rcspccL ivoly. whilo tho norncal force N1.<~ urc.3b).tell' (of lengtlt h)' tire magniLvdo c•f tlu.3).h c.. t. 22. 4.cl iu fig.ol ll and 1'} he Lhe or·cl i nnws of Lhc nrc. The. The sllt'ar in llri~ sccliun wi ll be uil as t.il.2· tons.. Al pnint k thl1 honcling moment will he ob talu ed loy rneasur·ing lh ll ucu·ro~pnnd ittl{ urrli ual.e. i. MAXlMUM ECOXO~fY ARCHES As stuteo almvLI.r a) }[ .P (. In I.~e ordiualcs aro a c.u·t:h. is equal to the ¥ny IV ( ~'ig.l! l ro the gr'llj)h which furrrisll()~ a value elf th r·ee ' t()n·motrc~.3 . we shall ctrrr.ertai n fun rtion o[ x or y= f (x) aud 1'} = cp {x) fCOil lr the centre liuc or Lh~ llrc h were to provide for ma:timurn omy as deflued nhovc.side r that a lhrcehingoo ardJ ]JI'Ovidos for maximum oc. Thi~ ).1 thr·ust e.qual in this caso t11 6 tons.cHur scalo is ohtained by multiplying the :!(. 23. l.he t~ngt>nL to tho cenh'e line of the a rch is JIMallol Lo lhc polygun of prt>ssure. The equilibrium ectn ntion of tho mumonls of a ll rorc c~s l ying LO tho left of lillY p oint k on the line of Pt'CSSUJ'C will I ~ whouce TJ = VA1:"J:.12$! Thru11 ing~d Aroflc~ and Fr<11nes .ontr·e lin e and of tlw lino prur.IHtl ·rnse tltcsc loads wi ll produce 110 bL• nding in tho str·uc ln r·t\.onomy iE its e(mtre line coin(:idos with Llw liuo of prc~sure o l' nll tlw dead loads ncling 011 this . :n.
.3a). Consequently.• qr (1.z)S/ ql2 ltf = 7(L. us write the equilibrium equation of the momenls of all the forces about the :support pins ~M8 =V.3. INFLUBXCE LIN. and th&llfore TJ =u SubstituUng this expr~J.re line of an arch of maximum t~.::.o. Assume tlt:a a threehinged ar<>b carries a verticaJ Load of iii tensity q unlformly distributed over tho whole of i~s length.~ion M" y=.. 24.tl1 (l x)=O. .lt will bo noted tltat the numern~oJ' iu the last expression is equal to the bonding moment in the corresponding socLiou of the rofenmcc he!\m.. to M~.t a threnhingr.o. DESIGN OF THH~EH I NGED llfOVJ NG LOADS i\TICHES SUOJ~CTEO t. 'l'o ~o lv o lhis pt•o))lem we shull use tho cxpre!>. H i~< roquirea to (hllllt'miuc tllQ conligura\ion for the cl\ntre lino of such an 11rch. its rise f and the central hinge being siluated al the crown. Solution. lbo centre lino of tho Rt~b ruusL follow 11 ~ouic Jl. N I n ll11: Jlrc'S('n~ l'RS<• whcucc T !J .onomy /11 ~ Y=u of a simply sztpported beam.d arch carries n unit load P applied a distance x from the lefthand abutment (Fig. in the cast. which would fltOviclo for m11Ximnm <:conom y .BS I'OU AllU'rMENT REAC'J'IONS : Lot us assume tha. ~he span of the arch being l.f vc. i.~ion in tho equation y = 'TJ we obtaiu the following oxprassion for Uw cant. and let.tical loads ma:tirmun cco~tomy will be achieved if the arch cmt1·e line follows the be.1 mLola. .c . TO 5.r}x i ..< o.ndtng moment diagram M~ P roblem.MA=VBl+ 'lx =O os &. T.
1'hree1{tnr.g. 24.3 I J\rt. .2. 2.• aml Frames Solving th c.li=T Jt will be observed that the oxpressions for VA and V 8 aro the samQ as those for the reactions of a simple beam obt. Thi~.~o equations for VA and V 11 we obtain V A =~.ed A rchc.fluence I Line for 1 v8 I 1 I I i~l' 1 1 ldJf{~}~· ~I lLt F f.3b n nd c.ui!l(~d in X lx x P=l c (0) I I Inf luence l line for ~ 1 lb)((~i I I I I 1 (C} /r. 21. thrso influene~ lines are represented in Fig. V. mem1s lhat tho influtmce liuos for VA a11d V JJ do not differ from the infiuence Jines for t he support reactions of a si mJllc l1cam.
25.. 1.~tiou passing through thH Cl'uwn equals 2.:~.~ctiou P: i Ftc. Thus.ral points on the arch which are of great interest for us. we shall examine tho methods of dotermining the socalled neutral points. the corresponding influence line will have tho same shape as ihat for the beam moment 111~ differing from it only by a constant factor ~ . shear or normal fo rce) nil at the section k un.... In case l 1 = Z 2 ~ ~ tho urdillate of this influence. there are other nent.3 l)y MR. point Fm will be a neutral point in relation to the bending moment acting over section k. INl•'LUENCE LINES FOit iNTERNAL FOltCES As a preliminary step. 7J .e. Thi$ influence line is shown in Fig. H i$ obvious that when the line or action of a force passes through ouo of the abutment hinges. load P were applied 9• .ch will be nil. i. 26.s~:. In addition. reaction A) passes through its centroid. the position of the points of application of a load which will render the internal force (bending moment.ler consideration .e. line at a se.3d.. if a load P is applied ut point F m of the arch represented in Fig. 25. H we consider the arch shown in Fig.. Qh and N" we shall say that tho load is applied at the neu tral point whoa the value of the corresponding stress and therefore the ordinate to the corresponding influence li ne become nil. Point F m will lie on the vertical passing through tho intersection point F of line::s Ak and BC. all the stresses ul any section of the a .1~.3 the bending morncnt in section !c ·will reduce to zero for the resultant of all Lhc forcos to the left of this section (i. Accordingly. Denoting the stresses acting over this cross .Since the thrust ll is determined by the equation Jl ".. the bending moment in section k would reduce to zero only if the. 24.
Ftg. and BFF1 we obtairl . so tha t t he load would act directly ott lho righthand portion of t.J:k ( l . However. tbero would be no real neutral point in re lation to the bending moment acting over section k.nn ~= f ..9 applic.n the absei~sa of the neutral point pertaining to the bending moment in section k (seo Fig. for irl this case the direction of reaction A would again pas. In effect if the point of P=1 Ftg. 27. 26.ho arch tho dirt:ot'tion of reaction A would alter.= Um.u111 ) 12 FF 1 = (lum) t.~ through section k. if no such brackeL existed.ation of tho load were transferred u pwards.132 ThrteHinged Arc/les tmd J:lro. 27.9 Denoting by u. and therefore the bonding moment in sectio n k would no Iongor equal zero.us at point Fm to a special bracket fixed to the arch between seclion k and the crown hinge. Ff7 1 = Um Ylt tan a.3) and using t he simili tude of tho triangles AFF. Lhis reaction passiug throngh tlte hinges A and C..
3 it is clearly seen that oc F F 1 = uq t. Desiga ()j ThreeHinged Arclttr Subjected to Moving Lolld1 i 33 Therefore whenc..an 'Pit /t'F 1 = (l.3) lying on the same vertical as point F . From F ig.his section. of the point where the influence line forM h will pass through zero. 28. 29.~.Uq) tnn ~ Thorerore Uq tan Cfh = (l uq) Lan l tnn ~ Uq = =tan.3 we nolo that FFt = u. If a load P were now applied at a point F q lying on the same vertical as point F..ciD!J'It  ~ wheuce (5..3) This exwession pormits the computation of t he position of t he neutral point for the shearing force io section ''· T he normal force N in section k will become nil when load P is applied nt point Fn (Pig. (Fig. the shearing force Q~r.. At cross sect ion /c 1 of the same arc..3} the shear would reduc. this p oin t being determined by the intersection of line BC with a line A F parallel to t he normal to tho arch centre line at section lc and passing through the binge A.5. in section k would reduce to z.ero.:. r~rom Fig. of the neutral point or.e to zero only if t he load P were applied to ~t bracket fixed t o the nrch between this section and the crown hinge.hc hinge a t the support A (this line being parallel to the tangent SS at point lc to the centre line of the arch} and the intersection of this line at point F with line BC most be found.\.. In order to determine the neutral point corresponding to Q.3...cntre of t.3) This expression permits the analytical determination of the abscissa u.+_. 31..3} a line AF must be drawn th rough the r. cot 'PI! and F F 1 = (lun) lao~ ... 30. for the point of applicatic)O of this load falls on the vertical pas...'ling through the intersection of the lines AF and BC.h (Fig. for there would be only one force acting to the left of section k and this force would paraHel to the langent t h rough t. in other words.e Um = lfxh I Ylt 2 +:~:ltf (4. 31.
·. 29 .!1 P•l r.•~ Fig.:1 ~fV..134 Tliree·Hinged Archr. .9 . 91..10. t 1' Ft~.~ and Frames Fig.
Qlt = Q~ cos <p.3c and d while the influence line for th e bonding moment in the arch obtained by t heir summation is I'Oprosented in Fig.ion of lhe neutral p oint related to the normal fo rce N in section k. 1b and ab1 must lio on the same vertical as t he neutral point F m• this provid'ing n mpid eheck on t h o accuracy of the influence line obtained. These two influence lines aro shown in Fig. viz.3}. As will be seen from expression (3. Let us now exam ine difiercnt muthods of constructing influence lines fot l'vfh. Qk n. = qQ. Fig. (Fig.} This last formula permits the determinat.3ct will nmolm t for any po.).3e. 33. will r·educe to zero for any section k of a uniformly load ed t h·reehinged a rch whose centre line follows a conic parabola.3b).11 sin IP1t where Q~ is the shear in the conesponding section of au endsupported beam of the same span l (Fig. It may be shown that the area under the influence line [or M.he magnitude of this bending moment using t he influence li110 we would 11so t he equality M11.3) or (6.. Design of Thurlfinged Arehe. 32 .. abscissa obtained from formulas (4.(. If we ware to deter mine t. tho area under t he influence 1ine Q must also reduce Lo zero.he slwar Q1.. For the c.bjecl~d to Moving Load. with the onl y difference that its ordinat. = (l  u. (5 . 33. :32.ti ng over section lc of the arch rapresenLcd in Fi)..u.o zero (see Problem in Art. col <p. 32. I ndeed..• Su. the bending moment ac.<sition of a vertical unit load t.cot IJlh 6 •.s have been laid off directly from the xaxis. \Vhcn tlle value of the ncuttal point.) we may use the first formula of the set of e:xprc1:sioJJs (3.3) is n egnti ve it means that this point lies t o tlw left of hinge A.8. It is clear that tho point of intersection d of lines a..5.onstruction of the influence line for t. all the ordinates of which have been multiplied by n constant factor equal to (y.3b) a nd thl\t fot· the thl'ust H.f.3/ represents t he same influence line.3).. 4. the hending moment in any section of s uch nn arch will amount t.nd .s t35 whence . a nd accordingly u _ " l tan ~ tan ~ .h.e. .n). 32.:.3a.o M~<=M2 Hy" This means that the infiuerwe line for iWIt may be ob lai ucu by summing the influence line for tho bending moment MJ: at the eoncspo nding section (If the reference bea m (Fig..3). hut as 1'4h is always zero. 32.) tan jl ( .
3 .lltnged Arches a11d Frames (a] Fig.e. 32.13G Thrt.
3 is represented in Fig. the litost for Qr. 33.3c where abk 1k 2a is the influence Hne for Q~ cos IP~< aod the triangle acb is the influence lino for H sin q>..__ '!'J . may also be obtained by tho summation of two influence lines. Point d in Fig...3c must fall on the same vertical as the neutral point F q· The same influence line is shown in Fig.5JJ. . Design of ThruHlnged Arches Subjtctr.d to Moving Loacls 137 This expression sllows that the influence line Q. obtained in this way 1. 33. all the ordinate.~ of which arc multiplied by a constant factor cos (f/k and the second fot· tho thrust H the ordinaLes of which are multiplied by (sin 'Ph)· The influence line for Q. 33.._J Fig 33.3d with the only difference that its ordinates have been laid off directly from the xaxis.
I I I I I I I ! c I Influence line for Nk I I I Fig.l'iangle abc represents the influence Jine for H cos <P~t· Lines a 1b .3b. 91. Here ublc 1k 1a is the i!lfLucnce line for QX sin <p 11 nod the l.3 Pig .138 ThreeHinged Arches and Frames Tn order to construct the influence line for the normal force N 1.(lS q>1. I I I I . for cross section k of the arch we shall use tho last fol'lnula of ex pmssions (3 .:7/ . = Q~ Sill ())II+ fl cos (Jih l:inmming up graphically tho two components (Q~ sin <P~t and H C .) we obtain the influence line for N 11 represented in (. 34 .3) N~~.
3f).. sin cp 11 when the unit load P is applied to a bracket shown in Fig. The positive ordinates to llne da 1 represent the values of ·Q?.=Yh=3 motros: tan sin <p. {(:)) Find tlu.i!. The procedure to he followed may be easily derived from t he examination of thP.tral point Fm on the :taxis. '!'he paramet:t•rs of point k nfe :z:~<.ction by the syst. i.~=0.d with the vertical pa. Svluti on .3f. Dotermine graphically t. cos<p.3) und (6... L'rohlcm. (2) }f1arlc the neu.gh the crown hinge (point Ct)· (7) Connect point c1 with the point of zero ordinate OL. %.. 34.l point method.3a while tho negative ordinates to line da (plotted also .1 point of intersection of the line a.6 metres .rm of loads indicated in Fig..ing over ~ection k of a threehinged parabolic an:h dt'alt with in Prohlmn 2 of Art. Preliminary determination of tho neutral points would allow dircc. and Nh.3 Design of ThreeHinted Anhes Subjected to lvfot.5.>er the righthand suppol't (line c 1 b).3c. • a<:[.ting the ordinate y 2 from y 1 and will be equal to m 1m 2 • A corresponding influence line wilh ils ordinalcs laid off directly from the axis of abscissas is presented in Fig. uq und u" and check the VI< lues of t1wso? ahsciO'sas using formula~ (t. 3 .35.h<! posit ion of neutral pohrts I'm. and to determine with th0 nid of these inlluence lines the ~ll'esscs iocluced in this sc. the distance xk.832 (Jik=. (t) Lay off along the vertical pa$Sing through the lefthand support (provided the section rmder consideration is in the left half of the arch) the abscissa of section k.>irtf( Loatls 13!1 :and ab 2 must intersect at din tho vertical passing tht·ough lhe neutral point F. ·t2x4 x3 um= 3 x 6+3x4 1\. (~) Find the point of intersection of this line with the vertical passing throUgh section k (point k 1).3d and 34. 32.ucLion of the influence lines Mh. for the same position of lhc loRd.3). In t. F'l and F n as well as their ab~cissas um .t constr...his case the normal force N acting ov~r section k will be obtained by subLrae.. Q. .3a. 33. 32. (5) Connect k 1 with the potnt of zero ordinate at the lefthand support (point a).= 12X4/6 4/63{2 tt..ho neutra.8 m<ltrcs 12 X4iU "•I = 4/6 + 2/3 u.3).~sing throu. if it were required to use this method for L he const•·uction of the influence line for 114" proceed as follows (~ee Fig. It is rt'quircd to construct the infiuonco lint~s for· Mk. For instance. influence lines shown irl Figs. ~5.3c.e. (:5) Connect the ordinate xk over the lefthand support (point a 1) with the projection of neutral point (point d) on the xaxis (line a 1d).=0. This method has rcc.555. Q4 unJ N11.above ab) repre~ent the values of ]{ C{)S !J'J.eived the ruune o£ t.
3 .Jli•lged A relies 11.·rrunes \ P=4f. Righ(hand .140 Tltree. ortwn II ( d) Fig. ' (a) X (C) Influence Ur>e fo r Q" . 35.11d r.
y·l'!tl'JYl of JQa tls.ul Arcl1~s Snbj ected Lo Mouing {.o.ion with the poin t.h by the given ~. infiu<mcc 1ino this point is con M eted rlin:ct.3 Design of Threc.x0.·16= O.cads ·141 follow~: sc..832 . cos 'Pii = .8 .u tcl! linr for M~ lrt /.l.ecl.he fnst plllCO ~{IU ) d be traced through tho lnftbnnd support uut. the arc11s un<l1•r t.~ ind nc:wd in ~·~•· Lion k oi the arc.ction k . Um w hl' uC e 3(4 .8 2 0. lines and the intOJ 'nal forc.lte~r.e lintls.ly with the zero point at tllo lefthund s upport.i l theil· iutor!lOction wi th t.1.tion of the infl uence lines required may now be carried out us <~btaincd witlL tl•o p t·ojec.125x4.6X3 . On thtl bending moment.t.:rk l\ ''~lc4 = . o. co~ •(·.3 0 t..1. (a) I nflu.416x3 2 T 2 0 Q.8) 2 2. and sin ff.75 (64. a!> i ndicate1l i n Fig.3) 4.832 = v 6..111 = gro~l + Py~ 1 = 2x2. tht'l honding moment Mk will amount to 1).:rl..375 = 3.raxis.5.o N..nlo off on t he vertical passing lhrouqoh the lefthand support tho IHngths XJ<. Q r~ (<lq =  o. Appl y ing l·ht> laws of si~t~i l i t•Hlr. wo may no\v detenninc t. ••1G k4 k5 =cfls ():It . Jlin•l ab. c And d and connt:ct the ordinat.2 = Xk u. 125 m t>tl'l•!l Wht•fiC(I Tho arou und"r the inD uonce linl) corresponding to the d ist rihuted load <qnals M (J)q = 1.onstru~:. k3k4 COS 'f'k =whoncc ll .ft illg.1  l1X11.~~b.=qro~+Py~ =2XO+<'LX0 =0 .25 square metl·os Accurdinl).he intersection of the vert.o the p1dnt of intcrsect. 35.4 x 0.lti6 IJp = 0..k3 k 4 = 0..0.l:lo vcr lical mcnLionnd abovr.e$ The c. AftN that fincl j u~ t: oh Laine1L Conn~ct this point of interl.i<>n of tho :~hove line with th e vorticul passing throttgh sc.25 .rown hing~ C wi t h lito line~ at tlw l'ightll and support.ly.lll' o rll innl•'s to tho pt~rtinont points o[ the inOncnc.ti ou of tho~ neutral point on the .~ parAlle l to the line dl•Ler•n ino<l in t. of zero ordinnlc t.8 1. . whilo in lho!:'o iol' tho slten•· Qh a nd for· tho no•ma1 forr.0 tonml\trcs tb) I n{lmmu li11e for Qh.n. to the trianglM i nvolved.ical pu so: ing tht·•mgh the c. .
728+05l02 ..~k8 . n. Lot us then apply at the extreme upper point of: the c. 16.)= . CORE MOMENTS AND NORMAL STRESSES IN THBEEHlNGED AT\CRES ln nny eccentrically loaded bar Lhe normal unit str('SSe. k7 k8 =l. in Problem 2 o£ Art.~ and Frames li ne for N11 Wl~nc•· k.t in a plano passing through one of tho prindpal axes of inerlia of the section and nonnal to it:. these influence Jines having au entirely difft"rent configuration and one of them possessing holll positivo and negative portions.2•1 tous conlpul.. 3+9. This may be obtained by the following procedure...lf should be used simullancously. :'1 Ctdl = Yp atilt !J>h =.i+0.. 1b 1 = . z.li = ..i(.= z... ==u.~Ht\fk :r. u.. sinq:.6 x o..3). the usc of the (lbovc· (orlllula would require that both the influence lines for N and . .3.u..ore of this section (say.\' (!)q o.wltcnc.!102 .3) 6 .1'ig.::l (Tablo 1.4.t7sx. point k 1) two normal forces N equal . . folmd coinCide with those a. • =z X v"=4.~10:! a. .mentioned formula so that it should c..7280..ting over the· scrLion..u.o a..h =0. Tho nwgnitudos of Jl1k..t~cr.' '· 0..S>ll<Jlh=9T' · .on1poucnts N and Q of the resultant R of all forces actin~· to the left of the section involved and passing through a point s thereof (Fig. frnd tho c..he outer fibres of the r..u  ll+9.1 2 0.onsist of one· term only. I IT z.). It is therefore expedient to Lransform the above.~in <f.~ .llr2 (C) flt/llmlc~ Thrl'efflll~ed Arcltr... load is applied t..3 and .555 = 0. It is assumed that both N and Jlt' ac. provided Lhe materia) follows Hooke's law. thc'ir· magnitudes may be obtained from tho equation IJ=y N±M w where P = area of the cross section W = its rellisting moment N nnu 111 = normnl force and bending moment 1tc.s roaclt their rnaximum and their minimum in t..o the arch. 36. 70<> 2 ilih = qro~ +Pu· : =2X2. When a moving..to~s sections and. .ll. Let u~ Hrst..1i3 X 0....705 +~ X OA5i = 7.55!>=0. respectively.b. Q" and N k just.1 . .sm liLtn ·.07211 •e•s==u.
Ol!ly in this cnse the moment of external forces should be taken abouL tho lower core point n nnd tho appropriate resisting moment W. The core moment differs from the ordinary hcnding moment hy tht> fact that its c. The Jlrod· uct N (e Ct) represents the + {C)~ F ig. J n this 1.3.1 morut'nt of the uormal force applied at. points of the .6..M& the unit st~:ess llt th<! bottom ftbre of the section will be ~iven by the formula <Jm= N(<'+<'tl Wm Nor mal forces uppliod at the upper limit of tho c. Cor/! M oments antl Normal Str(R!rl tn Thru ·H illt:ed A rtht'• l 'o3 in size e~nd opposite in direction which will balanco M<'h oLher. should be llSOd in lieu of W m N(e c2) <Jn= f..st~cLiun about the upper point. !UI 3 Fig. TJHl normal fltre~s a t point n may be determined in a similat· way. As a t•esult we shall have three forces N acting over this section which may be replaced by a moment equnl to N (e ~ c1) aud hy a normal force N a<'.Vn .hat the distance of the forces (to the left or to the right of Ute section) should be measured not to tho centroid of the section but to t he uppor 0 1' the lowllr point of its core.omputation requires t. of the core k 1 and will be hcrc.tion.ting at the upper cclge of the core.allod the core moment.after c. 37.orc produce no stresses i u tho lowe1· ft hres of the sec.
onts just next to the centroid arc due to a vcrLical rise in the influence line for the normal force at this poiu~ (see Fig.8). these m influenco lines having been c.mly or by a tT'Hin of conc.ly. In practice these areas arc usually ignored due to their insigniflcance. 37. ANALYSIS OF THHEl:I·HINGED TIED ARCHES AND .he resultMJt about the core point k 2 will he negaLive. 34. The influence lines for the core moment:.hl'cchinged systems and in particular threehinged nrchos and benLs.M~. moment of external forces (to the right or 'to the left of the seclion) about the upper core point k 1 Jlrlft. = moment of the same forces about the lower core point !.en Lratcd loads) in order to obtain tl1e maximum tensile stresses at the oxLrados of section k.rn: which part of the threehinged arch represenLcd in Fig.Bli:N'l'S In tho preceding articles (2. and for the bending momcnL in. Tho loading of the positive porlion of this line would cause the compression of th~ exLt·ados of tho arch at section k . = 7. The small triangles F i g.d Frames Thus where .~.14/o 'J'hreeJiinged Arche. 38.3.scction k of n t hreehinged arch are represented in Fig..3) we have passed in. tho load or loads should be placed over the neg aLi vc portion of tho in11ucnco line for the core moment M~•.3). 37.• an.ted using the neutral poinL method.onstnH:. let us now solve the rollowing proble.3 to 6. As for the influence lines of core moments they aro conslructed in oxacLly tho sa me way as those for tho bonding moments. 2 • The above two formulas are monomial and therefore they lead to a quickor and simpler determination of the maximum normal unit stresses in the cross sections of an arch carrying a moving load.1 shaded black on Lhe influence lines for tho core mom. In that case t:he moment o£ t. 3S. review the methods of stress computation applicable to ordinary threehinged arches without ties. .Sa should be loaded (unifor. It is obvious that tho extrados will be extended only when the resultant of niL external forces (the ri~hthand or the lefthand ones) passes below the core (Fig. Let us no>v envisage the tied t. Consl~ quen t. V~ing ttie core moment influence li nos.
3b).tructures j ntrod liCO It lllllll b t\J' changes iu the stre. ~9.hH horizontal t. the tia precluding tile horizoJJt.\o V 0 :md IT 11 may then bo determined as us ual with tho aiu of threo equilibrium c.he.ermiualiou of u ll Fig. Let us now rvrrsidnr a thn1ehingcd arc h with a n otevntod tio D.s 'V<l and V 11 will al!>o rt1main exac."'! c~omputation methods tluscri bcd nbove . Stl'OSS<JS in tho cross st!CLion::!> u[ both a rd lHS will be oxa1. These cquatious do not contain the above men tioned forecs N 11 c whic. vVl• may t·cplaco the 1io by two horizontnl forces Ntl.ion.c.3/J) will pel'lnit tbo dt't. c.3 tlw st rNiSCS in this pur·ticular cac. Tho three ahutm1!fll rco.hrust 11 1.actions n.ingl y. thei r magnitude may be obtainod by .quatiorr~ of all external forces applied to Lhe nrch .ly tht> same arrrl Llle intcrual. the iufl trt'llt'U lines for l.nl m oveme nt of t.ompn li< lliun mclhod~ pcl'taining to ordinary t hruobingcd a n: hcs (Fig.3a represen ts a bowstl'ing arch free ly suppoJ'~cd at H.3a. forcu in tho Lio will bu t' Qllal to t.lt lJnlo. 89. tl0. i\c.on:strain~ nl this point.1.'hus.Certaiu pocnliarilios of the.h will not rliffcr in lillY respect from those of a11 or<lin. 40.tly the ~ante.3 acting over the I'Orrcsponding cross ~c<:tions or a bowstring arc.c. 'l.cord. abutment bingt' and Lllorc fvr~ re1llad ng the h orizon tal c.1.nd t he stros">Cs (0) Ftc.lro 11butmcnt r·t.E a~ s hown in Fig.1• The vt•rtir·rd n md . applied at p oints D and E and equal to l..tinns ·v . 39.c each other.Hy thtoc·hing~d arl' h.!!e r. L t0. or Fig.ho tension in the tie (Fig .nc.
.'::_flvG17r:e lifle for t\'t.i..ouie parabola dofmed hy tho equation Y=fi' (lz) 4! X Required to determino tl1c rcnctions VA. tho tcm>ion in tho tie forco~ Mk...ernal .e .i. Q11.J 1 ln{lvem. ~ ··.'i.• e line for v..nfli:Pttce li... Y ! irl/llli!II<Y! { (..4!6 {a) (gi ~~ 0. Gi ven the arch with supcrelevated tte (Fig.7x. Ntle stn'Pk ~ for Fig.~ tor Qk 0.. and Nk and to construct the influence liuos for nil thc~c force> ltnd strosscs..9 Problem t.. The stresses in all the cross sections of the arch as wel1 as the methods of constructing the corrcspoJld ing inll ucnce lines may he derived from Lhe expressions (1.. r&:. VB and HB.st.:) 1~ tnfluanr...3a) following a c.'1e for M.ne az... for N... 41..146 ThreeHinged Arches and Fram~s equating to ~uro lhe sum of all the lllOHIOnls of the ox tcrnal forces applied to the left (or to the righl) half of the a rch about the crown hinge C...e line for v0 ({f. (i) (. (/() ~'fi:0.<?e !n(laellciJ Line ·.' /nj'lver~e /.. !f11TH!!Hll~ q:2t/m t. N ti c• the int..3).. 41..8:JZ tn[li!efJt:e line ' .6'!4 (b..
qxt.l Th•' tension in t h" tic• is determined from !Mc= V.ment..}. and thO oramat. reuc ti on5 l ' . = 12. f.1 nntl ~' n shown in Fig.U =V A si n c:p. k 31'0 d c lllmliUl'd llS fn iJ UW" tan lf'"""'t..= dr dlt d [ 4{ l!" (l . + N li<' cos IfII.3.20 lt•IIS Tlw influence linN! for the al>ut. s in <['It= O.e !/II O( point.fJIJ= O ql l !MA =T ·.33 t<•ns L 4/ 'oX4 ~trusses Mk=~M=V A:t.' centro liuc of the nn·h at 11oint Jc.3. cos 'Pit= 0. (<n· x=x~<=3 m lancp = tnn<{'"=3 2 whurofrom lfll = 33°42'.· 2 H d ~·~=0 2 :\ l 2 tiln~ whcnc" w1Jcte M2:: i~ the hcn<ling moment arling over F. N ti o siu !f'h .7..3b.2:r) J 4/ .=!J.ck= 122 (123)3=3 metrNJ Substitu. ·~Nt.3c and d wi ll ho the samtl us for· nn ordinl!ry th rt>ehingcd urcl. cos q··h = . Th~ 147 all t.O ton· nll'trcs 2 N h = 'f.. ' qxzlt f T d ) . A ttalysu of ThrteTf inged 1'tcd A rches a11d /Jtn /6 S~>l ut ion. H u='.. ].l 1'he 10• .t:cLion k or th ll orch Q" = ~v = ·v A cos q>~..iug these vn luc:.qx.hll oxt~:rnal fnrc~>s rcact.u th e acting ov(lr :. in expressions (L3) wo nbl.+ f> (l b) V nl =O l l = 11 11 =0 'Titc·sc• c•quatioM yield VA=* ql + ql + p J.ious are olct. 4 1.ennined from the l'quilihriuU1 OIJUntions o £ acting on thu ard1 ~Mn=YAlq ~ f t . I. sinljl~. 1111<1 the X•I\Xi:.:'>fi5. (i 3 ) y 8+·• nr .:r) :r = lT(l .' 11 =g ~~~ ={x2X 12 + 4 ~ 3 =10 tons =h t·m~ (i ~ b) = 2X 12 . 4 furmod by Lhe t angent to lhl. Th o ang le q.ection C Clf a simp\o hcnm .832 and 1Jit =l2 (t.I1Ntre (!iR.hown in Fig.c.ni. 41..
• rmiuation tho i uLel'aHll fun:.'o Fig.3")· ~ie tcnsitm will ht>.: cos q•JtN IIc sin 'Ph. 41..tion8 will l1e ohtnill<!<l u. =0 ~Mc·=2 F"' 4TI A L = 0 l:X = f>r 1 f/1\ .W through tht> uprights of the b~.4X ~ xO.41li) A1~t=2x .>le for horizontal and i11cliu('d menahc1·~ readions wil'l he d~tcrrnineu in uxac tly t. tlw same applying to lhc• dol.he.~~ iwhc t.ide. j and k.~ iug t.xac ll ~· with tJ•oSO fo1u1d JH'e.!if>!:i+ L::i2G )]H ..) fo.Io1 6 .hing'(ld arr.~ for lhe thte. M.rnent reac~ions and th o SLr(l~•es .e... O.33 t onme trns tun s N~t =2 [ ~ x O. the ne utra l poiul method cannot ho a pf'liorl to tha constrJJctiou or the bonding mornC llll.. dorivud frum tho (l(jiH ilivn N ti:'''.ho nr of Uw hcnt. llf~t :2 Mk Nt.r.:.11 l (OAS!'i_l. 42 .:1) inntu. cos q·• r: Qh ~ 'fltoso Jn nn••ucc littcs t ogether with tho iutoamediate ga·nphicnl r>pttratiou..s.ss scctiuus m and n Jlac..ii24 !{.c line ftll' lhe (S(. . «!d on the following rcl nll uns similar i n e vt•ry respec t W Uwse of· (:'1.Tho cons trlll'l ion o[ influence liMs for Q1. i.hc t· by ~raphical or aoalylical liletho us). g . Tho ulm Lrnenl: reac.us fand the ~t.x 0.n cro. ti85 L i 2 x u> x 6 . Exception must..= 2 ( .h(H! rnmnins quite suitnl.4V0 = 0 "f. J'roblc111 2..208: x 0.~ !'t• inc. Sol~<tton. liuns for the~ latt:e.. lJ1. ( pnw idcd th{'SO a rc prcsont. ••. SaJHtl way 11. AH thl! t:omputn1itJnS mur b•: f!nf~•'ly regarded as r orrecL Lot us consider now the thrce. l:fiJwOvc r. h. Dotcrmine lhe uhu t.(!.(. As n d1ock lt:t. mc.. thi.>nt in Pig.3~t and draw tiro cOri'OSJll•ll<lillg inOuenco lines for Sl'Clion m.lac~ NfHilibrium o<tual. Tbeir abuLrnc uJ.cs and to tho c:onstrtlc:llon of i nrJunJtcc > lin~.9.52(>= 12.c (/ll.hiugod bt!nl:s.M Jr = l tPlP2r1tV . ju ~L obtai nod Q.3.~ arc roprr S<•II LNI in Pig.X ~x 1.\'iously. b~ mad ~· ro r v~·•· tka l m ~mbcr.rosso.ious :EM A = /•P1 +3P2 . and s h•~ar inlltwnc:e.T T M (! Q .20 t•ms Tht·SI! · va l•a t>..3f.s lllot.4xO.. antl Nk will ba> hi\. !inc..f1rl) N 11 = Q~ sin <f'I•+ N 11 .!fR ·= (I .s in $0C tiun k using the iul'lucnc.
> should con n()('t the ordinate a"'' ohtaine1l \'< ilh tb(! ll<'Utral point. : 1 1 1!~ ! 11~ 'b G' . .:i) Fig.6~5 ton Mm= 2fl.3 .:. :wd t.5Vn·2H 11 = =0. I'A=.. r..:JIV. I on•r poiuL A w<.'l ~'Influence ~: line {IJr Hm 1 I I~ I ··. V..(' lines for O m· M.)t.1'2) """ ti . .1  (g) I J/ 11 = 11 Thl• inOIIlmC·e lin<) fol' N'. t. 1'ig. Tv_. C2 X4 .=.ht' low••r l'Xlr<•mity of thu upright s a~ t...+('.\~ 2 = . I I Tm I l ~~ I 1 L=i!m 1 1 1f4 I . = j.7.P 1 +ilP 2)  p(..T X 1.uence Ilin~ for q~ I I : (e) = tl.:._(. 2 ..0...3 in01•enc.lwd (sec rJg.spec.. x "2..l: n sin cr.2:1 I f!A _ . li\11$ = i(2><·1+:~) ~1.uence liro for Nm 1 I I I~ FiR.1\:!.2fl .e..h<'fcfore h~tving laid off n lengt. hwlysts of ThruHinged 7'il•d Ar<lr•s arul 11cnts ·t4!l from which V 11 .2.1 lm 1 1 !9 I ·Jnft.t fn'ln t.uenceville for H I ·~ Q.~c).~.'i tous and. !lliH= =O.25 . . 12.Tl A " ' 0.rnl !'Oint rn.ral point will coincid<' wil..625 ton ·I 'J = :! 0 .1.2·'.3X 3)=1t.= . = 2HA llllll Nm ·. wo mny ni)W llnd Lfl.625 = = ·1.0x L375 = (d) h:l (~ : tz ~ 1 ilnft.l1 t...M. nutl tl l'!'prt•~M~ tho iufl nt·ncr fin~~ fm lh(l ahutmrnt •·ell<'· which du uot <li IT1•r in any re....('rll ordinato OV()f bing~: fl (Fig. 2'. ~ V. In lhis case the nout..t ahn..ho cMt•·u or hingt' n.:! .1.~es act1ng over st•cl itlll~ lfn=P 1 + Tl .metres N. f an•l g cnul11ins t!Jo Pig.!. · 0.lt cormspon<liug to sin q•.o~ II'~~.li.45 f(J hl!l. =2X0. migbt elso bt• ohlilinod using Lht' n(lu t...1. ~ . ~5 x 0. (b) 1 ~: I ..hose < lf an ordinary arch (~oo Uous l'"' I' 11 1Ul t1 1{.'JP1 f.__ : · . = ~t  m a nd It Q.375 X (l.. /111 < X>'' <J•.3g) . a.> .') ton. ~2 .1\.375 xO.VJJ ..0. 't~ 31•..li25 ton111ctrC' N 1. ton M.:i . 3't .. . Mlr~s.3e.3'i5 1n ns 1tcgardi1 1g t. .hoir \dt·hand omt.2. and 1'lm derive< t [rom lh~ nx:pri'!'~IOIIS Qm = If. !1<\8· i· ·1.+· UIJ sin (1'n = = l. . i. I I JJ ' tve I Vn!luence ~lne for Val I I I I (C) I~ I~' llnft. . = ·U!r. with the point of 7..2 I..Yo2 ..
Apart from twodimensional trusses in which all tho bat·s are situa tod in ono a11cl lhe same plane.h (~n~ures a far better utili~ation of lht> maleriots. Therofon~ t.4) and also due to the danger of web buc. arc usuall y rnuch l arger. 2. trusst's are used for the ~>ante.tant{llla. the slress diag1·nm for each o~ these mnmb~rs boing practically rer. a framed sLJ'Il<~turo whkh will conti.!.<Hlsi on or compl'o. OX<:..t ltingl•S.1.uuc to form an unyicld ing com bi unlion cvt:'n whon nil its rigid joints arc eon vonlion ally rephiC·t. A typica l example of a truss is shown in Fig. As a rule. .he tru!!SCs arc alwayl{ much lighter than solid wob beams of the samo span ancl the same height.y Fig .~ <~over Pig.purpo:~es liS h<ln ms and g inlt>rs.S Tho truss i~. THE TRUSSES l k OEFfNlTJONS AND CLASSfFJC.A. thoro exist.be height of the bot~ms.4.t'..'d by pcrfec. throedi monsional .kling which ~comes more and 111orc ac ute with tho increase in t.s. l n tlwse case!$ solid wob beams become uneconomicnl duo to tbo fact that the strength of the web can never be utiJi~ed to the full t~xten t (unit stresses in th<' web being lower than in the flanges as will be St>.pt that the spans lht'.sion whif:.<'D from Fig. In framed st1·ucturos such as trusses (provided Lhe loads net at tho join ts) all t ho mombers arc subjt1cted oither to direct cxt. 1. 2.TlON OF TflUSSE.4.
s. The onrl posts a lso called batter braces cou nect tho upper chord to thu lowHr one and may Le regarded as belonging both to the uppor choru and to the web membor.ls and diagonals or into strztt. in a grea~ number of cases the design ol' throlHiinwnsional framed structures may be reduced to tho cal'~:~ of severa l plane systems.l . the stt•uts IJeing always co mpressed and the ties exte. while the members which connect Fig.sive stmsscs.allod the web rnemiJas.ca. De(witions and Classtficatlun. Thu span of a truss (Fig.~igned to resist bo th tensile and compru:. T he latter may !Je subdividNl into vertt. 3.. lhc jo iuls thomsclves being frequonLly rcfeiTCd to as panel points. 4.~ and tics.<~s 151 or space franwd s truct ures in which the clements a ro situated in scvcJ'Ill planes (Fig. . Tho distauce beLween lwo adjaCl!nt joi nls measured along the horizontal is usually called a pa1LRl. ()I Tru s.4).4a) is the di stance between its support.nded. fl.s. 3. However. Th~ lower arul upper long itudinal members form the upper and lo wer chords of the tt·uss.4 the two ch<Jrcls are c. A countabrace is a ruclllbcr de.
) nr11l in!'o poly Fig. 4. 4.152 TI!P J'ruurs Tho Iullowirtg li vt~ crilol'ions mny ~llfVl' as n ba!<i~ ror th~ e.i<:ll l~ and cOagnnals"'* (Fig 5.ri angu lnr Lru!\Sc~s (Ji'ig.'ii!:'lf• raL ion of l russcs: (a) the ~hapo of tho upper aud lower chord s.he l'•r~t of Lhc l ast t.otl by oxtend~Jol llitJgona ll! 11ntl corn pr(~'>8<'CI Vt••·tic.1'<11'11 bolic npp(lr dwrcl (Fig. (c) the contli lious at t he sup ports. Tho mon• \\oldely used of ~lo()S() are the l'ralt and tho 1/0ii't truS'1t:s. whcr<• tbc great m 11jor il~· uf LrllM LYP~'" lll'Ctnlll'tl aflt•r tbc names or engiurers who tJrs~ intr<•duc.wo ki rtd s.ed llo('DI onn large scale<. (b) tho typl~ or t. . th is truss is k nown 11~ tho ~i'a rr<'ll tr11ss (1'r. uno! t ht• second hy <·xtt>ndl'll verticals and corflJlrt:'.he. th•~ fm.4 goun l and l.~t c riterion.nls.~sod ningon nl.4b) bc•lo rlg to t.tori7. 5.4{>).scs with parall el dwrds (Fig. inalion of the stt·u rtur·c. (d) L ho do~ t. woh. 4.4a).t bl'ing c1Hiruc. TtOil'·l • . tlw trussos may bn l"llbtl ividod into Lru~. ln ac. Tru!.\1 iuto tlw/ie will• a Lriungulnr pattern of tht\ web* W ig. The sueond critc r·ion permits t~o s ubdivi de thH tn•ssc. (c) the level or the nuor.&)li witll n .41b ant! c). note) • v~rt...~ (?'r.co nlancc with the fir.lll. those wi 1h I\ quad rnngulnr pattern J'ormcd by • In Lhc English iipoaking c•m utrics. 5./w.
he ordinary encl snpporLcd tru:.ring t.4cl.lw equililn:ium of ~ parat. ::i.~ ( T r.•r t•·u~se~ ·wi tli a huilti n c. 4c}. 7. tkul'ly dutenninal. llliscel lancous tru~es 11sed in crane co usL.t:<.ho lrusseR wht'r'e Lh~ clecJ.hnt 2K equulions o f ~l. b~?.l' mornher·s of the truss 1 :an be determined hy c. muJtipll~ mcmb~rs form 11 lel.imp)e ll'illnguJnr Wl'h!> W hile tl!o Lruss in l~ig . (Fig.an li lcv<.arriod al: so me intermed in le Jovo I (Fig. ~. *The . ell'.Lerminoct.an t. e and j.se threl:l equiJibrium Ot{UaLiorrs ar·t~ written for LhH tru~s as a whol e . f.ple lrusse.4. or those in ·whi<:h the we.4b). 2. already seen (Ar·t.).Jridgc tr·u:ssr.1 and 3.'tc a nd d. Lho tr:nsscs e . tho doc•. heiu~r <:o nn<. 2.... . can he writ.ld.()Jl llt•ele<l.1) L. His usunl Lo starL with the dctcrm i ual.e tru~s (I( bui11g the number oi its joints). with t he aitl <>I wltid1 both the abutm1~ nt t'lHlcLions and ~tresses (internal fore(}!>) in all the rnornbcr·s can be dt>. Tlw thir(l c. In Artido :~:1 it hag heen shown f.I n IJridl{O con~truclion the lrllSSf!S an> frequently gululi v id•.(the sncalle. »O te I .SOS may hl' suhdividud iuLo mo f trusses (Figs. Lhl?. and arched trus~I'S ill Fig. 1:/ia a nrl 8. 7 A a.Jilicatim1 of t he Post o•· n[ th o Wh ipple trll!:l.ft.s. 5.h Ktruss shown in Fig.1d is 11 '<\lll ll y ca llt'rl t.~r K ~tntl fina1ly trusses.ro~ce.onstruction or various towers.4e and/.ur·t•S forme d hy adding 1~()(). 8.nts. bridge trusses (Figs.wlt~ll by nwaus o[ two coneurrcnt l1ars) ar·c slatir:a lly d<.scs (fig. trusses*.~ in Fig. DlHECT :\IETHODS OF STHESS DETEHMINATIO.ritcrion permits to disLinguish between L.i V()Jy arr y 1111111})(~1' or j<Jillf:~ [:(1 (\ hirrgCC.atie:.iou or l. Hull finally t.hc e. 6Aa.r·in~ ovor Orll:l or but. ti.MEsiBERS OF SJSIPLE TRUSSES l~ Wt) have.4c}.ruetion <Fig.rl:ennirraLI.I\ . 6.ru!. Twodimensional framed stntclurf'. and 4. in which the r·ailway (or road ) is tarried directly by the bottom churd joint!.\()<. 5. tt·us.d webs of whieh are l'orrnod by Lhc s uperposition of two or more sirnpll• grilL'! illnstratNI in Fig.4a}.r·uel..4b). lAb) aucl in L.$ where lite Hpper chot·ds or t he ir joinls t~arr·y the ronclway (f'ig.he ahHtment reactions for: whkh pur·po.• a11d form ar1 l rnyielding cornbinalion. (i. aud llnally Lhe 1.i Lt•vc.4r).leo d<wble 1 '1'arrcn tmss for· il" weh lli<IY h~· Obl1\i!Wd by lht> :mperpo~itiOU OJ' t WII ::.hat framed st.ons ide. The stresses iu tlu~ separal.n t.4) aud.tcn for any ~ta. the c.•cl into Uu·oughbl'idgo t rus::.S form ed in this way are usually ca lied sim. 8 . ro~pnctivoly}.c parts or joints . Lr·iaug:lu (each joinl.cs. As rcgat•fls tlwir 1l estination the l.nd (Fig. i~:~ •.' Hl. (F i~. mny he mgurrh><l as a mo.4c) .h supports (Pig. HSHnlly referred to a~ thll <loltblc.
6. 7.4 (b) ~ Fig.4 . 8.4 Fig.(b) (cJ F i g.
The eqltilibrium equations of the moments of all forces .oucurren t members.. Thus.akon across this tr·uss cutting throe nonconcurrent bars. *Tt will be shov."vlethods of SlresR LletenninntiMI ·155 Qf the structure. The total number or inMpcndent equilibrium equations amounts to 2K:1. one of these bars consti tuting the member in which it is desired to fmd the stress.nal and external.:es and the stresses in the !'. as for r :!Xarnple section II in Fig.1 1. 9. 'rilE 111E'l'HOD OJ1 JI10MEl\TS Thb method is used mainly when a section can be passed th rough the truss in such a way as to cut throo nom. lt is very important.2.4 The axes of such members will intersect by pairs at three different points not lying on one and the same straight line Wig.hat t. in order to determine the stress acting in any member of the truss. both inte .4b)..nt of bors 2J 11(}(/ 24 Fig. this unknown being the internal iorco acting in the bar not passing through the moment point . acting ou the cutoff portion of the truss taken about each of these intersection points will rcduc. without w:kossitating the simultaneous solution of several equations with several unknowns. Dil·ect .o find such imaginary sections wJ1ich will allow direct determination of stresses in the separate bars. Tho following two methods will usually permit the determination of the stresses iu all tho members of a simple tt·uss hy ~:~o lving in each caso one equation with a single unknown. 9. In s uch a case the equation + complic. a section should be t. theso parts or joints being acted upon both by the external f:or<.* Jntersectionpoi. 9.his method can bo (lppliorl also in certain more .. This simplifies ver:y considerably aU ~he computations and at the same time enhances t heir accuracy.4a.ated cases.4.nt of t.e to one oquation with one unknown.t lnl(JrSP. 3 . t.4 j I~ "v lnterM!ctioll pol..ars 1J and 'L.t:tiOn point of P bors T J and 2.ectioned bars.'ll later t.
het'(~foro we shall di~cu::. means that the bars arc in tension Hnd (0) Pig. wheu u ~lrel:!S is ohtained this indic.siriMation a nd two other m~::~mbers. purpose wo s hall pass seetion T. one bt!)onging l.ip1Wr11 ]ndiraling in c.s.by tho lolf:l! l'~ [) and 'V the st:re~>st~s in tlw diagonals nnd vot·t. res pective ly .. a<. bar.twsscs replacing the righthancl p!JrLion or tlw tnrils Wig.et·nal st1·esses (1 2 . Thest' lottor~ will be acl'ompanied by c :. L(~ l.~ When wr·i l.nt11.<.ha ll now ill llstratt• the method of rnomenls just clese•·ibcd hy s~vera'l examples.S in t.ting towards the joint. the ~lro.wctwn of two munbers aoMtt which the moments are taken is usually called the flrigin of mome.b). 10.icH L'i.er nnrnbor of l'ut·cos.. !11 l.4 and 34 (~onc.lw uppor ehord. lOA !.ho lowe1· rhorcls.e ~.s l1ore t.ur .~e ('Sample~ wo shaH denote by tho Jolter U the si. lUifl .:!.:ma ll. We :.>ach Ga::.onuctlnd.ccl npon by a ~. the tt'I. und L 35 . by Lhe loLI.horefore. IL ]s always moro tonvenicnt to consider that part of tb(' truss ac.e t1ie origin of mnmont$ al. of tho joints to whic. For Lhi:. JlOi nt 4 where nwrnb<'I'S . D 3 .i{) .o the~ npper and the other to t. f11 ordt'r to detormine the uuknown slr·cs.hl.ht) lefthand porlion of o ur l:rn~::.h tlw bar u\!g:ttti¥1~ in qlwsl. ll!'l How clettH'miue the stress in the member ::J5 of.t. The point of inta. .4a.e l.f c~utting the mL•mbot· under eon.ISS in Fig.ions all the stresses in the are eonventitmally rodwned positive whic. whieh must he in oquililn·iurn 11nder tho action of tlw ext:Lwna l forcc~s A and P 1 and of tho int.q L 'Js 1rsin~ n ~ingle ~~qllntion we shnll plac.n tho lowt!t' 0111:'.)::.er: L t.ion of the sigus adopted.I'CSSI>.1f.hc numlter<. The .he stresst\S oro diro<:Lod away from the joints. Trusses of all the Hlomonls ahout the point of intersection of tl1e two other bars will yiold immediately tho stress in the member under con~id orat:ion. with the GOnvenl.h .ntes thal the 111ernhcl' is com preRsNI.he stws~os i.ion is ('...lt. T.i ng thn equilibrium cquat. W.. t]l(. and t.
0 11 t. Pz ~ 6 4 A x=fd Fig. 4).t downward~.2.nd as a quotient of the beam bending moment by the lever ann of lfw stress lLbout Ote origin of moments.c fro m Lho lefthand support a~ t. In this case the origin of moments shoul!l be taken at join t 3 a nd the moments of: all forces acting on the lefthand portion oC .C1 tlH! lefthand portion of the t ••trss aho nl. D in•cl ]1{c.. Let us now determine the stress in momher 24 of the upper c. joinl 4.d I. Aa4 ~ P 1p1  L~h ~= 0 whcrofrom Ht.s (inclncling the reaction) applio.'l of all the forces acLing. P..lw sa me span aud subjcctod t o the same loads (Fig. point 4 is ~1v1.<>.a~> iL 1s equal to the height of t.nt ac.s). the henfling momt.ion o[ a simple• heatH situated at the same distance from t he s upport aio. the stress in any member of the lower chord oj a truss may be . .hig parliculur 1:.h means that tho elenwnts of IJte lower chorrl will hn cxlcndod as long as the loads nc.fou.4 8 this momouL being equal to the bending moment aeling over a ~tw l. the ~trO~$ L 3 & will also remain always posiLive. The bending moment in a si mple beam remaining nlways positive \ UtdN' any sy~torn of vet'tical loads. whk. . If indeed t he tru~~ ·were l'eplaced by a s i mp le htH\rn having t.re h is the lover arm of stress £ 3 ~ abo ut the ortgut ul: mouH~ nl.s (in t. anti M~ is the 1110 rtHmt o f all tho external fo•·r.hord..c. Thu~.lhods of Strrss Ortataiuatior> 1!'>7 The s um of JnOmcnt.ting over a section of t his beam s ituated at lhc sa me distauc. 11.he trw.1. L ho origin of momen ts i n t ho tmss. t1.ho o r·i~i n of moments would he exa~:tly t1q ui valo nt Lo t he moment o( all forro1:1 apr>licd to t lw ldthand portion of the truss about thi:.. origin of rnomenl.h~ lcftllllnd pMtio n of tho trus~ ahoul.:.
As the beam rno ment Jl.tion of bars 2tJ.4b)./r. ~11'l. let ltll t•quaw to zero t. 12. if lha truss in Fig...b ~:~ surn of rnomenLs of a lt the forn•s ncting on tho lefthnnd part of the truss a bout point lc nt whic:.ho upper chord mmnher 17 ~M6 = Ad+ U. Ncvcrtheles::s. 10.hat mernL~r 24 is co mpr·o::.t we.t.' s ign. tho me tbnd of moments rom11ins appl icable foe the determinatio n of sLr·c~scs in th l1i r members.. 10. tho stress U 2 ..4b) ~ Jl13 = AdP12 d + U2~r. whic h m oa ns t.II beyond th~ )ll•ri me1.hord as wt>ll as the t•ud po>. + P J (a + 7 P 1 (a+ ~ ) .s of n truss wi ll always re main com{>rcssecl unde r any system of verlic.h i~ equal to d. and 35 in terse<. m11y bC' oasily shown. II.!t) Si mple trusses defined abovo may have a more i ntricate pattnr·rt as rt•proscntcd in r'igs.0 =_ M~ r from w h ich U •. = • _ AdP1d!Z r Tho nurnerntot· o f t he frac tion which we have denoted by is agnin r~qual t<J tho boam bending nwrnont acting over ·a suctio n tho absci~~~~ of whic.al load!'.ht' d i t'C('.15R Th t Trussu the tt·uss RhouL this point sho\lld be equated to zero (se4o! Fig. 12lt and '14.mit.•~ 1' (lf tho truss (see P ig.4 is ~c tiom·cl a long line JI. tiro odgin of moments may be take n at point 6 when' t hree of tho four sectiont>d members converge (Fig.h !.. us ing the sa me reasoning. 1:tlt) . stress in l.uiu< of the stress is always e!Xpressed by the quotient of the m onwnt of e:tJlernal forces acting on tlw lefthand portion oj the truss M by fliP U'vt·r arm of the stress r abottt the smne point N=~ r (1.uced in tho dial!nnal ::1d.l~ is alway~ positiv~ undc1· the given sy~Lem of loads n11d as the fraction M: A~~ is proecdcd by a nogativ<. ln order lo dctcrmi rro the stress Ds~ iud. is nega tive .. tlaat all th~ m cmbl· r~ of the upper c. l11deotl. = (J whcrcrro m D3' • M~ rk It '"ill ho thufl ob::t<rvcd lhat in the method of monwnts the ma.Aa = .&~d . = ' ri') 03 ~rk Aa. and the n·fo•·o wo Mill\ again obtain oJIC equation with ono unl<nown which will yield the. 7 h=0 .TJt .
= Ad.4 can also be ddorminod by the method of mom1H1t..2. 1 Fig. U.cd. the equilibrium equation becomes LM10 =A4d4P X 2. in order to find the stress in bar 79 . cutting in addition to thP mcmbor considered frvc moro l p p p p p p Ftg.5+U 70 h=0 .he ot·igin of moments shOllld ho s hifted to point 4.. Diret:t Ml'thorl. P.l of StrNI D ~t~rmination 15!} whererr·om u.4 A Fig.10. 1f this point is taken as tlac origirr of moments {Fig.J2..1\f~ h h If i t is desired to find tho iutorual force acting in member· fJ9 of the lower chord t. all converging at point .o= r= f" in~Fig. 4 Thus.4). J3.. section II should he pa&.Lnnh=O wllenct' Lr. then '2M.l bars.4.=~ = . 15. /ld M" Stresses in the upper and the lowor chords of tho truss shown 11t.
As ·wi ll be seen frorn Fig.h tiAd. 34 o.U~ 1 r11 ..and .:. 17.:3 .Bb 1.ltc as the number of bars S ~atis !'tt•s t he condition S = 2[( . i n or·der to lind the sLrcss in hal' 12 wt• sha ll plac. T hus.os w ill remaiu U 2 1 .l2.the equilibr iu m equatio n twice wi t h an oppusitc sign.e t'lu~ origin of moments at the point of inLct•seetiou of bars 34 and 56 (point /.e pennit.t._ +p p T){ + *Th is truss c:tnnot he cun!!idtlt'L><i ns hdunging to the sim]Jico tw os hut nevertheless nil tlw st. 1 in F it.s ld. ltiA Fig.Pp .4.. U 3 4 nnd U 0 .* Th i ~ trn~>s < '<Hl!lli lutcs an un y ioldiug syste m hoiu~ composed of two basic tL'iang lcs . 2 X U:i ~ 0.tion rst which eu L~ llltrs . cutting any numbe r o[ hnrs convcr·ging at.ing in har·s 12. p p p p Fig. .<. t he SLl'osses i n har.l5 wi ll balarH.n<l 56 .~tres. lfi . 1t is not possible to lind a section t hrvugh the Shukhov lr·us:. Therefore in t hi~ section only th•'(•(l rwknown ~.r·e.he de ll1rmination of s tresses uc.H•Pcl h Let us uo w con:. Thon wlrerefrom }:M" 1 = . . Sl1ukltov for orw of the l:ngespan buildings in IVlost~ow (l"ig.ru s8 is statkally (itttermin. 17.s t.t.Ol'millcd by the method o. =0 (j 21 '"  l.f momeuts.l4 aud . n single poillt with tho exception o( one .4) . 34 and 5{.S.4).. H1 .1Hfl f i'OIIl whic.l 45 and 23{i ennnoeLed by thl'ee IIOll<:oncuncnt: bars 12.l5 twic.iuer· nn even more co mplicntt\d tru~s !)l'oposod hy the e minent Hll~s i nn engineer V .lb. 34 and 5t: on eo and bars .' N'" in its llHlUlbers may llO <l ettl'm ined lty tho method of lllOUIOJII. the~<e foitresses en te ring.. \Vhich may lu~ t\t\~ily dot.t H owovcn·. The t. th!~ sc H:.
Us. Sections II and IIII will permit t he computation of stres&s ll853 .. pw Fig. Indeed when two Ol ~he sectioned members arc parallel it becomes impossibJH to take the origin of mo1nents at the point of their intersection and therefore the method of moments can no longer be applied. will now be easily obtained by passing straight sections ac. Thus. 17. The examples just consid!=!red lead to the following conclusions: 1'he method of moments ts very expedient when a section may be tctken ct~tttng any nuntber of bars converging at a single point.ro~s any number of bars. 18. The 11\ethod of moments is frequently considered as forming a partir.nlar case of the more general method of seetions. provided each bar wilh the exception of three is sectioned twice.2.ing a section tht·ough the truss will still pormit the detcrminnt)on of the stresses required as we may in that case use tbu equilibri.n three nonconcurrent bars./. and U 65 are determined independently using three oquations.h containing only one unknown. The same method may be l~tilized when the section crosses any nurnber oj bars. provided this point does not fa. 19A.1. This mdhod can also be used in cases when a section cut.1 vidc~d that the stresses remain unknown in not more tban three of them. The stres~es in all the other member:. Direct Methods of Stress Deterrninalf. let us consider the truss represented in Fig.ses U u. point k 2 whore the bars 12 and 56 intersect will be taken as the origin of moments for the determination of the stress U 3 ~ and point k3 will form the origin of moments for stress U65 (Fig.4). stre1.cn HH Similarly.l on the direction of the member investigated. But pas:.um equation of the vertical components of the internal nnrl exlernal forces (it i s assumed that the chords a re horizontal). As an example.~ more thu. proz_·ided the stresses fn all the bars except three are already known. eac.
l45 and :J38 conncctc<l by three nunconcun'OnL bar.ac.s 12. The trugs is Rlatica. j(j.'d lty tho me>thod t•f momonl. Then ~M.uts bars l2.4. may ho <lettermin<. 84 and 5{i. 34 anti 56.utting any number of ])ars eonv<)J:giug at n. 34 unrl 5a onco and ba1·s 14 and 15 twiec pennits tlw determirllll.4). Tlms. thcso stresses entering l. in Ot'der to find the ~Lrcss in bar 1i we sha ll pl.tion through t he Sbukhov trus~ <:.lly dcLorrniuato as the number u[ bars S satislics the <~ondiLion S = 2K. the section r sl which c.\IDllill U2r.. 1ti.Bb~t = 0 '"This truss caruw~ b!l C{)nsidl•ro•l ~~~ JJdorrging to the slrnplc one~ hut nevcrthc. [/34 and u&~ which ma y bo CU$ily determined by Lbe method of monronl$.>less :•II lho :!li'OSSt'' in i ll> nu'rrthtu·~. 17.P p. • .'14 anll 56 (point k 1 in Fig. 17. Shuklrov Ior on11 of the largespan bnildings in Moscow (Fig. p p p p t~~ Flp.<~ = wheroft·om U 21 r~<. It is not po:ss ihlo Lo lind n scr. tht> strosRcs in bnrs 14 and 1i) will hnla uco.hfl eminent Russian engineer V.e the origin of monwnts nt the point u[ intersection of b:n!'< .1(11) fr0111 which l/1v= LL't us now cousider an oven more complicated t russ proposed by t.il)ll of stresses ucting in hill'S . As ·will ho !1eL'n fr·o rn l''ig.s.{ H owLwcr . Therdorc i n tlds section only three nnknowu l!Lrai'~l(\5 will 1'(. single point with t he oxc..he equilibrium nquatiou t\\'ico with an oppo~ite s ign.option oi one.l2.3 = 2 X u:l = 9.4).* This truss constiLutes an uuyicldiug system boing eomposl!u of two ba!'<i1: triangles .
point k 2 whore the bars 12 and 56 inter!)()ct will be t. As an example.akcu as the origin of moments for the determination of the stre~s U 34 and point ka will form the origin of moments for stress U 6 ~ (Fig. Indeed when two of the sectioned members are parallel it becomes impossible to take .zed when the section crosses any number vf bars. provided the stresses in all the bars except three are already known. . 17.llh the exception of three is . The method of moments is frequently considered as forming a parlknlar case of the more geueral method of sections.rO~iS any number of bars.~rs when a section cuts more than three nonconcurrent bars. car.4. pro B Fig.1 vided thaL the stresses remain unknown in not more than three of them.the origin of momonts at the point of their interscc. Tho stresses in all the other membci's will now be easily obtained by passing straight sections ac. U 34 and U 65 are detorminod independently using three oquatioos.tion and therefore the method of moments can no longer be applied.2.h containing on ly one unknown. 19.4.ectioned twice.<. The examples just considered lead to the following conclusions: :the method of moments ts tHny expedient when a section may be talcen ClLtting any number oj bars converging at a single point. sLresses Uzt..4). 18. provided each bar u. But passing a section thr·ough the truss will still permit tho determination of tho stresses required as we may in that case use tho equilibrium equation of the vertical components of the interual and external forces (it is assumed that the chords are horizontal).J P tg.18.ls 1 i853 . let us consider t he truss represented in Fig. This method can also be used in ca. The same method may be utili. Sections II and IIII will permit the computation of stress. Direct Metlwds of Stress Determination Hi1 Similarly. Thus. provided this point drws not fall M the direction of the member investigated.
4 lollhand portion of: tho tm::.D6.orrespondiug so<: tion of a simple bNHn of the snme spnn .4) wE: obtain ~y = AP+ l'.s (F ig.he I I II Fig.he forces {both external and interna l) acting on t.·1(i2 in bars .56 and 67.0 1) wh erefrom whol'<.llll (Fig.4 The cquilihriurn of that portion of t he truss to the left ofsr. In effect projecting on Lhe vortic. 20. p p p Vs<l' z Ls7 A lltg.1. 20.s t he sht\ar iu Lhe c. 21.4 L57 A 'Pig.ctio11 . 2.. t·espcctively.al all t. 19. siua = 0 .\ Q i.4) wi ll again furn islt ~y =APP.
het·efore U~=P1· 2sin a.4 Fig.13 will be obtained i>y projecting all the forces on a direction perpendicular to bar 12. ncling in tlw sccLio nccl hilr". i.2P _ _ Q_ 87  s in o: · ~Ill o: wht. In the case J /' Ftg.=O . We shoJI begin with considoring the equilibrium of. Direct llfelhods of Str~u IJP.~ determine the s tresses in the bars 12.2A. 23.iclerecl soparntely.4.ihritHII of onch joint is (Oil~. = 0 from whicl1 . The magnitude of the stress in the hnr . The projection of all the forcos a ppliell to this joint on the normal to bar 13 (in this case a vertical) gives ~y = A + V 12 sin a.crminatio n of st resses acting in a ll tho members starting with a joint formed by the meeting of two bars only.4. (Fig.IP. 23.1 of simple trusses the methotl of joints permits the successive det. = ~ 1!10 a. As an illustt·ation of the above. lho joint: being separated fro rn the rc~t of lh<' trns~ which is rt>plam<l hy Lht~ strcs:.2P). let u.re Q is again lhc shcnr in Lbo cornsponrliug iiecLiou of a simple hcant. 13. joint 1 llt tho leftband support..w::. 22. lu tbo prl:'sent case A is equal to ~ and t.e.. Uu.).. t his slu~~~· l1cing equal to (A . on the axis y 1 ~Y 1 =A co~aLj 3 sin a. 23 and 35 of lhe truss rcpt·osentcd in Fig. Tilt: MB'l'tlOl) OF WI NTS I11 Lhi!' method tlu~ l'C[lJil. 22.rlllillalfc•n from which D _ A .
s~ Fig.cot a L 13 = 2stn 2 In order Lo dct el'lnine the stresses in members 32 and 35 we shllll separate lho joint 3 (Fig. Hence.a c..164 The Trusses wherefrom L 1s= .. L. '·' ..ting all the forces ou the xaxis leading to 1:X = wherefrom L 13 = V 12 cosa £. 24..os a= .3 +U 12 cos a= 0 Substituting in this expression obtain once again p u.="cot a . when two out of three bars meeting at a.3 . 24. Equating to Z(!ro thl• ~urn or I I IY _. 4 __ ~ all the h<Jrizontul components we fiud :EX =  L3t + La5 = 0 p Hememhering that L 13 and L 81 denotu the same stress in bar 13 we obtain £~ 5 = £ 13 = 2 cota: T he vertical projuction of all forces acting on joiut 3 gives 1:Y =Vs2=0 The stress in bar 32 would remain ni I if this bar were not at right<Jaogles with the lower chor d.~:o A co~ a s1n a I! The same result could also Le obtained hy p rojcc.._6L _..4). joint lie on a straight line. .2 by its value found ()iHlior p W'() . the stresses in these two bars will be equal in amount and . .
. Therefore.4) gives l:Y =U12 sina =0 l:X =U12 cosa + £ 13 = 0 whence Utz = Lt3 = 0 In the actual design of trusses all the threo Illethods described above arc frequent ly used together.u____ "'Ftg.b. In certain ca.4 inaccurate a number of ::mbsequent computations. This will be readily confirmed by c. . in a ll the members arc determined consecutively. 26 .~ Determinaticm 165 in sign and the third bar will remain idle as long a.s no external force is applied to this joint.ented in Fig.ho stresses in bars 24 and 25 which will be expressed in terms of t. preference being given in each particular case t o the one leading more ~.4. The eq11ilibrium of joint 2 will now permit the determination of t.o strnsscs U 21 and · v 23 alrearly known.. 26.irectly to .he result required. Direc t •"tethods of S tres.onsidet:ing the equilibrium of joint 1 of the truss repre.es the computations will be simplified if we remember that if only two bars meet at a jotnt where no external force is applied the stresses in both these bars will be nil.2.4.arried along ancl will render ~"" I :r . Another setback of the method of joints resides in the fact that trigonometrical functions enter the equilibrium equations.4 Fig. ft should be noted however that in tho method of joints the strcssc~. 25. being expressed in terms of t hose found at a previous one.ommitled in determining any particular stress will he c. any accidental orror c. 25..• p ~~ . ihus complicating the calcuh1!. I ndeed tho projection of all the forces acting on this joint on a vertical and on a horizontal (see Fig. thoso found at a latN stagP.
4 .?..JO!!!.•'•.__ P: J(lt P• '0l P• /(/i P t. 27.J. fJ·. I)(/[ ..1 IV !II I f 'tg. .!1 P: /Ot P=IOl !'=lOt ~r·.:. 29.. . ~ " .Pig. 10.. .~ 1·:.'" ' '!.a :.f.ll'l ?.
/ ! 1.. 27 A =0 I 3 s L:.']'able 1.. Sketcll of p ot'll(ln cou sldAr.Pdf 4 +U ~ 61t .~ I !I f &trc=s Bar Nu.5'= .M 3 ~:..d Equll! br lunt equa tions S(l)u tlvn ~± .CS I I t ': I u. I ~ p v l () T.!~) 5 .1' Fig.1.I . 111 . tan r.V1s = V.r p JJ:J<l =sino: ·1.~· 7R 1 r11 2 0 .(\ Fig.5/• (" =2 4 =d·1. Sec• tlon No. " •• I I q §_ ~c'l ~Y= P.i 6<' oo a._p 4 =T 5P =3 .ll 111. N llt.? p .o f..E.J6 ~ " 0 Q'. sina= ..!. . .. .Z = u~ v [}JG L:. 27 "' . Mngni ludl' J.! ' &>.6= ~ • h = ! p 4 54_.8 = .L= h 2 £!'= P+ +D3e s ina=O .
30.ot 3J 5 l:M~c = Au+ +2P<a+ L5d!+ +2P1 (a+ +1.0 u1.2PXL5d.5d) nt 7 =Aa • T 0 r2=(a+3d) X xsio~ 8 ta. ""< Vt + tan2t.5d) I r2 1 (a+ 1. ~ P •lOt '•.n ~ =iT l5eO Fig. . ~·. section or jolr•t No.113<1 + + +3Pd+3Ptd r1 182 r 1=(a+3d) s in a 1 tan a = (Rec 9 Fig..._ a___ ____ .6..5d)+ +D41r2=0 ~i7T  + + 2P r2 2P (a 1 1..rt ..t 0 x d / >.. /.?i}l  r2 ._ .kL·<··:r~~J o~. .rc•from a=6d sin a~ tan ?. 30.p. Skolel1 fl f p{'t tion cousl d~rcd Bqu lllbrlam equations Solution •eton ren~ <+> Comprcastoo () Notes J6 ~M7=A3d . .2P 1 x t .4): at t he same tiu1e ~~~ ~~ 8 a..5d+ llf4&r 1 ::. P.Tnble 2 rJ Magnitude ol stresse5 Dar No. =gX 47 11 I (o+2d) whe..~ rK """' ····.J{!I.4) f1•I{I(Jt p..
·12cl . =O (seu Fig.\) · .v~4(2dfAa1 f.. 30A) P.' JOt 24 :£M5=A2d. ..· A=JOOt P. 30.y ~\lj~+ k.11 =." . = .L&1 gd=0 8 9 ..7 =(. tl ~ (at+"l ~ 3 = tan et1 •.5d+ :!11fal +a.Aas + V _ P (a 1 + d) f.54 z~~llz~ r<. ..3 A2d  Pd+ J>1d r3 190 ra ""' (a1 +2d) X x siu et.Pd .1 Pd .•JOt P 1 '30t +P(at+d) /+ 21' t (!.2cl +~ $ . 3 tana 1 =g .Ptd)lfd o.I 57 I !llf4= 112d I L.a t)=O .rif'o v7G ~Y=Y78 V1a=P1 30 Pt = O D41=Du. I 2d f.{() _ To fmd a 1 use equat ion :.J>td 7G Ill/ . P•!Ot a.Pd  I 180 r I See Fig. 1 3 I SfLs7 ~M.5d+a 1) +Wt (1.at .) ..Ptd + +U21r3=0 Jl I 111 U2· .
•JOt Ad L.~ 11'..i\' (1 'f'. 6" LTJ P 1= 0 EY= A +Ut2 >'.· 25 iJ5 1. Xsin a2= ll I ~ 1'32= Pt I 2 I ~) I 205 &e Fig.otc~ or Joint 1'\o.4 A=IOOt ·  ..<J ot LJt = L:s.: (~~'> fi 9 J LJI. =(a 1 + 2d) X X sin a2 Ptt.a 1) r~ 0 r .k P=JOt :£M11 1=..1 v Ld' ~'t.l:~nltude 2. 30..f. 18(1 l2 VlV/ ..P(d. L_ _    .qs =Sd9 180 .~ sm cx See Fig.. Bnr .. SK'·liOTl Skolrh of porliM cons! rlMI·<l l!rJuill brlom P< JIID.£ 3~ud = O EX =.4> A=IO Ot P . 30.3t + +La5=0 ~Y= Va2 Fig. tlons Sol ut ion T~ll~ ston ( 1> ll Com pre•(~.Aat + .>"~.d+atl r4 ta n a 2 ..S ! Mz = A d5 .:. Uu : /'(d+a tl+ +P1 (d ·j· a 1)+ + D25r~ ·""0 D2!.rbf<' ~t.= Aa 1 ..32 V~· ~ ../ tCollclllri•? •l l stresses or . ~u L't• = .
34.4 . • %.J.~.4 Fig. 31.=JOt A =TOOt 1 P1=JOt.4 Fig.2.1 Fig . Direct Methods oj Stress Determination P:!Qt P=iQt P=!Ot P~!Ot 17 1 P=/01 P. 32. 8.4 Fig. f1 =J0t P1=J0t P 1 •JOt 8=!00t Fig.
•JOt r aJ m~: (b) 1J = lOOt Fif! . ar•~ represented in the f orm of graphs in Figs. 36.4 are entered into T<thle 2. Compute the stresses in all t ho mom bers of the trusses rewesented in Figs.4 and draw the corresponding diagrams. 27. Problem 2. Compressions (rt>ckoncd negaLivc) arc hatched while tetiSions (r~ckoned positive) are.D' cos a. S olut lon . P= !Ot P. Tlw comp11rison of stress diagrams fot· three trusses of equal span. Examining any one of t.' . = .4 from which the Sc<!u~nco of all the operations is quito clear. left llll:>l'taded . carrying tho samo loads and having the same wob pattern shows (see Figs.4. Solution. 33. 27.4 and 31. 2~A . All the calculations are given in 'l'ablo 1.~JOt 0 •JOt P.he joints at midheight of the truss whet·o t. 30.4 is less economical as the combined area of the graphs is the largest and therefore this truss will be the llenviest of the thme.wo iodinod bars meet with the vertical.4 110d 34 .m 1. Probl em a.1t . 36 and 7· 8 of the tr. rncmber locing in direct prop~1rtion t.4a.16.4. 34. (The values of al l the stresses are given m tons. 29. 29.. 30.11. 33.4 and 35. 1.t72 The Trusses 1'roble.4 and consider the equi1ibrivm of the lofthand portions oi the t russ. =JOt A =F OOl !~=SOl P. Pass two sections as indicated in Fig.4) that ~he triangular truss in Fig. tho other columns containing the corresponding equilibrium equations and thtJir solution.4. column 3 contains sketches of the portion of the truss under coi1· sideration. 32. ::12. The t·osulcs of all the calculation:.4. Determine tho stresses in the Ktruss with parallel chord$ repro· senterl in Fig.+ D' cos ex' ~ 0 wherefrom Dcos a.) Computations pertaining to the truss in }'ig. Computo the stresses in mombers 46. All tho four tntsws catTY the same loads and have identical spans. Solut ton. the width of the hand along each truss P · /Ot P =!Ot P•IOt P= /Of.u~s shown in Fig. we find from the projection of all for·ccs on tho horizontal that !X =D cos a.o the magnitude of the StJ·ess.4.
Dir«t Mellzods of Stress Dtterminatton 173 FiJt.1 p p ( C) t eJ (d) p Fig. 38 ~ . .4.2.17.
.'J a nd 1iJ nwot .cplncc d hy the appropriate reactio. C()mnrencing with joint. let us dtaw the corresponding force pol ygo n (Fig.4 acted upon a t thA upper chord joints by th ree· t•qual rc)l'(.ally by tJ1c method of jo in l~ .~ecl and tlw ox tet·· nal forco (r·oact:ion) applied to this joint must.. triangll' mw. V\Tc shall now exam ine the gr11phicnl method of stress nrHtl ysis.tion are bot.<.o a !.St be selec. (2) through both ends of this line trac. thcll he resolved al<>ng tho diwctions of the two borF.. . IPLE.o the directions of bars J2 and 13 \rntil their i nt.~ two Stl'pports having btllln. E vury truss of this type will con tain at. it. a9. invited to provo on his own that the stros~)S in a iJ ~russ llltl mbOI'S mar·ked with a dash in Fig.ophs of Lhoso stressos are shown in Fig.hod. Fig.b eing hascd on t he resolu tio n of forces along Lwo gi.dangle). T he joint being in equil ibr ium and acted upon by rt>action 31' . this mothocl .t Jlt\COSSIIJ'ily dose.4a shows the same truss. Continuing in Lhc some way W(l sha ll complete t. using either tho parallclogntnr nwthod or IJ1e triangle of forces rnet.h known. 3.The Tru&su D=D' wh ich JIIC!I'Ill~ LhaL the slcesses in the incllucd h~~rs of one an d the same r>auc•l 4r~ e<Juul in magnitul!o but opposite in sign.tm. dit•ect.he dc!lm·mination of all tho stresses in all t h(l me mbers of the truss .tion. T RUSSES Jt hns boon shown in L ho pt·ecedin~ arLic.~s in a s impl ~ 1 .1 = T nnd by tho s tresses U 12 nnd £ 13 .i< >Hs. A joint w horo only two bars m oo l.c:cs in two members WP may Jlrocood to tile ucxt joint.(\.4 T ho rMdcr if. Th£'. .rcs.s nblainr. om itted. 37.1\s nn illustration of the abov~. 40. r.stress previous ly found and of t he extcl'llal force a ppliod to the joint (if any) must Le again resolved nlongtho directions of tho next couple of bars.1i.4 aro nil . The foUowitlg sequence should he adoptod. 4.e polygon (which in this particul1n ca& reduces t. 38.o. whorl. wo must (1} l:ty orr at some seale the reaction A whose magnitude a nct di roc. Having tlw. least one joint whorl' on ly lWO bars moot and tniS jOin l shon[d be the s tarting p 0i11t O( the O[JCratiOII. Tho drtcrmination of the stres.4b and c). found either graphically or· analytically.sBS ill all the mcrnl1crs of the truss i. lltH. lot us analyze Lho truss repr6sentcd in Fig. thus co mple tirlg the rorc.0.wo b~tr.' Lho resultant of tlw ..}.ns. for tho joint is in l!qnilibriHm. T ho gr. where t. . GRANHCAL METHOD OF STRESS ANALYSIS IN S l t.cl the s l. 1.ru11s may be determined analytic.crsoc.c parallels t.le that all s tro:.
40. 4.'t b A (b) Q QSP Scale of lood3 !P lSP 2P Z. :1 u.1.4 p (a } Fig.4 . 89.Plg.SP (C) Fig.
32. as the stresses in these bars will have to be accounted for in considering the equilibrium of joints 2 and 3. Arrows should be also shown at the other extremities of bars 12 and 13. 42. The direction (sign) of these stresses will he determined remembering that in a closed force polygon all the forces follow one another. Four bars meet at this joint. 41.4a). :24 and 23. The stresses U 12 and L 13 being known as well as the load P (Fig. 40.ted upon by the load P three bars. Fig. thus forming a closed polygon . namely bars 31. namely bars 21. the construction of tho force polygon (Fig.4a).Polygon as shown in Fig. at first as an u_ uknown to be found and later as . 41.176 The Trusses The sides be and ca o£ this triangle measured to the same seale as reaction A will give the magnitude of the stresses in bars 12 and 19. Stresses in !Jars /J4 and 35 may now be obtained by considering t he equilibrium of joint 3 (sec l<~ig. Hence they may be found by constructiug a force .b oth these stresses are tensile. It will be readily ohsot•vcd that . At joint 2 ac.ic drawing of t. The proc. Each stress will appear twke ill ~hese polygons. respectively.4b) will be carried out as follows: lay off stress U12 acting towards the joint and the load P and then through tilL· free <lJ'ldS of these line~. the t·eaction A being directed upwards. Thus. we shall lind that the stress U 12 acts towards tho joint which means that bar 12 is compressed while stress £ 13 acts away from the joint an<l therefore bar 13 is extonded. will indicate cowpression and those pointing away from the jointtension.4 •. 40. 34 and 35. 41. lowards lhc joint. 42. The determination of the stresses in the righthand half o[ the trnss is noL required due to the symmelry o£ the structure. but the stresses are unknown only i u tht~ last two.4.4a) where arrows pointing J (a) o'SJ~" (b) Ftg.he truss (Fig. \~'e may now mark the direction of the stresses found on the <(<~hc mat.)d ure just described permits the determination of thu stresses in all the members of a truss by constructing successivel y force polygons t'l'lated to each joint. draw two parallels to the direc tions of bal':> :34 and 23 until their intersection. meet together.4b shows that both stresses U 24 and D 23 are compr:essivt•.
40.. This operation is made possible by the fact that in the force polygons the forces appear in the sequence they are met with when each joint is passed around in the clockwise direction. 13.) Thus. b. With these notations the numbering of joints may be completely omitted. in joint 1 in Fig. then the load P and stresses U 24 and D 28 • 'rbis sequence is maintained in the force polygons in Figs. Hence. Having laid off tbe magnitude of reaction. Graphical Method of Stress Analvsis ilL Simple Tm~ses 1i7 a given force applied to the adjacent joint where two oLhor unknown stresses are sought.orrespooding to the two areas it separates. The notations to be used are as follows: letters and ciphei·s will denote areas bounded by the truss members (areas a.4 reaction A followed by stress U 12 and then by £ 13 • Iu joint 2 first comes stress Uj 2 . Such a merger is represented in Fig. and III) . load or reaction will be designated by two indices c.4. the stress in bar 12 will he denoted by Ia when joint 1 is considered and by aI for joinL 2.4a we meet f1rst the Ftg.9. (The opposite direction could be adopted as well.4b. The construction of t he stress diagram will start at joint 1 over the lefthand abutment where only two bars meet. IIII· along the vertical to the scale 12R&3 . II. the clockwise direction being followed). 40.4. omitt ing lhe force polygons of individual joints. Each stress.o form a single diagram called the MaxwellCremona or stress diagram in which each stress will be met with only once. 43. This method will be explained using as an example the truss shown in Fig.c and 41. 44.4. All of these polygons may be merged together t. Similarly. I n practice the stress diagram for the whole truss is generally obtained directly. the lefthand abutment reaction forming the boundary between areas I aod III will be indicated by IIII (but not IIII. tbe load P by III and t he righthand reaction by IIIII. but following tbe tradition we shall always use the one mentioned first.4. and c) or by the lines of action of the loads and reactions (areas I.
45. These stresses will be obtained by tracing through points I II and a two linos parallel to the bars b1II and ab. and the second from a towards III.tion of which shall be marked b. the first being directed from I towards a. 44. . 44. two stresses already founcl ba and al. Fig.178 The Trusses selected we shall obtain the stresses in bars 12 and 13 by tracing through points f and III parallels to the directions of these two bars whose intersection at point a will permit scaling off of stresses in the upper and lower chords /a and aIII. We may now pas15 to joint 3 of the lower chord acted upon by the stress Ilia just found and by two unknown stresses ab and bJJJ.J aUf. In order to determine the directions (signs) of these stresses it will suffice to remember that in a closed polygon all the forces follow each other in one and the same direction.e point of int. th. Marking these directions on the sketch of the truss (Roe Fig. d5 . The next joint to be considered is joint 2 acted upon by the load !If.ts away from this joint and accordingly bar 13 is extended.4) . while the stress aIII ac.4) we note that all Lht> bars mceLing at joint 3 are extended . The sign of these stresses will be derived as heretofore from the direction of the stress IIIa previously found (seo Rig.4) we find immediately that the stress 1a is directed towards joint 1 and is therefore compressive. knowing the direction of the reaction IIII in the triangle /IIIaIII of the diagram we shall readily determine the directions of the stresses 1a ancl p '· / A II! r ' ExternaL III area~ 8 ··. 44. 61 ~. Marking these dimctions on the sketch of t he truss {see :r~ig.4 Pig.ersec. and two unknown . Thus.
46. Indeed.s Y and X should come last (Fig . in other words. Adding to these the load III {line I II) we may readily find the resultant bIl of these three forces marked in dash line in Fig.ates that bar IIIc is cornpressed while bar cb is extended.4a force P 1 should come first in order that the unkno wn stressc. Moreover. ln the stress diagram each L ine denoting au internal fone belongs to two force polygons correspon ding to two adjac.hcck o rt the accuracy of all the operations. the diagram should be closed . Tho forco polygon ba1IIcb indic. for instance. 4 wo fmd lhat out oi the three bars meeting at this joint the stress in one bar only remains unknown. t hese directions being different i n the two cases just mentioned .be stresses in t he diagram . If the diagram has been constructed accurately.ds ancl rt•actions must a lso be closed.1'. 46. Heturning to Fig.onsideration. lino cJIJ giving this stress must be parallel to har 45 and must pass through point II I.ent joints. and t herefore it is not recommended to show the directions of t.4.4 we :find that lhe diagram contains the two stresses ba and a. The construction of tl1e Rtrcss diagram is usually commenced Ly Lracing the closed polygon of loads and reactions which must be laid off ir1 the same order as t hey are met when passing around the truss in a clockwise direction.3.4b). The closure of the external force polygon and of the stress diagram constitutes a ready c. The construction of the forco polygon for each joint should be carried out in such a way that the two unknown stresses should come last.s.o mmencing with the joint where only two bars meet. a1c determined graphically c. t he stress in bar 23 (sec 12• . P assing to the last join t. 45. This being done. Hcsolving this force along two directions parallol to the hars 25 and 24 we shall find the stresses in these bars given by tho length of segments lie and cb. These stresses will a lso be laid off in the sequence they are encountered when passing around each joint in a clockwise direction. 45. This sequcnco will therefore be different for ·Lwo adjacent joiut. The force polygon of exter nal lo11. In the stress diagram the external forces were laid off in the same order as they were encountered when passing aro1tnd t he perimeter of the truss in a clockwise di rection. Thus in the exam}llo given in F ig. The force polygon for poiut 5 will bo represented by IIJIIcll. Gr11phiral Mctltod of Slre8s 11 n~~lvsb i tl S imple Trusus 179 st. the stresses in the bars i ntersecting at each joint. the whole trus~ being in equilibrium. each stress in the diagram is denoted by two indices following ~·ach other in the sequence they were met when passing around the joint in a clockwise direction. it is easy to det~rmine the direction (sign) of each stress without going around tho whole of the force polygon corresponding to the joint u nder c.1.resses IIc and cb.
.tton.4 lies below point b L. the areas bounded by the memb ers of the Lruss and by I. IT. by tracing 11 closed forc. tho intersection h<•ing marked by the l ett£~r a..oint.h thl' exl. The sign of tho str()SSCS will be determined l>y tho application of the rulE> that in a closed force pol ygon all ttl<' forct>. . So1. Accordingly tho . for which purpose n line parallel to bar ll11 i~ t<·nccu through point II nnd u horizontal para11ul lobar a1X through point JX.ho stress ab will be directed away from the lower joint and tberoforl' the corresponding bar will be extended. Using tho notations described abovl' indicaLo by letters a. X (b) (a) Pig. 'J'he fo1·ce polygon must close as tho system of external forces (loads and I'Mctions) is IHdnncod *· The construction or the dingrnm starts at tlte joint ilirectly al)ovo tho !efLhaml ahutmon t .l tont IXII boing clin•c. 44.t.!l As point a. .'l' in thE> same dln•ction. ... Hequired to <.:otrc~' 11tt must c li rcct<"l from right to Jeft and clownwards and stress aIX frnm )('ft to right.r is compressed and the stress in bar a·IX away fi'Om the joult indicating that tnis momber is extendl'd .180 The Truues Fig.cs IXI and III are alrondy set out. 45. thoil· rc~u.. oo • In tho force polygon forcos Vllf. reaction A (force l Xi) bemg Jn id off last. . 1.4b) may bo then constructed eoromencin~ wilh the load acti1~g over the left.. .eJ mine the stresses in all the membe·r:> of lbls tru ss. • .·' on<' anothl.fX (reactiou R) and TXT (reuct. Probl em ...s porunl'wr in a clockwise direction.oostruct a stress diagram for the truss rop1• eseoted in Fig.lnn A) aro slll.. .ornal londs. A force JIOlygon III.{htly offsc:>t towards tho right in order to •Wilid confusion w(t. Foo·c. This force must now be r(:soJvoll a long the directions of Lh<• luw<•r nnil tlw upper chords. In otlcor words. b.e polygon of all the forces acting at this .. 47. TX1 ( Fig.. 47.4a and to det..4) should be denoted by ab if referred to the lower chord joint 3 and by ba when referred to the upper chord joint 2.hand abutwont. etc. .Nl npwnrds. I X the areas ~ieparaLod bf tho dircctioM of the loads and reactions as the truss is pas. tlie stross in bar l 1a will be diroctod towards the joint which meAns tltat this ba. folJo.. . of Lhe force polygon roprei'ented in Fig.fi.oed around it.
1 inteT Section (lf a vertical passing through point c nncl 01' .mo WilY. ! and k will be found in tht1 sa.85P 5.30P 5 .P LOOP hi 1.G. of the stress diagram will be found as follow~: point b by tracing through point a a parallel to tho vertical a. c.80P 5. 47 .·b and Lhrouglt point 1. point tl wi ll he for·mod by ~ho p "" " ~ 1:: ~~~~~~~4~~~~~ q &ate o/ll]()ds f Zf (b) Ftg.oincid~.! X cIX eIX fIX hI X ~IX G. etc.i•fJP de 0 j g ef gh i·k 1.05P 6.4.85P a.85l' 6. J.85P . d .4 Upper ohur<l Bar Lownr chord I:lar V erticals l.lar 0 \ ogona l ~ I Stress I Stress I Str~ss Bar ! Strc•s 1. indiTable 9.~ lino pMalleL to the opper chord mcmlror JVd passing tbrnugh point IV.3. Points e.80P 3 .40P 5 .60/> aIl ItIll dJV gV tVl kVll 6.05P 3 .•s Analysis i r1 Simple 1'ru ~src.~ 181 Poin ts b.. Graphical MPthod of Stre. poini c hy drawing through point b a parallel to the diagonal be nud a horiwnt< ll through point IX.95P 1. h .£/ a parallel to tho bar JJ l·b . g.95P UiO P .30P ab cd L OOP be 1 .40P 6. 50.It will he no ted that poiuts e and f c.
while the upper chord members and the verticals arc compre~seil. The structure so obtained forms an' . 17.4b.unyielding combioaLion as it may be formed by the successive addition o[ joints 2. say. by means of two concurr9llt bars. in many cases th~ complicated systems may be reduced to the simple ones. It will he imm~d.c.s transfori!\ the structure int o a simple system by replacing bar 63 by bar 15 as indicated iu Fig. 4 and 3 to a basic hinged triangle 156. DIRECT ~f. In those circumstances l~t u.4a acted upon by some oxternal :force. by a fictitious replacement {substitution) of bars.iplo unknowns.t:. However. Joad P applied at joint 6. each of these joints being connected. The construetion of tho last diagram pertaining to ~he righlha nd half r. each of these joints being attached by means o£ two concurrent bars. moments will lend to a number of equations each containing several unknowns.' quatiorls with numerous unknowns. Tho magnit.h a transformed system is greatly simplifted for the stresses in all the bars may be found. say. The following example will illustrate this melhod. 48. As a rule. hence the method of joints becomes inapplicable.iately seen that in this structure three bars meet at each joint. 4.THOD OF STRESS DETERMINATION JN COMPLICA'l'ED STATICALLY DETERMINATE FRA~fED STRUCTUTIES OccasionaUy the designer will hnve to deal with framed s tructures of n considerably more intricate pattern than those formed by the successive addition of supplementary joints to a basic triangle. which is extremely undesirable. or to such systems which can be analyzed without solving <...4 dnsh line!> indicate tensions ond solid line$ compressions. . Those systems remain statically deLerminate and in a Jlumber or cases they may be derived from the simple systems by replacing one or more bars by the same number of other b8IS without disturbing the geometrical stability of the system as a whole.cs in all the substitute members remain nil. In tho stress diagram of llig./t. 'l'he analysis of suc. 48. the analysis of such systems will require simultaneous solution of several equations with several unknowns.udes of the> strt~Sscs scaled off the diagram are tuhulated nbove. The additional equations permitting to solve the problem will express that the stres. lL v::ill be seen that aU tho members of the Jower chord and tit(> diogonuls are oxtended.1R2 Cllting that the s tress in the verticul t/ is nil. by the method of joints without the ~>o l ution of equations with mult. Assnme that · it is required to find the stresses in all the tnembers of the structure represented in Fig.f tho truss could oo omitted as the stresses in the two l!alvt>s of n symmetrical truss subjected to a symmetrical system of loads will !~ exactly the same. At tho same tirne the method of.
in this bar equals N.4) we shall f~~td the stresses in all t he members of the system.4) stress in the transformed system induced by the load P s:uno stress induced by a unit load X = 1.ct Jlftll~d of Stress Determi11atum in Framed Structures 183 Let us denote by X the stress induced by the load P in bar 63 aud let us apply the same force to joints 3 and 6 of tho transformed system in the direction of bar 36 (it is assumed that this bar is ~'Xlended). lndced.P (2. Jt i s obvious that the stresses in all 1 .1. too) by N 1 = Ntp + N. In more comp licat~d cases it becomes sometimes necessary to replace two or more bars. Substituting the value of X thus obtained in the expression (2. rn such cases the method just described . we rnny write t. the two systems will be identical for any bar may always be replaced by a force acting in thr snrne J (O) Fig.1.=Nav+N~:cX = = lhr: = 0 (3.xX where N.he members of both the original and the transformed systems will become exactly the same when the stress in the substitute bar 15 reduces to zero under the combined action of forces P and X.4) wher·et'rom X= N •P =Nu. and wht\n the stress is zero this means that t he bar may be omitted without disturbing the system. 48.~ (b) direction and having the same magnitude as the stress in this bar. The same formula applying to the substitute bar.h~tt the stress N.1. birt. The principle of superposit ion enables us to express the stress in any member i of the transformed system (and accordingly of the original on!:~.
X 3 .Tn complicated structures the correct position of the substitute bar is not al ways clear. X3 = = 1. Using ~he replaccmen~ method determine the stresses in all the membors of a framed structure in Fig.• =stresses induced in s ubstitute bar 1 by unit loads X 1 = 1. ..>nce . N2t> Nu. _. Sol1tlton. it may be found in the following way: having e liminated one bar reject one by one all the joints connected to the remaining structure by two distinct bars until a joint is found whose connections are insufficient... • •• The values of the unknown stresses X 1 .4) . If the structure so obtained still docs not belong to the category of simple framed structures. 3. etc. and their expressions will take the form N . 2. ete.. _. lleplncing bar 80 l1y bar 15 as shown in Fig.taJ stresses in the su bstitute bars will still reduce to zero. JV. wilL he in t his cas0 obtained by solving the system of e·q uations (4.4b we obtain 11 ~ simple !<ystem permitting tlle determination of tho stress X in tho roplnced biH' by equating to zero tho stre>ss in the substitute bnl' 1·5 N t1 =Nup+ Nt 6 xXO whc.8. The to.184 The Tn~sses will not dispense completely with the solution of several equations with several unknowns. =0 Nt=N'lp+N21X 1 +NuX2+NuXa+ .. X~· . J::{owevor. Nt3 ...... X. The additional bar needed to fix this joint with respect to the remainder of the structure will constitute the required substitute bar.• =total stresses in the s ub::titute hars 1 . •. =0 Na = N~p+N31 X 1 +N32X 2 +NasXs : {4. '.G and sin ll = 0 . indic.ating the po!. another of its bars should be eliminated and urthcr joints should be rejected until one more joint inadequately E connected to the rest of the structure is found .ilion of the second substitute bar... =unknown stresses in the bars which have been replaced 1V111 N 1. X 2 .4a for sin a = O. 49. = 0 where N 1 . 49. P robl em.l'his procedure may be repeated as many times as necessary to transform the structure into a simple system.J•.4) . X 2 =1. respectively = same stresses in substit ute bar 2. etc. N 2 . X~... N 13 . =Ntp+N 11 X 1 +NnX2 +NuX3 + .
4.ivcly. Table 4. 2.vl5:t 24 9 =.p + N. 49..4. 3 (a} 0 p Ftg.24 1'1\e s tr~ss _!p 8 X=Nt~p +_!P X 111 thu replaced bat iJ·G equals . respectively.::.cutive application to joints 3. Stress lnducea by un!t force Stress Induced by load 1' X= ! 5 Stress Induced by force X Total stress ot system in memb•!rs tb~ ortg i nal 23 or 43 12 or 54 25 10 15 Not~: 6 ..2_P 8 +45 p 56 8 +10 p 0 .. 1. respect..4 Bar No .4 p Jn this example the method of joints should be retained as its conse. The stri)SSt >s in all tbl' other m~mhers of truss will be found using tlw formula Nt=N..3P·e:: P 8 7 1 ._P 14 TP ~P 14 9 'fP 01' 41 +if 5 5 ~P 14 7 Ol' 50 s 7 +. Dir~ct Method oj Stress /)etermtnation in Framed Structure' 185 N 15 p and N 15" b!ling th•~ stresses induced in the substitute bar J~ by t l1 t' l oad P and tho unit force X= 1.1 0 0 0 +MP 15 9 1'i +. (J and 5 will ~how inunediately that only hnrs 1·6.X where N 1p and Nix arc the stresses in the corresponding m<lmber of th(l transformed system iniluced by tiiCl loail P and the unit force X = 1..
lot us take the three trusses reprcscnLed in Fig.4 they are compressed.4 the diagonals arc extended while in the truss in Fig. 34. 32. 2.4.4a will be extended as shown in Fig.spect to the righthand one. 33. As an example.>s appearing in column 4 have been obtained hy multiplying tho~ of column 2 oy the magnitude of the stress X (see below). The bending moment diagram shows that in the beam the lower fibres arc extended and t. In order to facilitate judgement regarding the sign of the stress induced in the different elements of these trusses by a uniformly distribu ted load we shall make use of an auxiliary uniformly loaded benm appearing in Fig..4).4. indicating that in a truss the upper chord will be compressed and the lower one extended. b and c which differ one from another only l. Examining these figures it will be noted that in certain trusses Lhe chord stresses increase from the abutments towards the centre line (Figs.5·6 and 1!J of the transformed system are stressed by the lond P. All the computations are listed in Table 4. 32. TheM and Q diagrams for this beam arc represented in Fig. 35.ly the posiLion of their diagonals. but differing in the outline of their upper chords have been illustrated in Figs. For n number of truss6s the mode of stress variations in chord members. 50. th0 stresses in the chord members will also i ncrease from t ho abutments towards the cent re line. 5..4 and 37. 50. 50. 51 . The shear in section If of the beam being positive tends to lift the.4."lES Stresses computed for trusses of the same span. lefthand portion of the beam with re. 50. the same height and the same number of panels and actod upon by the same system of loads. 32. while the entries oi colmnn 5 result ft·om the summation of figures contained in columns~ nncl 4 . In trusses oi different shape but of the same web pattern the verticals and the diagonals may sustain stresses of different sign. c.4e and f . 35.186 The Tr~. b. 33.4a.4 of Art.hc upper ones are compressed. X in t. all ~ho other membei'S remaining idle. d) will help to find the signs of the stre!>ses in the web members.4. thus.4d.4.4.4a and . the sign of the stress in the elements of the web as well as certain other peculiarities of their performance may be predicted without detailed calcul ations. in the truss in Fig.~sses . while in other trusses they decrease {Figs. Hence the sectioned diagonal of the truss shown in Fig. In the same beam the bl•nding moment increases from the ends towards the middle and accordingly (the height of a truss with parallel chords remaining constant). 50. 33.11o replaced bar 36. Valut. Sections taken through t he auxiliary beam and the trusses (section II in Fig.4). STRESS DISTRIBUTlON IN DLFFERENT TYPES OF TH US.4 nnd 34. Entries into thtJ !lth and the 5th columns have been made only after finding the stres.4.4a.4 and 37.
S0.4. Stress Dlstributior£ tn /)tfferent T/f{H!$ of Tru$ses 187 I II (0) I (b) II I {C) I q ta J .' {I:!} Jib I I I I ll! i r:LI!IIllll I M graph :%: (f)~ 'f ~ Qgraph ~~~~~~rm~q! ~z Fig.):).5..4 .
The same reasoning ".4b are compressed while in the Warren truss appearing in Fig. if the load is applied to the lowl /fVtiNSl F ig.4/ shows also that t he shearing forces decrease towards the middle o[ the beam.4 Ftg. 50. 50. This may be easily proved by considering the equilibrium of the appropriate joints of the truss.'1 and 5 are compressed and verticals 2 and 4 are idle.. 50. 50. These stresses will also decrease towards the centre line of the trusses like the shearing forces in the simple beam (Fig.4a are PXtended. 50. 50. The direction of tho stresses in the verticals of the Pratt and the Howe trusses in Fig.4/). 52. . similarly the stresses in the diagonals of the trusses will also drop towards midspan. those of t he Howe truss in Pig. 50. 3 and 5 will become idle and verticals i and 4 will become extended .lJ show that all the diagonals of the Pratt truss represented in Fig. 50.4b). The shear acting in the lefthand portion being posit ive is directed upwards. Vice versn. 51. Fig. 52. the t_ru~s lD F1g.4a and b).4a) and extending it in the H owe truss (Fig. 52.4b and c will be compressed (Fig.4c extended diagonals will alternate with compressed ones.188 The Trusses the !\Cctioned diagonals of the trusses of Fig. 52. J When t he loads are applitld ~o th_e upper c~ord of.4 er chord verticals 1. .4a and b will bo readily fo und considering the equilibrium of that portion of theso trusses which lies to the right of section JIll (Fig.4b and c).4c 1ts vertlcals J. 51. compressing the vertical in t he Pratt truss (Fig.
55.4. Such will be the case of a uniformly loaded parabolic truss (compare the bending moment diagram in Fig.4a. When two symmetrical concentrated loads are applied at the hip joints of a truss (as in Fig. In these cases all the diagonals romain idle and the stressos in the verticals are either equal to the load appliod at the corresponding joint (if the loads aro c. 56.4. When the upper chord follows exactly the bending moment diagram.4c). When the outline of the truss chords does not coincide with the bending moment diagram. 50. 54. 34.repre~entcd in Fig. 53. The accuracy of these statements is well illustrated by tho stresse::.4. For instance.g.4b with the truss in Fig.4a.where a.4a).arriod by the low<~r l'ltord) or become nil . when the load is applied to tho top c. 55.4b) or of a triangular truss carrying one concentrated load applied at its apex (compare tho bending moment diagram iu Fig. is the angle formed cos ex by lhe corresponding member of the chord wHh a hori~ontal.4e on the schematic drawing of the truss as represented in J:. In this case tho shear remains constant along each half span. 53. The analysis of stress d istribution becomes considerably more complicated for trusses with nonparallel chords such as shown in F ig. 32.4 and 35. b and c . 54. . b and c. the stress distribution might alter considerably. 50.4e with truss in Fig.l. if a single load were applied at midspan of a beam its bending moment and shear diagrams would be such as shown in Fig.5. The same will apply to the stresses in the web members of the trusses. If the trusses were loaded differently.members except the ond ones will remain consta nt as rnay easily be deducted from t he bending moment diagram of the auxiliary beam .ord inates of both drawings coincide. (extension) in the lower chord members will remain constant and the compression in the upper 1 ·chord will be directly proportional to . At t he same time t he stresses in the web me mbers will be nil (see shear diagram of a simple beam in Fig. The scales should be so adjusted that maximum . 54.4b. only tho signs of the stresses in tho top and bottom chords and the mode of tboir variation rnay be still predicted fairly easily.4a) the stresses in all the chord .4. 54.hord. Stru1 Distribution in Different Types of Tru••~$ 189 All the above is readily confirmed by the stress diagrams in Figs. t ho stress. Let us take for example a triangular truss acted upon hy a uniform load and let us superpose tho corresponding bending momen~ diagrnm in Fig. the l ower chord being always oxhmded and the uppe r one compressed as long as unit stresses oi the same sign contiHue to exist in the upper and lower fibres of the auxiliary simple bcnm. computed for tho parabolic truss represented in Fig.
1 ..l !I'"'I(~'""'II"TTIIII"TTIIII...:. 5..·es (a~ r Mgroph {o (J gropiJ (C~~ "!'i~lll.II! . 53..11111 1111811 Ill IIIIYZ F ig...4 Fig.E (IJJ .4 (aJ # ~ (b) ~lllllllllllllllllmllll lllll~ pq (C) llRIDft p Q grapll Ftg.'1.190 The 7'nts... 54.
.rl.6.4 bott. Conversely it may also be shown that iE any given load will produce a well defin ed set of finite stresses in all the members of a [rarnecl st. 5l~ O.:5i x=hmn"~ T ) Accordingly the rutio 2 (1 will decrease from abntmenl bo centre line and so will the stresses in both the top anrl tho i. Indeed it can be proved that in sepl!rnte members of such sl·ructures finite loads will induce inf1nite or indefinite strt~.. 2.4.rical stabilHy.4.') by a uniform lond rApresented in F ig. Analysis of Geometrical Stability of Framed Structltres 191 The ordinate of the bending moment diagram a rlistance.( {l.' Stl>IPLE STRUCTURES PRJ\MED It has heen shown in Art.Sl )Zhm4>:=4x(L %) hmox 12 At the same place the height of the t russ equals h= '. 56. ANA fJYSIS OF GEO'METRICAL STABILITY OF STRliC'fURES 1. the number of bars formin~ a given structure cannot con~titute alont> a criterion of ils geo met.ed in a triangnla r trw:. 6. 33. Con1hmation of this statement will he found in t he dittgram of stresses induc.'>t'~.= Fig. Jn some cases instantaneously unstable structures cnn be detected fairly easily. a framed structure may he instantaneously unstable even if the number of bars i n each of its parts i~ stl.'!. x f1·om the lefthand abutment will be Y=hmax .mctnre and t hat when the load is nil.ient to ensure i ls rigi1lity. 1 thai. Therefore.fiic. all the stresses in all .om chc1rds.
58.46) and let us c. It is easily proved that under zero load the stresses in all the connecting bars will be necessarily nil. A plate connected to the g1·ound by means of three nonconcuncnt bars forms as we know ao unyielding combination (Fig. and . The method of investigating the rigidity of framed structures based on this property may therefore be termed the zero load method. The same reasoning will show that . but nevertheless the system is unstable. 59. this stt·ucture constitutes an unyielding combination.cy of the statements made above let us consider the following examples.).a mple of a hinged quadrangle represented in Fig. Otherwise erroneous condusions may be arrived at as will he seen from the ex. Replacing once again the bars by the corresponding reactions and equating . Now l et us investigate the case when the plate is supported by three concurrent bars intersecting at point 0 (Fig.!1 of jolll l.onsider the equilibrium of the moments of all tho forces acting on the plate about the point of interst>ction oE reactions BA 1111d I? ll (point O.4 F tg. Indeed let us replace these bars by the corresponding reactions . We obtain Rcrc =O and as t he lever arm r 0 =1= 0.RA• . 58. In order to demonstrate the acmm1. is sufficient to ensure its stability.s shows immediately that when no l oad is applied the stresses i n all the members are nil. This serves to c. 58. Indeed the method D Fig.~ of a geometrical stable system always remain idle when the structure carrie.4). strt~cture.4. 57.s no loa.d.4a).R 8. 57.RA and R 0 are also nil.192 The Trusses the members of this structure will also reduce to zero. Lhe reaction R 0 is uocessarily nil. 1t should be noted however that before applying this method care should be taken to ascertain that the number of bars in each part of thr.onfirm the statement made above that all the member.R 0 (Fig.
r n and rc nre infmitely small.e load P not passing through point 0.4 . the three SUJlportiug llars wiJ I no longer.ly unstable. A llllll!~is of Oe<'melrical Stability of Framed Structurt>g 19. lhe sum of IIWJUents of a ll external forces about this point hecorues 'ZM 0 =R~~.ts iu e.e.he cquiJibri\Hn equalion about the sarnC' point 0 heeoruos '2Mo=R_1 1' .curred. H could then he rcsolVl'cl nlong the directions of the other two haes. Thus.bed if some arbi trary value wt~re nttl'ilmted lo any one of the reactions. Howovt~r as soon as an infmit.Ro3 .esimal rotation will have oc. Accordingly.11. Hence. t3.{ to zero lh~ ~>um or all the momNals of exLernal forces abouL poiul 0 we C1bL:dn the identity 'I.~ + Rnrn + RC'rc+Pr=O iodk. .nstable sy.O+RIJO + ReO+ Pr '::/: 0 as nei thor P nor r are. the cquntiows of the force projt!dions on the x and yaxcs) will not help in fanding n dutinite solution for tlwy wil l contnin lhrcc unlwowus.tion values satisfying th<~ equilihri11m cond itions.ing that tho reaction i11 at least one o£ the bars mul!t Le inlinit.e.fi.ro. The same con<:..Cill being Cround (a) Fig. moans that we can lind any uumher of rcar.~ + Rcrc = 0 for r.1 = r a = rc = 0. remain concurmnl stnd the reactions indnced therein tJy the load P will be able to balance this load.neously u.'(incd value even when no load i!> applied.~trm nur. t.Mo=RArA + Rrh.ystem is instantnneouf.e.y have no well dr. 'J'ba t means that the system is 1i0t in equilibrium and the plate will rotate about point 0.qniliLH'ium. lhe values of tho reactions rl:'lflnin undetermint!d. which indicatos lhat the f. the whole sysi. If: the same system is subjected lo some frui !. r. for the levet• atms r~~.!1 lha. At this pat't lcu lar moment. 59. That.ln~ion will he rcac. the stresses in an instanta. l'he otht'r Lwo equilibrium equations (for inslanc.
. 131.ampl o of instantan eously unstable sttu{'Lurcs is pl'escntod in Fig.Y~" !':in a. Allhough the number of bars iu this syslern f)qunls 2!(::1.>s a.onsistiog of n plate adequately connected Lo lhQg round and supporting joint c nltac.l nnd we know thllt such systems 11rtl on11tablt).1 ~ ~p (b) Fz~r 61 .4a c.hed to iL l>y two concurrent . in that casP joint c will be connt>cted to the rest. t>0. formed by t h1:1 two ba t'S w1tb the horizontal <Jpproat~ h zero..b in these bnrs will be giVNI hy I X= Nca cosa.ontradictory conclusions.J> =(I wh Are[l'om Tt fo lluws tha t when tl1e angl<. while the equilibriu m of joint d requires th a t it should equal 7 P.anl.4 hal's ac ond he.~.&~ Fig .~ or joints of the structllre.arnination of equilibrium coudit'ions at j<Jints c and d leads to r.ltH'e by two bars lyh1g on one and the sAme hor i zon t. if (1) finite force.is conlroversity i ndicates clearly that the system is instantaneously unsl~1h le...__¥'..= 0 :EY :: .~tress value.+ Ncb sin a. 60 . tlt•J "l r(lsses "rG and N. if a system.194 The Trusses the in/Rrnal forces dn·eloped in an tnstantcmeou. 60. .~ult from the consideration of different part.+Nrb cos a. Another example may be furn ished by the geometrically stable s tructure in Fig.. I ndeed.ore members infinite stresses or (2) the stresses cannot be determined or controversial . 'J'hus.~ re.4bl. is provided with a number of bars sufficient to ensure tts rigidity it will be instantaneously unstable.~ induee in one or m. ff a load P were applied to thi~ joint Wig. One more cx..aueonsfy unstable.. the e. the ~t resses in these b:trs will increase iudeftnitQly proving that the system hns become ins t.4.. Th. of the ~t rlH:. Indeed the equili brium of joint r requir(IS that the stress in bar cd should be nil..~ly unstablesystern acted upon by a finite load may surpass any given value and therefore sm:h systems cannot be u ~ed.
ICA1 J•:O S1'H UC1 UIU:S First.. 62. The. the i nner ro rrl' X iu the replaced mem brr of t h4' origin al sysl.l>tr r.hc t nlJlsform nt io n of the c. COli1P l .4.tra nsformed syste m w.nte bar a stress N~.ordon c ~ with for mula (3..4). th en .LUreS tho Stabi lity of whi ch t he render i ~ i nvilcd to in V l'f: tigat. t he stres~ N. A nal!Jsls Ctj Gtun" frical Stability o f Framed S tmc.6 .ordingly t lu s syst.4 repre~ents H J\ Ulll ber Of framed Sl. al!'o d i~tin ct from zero. 4 2.1. indueed i 11 the fiubs ti.(lm ·will t'qnal X=  N ep N cx 13* . 62. H e s hould kee p i u rniud t hnt.rU('.. IJ consist of an elemen tMy ln angle to whic h a cert a i n nu mber of joints has hecn added . this ·me t!10d twco nHI8 inapp ht'ablc if th t~ nutnbor ot ba r<~ tl' iufcrior to (2K..e using the 1. let. h ence. the case ")Hi ll l. us <'Xnmine..t u te bar b y a load P will havH a well defined a11d fini te~ \781nH.omplicnlcd ~yst om into a simple one requi rPs t ltP r rpla('l' lllt'll t of hut one bar.• 195 f• ' i g .om wi ll form a n un y i elding combination .3).ero Joad me thod . (O) ~ (d/~ (f) Pi. in aer. lf a unit stre11s X = 1 dirt!clf<n ul ong t he ba r that h as been r(•plaeed induces in the suhstit. ench connected by two conu ll'l'(>nl bars a n d acc.
balance a nil therefore 1 .e!!>s in bar 16 is nil. the projection on the yortical of all the st.~table.om pressed. Thl:' abnvo can be form ulated as follows: when the stress induced m . bu. Knowing the direction of these stresses (the reader is invited to vorify them) and considering the equilibrium of joint K or using l.Rses acting (Ill joint 4 will show that bar 4K must be extended in order to bal a nee t. Passing to joint 2 we ::.hc push exerted by bnr 24. 'J.rns an unyielding combination. On the other hand .'he ~arne result cot1ld h:wc llcen anived at by passing fl'om joint 2 to joint 3 and then to joint (J.lt caf.hether: Ncx is nil or possesses so rne def1ni te valul:'.4 <Hld 64. Lhe same wi ll ap]lly to all the other stresses induced by a load P in the original system which .atcd syst. and wheu Nr. Lut u.hat bar 12 is QXlCJHled and that the str. The substitute bars arc show11 iu dash lines.t•d bar heeomes either infinite or inuelenniuatc indicating thett Lhe whole system is instnntancotlsly nustahtc. Moreover.4 represent a certain number of original and tmnsforroed syslerns for which the reader is invHcd to check tht! nc<~urac.his stress is linite and well rlalined . the syslern in Fig. .al will110t.e w. for instanee.ordingly.x = 0 it is i nstanlnncously unstable. proves that thu ily~tem is goomotr. The plus and rninus signs placed against certain bars indicate tho direction (sign) of the stress induc. the system is instantaneously unstable and u.19f> Sine!:' l. for otherwise tho projccli ons of all the forces applied to joi. as wo know.he systorn i!$ stable. the stress in tho roplac. Hence t lte substitute bar K{i \vill ht) c.is extended and bar 24 is compressed. 63.4a.tcm by a unit force X = 1 acting aloug the replaced bar of the original one. Fig!:'.y of the value of Ne:r indieaterl . the rt~ader wil.ecns. the substit1tte bar of the transformed .ically stable.s investigat. TJw Ctqni librium o[ joint 1 o[ the transformed system showg immediately l.~tem by a unit force X = 1 adiag along the replaced bar of the original system differs from zero.re. Acc. 63.hc mcLhod of shears or that of tho momeuts.cd in t he transformed sy1. if Nex = 0 then X==. anrl to decide accordingly whether lhc system is stable or 110t.fl. of in vestigati ng the stability of complic.t when this stress becomes nil. th!! system is geometrically .ce that bar 23 .~ + Nex NeTJ oo ot· X 0 =o [u othor words. When ]Vex =fo 0 the system for. the oxpression X =  ~"" Nrx cnnsh tntes a mean::.n{U for practical usc.l find 'in cac.nt J( on l:he horizon l.~y.
When the transformation of a complicated system into a simple oue t·•~qn ire~ tile l'oplacemAnt of more thnn one bar.bnve set~l. t he eqnnlions . ()t.4b it i~< ensict· to projocl o n the lwrizonlal all l he furrt·s acting a.6. Using the same methods the reader ~. 63. 6. R!U Fig. >jJ (C ) (dl Pig.01'0 hy taki111:! in SIIC.4c wilt become unsta bl e whlHI a= ~· For the i<lrucLurc in Fig. for lht! Transformed systems syslt>lll i n Original systems /( (O} + (b) cr.y of the stnrcture in F ig. A llftly.honld IJu~n invcstigat(' tho stahilit.4..ion nn.<ts of Gr:ometric~Ll Sl•tbillly of Frtwtr.4.4d he will lind that Nq is 7.if Struclrtr~s 197 It is sugge11ted that the reader should prove that the structure rep resented in J:t'ig.'5. 63.t'Q~<~iun Rcctio11s nn and mm.
· N~.'c) ~ ·.:. . etc. .+ .. artsmg in this case in l. = U N3 =N~.\' 11.sX:•+ .XJi•v.tltSformatl systems are.' Ftg...4) 1V1 = ..198 Tht: 'l'russes df'nying the existence of a diffc ronce between th~ original and the ll'..g... as we havo already seen (Eq..4 X= I flu:: SLI'{'S<ses X 1• X 2.:\": 1. I· NHXi +NuX"L .J. • .iV21 X 1 +Nz!Xz +X~aX:.Nw'l..he substitute bars will pOS!>CSS CCIIIc r e te values moaning that the wl. =0 etc. . 4.ole syswm i~ stl'!'blo on ly whon the determinant D is differer1t from zero. 6~...U N 2 :.zX2 +·'V:. .. (bl K ' ' 0 . e. ·f. ..
become unc.'$ X 1 • X 2 • otc .IH'I.N2.1.tthe loads aro generally applied to a tr uss nt p anel poi nLl5 evcrylhing that has been said in Art. . 5. fnflltM~l' U11eS /or StresSe.11 7 .4. whirh indicatl'S ~hat the system is in ~tanLaneousl y = nn ~.! in S/lnple FramaJ S trueturts 199 when iYuN12N1a D = N2tNz2. 65.rat•y. .table.ain .7.. 01 (b) (c: J ~~\g) tdl reJ rt 1 . when D 0 tho values ot strcsse. JNFLL18\CE L l \ES FOR STRESSES IN SIMPLE FHAMED STilUCTUHES A<s.2 a bout the construction of influence lines for girders with floor bea ms and stringL'rs rcmaiu~ tl'no fot· those p ertaining Lo trusses. rgJ Fig.'l + 0 N 31]1j32N33 On the cortl.
it is Jn(II'C conve11ient to t:onsider Lite oquilihdum of the loft.4) viz.cs 11c. 2.a l (lass ing throng h the leftband abutment a11d by COilllet:Ling it with a point of zero ordinate n L t he righ t.hand one (Line a. J'he method of moments.he load is applied t. (iG. 1l should be noted also that HAd is nnrnul'ica lly ~qual to the bl'!Hling.ti ng to the lt•ft of ~(.e tiuo for the stt·ess irt bar 7.M6 =A · 3dL.ocl by lixcrl loads (see Art.4. l.ing t.~ L 7 9 will bo tlte same ns (or maction A multiplied by ~~ .he S::. liG .b). (.ltd). the me1.o zero i': iltf of nil t he forc.lw sl.9 of t.Hi .JllrHnenL • '11! acting over the cross sor:. P lacing the origin of moments at point (i and eq unt.Ita we shall pass section I I across three bars of l.'! irt this case the righthnnd reaction B multiplied by :!\ToLe that once again ':!Bd is l'.t the iurlucur:.he methorl of shears and the lllO I.nce Ji ucs . the stress in bat· 79 equa l.ion J1 we obtui n 1:.Ii od of joints rnay IJe 0111 ployed fot• the (!01\St.4c) 3 giving £79 = 51d ln other words.he deck bridge truss i 11 Fig. induc. 1 . ac.he corresponding p~rtc.!c. [n ordc1· t o cons truc. t. liii. when t.111.b in Fi I{.hand part of the trnss as the latter is at~ted upon :::olely by tho 11hutment reaclion (Fig. equivalen t of the simple hearn bending moment .200 The Truuu All the method:s used for computing stresse:. When the load is L o the loft of join t 6 the stress L 7 D cnn he dcri ved fl'ont the cquilibl'ium equn tiou rol11LiYe to the l'ighll•n•ui Jla t·t of Lht• truss (Fig.ting over .o the right of joint 8. It is clear from tho 11bove that ns long as the load n!nu\ius to the right of point 8 the inOuonce line for the strog.ti ou of 11 : > implu bea m situate<] at tile same distance Iro111 t ho suppor'ls aS lht> ori~in of mo ments (poi11t 6) in the truss.L W hen the un it load P is to the right. . of joi nt 8.r·uction <If ·infJne./t=0 wIt lii'Of rom Thus..bod of moments.l'ess in hur 79 equals the lef:thand reaction A miltiplied b y a consta nt fa ctor· ~ . Ht•nce the righth1111d pa rt of tbo infhxencc lino may be oblainod by laying off : nJong the verbir.
7. [nfluence L ines .1./(>r Strt$$CS In Stmpk Framed Structure& 201 .
tmmt.4d).Connect by a straight line the two points of interse.s between joint~ 6. If all the operations have been carried out correctly lines a 1b and b1a will intersect under joint 6. 66.ctinn of the aboue lines wilh the Fcrticals bounding the panel which contains the bar undt'l c•m. \Ve may now shade the area bounded by t hese line.t the same.e fo1· the load located to the left from joint 6 the influence line for st.tton.sing through the ahutment A we started hy laying off along the one passing t hrough the abutment 8 wher~1 b i.e . 4_ Connect this intersection point with the point of zero ordinau:· i OV<?r the lefthand abutment.nd of the lefthand p arts of the influence line. at the righthand abutm.ss £ 79 may b~ dl'a wn by joining a point over the righthand alrnt men~ havin[r for ord inat<:> ~ wilh n poinL of zero ordinate over the lefthand one (lirw bla in Fig. .on that tho stress inlhwn~:e lines for end supported trusses can he obtairwd usi ng the following p·roce. H enc.Connect this ordinate with a point of Zf. c).e betwPen this abutment and the origin of moments.nt8. the area acba in Fig. Thl• above ~xamplc leads to the conclu. The sequenc. point. F or the righthand portion of the tn. 2.. 5. Another way of obtaining the same influence line is based on the relation existing between the stt'el>S L 79 and the simple beam bonding moment M~ L 79 = h Mg Th1s relation indicates that the influence line for slre::.rO ordinate.sidera.e o[ all the operatious would remain exactly .similal' if i nstead of laying off ~ along the vertieal pa::.si.4d..sstng through the left abutrnent (upwards or dou~nwards depatding on the sign of thR stress) an ordinate where a is the: distance of the origin of moments to the lefthand abu. this point lying in thR vertical passing through the origin of mnnumts.'r arm of the stress abou.cnt 3.202 The Trusses a sccLion corr~~sponding to point 6.s i n bar 79 can be obtained by di viding all the ordinates of a simplo hea m be11ding moment influence line by th~ height of the t. this proves once more that ltnes a 1 b and b1a must intersect at a point lying tn the vertical passing through joint 6 (poinl.fluence line lay off along the vertical pa.>spec'tivoly. 66. i. and h is the [PtJI. On the line so obtained m ark the intersection point of the right{/.6 andl6 rt.1. h. Then the ordinntc ~ sh ould be connoc L ed t ..dure: ·1. lncidontally.s the distanc.re.
66. This will give us the li nes a 1b and ab 1 in Fig.be load is to tho right of joint N tho infl11ence liuo may be obtained by mul t iplying the t:eac...tor stna . and finally tho l'ig hthand part of the iufl\lence line should be obtained by connec.. t hese two points should be connected by a straight line.4<:) entail whcnc. lhe :mme c. 6l'\.<action B.4a}.hrough the origin of moments..SID a to the influence line ord inates of rE. s•o a Jj These two expressions givillg the strtlSS Den tn lcl'rllS or lhu reactions show that when t.h the point of zero ord inate at the righthand abutment.oo the intersection point ·of the two portions of the influence line falls on the vertical passing t. 1 the lefthand abutment and .4b) wJ1en the unit Jond P = i travels between joints S and J(j requires that ~y = 1 t·t~ding A D69 sin x = O to D69 .onsiderations rf.. Accordingly the construction of the corresponding pat·ts of the 1 . .ting this point wit.8 t.below the rightrhand one and 51001 tn connecting them with the points of zuro ordinate at the ot. Framed Slructur~s 2(1~ by a straight line with the point of zero ord inate oveJ: tho lcHhand abutment. The equilibrium of all the vertical p·rojections of forces acting on t he lefthand portion of t he truss (Fig.ovl'r influen ce line will consist in setting off the ordinates S lD OI .1. tho same truss (see Fig. fn{lt~nce Lln~s for Stresses in Simp[.and (negative) parts of the influence line. we obtain the righthand (positive) and the left}.t) + . respectively. 66. As an illustrat ion of this method ... and when it has shifted loth" lcft of joi11t tJ we must apply a factor ( ../1 hy 1 a constant fac.tion . 6 6. A sin a When the l oad is siluatctl bet ween joiDts 1 and fi. Marking on the first line the position of joint 8 and on the second t ha t of joint 6.7. both points being infmitoly dbtant.s in the diagonal 69 of.'lative to the righthand portion of the truss (see F tg.e Deg= ..her 13nd of the truss.4r. let us draw t he influence line for the stre1. the apex of the influence line should be found by projecting on this line the origin of moments. It may be observed that in this ca!.. The method of shears.
hicvod directly pt•ojecti ng nil t.204.L 7 5 sin [1 ~ L 7o tau~ The snnl(! r·esult can he ac. 6fiAJ) we obtain ~y = v16 + £75 si n~ = 0 wherofrom and Lh i~ is valid for a ny positiun of lhe lond along the truss as i t can never be applied directly to join t 7.~ actiug n L join t 7 (Fig. BoLh Lhl' method o£ moments and the method of shcn1·s would he uf no avail in this case as any section through the truss would nn~s at least four llllrs (sec sections IIII and Ill. 'Jhe influence line for tho ·ve1·tical S!J (fig. The Trussell Tho change in tho sign of the ord inates to the influonc. T ho 111ethod of joi n ts may be conveniently used i'or tho constJ·uc1ion of Lh~.ounterbracos.l).4a) shou ld also be constructed using the method of joint:. 67. .4g.G could be derived from L hnL of the stress £ 7 ~ Ly JllHltiplying its orcliuatl\s by (sin~) .e line obtained indicates that bar 69 will be consecutively compressed and then extended as the unit load t ravels along the deck from joint 1 to joint . (:fi.e line for tho s tress i n the vertica l 67 (Fig. C(lnsidering tho equilibrium of joi nt 8 we find immediately that (1) when the load is applled to any joinL tJ.L 7 ~ it can be obtainod by equating Lo 7 .4b) LY = .cro tho su •n o( hori zon tal projections of all the forces ading on the joint unller rousidoJ'a L ion leadi ug to l .4c) ~Y = V8 g.Xcept joiu L8 (fig. i nnuenC'.["'79 A CI)..76 . least three more b1u'S.e line for the slre~s v.tt~ n ~ ) is n•J)t'tlsonLed in l~ ig .q fo1· ljt. Tho influence liuc for stress V 76 obtained by multiplying the ordinall}~ of tho infl11enc. 66Aa). 66. Hence tlu: influenc.o liuo for £ 79 by ( ..hc fOl'l'l:lS applied to join t 7 on a normal to bar 75 . l!:quating to zero the sum of va rtical projections of nil the forct•. for again any section through the truss cutting this bar will cross at.W as rncntior~ed aboYe.fff of Lhe ~H me figul't.~ I' T hcrcf<tr~ V16 = .P =0 . ti7.\.rcss .Vsg=O (2) whou the load is applil'd to joi nt 8 (Fig. the bridge heiug of the !leek type. members designed to resist strossos of opposite sign at·e called c.
Drnw tlw i nfhumce 1inl)~ fnl' thl' t. i8 nn1l 7'1 of monL~. 4.uturc.70.4a. 7u}IIJ .1 Consequently whon the lmiL load i s 11pplied to any CIE thll joinl. for Strr. 67..1 l>:r th~· rrwthnd . (j ot· . l ' rnhl(>.l>ttf.lnt.hi! PruU lt'II"S ~hown i n Fig.'J . ln{!ut•nrt f.r loft of ~tion k·k (F•~t· \l8.rut. The equ ili!w1 11111 or that.qll<ll \(1 p11ints f1nd c. S the stress Y 8v bcc()mes c. 1..• in har. S ll't!'>':'l'.. . 6i.4 line r~quimtl.i ovl•r joint 8. th~ vertical 89 remains idle. This lin6 t•cpre~QJ1ted in Fig. lines we obt11in thc iunucuc. 14 and JG. . llll<lptiu~ joint 8 1•<>o tht• tm~ to th(• Tho inlln e>nr•• lin(l f111' L 70 will be obtnine.<. The ~ign of tltc Ordil\<\\. li$.q_\CS that tho YCrlirnJ Can ho on ly ('(llll(lrCSSCd nnd tbordore consti lULl•s a st.~ts In Simple Framed S/r.< <~lid th~re[ore 20:'i V89 =P = .m 1. Knowing the 01'din11tes to the innuunce lino nt the relovnnt panel 8 / ' 10 (0'} Ji'if!.(' indic. hut when this load shifts to joint..'s 1:M8 =A3d !.4bl whcu thl> lo111l is tu 1l1<~ t•tght of lhi:.7A.e (!'.on.s ] . 12.. por· .JS the origin of mutnent".r mn.!1d h11S lltll ~hapl• of a lt·ianglc with a maximum onl i n~tt~ oqunl lo .uunccting Uw~~ by straight. Sf. scrlion rNJuirl.
The cornplch•cl in lluem:c line will be of triangular shape with the apex direc tly jotnl 8 ( Fig. 1'hc T r usst$ ~rt ual ~ll 2.4c).20() Tint~.t.lw zc~r·o po·int at.nin. by conoecting thi s ordimtte with the Zl'l'll nrdmote po int at the oppo~itt> end of the t ru ss.hc stre~s in bar 711. tho required iu fluonce line will be obtained by laying off nn ordinate {OJ (b) (t) :!.ion or all tho forcE'S act ing on ~he lt>fthand por tion of the truss we obt. u ud~r . 68. Using sec.4 l.ho lofthand abutnumt nnd the point just monti(mod. by marking tho po~ition of till' ori.4d) and equa ting to zero the pl'oject.tion nn (Fig. Thct me thod of sboars is wl'll adapted for the construction of the influence line for t.25 uvcr the lefLhand abutw~ul. 68.: in or tuornents ljoint 8) on this Jmc and finally by drawing a line through. G8.. t.25 Fig.
ct the SMno point.·n tile. the 1r1nnenel' litH::.f t.c nc~ a. Taldng sec tion ~tn and using the methocl of mom<mts (poiut /i.> fl rst p('rtaining to ci<:rk bridg('S a nd llu• :. ()!). leading to a dJ:. 'fho dist. The s nm o will apply to joints 6 and 7.emellt of the panrl points correspouding to the apic~s of Lh t~ l•n.rtical 64 O qiWI to 32 9 nwtrcs and tan a = .econd uuu to through bridges. Hcqui!·ccl th(l mnucncc l iJlt> for SLL'O~~ D~a or the.32 . tht.h< .!!:!. the first being Illlmcdintt:ly lo tho left of soetion a1~ in tile t'ase of deck bridgt~s and the stet•Jlc.he c~se of through hridges.and pvrt 111n 1lf tlc e truss require. LY=Bl'is""O tJtt.s are transmitted.l iu t..411 .ll aboc. As the equations of equilibrium of tho Jeri.' vor ann of tho strl's. are tl·ansmiltcd tic rough tl1u up]lHr dcord (as in derk bridges) the fus t joint to U1r. ll10 (•quili l• " lu· rd rum l'. and '~ that . mlly bt• r\>und frurn 1 . of o ut St>Cl iCIO Dw=r  Ao IT•·n• r is Llw ll. for both casos will bt~ Sil'ic. but when t.he load« nro appliod to the !owN cl10ru (through bridges) it will be joint. I~ or P roble m 2 . :£}'=A+ V1a  o Y18 = . It.truss roproscmtcd ia Jo'ig. t>8Ae and f COI'ri'!'(})Ond to th(' two posttio us M the> floor beams.. Soluti.lly parallP1. I nfluence Lmes }CI•' Str·esus in Simple Framtd Structllr C& 207 wlcc•n lho Joad P = t is lo the right or the Stle~fon n11 .~ D:.plac.: .~=0.> l•)ad ccuiLy is to tho Jo[t of socti\•n ricc m •>r llw riglttl.h~ slrLISS v18 is jni nt S.1481. but the position of tht' rmcHJI thr·ough which st•ction nu passes will v ~ry.7._ Luna whc:fl! h2 ill th!' height or tl••· vc.a rt)(a t •vo lo point K.4. 9.1": tl'ianglo Ktr4 a+2d = . & ·ight of l'Cr tinn rvn rtl latwo to t. The illO\Ience li•• e~< 111 Fig.. h!! cng t::~ken as J ·he odgih) we lind tbaL when the lone\ unity i:> t<~ the right.A Similarly wlc.m ..andior tho rightbaJid portioJJs of the truss are ind t<pc uclont the level at whidc tht\ Joad.s=B should he III)Le(l thnt when tl1e load:. rcoct ion ..
.> oht11iued J'l?lllCill lwring that lbt tlircctious of the • 'l'hr same figures could llC obtained using tht> formula • sin~= V1 + tauz~ tan~ .= _ =0.·1 • ' l .h(> inOneUC(> Jiuo fo•· U~o will l!e.. 'f l I I I I I I .. .lte '..Bt =24.t ·r.185 3 U~i ug l :tbh:s ~1( naturll( trigonometric functiOliS Wll find* ~ =w= ~ 49'50' unJ sin ~ .0.• ovN t. . 20. !'s& : ' I ''  L .. l'ighthand JlCII'Li!ln whic.1f.871o.374 or<linat•.r.o ntl ubllhlll!llL \\it h llw Zl!l'll m u iu a lo pnint ill tlt n OLhN rnd . 09 ..h will be fonued by ~ho lin(> c.$(/ ~181'1' I i I I : {':r.. Fig..71i4 ..!1 ll'ft(.f tho truss.7G4 Ull ing th"s" values we find r = (18 +1J) 0.gin wi~h it'.IIJIHCcliug t. .Tlu TntMI's Henco a + :!d == 9 X0.0 motros 32 fl~18 1)\ '1'111• k vrr ann r ecp1n Is Thl• anglt> r=(a +3dJ ~ i11 ~ will be tll•tcrmincd from 32i 9 32 tan~ = 1.\3 uw trt1s S11hstiLnling Lhl' abovu in the formula Kivi ng 1J56 iu terms 11f o 1111d r we ••hlain ll:IA D. l 20 6 Th" construdion hf t. Tlu· II!ILh ~<ntl portion wil l hE. ··t·~Y 1fp fo.. ' ' ..hu 0.
wheu tloo unit luod P = 1 is to tho right of SI.o .idorillg tlu• o~quilihrium of Lhl' left.ame scc.ing on the )p[tlo:tnll part of t. Solution..1. l:M1 = D56r 1 =0 11. 70..853 .~ when lonol un ity }J i!' to Lim n {(/! ln/li!INICl! /.ido. the vortk<\S lying urulo.~ in F'ig.timt nn. r 'l'ho influl'nr.< o[ s(l(:tion nn.ho truss :tlwut point 1 wo ob tain.7.~•• D~.c.r· tho pn nel poinl. ari~ing Pr•obltHn 3.<\b will th us havt> a tl'iaug\llur shape with itll ajlex directly under the origin of motMnt~.~ nnrl v 76 in a triungular roof tnts.s on hotiL :.hord. 70Aa whon tho loads arc aJ>pl ierl t. ll!.~ alw~tys inlN~ct under tho ol'igin of moment!.Z.< in Simz....ht• so nn of a'J I thn mom1mls <>f fnrc1~s :tct. influence line jM· stress D 56 • Using tile . Within tht1 pnnol eon t<liniug roc. Till~ complotod influuw.int• for U. lines for sLrt>sse::c U.line l't>JH'OSt>lltl'd in Fig.s (e! Fig.• Fram..IC. 70.tion nn n thil'!l l in<~ will e<mn<•cl.ro t.1 right of tlw section we ohtain wltorefrom ZM6=A·3d ·+U1~r = 0 Us=~~ .o lino is shown in 1'ig..l. lnflltence line for strtss U75 • l'a!<sing !<l\CtioJJ nn ancl <'<•u.he l OWt\1" r.'ob. lnfZIIrllcf' L int!s for Strusf. Hequirod Utt\ influMce.hand part of the trus.:tl Strud11res 21)9 two pitrl.tinn an<l t'quatiug to zp.o t.
. • =:l!IIlil!el!_______________ . 71.210 T fze Trusses I 6 8 {f) Pig.swa tr ~ Fig.J __ . 1 I I I t I : I I I I . f 1 hffix. trvss... ___ . 125 : I 1 T.. I .:J.Stna: ~ 1 f... 72.4 : ~ lnflvem:t? lUle fu:· 0 2 I I 1 t .4 l...
ru~s .~.1: Fig. . 7.. :E.tuct!ld using the (~q uulit>n of the ('f! Uili brium O( lllOIDCDI.l!l!llillliMII'~ :Influence lille for v¥  influence line for [136 Ftg.art= O whl'J'{'from Bl D6a = . Tho left hand purtion of the influence line mny he const.1. 75. t.IIf1 = Bl .1 Ftg. 7.ion nn.c to tero as long as Lhe unit load Is to tho right of the pnnol containing bo r 56.Hence the urdinates of the influence line will r€lduc.S pertaining to tlto riJj'hthanc l part O£ the 0 I ' ·~ ' :' CWii' Ll!lJllWlN I!.rt Le.Dr.1 the L oad unity P being t o t ho left of sect. the str<!S~ D 56 is equal to the righthand abutment reaction B mu ltiplied hy (.r~) .
( : U 79 cos a ~o a ln/lu.or·reiipondiug influence line appeal'S in Fig.o~ t.ertce lint for slrts/1 1'76 • U:.ting all th o force~ act.. 711.V70 :Uf7~ sin a =0 wherefrom .212 Tlu 1'r11Ut't< The c.lc.4 Tho pruj~ction o r the !arne f<tr<:cs (HI a V(•rlical giws l:)' = .n:e line for Vu12 Influence line for Vso Fig.:.ing ou joint 7 <Inn lnll'izuuta l we obtnin !X= irul ir.iug tho method of joints and pt•oict.'1~. lnfltJ.ati ng that l. 76 .
w cllOrd . INFLUEKCR LgEs .6 m ar he oLlainotl hy rnullipl} iug all lito t. Wher• tlto load 11111l. 1'2 nppli<•<l l<1 smy jniut with tho exc. = ll.. 'o . · clash. (al Pro ve t he.emen t m<'thod described in Art. 70. 'J'hl' llHt:xi muul O l'(l inil tA.s an exam pi~ lot us consider the truss reptescntcd in Fig.•smt tcc.he infhu•nco l int• fur U7.inod by riividing. lfi~t ts.ls along tho upper chord and A'wo is the stress in tho same brtr i nduced by tho force Xc = 1. llonn! the inOuclH'e line for the abutment reaction Xc may he ohta. .4.l in Fig.> aetur:tcy «•f lh<' influence )toe.o<itlor tlt c < Jquilihrium vf that portion nf thll Lru s~ lo t.vc.tnres and in parLicu lar of multispan ~tat.b when the load unity Lro.\ carried ou t using the r<'plac.q inOnc•nc:c.tor (~si n <X/ . At Lhtl joinL 6' we mu~t thcu apply an ex ternal Iorc.ica ll y determinate ones m f•Y hi. in Fig.r·u ~~ rc~pn.4.~ iu Fig.. 77.n) N6·o i!. (b) As rcgn rds the tru~s in F'ig.lirw shown in Fig. iu 0nl'ncc li n<' feu· l'.  (a! It i ~ rcc. by 11 co n~tnnl fnr.Hllncl'.(J beconws nil wht•rrf rom 1l t'. th.tlmrn Limled to c.h c right ~tf the ~ecli r>n . 'l'h(l I'NI<kt· i!:' inv itA)d to solvu llw fn!lowing twn J)ro!Jlems on hi!> ( •Wn . OVN tlw t'ig'hth:nul abnl= B.. lt is ohv iuus thnl in lhi ~ ca~o thC' har unrl!'r <"on ~idc.1'0 H STHESSES IN COMI'f.4b). 72. 8./Ja. C by a vertical memlwr fJ'{i (l•'ig. 77. 73. Pr~>vo tlu: r•c •c•urac:y o[ tJt o influt'OCl' li uo::. i ·J.omrnllltdcd lo uso the molhod of joints for liH! in All once liuo fot· ~ t1·ess 1'2 of the t. whereby Lho complicnted truss is converted into a simple one.4. let us toplnct' the sup por·t.(ln. t.y P ill IIIOI\1. wh<•n tlw load unity ill t. l'rohkrn 2. ln ordee to obtain th(' influence line for tho reactiM Cat tho i n Lormodiat.4 through 7«i./J.4e will ho l'CIU ill tro 1 .."1 it i~ r•~r.ration v2 will TOffi llin iuk.lho ordinates to tho iuOucncc 1iue for strc~~ Nh by (Nwo). . nrd htl't<'~ of l'roblcm J.o the left thert>of.. 4.l of thi. i\. 77 . whith will he equal to the rcactinn C wbeu the stress in the suiJsti tuto har (j'.o ~upport when t ho load trave ls a lc '1ng thtl uppc.optirm nf tl1o jttin t.c Xc. Whon the load is OY(Ir Lhe J•ighthand aLulrn t>nt. 72.hc s Lr·t•ss in bar 6''6 of t he Lru~ s how u in 1'ig.I CA'i'ED !:'' HAMED S'fRUCTUfiER The design of cornplicalnd framed s trut.lo :utd Ih) clruw th<' mOucncc lines for tit (• ~lrPSS<'S in ~tlcliti t•na l har" mnrktd hv n c l<lltbh.
.g.: 5 .I IP•I ( o) I IP •I G' ({)) x. 77. 7...J . Fig.4 1 I I! I I .. I ' .4 (e ) ~~ Influence l~nc for Xc I ' fD J ~: l II .. . • : .S./ I~+ J 1 f.
Let us dctcrmi ne now the stress induced in bar 6' 6 by a force X c = 1 using for that purpose the equilibrium of joint 6' (Fig.4.4a) and let us consider the equilibrium of the lefthaud part of the truss assuming that unit load P = 1 is to the rig ht.~.sinct Xc=::. 78.4d.= 0 a. 78.:N6'6 In order to obtain the influence line for N's·s· let us pass section I III (see Fig. Influence Lines in Complicated Framed Stmclures 215 Tl1e i nfluence line fo r the stress N'u·o may be constructed using the equilibrium equations regarding joint 6' (Fig. uf the section I Me= A· 5d.X . 78.X = N6·r.3 2 V2 N•• o · ~· . 'fhe correspouding influenee line for tho simple truss (Fig.2 =.d.4. 78. the righthand portion of the influence line for stress N6·s· may be obtained by laying off the ordinates 5 sin a = = 5 2 above the lefthand abutment and by connecting it ~ith Lhe poiot of zero ordinate over the righthand one. i8. whe1 ·efrom N6·s• = 5A sin a Consequently.N6·r. sVi Vz 3 Xc · = 2N R•5•= sin~ l'ls·o V2x2 = .4a and b).4c} Y whore Consequeutly therefore ~y = Ne'6 + 1 +2No'6' sina = 0 N s·~· =  5 r (see Fig. The lefthand part of the influence line will be obtained remembering that the lines a l ways intersect under the origin of moments (point 6).· cosa+N6•1· cosa=O ~y = N6·~· sin a+N6•1• sin et+N's·s = 0 whorefrorn N 6·e = .· Sin .r 2Nis·&· 3X 2 .. 78.4a) is represented in Fig. I.4d) Ns·s = • 1 +2 .2N6·s· sin a Substituting N6·6 in the expression for reaction Xc we obtain 2N fl.8.
! 2 Y _.cd in its element~.ouo my o bt. Theso auxiliary systoms will permit the i nsta llntion of c.h.5"' with tho horizontal nnd thcrefo•·c an incn:ase i n tho height of the t1·uss will lead to lengthening of t. 9. Tllc a hovo formula shows that other conditions re maining unchnnged .h(• other bnt'S o( tho tl'U~S can be en.4e.o the incroa.:c in t lw lover arm r. Jth 1fs a.o. Y..onvoniont wht~ll the dia.ses in all (..Slan t Iaeto r ~qual to :..<.ily ol)tained.:D PAN~L~ W hen the method of momeuts is used t he stress in any uw mher of a truss can be exprcs~tl by the formula N ·= ± . Thc~l' systGms will remni n idle as lung as t lw l oad is nntside the panel whidl they reinJorc:. may outwL'ight.<1.d Lhtl w flucnt:e h ues for ~tro.4b Wl~ have rcprcseutod a rleck brirlgo lrns.<l.c Jinc for Su·~· by a cr)H. Th ur~ ill a t rus!> wit h parnllol ehorcls the length of a panel will u~unlly he very close to the truss heigh t (l<'ig. tho upper chord of which is roin{orc.2Hl . Tn Fig.ni nod Lhrough tho rodtH~ li nn of iltt·csse!S in tbc truss mcm h<m<.. lhc oc:.ho panels with tho introduction o[ secondary member. A rationa l solution of the p roh lom rosidcs in the subd i v i ~i on of t. its only purpose being to ensure the stability o [ tho co mbi nocl system. pauols of increased longlh require Lhc usc of heavier tloor beams and stringers whic. HowovN. 79.he panel~. 7HA. . which will transmit tho loads appliert within t ho pu nc I to lite joi n l:. the s lress N decrease!' propot·lionally l. panel.'l'ht: ~o~respon~ iug inOuc~co line is rt•pre:mnlod in Fi~.!!_ r where il· f = moment of tilt' fort·cs lo tho righL or· to tho left of tho section about Lhe origin of moments r = lever ar m of the strasil N nbou~ th o S<Hno point. unrl w ill 1 Jcco mo stressed only while t he load is w it hi n the limits of tltat.nco line for ~action X~ will bu ohtained hy multtplytug a ll the ord u_~_atcs Lo tllo wfloo ur. lho inll •w. the inerea~ in tllc height of the t ruf!s wlti ch always le11ds to the i ncrease of thtl )ever arm r will entail n red u cti on in t he stresses induc.gona L<> form an anglt· close lo 1. Accordingly. running auxi liary kingpostcrl banms.:.cd as described above.ros:s h~Jnms at in ltmncdiato points which provides for u cunsidornbll! mdm·Lion in t he weight or t ho floor eltJnl\nts.'J of t ho main Lru:!S.e..<t). SLntcturally it is muro c. T he bar ab i ~ a lways id le. 'fliUSSES WITH SUBDJVJDF. llt•.uc. 78 .
of that time.9 .<.. A gradual shortening of all tho vertical memllors connoct. 79.• lf t ho kingposts wero extend ed dow nwards and co nnedotl lo tho upper chord momlwrs we would obtai n the truss shown in Fig.tbdit:ided Warren truss. Jt wi ll be •·oadily ob~etvod t hat tho stres. 7!1.. . and if in t he latte r the length of ks becomes nil .n~l.postod beams with the uppor churd loads. 79/•b.* engilll'Cr a nd l't.ing the auxil iary king. to the system roJ>roscntod in Fig. we· will linal'ly obtain a dock. 79.1te.ienti!lt.h in tho J~ nglish sponking countrit)S is usunlly <"nllcd a sr...1. 1'nn•e~ mil/).4d in which the beams coincide ~ : :.c.ia.bridge truss with subdivided pam1ls represented in :Fig. A bridge of t his Lype was d()Signetl by him in 1895 and hu ilt across tho ri ver YOlti l'e i. 79. Professor J. S!tbdimdP d Po. ?HA. all ~he s~rCSSC:! in Utis truss havtug been ·lc tcrminotl with tho nit! of innucnc~:~ lines.l\1:! in all the members of th e latter truss arc ident ical lio those or tlto truss in Fig. H wo now t U!'IJthc kingposted benn1s upside down wo will ohlain tho truss sltown in Fig. Tho rigidity nucl the reducc :d weight o£ this bridge have placed it among the topranking onginetH·ing achievements. Fig . trusses of • tha~ type wcro fi rst used hy lht) emint>nL II ussian nnilway Engineering.4! whic.l with the u p per chord members of the main truss. Proskuryo kov of the Moscow Jnst itut" e of • In nu. ~~ II I I ' ~ .
pmding on wlu:the. 5!l' and 4'1 of the througlt bridge truss with subdividod panels representod in Fig. Tho member 23 bolongs to the first group and thorefore the corresjlOnding influence . all tho mema bers may he regarded as belonging to tltree groups: 1. Members belonging to the main tl'llSS.218 The sec. examine the effect of the secondary members. noting with rnrc to which member of the main truss this load is transmitted.4a. 80. as they are frequently called) transmit the load to the main joints of the same chord. Members bclongi••g simultaneously to the main and tho auxiliary systems. In structures. It should bo noted that auxiliary systems similar to that shown in Fig. Members belonging entirely to the auxiliary systorns.4 cannot be regarded as constituting a genuine trussed beam rein. 80. for in addition to vertical loads it will transmit <Jqually horizontal forces to the joints of the main system .4g.rs is altered by the presl>nCe of the secondary ones. Fig. 79.r the load travels along one or the other chord as the performance of such nwrnbe. for which purpose shift the load from joint to joint of the auxiliary system. the truss members will form four dist.4 3. This 'b eing done. In other cases these elements may transmit the loads applied to tho lower chord to the joints of the upper one or vice versa as for instance in Fig. the stresses in which are not influenced by the presence of allxiliary systems. Tho influence lines for the stresses in members of the fourth group will Ilc obtained as follows: . Draw tho inlluenco lines for the streslies in members 28. where the secondary elements (su bverticais and s ubdiagonals. 2. Start wiLh the const•·uction of the influence lillO for stress V23 . S olutiotz. Three of these have been just enumm·ated while the fourth is constituted by su. Problem 1.fi1·st draw the iniluence line for the appropriate member of the main truss both for the case of a load travelling along the upper chord and along the lower one.ch members for which the influence lin~s change de. disregard· ing the presence of the secondary elements. Stresses in such members will bo obtained by the summation of those pertaining to the main and the auxiliary systems considered separately. tho stresses in which may be obtained in the same manner as for an isolated endsupported trussed beam.ondary elements represented in Fig.inct groups. 81. Whon the seconda1·y members transmit the load from the upper chord to tho lower one or vice versa.forccment. 79.4/ transmit the loads applied to the upper chord to t he main joints of the same chord.
4c. . 'The: c .4 Fig. 82. the stress D 1 .h belongs to the third group wo shall pa~s a sectiou 1l nnd as~uming that tho loarl unity is to the right of ~his scclion. 81 A b).!/.nce ~ + Dr. 7 may be obtained as for an isolatoo kingposted beam shown in Fig.4' whic. As for the stress in bar ..orresponding infiuence line is rcprostmted in Fig. The subdiagonal 4'7 lJolnngs to the second group.4c. Trusset: with Subdit>id~d Panels 2·1!1 lines mny be obtained disregarding comple1ely tho subvcrticals and subdiagonals (see Fig. 81 . may ho oht..~ sina This ~quation indicates thnt n~ long ns the load is \o the right of section 11 the influenco line for D 5.ainod by multiplying thll orolinntes to the . the stress D 4 • 7 becomes ni l.4d. 81 . In this case it i~ i!8!:ily found that when tho loud unity nets at the joint li' tho sLrcss in Lar 4'7 will bo given by the equalion l:Y= wlu.4 and whon the load shifts to tho supports. we shall ohtnin wherefrom D 54· . Using the method of joints and considering the equilibrium of joint 3 WQ shall find a triangular influence line represented in Fig. 81.7 sino: = D 4' 7  GLvt'fi J'lNCWre 0 6 ra• _ _ _ 1_ 2sina (C) ((/) Fig. 81.9.
Prublem. tho ordinate to the influenct> line roduces to zoru. bt>gin wit.~l!Jlonding t. Nov~rtho\oss wh<>n thB load moves to joint .nts. in tho vet·tical THI$sirag through the origin of moments nud that whl•n thu load reac.4 and 8~\. lf31.ws.? (Fig. whicl1 iu nfft!C·t is cquivalont to the transf~:~r of tho lond it.o t. Tiro following prohlom should be solvt~d hy tho reaclet· 011 his own.Sl.lf.hords of the main l'YHlmn.h t.. $2Ae.1 innucncc linu for tho nbutmont roac.m!lut.lw lnad unity is t. 81.~ the lel'thand nhut.h .ruction of tho influence lines rclaL.hc level of load appli!:. The vettic. Th<• influcncn lint> will bt> completed by connocting points a nnd c con. 82. if tho loads Wl•ro applied to the u ppl)r chord . But wltHn thn load stands OVIO't' j11int.e line is ohtltincd traciug tlto conw:c Ling liTIIJ through the points coJTe~pondiug to joint~ 8 at•d . H2.() v~4 = Aa a+2d C<•nnecting the ordinate a~ d at tho lefthand abutment wit. Solution. Th e required influoncolino hounds the shaded at·ea in Fig. Sll'CSI:I 'rhl'li<' oJ'('Iinnt es will suffice ft>r the construction of the influenc.nl uncter consiclerati<•n holonging to lho fomth group of' memheo·s. For ~his purpose lot us Jlass section II and writ(l that !M ob(>Ut point k for the lefthand p11rl of l. the ~t.lw origiu ui rnomc.he. 82 A b.lw truss <!quuls Zl•roJ whon t.'>ululiviuod panlll~.tion A hy ( .o tho right of join ts 5 a1111 a.!Jlion. lt is intl•rost. Pr oblem 2. ro preSfln tell in Fig.cordingly ordinatl'S "~m and nn will pnwail at these tnomc. (n) Check the influence lines pertaining to tho through bridge tnJSS\JS in .4/). ~2.4c) and. Jn thl! euau consitl1 1rod t.o line re<Juired. wo may dnow it'> lt>fthand po•·tiou using the ru\() that t. through the two }lOint8 c~1rrosponding to joints 2 aud 4 (Fig.o joints 5 all(l 5' ( Fig.ing to note that foJ" the t•.ho ordin11te uu in Fig. Jill(~~ it! way:.t~s of Fig.onncct points a mul b conospon<ling l•J joint$ !i and 7 l!liminating thereby tho triangle abc which r·cpn~sonts th <~ infltumcc Jim• for tho~ nwmhor . 83.11l. Having thus ohtaiuml Silt 0: the J'igltthan<l JlOrtion of tho inlluonc.l! lefLhan'l portion will be derived from the rule tl1at tho two intorwc.hoy must int(w~c~ct.ntl' is infinitely distant . 81/t& we should c. Ar.ompleted influonc.hl• right of tllis ROCtiOil whl'DC.).54' nf the auxiliary eystem (~imilar to l htl mw shown in Jo'ig.). h1 en~' the lortd travollcd uloug t.lt.t under the origin of momt~nts (point kj.ress in the verticul 84 i:l iudeVt·udent of t. of juints 1 and 2 01· L. 82. the truss chords being p~~ralleJ.a line [ u r· LlH• t.'le· l'or tho uwmber 4'7). of the througlr hridge tr·ns.'! all the secondary memho•·s lu:com~ idlo a11d il will ho t.ho lower chord the c.he zoro ordin2 :rto at tlw 1•ighthand <me we shall obtain the righthand portion of the influonco (t. 3' or· S ' of thl' lower chord the secondary Jlll:mhors will transmit it entirl'ly to th11 joints of the nppe1 · one.~ ~!town in } ?ig.4<l).iv() to thi s mt>mhcr for loads trave1ling along the uppor and lowor c. 81. lloquired the 'influence line for the stress r 3 . will giveth<! value of tile lillC r()quir()cl.i"igs. · .s wit. we must. Tholllt two influt~nce linE's show that when the load is to the left.4c that.h the const.
·.. _ ll I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 .d. .lll!ll·~lh u)•ill ·~~'"l"'l w1 .· · : .nrt! l £11(! (or :Js1 I I I • ~ I II r·..m(l11 .~.IUC : lnfl ur... 7 9 . 831 .. J ~ '... I I I ._":. . .._. · .. .t¥1! 1 I ..t· . ' I I r.... : ! I l ~·j .l I • I I I I 1 [ (} I • . ....._J. · ' ·] I Ftg. . I I _a _ 1 6d..ul!llll.. · . __J..i I I I ...l1 I ~ I. ~ ~ i : t 1I. I i I I I I 1 ~ 1.....iI I ' J ' I I I I I I I I 1 .l j t.tLUilil'tln.Liss• 1 ..::_.1 • .:::::.. .~. I Jt=mr~. ..fl ~ ·· a ····.1.  .lll 1 ll lltJli....·.... ·..._. '2 I ' · . 81. ' i ~~ ' ·. .. I ) 1 L. ~ : ! ·4 1' i .J)J14m.. ..5 _..L2a ~ ~.:Jmumun•!!ll·"l·"""""l I I Influence line for 1 _ ~ v~:.·.. . . I ' I I 1 Fig...1 rz l ·. I I ! .J..: _._!nfll!_e~c_: line (or . or\ ·· • \ ~ ~:::... /n{luencc tim: fqr Ds'o' t1.V 111 u•l u~m·m·" "' "l I I ...t.... ~ t1 I I I I I I= 18d !i< l r... ~ .7 t~xWJr.. 'I I I I I J!.~ · . .
7 . Hints.4 rtopresent(.····· li.IJ5. The infiuence lino .I .2sin o:). . _.S in bar 8!J of the main system is tlms equal t.l feJ Fig. · L.. dim inato all the secondal'y members.:}.jAa.·:· ! 1:11ord t oaded J 1 : I ~1 ~ .:. ·. P rior to the construction of the influence line for stress Vs9 of the tntss in Fig... !n( luence line tor fl.. IJJILV"i ~· ..ross VB~ rolativo to tllis systom whnrl'from v:e= 2u~. 8. . ..>d in Fig..222 The Tnuscs (b) D1·aw the influonco lines for strossl)s in the members of the same trusses marked by o tloublo dash... . JVff .(/) vi..n.~ (vP~"<Jr w· liJwt. thus finding the main system ( 0) 1 I : ' ./ ' . ::1. 'I'hcn using tho method of joints lind the st..o that in bar 79~of Lhe same system multiplied by a constant facto1' (.· ···f~fluMce 1 ( .::_. sin a The stre!. · :·.nx:1IIT~!'mne' I I ~ I I ( d . fur 0. 84 A .@ 14 i..1 1 flower chord l()(lf!P.
4a.4e. 85Ad. H A and V 11 .4.fl 8 =H Equating to zero the moments of outer forces about the binges A aud B we get.4c and d indicates that wllcn Lhe load is either lo the left of j()int 6 or to the right of joint 10 the st1 ·ess is independent of the level of load ap}llication. the system becomes a thrust developing truss as in addition to vertical reactions it will he characterized also by horizontal reactions at the abutments. lJet us examiue tl1e arched truss in Fig.. . lino for V~ 9 will have tho samo shape and.. ils maximum ordinato will e11Ual (Fig.. 85.1=0 and 3ya7 2x1 3 Vfi 9 =  2q9 sin a 1 =  ~ This influence line is shown in Fig. corresponding influence lines aro represented in Fig. on the other hand VA=1. The corresponding influence line for tho truss with suhdividod ponols is l'bown in Fig.10. 'oc) rr· V37=y On the other hand. . Th<1 c.4x3..s acting directly at the joints 7.. Denoting by V A. 10.5..*x=3.4. 85. 8S. 86... H 11 the vertical and horizontal components of the abut~ ment. when the unit load trav(~lling along the UPJX'r chord rt>.. THHUST DEVELOPING FRAMBD STRUCTUHES 1. reactions A and B respectively and by x the distance from tl1e load unity to t. Thmst DevelQping Framed Structure$ for the stres~ U~ 9 is given in Fig.5 X 3 _ _1_4_ Tht) inflmmcr.4c and d. 85..acht>s joint 9 the equilibrium of this joint requ ires that ~Y = . At tho saHie timo any load appliod to tho secondary joints of panels 88 or 810 is transmitted to the uppel· chord and may he regardod a.he lefthand abutment wo shall obtain If. provided the lo11d travds along tht) lowur chord. TRUSsgs WITH INCLINED SUPPORTS If the vertical supporting bar representing the roller support of an ordinary truss is replaced by an inclined one.. 86... 9 or 11.and V8 =T The two latter equations are exactly the same as for an ordinary lx :r: simply supported truss or beam and the.4b.omparison of the influence lines of Fig.Vg0 2U~ 0 sina .d_c_o_s_a . lt has the shape of an isosceles triangle and its ordinnw at lhe IIJI~X ()quais l 18 v~ aV37 ".
86. 4 Let 1111 now draw lho infiuence line for· the sLr·ess in l'omc l..ting on !he lefth and port.his soc.qe.rnss wcmbor..e line for the lh rusL [{it may he de r ·ivod .es 11 by cot a.. let us equate to r. 86..Lie. Afl regards the inOuenc. For this purpose let us pal'S 11 seclion 1l and placing the load uni ty to the right of !. Vn toL ex 1.4b) H . Fig.lfh = v AZh IIYh + U~7hh=0 wherefrom . 8G.Tht• Tnts. is r·~pn)son l ed in Fig. us ing the relation exis ting botwt~cn If and V 11 (fig.tion.cr·o tho mome nts {about point k coinciding wit.ion of t he trus!l :E. say in har 57.h joint fi) of a ll the external forcos nc.0 t he influ~:noc line for V T ho inrluencc line for ff obtained by muiLi[Ji yi ng nll the ordiual.
hc ordinate ( .hand reaction ll ilttu its vertical and hol'ir. Jlcrh:rl the c.~) . We shall commence by constructing the influence lines for the reactions.a). Thrun Dr.hand support. Consequently.t:elopinp Pranud Strurture$ WhcJl the unit load is applied at point P 0 lying in the same VtJt'tical with the point of intersection of liMs A K and BF (point F).cs Vf. Tho ler~ part of the influence line will be obtained hearing in mind that it must pass through the zero ordinate at the lefthand abutment and must intersect wHh t he righthand part in a vertical passing through the ori~in of moments.he vertical passing thl'o ugh joint B.\ c. and J/JJ at a point b' si t:uated at the same level a'! point A.cordingly point F 0 is a neutral point for tho ~tress Ur.Hy 11 ) entering tho t•xprossioll for ~'~• is equal to the bending moment in !'Elction k of a tbrt>ehingt•d arch.~) over the lefthand abutment we must courwcl this ordinate with tho neutral point f and then extend this liuo until its intersection with t. the stress in bar 57 becomes nil. we may then write the oquilibrium equations o£ tbe moment~ fi rst about point b' and then about the cantre of t.ing over section k.on!>lruction of the influeuco line !or stress U 57 may be cnl'l'itHL out in tho ~tllnc way as tha t for tho bending momant act. these two points lJ\ling finally connected to [orm tltc completed line represented in Fig. of tho said arch. the positions of joint 5 should be marked on the left one and that of joint 7 on the right one. 87. For t his purpose we may resolve the righ1.he hirrge A 'kMb' = VA (lt +Z2)i {It + lzx) =0 ~MA= Vs(lt +l2)+ 'l ·x = O • The influence line for 1' 8 vrill penn iL the determination o£ reacLion TJ for uny position of a vertical Joad using the formula B • = Sino: _v B • 'fh() same n>suiL COSCX • may be achieved with the aid o( the influence line for H 8 sine<. for the resultant of a 11 tlw forcus applied tO the left o£ Sf/. and placing the uni t load a distance x fcom the left. ~6.' 11 = H 11 .Ct./J/. provided a ll the ordinates ol' this o latter arc multiplied by ( . 1 • At the :1a rnc time lhe torm (M~.4.ion f'J passes through point k and tlu.ontal componen t. moment equation becomes r. T~ct us now cousidct· a truss with sup ports at d i£fereot lovds (Fig.M" = u~. The two line!! being drawn.10.'1. haviug Jnid oi'f t. Denoting as usual the horizontal and vertical components of reaction A by l'A and}[!\.h" = .
~.1 ~~ ~"!'wrv• b.ing on the truss s hows thal I I I I I : 1c I .h show that the vertical reactions of the truss va1·y exactly i n the same way as those of a simply supported beam with a s pan of l = l 1 7 l 2 (Fig.'/1 I 1 I i I ~ '• I r" jllliJJminr. + II oqnnls ll'~c . t ho t hrust....ne for V. t aln!~ !~ 1  !l : • ·I IJ t l I I : : I I : I C I I I : I L . 'i .I I 1r 1 1 ~~~1:J fv. The horizonLal projection of all th<..r sectio n C of a ~. .~. 8SA The relation between If and Vu moy he found by equating zero the sum of thei r moments about hi·nge C (Fig. I lf.od grap hically in Fi t:r... l~ ~ Wt jl'"V. which is oxact]y the samo as in tho case 4 or a tJm.· ..min. two expressions are represont. when Lh~ load P is t() tho left of thi11 section ..>e h i ngcd arch with n span of (l1 l 2) and a rise equal to j (Fig.'s . 87 / lb).!:L.J .iJ I : 1 Jnflutfl/!t IJ.i mply suppot1cd beam. spanning (l1 l 2).J! I (l'l : I I( '.4e.l'f! ! /...__ : A : ''~ : I ' I \ ..).1a) 1o r...11 ]I Fig. 87. 87. C()nsequently.221 1 The Trusys T hes4.¥ . 87.. A' .4c nnd d whic...> forces acl. 1 ~. It is apparent that the inOllence lino for H ob ta ined hy multiplying r .Mc = Vslz + f1!=0 wherefrom II · = Vulz I ln this expression Vnl 2 = M~ is the honding moment a('ting ove.
c ~ <lYer r tho loft snpport and hy c. 88Ab). = IT 11 = H anti that..4c.4(/.I< no wing t.ho neutral point and using the abovt~ expression for L 21.haL for the thrust of an arch sl•own in Fig..?).ting the strel. 'latter· or only by a constant factor . Tho influenc.10. the influence line relative to the right r part of tho truss may be obtained uy laying oiT an ordinnl. for in t his case point 3 will (all on the line of action oi the re~ultan L or VA and IfA.3/)..a!q) as the chord int.oro when load P = 1 i~ to the r ight.ut hy a section on a normal to t he c. the ordinntc~ l. Thnott Devclcpiltf( Pramrd Slrucluru 1 227 all tl1 e ordilllltos of the line Ior Va hy will coioc.o t.~\S acting in all the nwmhca:s c.tior• of m~utral point on lhe horizontal.orsect at a point iulinit.hords.ho influonce li ne for stros<~ D~~ of the truss represented in Fig.o zero. way il( shown in Fig.f on a normal Lo the dirt~ction of thl' dHJt·d members 57 aud 46* • H should llll rorncmh<~red that H.ide wilh. 89. The lino COI'responding tO the !crt part Of the trUSS will be drawn using the wellknown rule that tho two must i nteN>ec.hc direction of l oad 1' passes tl1rough point F (Fig.in. 1>8. of tlds section whcre[rorn f When t. Hnd for the bending moment acting over a corrc!!ponding section of a threehinged arch (see F ig.!. which gives 11s line ad (Fig. through the origin of m oments {point . .<> in bar 24 will reduce t.~2.4f. For in!'tanco. the method of moments being inoperative in this c. 88.h trusse~ with paralltd cl10rd:~ can 1Je obtained hy projoc.illlly if wo talw heecl of the nnalogy existing between the expression~ fo1· L 2. the inOuenc.M <tbout poi nt 3 equal~ r.cly distant.. As the firs!.he same truss rna y he obtained passing a section II (Fig.4a) and writ.) thA ~tres. d iffers from the. \. Tnfluenco Jines for wob members of arc.iog lh<~L J:. 87 .l i n a vertical pas.<. sl r(ll'~S in tho hori· zont. 88.(l liue for D 3 ~ obtained in a sim ilar.1. The influence li ne for tl1c slross in luu 24 of t.onnccti ng it with tho projcc. espec.al deck ml'mh!!rs remain uil M long as the loads romniu verticnl.e line is readily drnwn.4a can he found by O<tuating to zero the prujot~tions of oll tho Jorees ncting to the loft of sec lion T.hB position t. • .
. . (VA co:. 1 Jn(Luenca ) I line tor : ..ho vertical. . ..ontal a= angle formed by the diagoua. Fig.. 89 ~ F rom this aquation we obtain 1 DGe= CO!'! Ct ._ I I I .cp Hsin <~) or D56 = co.. (fJ) I I I I I I I I I I : InfLuence Lr:ne ....._!.~ D.. I I I I 1 1 I i I I (C.l 56 with t.' I ~·{E~~1 % Connecli'}Jl ~J ... .___ II ~ ~.  ..s (Ctip)(Q~cos•pllsiuq>) 1 where Q~ is the shear in a simply StlJ)portNl beam of llw same span... .. ...IJi) ( . : I I I I I : .... : I [)J4 1 I : I : ll./1() .228 where Ql =angle between the chord mcmlJers aud the hori7.. .. tor I : 1"'•..\6· I I I I I I I .
4. H will equal M~ T where Me is the bending moment . Thu completed influence line for stress JJ 56 is roprosontcd in Fig. H0.ained in a similar way is rcprosentcd in Fig.4c./rb while another influence li ue 11amely that for stress D 31 o bt. 91. ct s q> cp} over the left a hutment must bo connected with the neutral point f determined by projecting on tho xaxis the point of intersection of lines b' B and A F (in this purticular case Jino AF is parallel to the chord members 57 a1ul 4fi and pn::. 89.3d).\GE O TIWSSED ARCHES 'rVere the righthand supporting bar of the truss shown in Fig.l .4.4a. Thus. d :& V A= . This mea.4) we would obtain a throehinged trussed arch . Both vertical reactions a rtd thru:st Jor such system~ are determined in exactly tho same way as in the <:U~'<~ of solid arches. 33.$1 DeiJI. 87.ses through point B).1. The lino relative to the le(t part of the truss wil l be parallt~l to t he one pel'laining to its right part due to the parallelism of tho chords. for a load uuity siluat.'Wi>illg Framtd Str~turu 22. section of: a threehinged arch. Let us examine n threehinged arch with supports nt the same level represented i n Fig. TliREEHr. 89.4 (Fig. 2.an V 0 = y while tho thrust. consisting essentially of two pinconnected t r usses with immovable hinge supports.a replaced by some framed system such as system CR Ptg. 90 . reactions · vA and V R will amount to l . Thr/. thl• influence line re lative to lhe right part uf the truss can bo constrocted in the same rnaun()r as that for lhe shear in an arch (sco Fig.10.:t.cd a distance x fro m tho left abutment.ns that an ordinate equalllo eoso.9 The term (Q~ eos q> .If sin cp) being identical with tho cxpressio11 of lhc shear acting over a cro~:.
lzZ lz [  ).· h F ig. I I J .2!\0 The Truucs I' z (a ) X 11 ·i . j j Jn{lueflce l im: fo. 91. .d.1 ~ j Jn{ltJI!rlce ltoe (or v6 (C)~~/ ~ .
t.~i l y ro'l)o..ordingly. i n tho case of bar 24 whNl tho load Lravols from hinge C toWat'dS the righl. O L 24 .4b. £H . the . respN:.Mly from !Jr to 0 in ar. t he ~ystom may bo reducod to tho case of a siruplc l:nrss with supports at rlifferent levels. 4 shown in Fig.nrrying the same load.al and n line which connec. Sc. c.:: I :.ocl hy an irw l ined suppor·ting rod.ing Ye w ith ])Oint b as s hown i n Fig. I n systems of the latlor type it is more convenient to resol ve the abutment reactions along a vcrtic.4e) aurl r.>.sponding cro:. tltc first oi whic h is applied at the crown hinge and thl' olhcr Lo a joiuL clircc lly over t he. = lx z V ... As regards s trosses indtu•rd in the soparato momhor·s or the semiarches it is clear Lhn L as Joug as tho Joacl is applied directly to thu scminrdt unrlor consideration tho othor on() mn y he flcti tionsly rcpla(:. whicla has hoen just (l Xalllincd.=Zn=Z=h wlaere h is the lever arm of component Z abouL Lite crown hinge C. In lho. already rnmililu' to Lhc roadcr who willt•a~.im ply suppor tocl beam of tho samt~ span. The influonco Jines for· Llw vccLic.l r~ase tho loncl may be resolved i nto two COlniH!I'aeuls. c aud d.ment hinges (Fig.4.s ~cc.4. and Yi 1 will be determined fro m tho wellknown equations .10. Tlw eonstruction of influcrwo lines for tho ::sLres.ion of 11 :.. A(~c.ero. Tho thrust 11 is easily found from . Tl!rc•SI De. Two of thcso system!. 91./.o tho ot..cs in moru hers of ~uch trusses i~.lter sem inrc h ..4).ting over the currc.tloptn~r Framrtl Structure$ ac.vcral i nfiuonc.t..c liucs fm· s tresses in mem bers of dir£crrmt trussed arches arc represented iu Fig.. !)2. Tn other words. M'b H = Zcosa ..c.al reactions and the Llnust are shown in Fig.e lint• for £. The vertical roaction11 VA. It romains to lind out what happens whon the load shifts t.4.lw abutment nro well kuown and oqual y. {Pig.1 2 Ye 172 Tho cnl'respouding infiuoucc line will be repre.ively.t aud V'a= y 1 't'hc compouenls ZA and Z 8 of the ab utment r~actiou~< whl'n only vertical loads are involved will he given by Z.\ abu tment at tho oppo!<ite end of the ard1. have their end supports at different levels.cordau~ with thll expression t. ~1 1A e. 93.::  .l .stt·css will vary linr.ts the nbut.v t hat of tho inflnenr.. Tho ordinnLcs to the infincocc line when unit lond P acts over the crown hingr: and t. 91.sontcd by Lho s traight line con nect..
(C) . (b) ' r.232 .~ H.
...I ~t·. : . Thrust Developing Fra med Stru~ tiAU$ 233 where a is the i1lclination to the horizontal of the line passing through tho abutment hinges A and B. 94.. = h ...4 ~ +' I (~I .4 (a .:frw 'or U : ('bJ' 7i l{ : ~ L·Ftg..4._ _ _ _ _....oence . 93...~} · ' I ~ It : il This enables us to rewrite the expression for the tht·ust as fo llows ·H = Zcosa = h M'b COSCI..1.10._ represents the length of the vertical insert billwet'ln the line connecting tbe a.'ltJ'b cosa.. . MU .J I I . As the tel'm cos(/.fi. " : : I I fr..::.!!:..:.lmtment hinges and the crown hingv we may denote it by f whereafter the expression for H will bccomt' H=c 1 1'ho 1•eader is invited to check the accuracy of the influence line· for the thrust H of the trussed arch represented in F ig.. 9!!. I'·' iJ I •· z Fig.
i ng the in eli ned bar of l he rightband abutment supflort by the tie a. Tlw ini'Juence lino for Lite fortl' II in the tic (equivalent to the thrllst H) will be readily detol'mined by equating to zero the moments (about. 'fhis s~at. The inOuonce Jines for reactions V .. ~M abou~ point k of all l'orces to the left of this section equals :r.L. T he completed inOuence line for L. ~ H/=0 1. 96. Tho method of stress analysis for similar tied arches is illustrated ltn. is given in Fig.Le t us consider the trussed arch with elevaw. 1lw influence line for the force f1 may he obtained hy mull.. Vnl Af~ over section C of a simply supported beam by a constant factor This in£Iuence line is roprc. ~!5 .The Trusses 11.iplying the ordinates of the beudirtg moment .ero ~Mk = V"\akfl/. 96. c.·eundet· using as an example the structure represen t..ing through t he intersection of lines a1k and b1 C.f when load unity P is to the right t:herliO[ ~Mc=ll. V"J\lUANTS OF '1'1\ USSED ARCHES <ttttl .4. 96. Hf) The neutral point corresponding to L 4 will fall on the vertical pa&c.e a rc. whert'from lf = A.M~: acting .4a) may be obtained J)a$[ng section I.4a.4d. wherofrom l L~ = h(V<~.mgular shape with ordinates equal to unit y under the suppod.tII and writing that. When tho load is applied to the left of the section the equation bocnmcs aud H= 2T"=r At•c.ed schematically irl Fig. 96.h ::: 0 T.ordingly. . aF: shown iu Fig.4b and c.ented in ~'ig.b allsorbing the thrust.4e..= ..2/ j V l M'/:.rown h inge C) o( all i. (Fig.h may be obtai ned by replar.t and V u arc of t he usual lri.hc forces to the left of section 1.4.A. U6.d tic provided with fixed and one roller support as shown in Fig.ally tleum u ina L.a.ic.<. The influence line for stress L.
96'.. ' ' '.Fig. 9.1 . influence line for \ \ L~ I '.I ' I Fi~. ·:[ !!1 I (e) '' '.5.
two variants of whic. cos <7.4d).J we get ~X = N n . For this purpose eonsidcr tho equilibrium o[ any joint (!'.~~.l1 + N n cos o:n = 0 wherefrom N..The Trusse8 The tender is invited to draw tho influence lines for stresst~s in other members of the structure. 97.4a.1 in Fig. I t is easily proved that such gystems constitute unyielding combi~tations and remain statically detorminate.t = N .h are shown in Fig. 97.!1 supports (Fig.ay. Let us now consider a system consisting of two pinconnected trusses and a multihinged arch.. It is easy to prove that tho horizontal components of stresses ac.:os o:./•a and b.l1 cos O:IL. 98. 98. Methods o[ stress analysis for these systems will be shown using as an examp'hl the stl'Ucture in Fig.4b and c). joint n . where <llld .lle multihinged areh A SB remain constant throughout the system for any given set of vertical loads applied to the trusses AC and CB. Projecting all the forces on tht> horizont. As usual the influ~ncc lines for vet'tical reactions VA and V u will be triangular in shape with ordinates equalling unity at the (b) Fig..ting in all tho members of t.t t. 98..
1. {j / ({) " (gJ (h) Fig.d . i Infwencp line (or V.I I I I I / ··. !J9 .' '\.11. Vari1mts of Trussed Ar·chrs 2)17 .
Lot us now <:onstruct tho influence line for stres.!. ap0x ~nrned downwards and situated directly under the crown hinge C (Fig.lw lllrll).!'l reprc:.tan a. ~ * tl' Allm..he wherefrom ~anw forces on th~ ~y = 11 tau a.[l\1~.s applied t o the lefl. As . it may be obt.: Un· For this purpo.ained by passing section 11 {see Fig.4a) and hy equating to zero the sum of momHnLs a hi1111. .....t ion wherefrom lJ.line for fi is a triangle with itc.he moments o[ a ll tho forces about point 1n when the load unit. If. + t acting on hinge S having been previously resolved into two co mponon t. 98._ 1 =·0 Vr·ojecting t. h)] b~HHJiug It wlll bo ob&H·vc(l that Lhc term in hraeket...2138 Tho n~ rore Tlw Trusses H rH =If. of the sectiou..ti on 1( of a lic. .:. t ho crown hingo C of all t he rol'cc.y aets to the right of this :>t\c.. or .~ 1 ) 'flw above oxprei!sions indieat.4e)..he same shape as the influence line for t. 98..:_ COS~nt ' N n..11_ 1 llnr =H {ta1r an.fm· Lhc lattc1'.s in all the ~eparatc links of tho arch ns well as in all the ver'Licnls ot· suspensions will..tio n JIl l equating to 1.ti Lious ~hrcoh ingcd a rc h the ~atut\ span whose crown hinge t:oordinates arc equal to ~ and f while tlto15e of the centroid of section K equal a.s Hand H lan a.H tana... 'l. ff (Ym + h)j =1.COS H · etc. .e that the influence lines fo(strosse. ~n' vertical we obtain V.'!o Wt\ shall pass sec.d f ll Nn.m ami (Ym + h).:. + 1 ~Me= VA~ + whN·eJrom 2/ Hf=O J1 = _ VAl = _ Mb f The negnlivo vnluo of TJ inrlicates that all the liuks of the arch arc com)H'Oi'Sed .fl (y . have t.ents the lll Orn lllrt acting over sec.'he influenGe . Llw stress N.ero t.t =_..
) ~m.11. =~(VA 11 tan rt. Fot' this p11rposo we mu:.essnrily a long a line pas. 98.s in n (V .4j.t first find the posi tion of t he unit load for which the ex prN.. of nll the forces to tho left of ~ection . Varla11ts of Tr11 .o zero t he sum of vertical projectious.or equation shows that.lruct t.. The complat..onl11l au augle a.4a) when tho unit load is to the right of this section 2':Y = V AHtan a. =~(V A .h the horir.4g).1. in ono of the diagonals lot us equate t. The completed innuonce line for Un is shown in Fig... thl' required influence Jino cnn be obtained through the summation of the onlinates to the inllntmcc line for l!lll ~ AB with the ordinates to the influence line for the tht'll~t If multiplierl hy ( ~") The noutral JlOint auethod can ba used for the construction of Dn inOuoncc line too..11 Dnsin ~=0 whenc. i r 1 D.he influenco line for stress D.titions arch of the sa mo span as the ac tual structure nnd having for c.crl i u Fig..!fta n a11 )~0 SJnp showing that ~ = Lana11 v II Tho lall('lr condition may be fulftllcd only if tho lofthand ab utment reaction 11 of tho thrLIChinged arch forms wit.4h. In order to co n~.h.e line for stress Dn i.oorclinatel' o£ the crown hinge and (Fjg. the latter Hctiugncc. their intersection determining the abscissa or tlae neutral point required. . 98. 08. In this expression VA an1l If can he regarded as the vertical reactionnnd thrust of n f1c. 98.z Arches This will enable us lo find the 11ositinn of the neutral point perlniniog to the influence line for Un.TJTI (see Fig. Tho l ntt.\ .4a) afLor which the lines A K and BS may be drawn.~ing through tho crown and tho right~ h and abutment hinges... 98. For this purpose we shall first locn lt' the cenLroid of section K along tho wrtica l passing througtL the ori gin of moments rn {Fig..orl infJuenc. The position of the neutral point will be derived from t:: . Tho neutral point will be situated at the intcrsec~ion of this reaction '"'itb rcoction B of the fictitious arc. to zero.Jl tan nn) red IJ Cl'S.s reprasen t.o D.~~.
nl dil·ection into Lwo compoMnts VA.ho umltihingcd nrch sl10nld be oxte ndl!!l until t heir intersection with t.al reactions of tho whole s ~·steul Wt• havl' v Tlw tlli~ H = vn + Vi~ tH(na Lio11 expressing the cqnilibriu m of the momt'nts about pOi IlL 01' in t()I'~()CtiOO Of V JJ and .lw nhutrnMt rco.1 is the moment of all the externa l loads acting on the sl nu~tu re about the sa me poinl. ·v::\ is equr1l to the reaction of a stmply supported beam. '· the bending moment acting at midspan of a simply sup purt.all. Jt follows that the su. A~ a l mady shown in the beginning of this article Jl" = // 11 =H. _Mexr .I and a horh!)ll t.4a). A'' und /3". This system is geomet t•ic. HA. Il'nving denoted IJy v .m of the IJ£•r·ttcal components of reactions VA.prosentcd in Fig.he structure when tho loarl un iLy is Lo tlw l'ight thereof wlwt·ofrom II .t:ivtdy (.· r A whm·~ . Tlw tht·ust II will be convcuiontly determined by eq<tnting to zero tlu.4a.l ./:{ o gives wh<'rt:frolH r. beam carrying the same load.he fact t hat it takes support at four distinct points A'. B' . muJ. Tho following proc()dure may bo rocon1 mended for the det~rmilla tion of t.lfoxt V'A + V. Hs main peculiarHy resid· u1g in l. sum of moments nhout the central hinge S of all Lhe forces acting on l.. or an isosc. 91J. Here the roac tions arising in the l'X treme link5 1uay he rosolvod along a verticA. 1/ 11 . respec.he: v<~ rti(:als dt·a\\' n through lhc centres of the nbotment hinges A ' and B' of tho trussc~.11 ~ l>t~ing =. and l'j1 .'1/'/:.eJ. the influence line for the thrust H will have the .4b.\ . Consequently..ablt~ aud s tntically detormino tn. 99. tho r(}fl(~tions at the Sllp)lOrt.ctions: the directio ns of the oxtr~me links or t..(>.v st. The verticA.s A' nnd B' and by VA a nd V n the total Vllf·lic.Let us now examine a structure in which tho two trusses s m·moonl tl10 multihingod arch as shown in Fig. 99.\ amt Vi.ht' left (or right) half of t..k\1': triangle re.f'ig..lwpt•.
the latter being multiplied by a eonstant factor (tan <p). 99 . that for the abutment reaction of an endsupported !Jearn and that for the thrust If.A.1) n we should pt·oceed as follows.=Htan<p and VB=Htan<p It follows that the influence lines for these two reactions will take the shape of the triangle shown i n Fig. the lefthand reaction of the fictitious threehinged arch re presented in Fig.) ah Hyk Lnh = 0 wherefrom t!l1153 . The position of the neutral point is conditioned by V.A and V ncan be also expressed in terms of the thrust H VA. The influenc.tions V. Having passed section II and equating to zero t. Thus. namely.4.. the first of these two int1uerwe lines is a right triangle with an ordinate equal to uniLy over the lefthand support.= V AIltanq> This expression shows that the required influence line may be obLained by the summation of the ordinates of two othor iJtfluence Jines..cmuined by the intersection of the abutment reactions A and B of the said fictitious arch. this ordinate should be then connected with the neutral point and extended until the intersection with the vertical passing through the crown hinge.t.A could be also obtained by the neutral point method. It follows that in order to draw the influcnc. the ordinate so obtained being finally eonnec.must be equal to tan cp. ~'nrlants of Trussed Ardu:s 24 1 rcac. an ordinate equal to unity should be laid off along the vertical passing through the left a hutment.o line for V~ by the neutral point method. 99. I [ i t were required to construct the influence line for t.c. 99.ho stress arti ng in some chord member of the truss.A =VAHtan q>=O showing that t he ratio ~.g. will be deducted from V.4e).ion VA.4d) will be at an angle of cp to the hori'ZOntal.A= VAVA.A +VA. the position of the neutral point relative to the reaction V. The reac.4. member (n .he moment about hinge k of all the forces acting on the left pcu't of the trus~ we obtain ~Mh = (V. will be det. say. The latter condition will be fulfllled when t he resultant of VA and If (e. As is well known.ted to a point of zero ordh1ate at the rightband support (Fig.11.e line for V.
he semistructur!.d through a11 angle IPn t.he influence line rorrosponding to l.he ee.ho c.ogothor. g\). As long as the load unity remains to Lhn · righl of sec:lioa lI. Tlw comr> Lt. lnfluouce linl'::s for· any other web tmHrtber or vertieal. Hence tho neutral point will lw doLormined by tho intersection of a line passing through the lnl'thand abutment at an angle !Jln.om<!S possihTH whon t.t~d influence line obtained by this method is represent.·srn 1 ~ o vur t.t.wherefrom D.4f.Lo .. iu the dingonal kn of Fir.> nt. nH.bo lert.line. abu~mont and by connecting this ordinate with Lhc pn. = 0 indicating that.he r·ight half OJ: tJu~ ~I. a li ne paral lel to Lhe first should be.. To find that pat·t of the influence line ndativo to the left portion of t.er· the position of tho joints k 11 nd n shall be marl{ed on these Lwo lines and cOttuec:. 99.r. The infln{)rH:H line fnr sti'Css Dn will he obtained by laying ofi' the o•·dina. l:ht• 'leftllal!d t'CIH' liou or a llcLi~ i ous th reehinged arch in Fig. t.ling the IJrdillat:e a t t.t>cl in Fig..'ll. That po rtion of l. say.rown bing~ with t.h andy. . As l1 as already been mentioned. A o[ VA and If.oro poinl over t:hc right.ntroid coor·dinates equnl a..ry the equation ZY = V..4g. wilh the horizontnl and a line <. whit~ t. the neutral poin t will be locawcl in Lhc line of action of a load r< mdt•ri ng ~t = tau <p.1 will bo determined l. nnAa.. tUJ'H Wil) bo ObtninCC[ by ('01Hle:C.hand ahulrn<. this hoc.. cunn(:c ling tho multihinge<l arrh wilh the truss can be obtained inn sim ilHr way . in ot!H)r words.ont. Tho eornpleted line is reprt'sent.~ involved . sin aIf tan cp.!reait. is i nc..o t he horb. L e t us consider now the cor•struction o( the influence lint• fo r the ~t.ed in Fig.o rrn(!Cti ng the righthand abutment with t.he ct•own hingo.slructnn. drawn through the r.he rosnltant.ed t. the stress D.4d.C li C.The Trttsses J n this expression M~ is the bendi11g moment aeting over section k of a Uu·cchingcd ardt whose span l equals that of the .'. Lhc web members.1jecti<Ht of the neutr·al point on the xaxis.•·(!~S arising in one or.he z.er·o point at the left abutment wlt<.
1. T he articulations of space framed struct. the bridge truss showll in Pig.onsido•·ccl Ml n s pac. it should bo c. the hol'izont<1l tr usses AMNB and Df.refore.onsideration this rigidiLy become e xce.5b suppor ting <1 wntor tank is S tmkhov 's hyperboloi1l which cannot bo reduced to ouy number of plane structures and rnu!.un\c. 1 .just as in tho c. for: a given nrrangcmonl of loads.al abO\lt the longil:ud 'n wl axis of the strneture. 1.t·. all tho mt·mbers of a space structure mi!Ct. However.urnhorFomo.e.ase of a pl a no one. On the other hand . Tho same applies to the Schwt!d ll'r dome illustrated in Fig.h simplifies greatly tlleir design. Certa in of such structures ma y be reduced. the anatlgement.~. and the.al plano trusses A J3(. in actua l desigll work such structures a1·o a lways regarded as articulationconnected (d ifforillg t hereby f rom throodime. The t hreedimensional structure of F ig. providing a certain degree of .dingly c. Accordingly.t. . Howcvor·. SPACE FRAMEWORK J .onne.<'d together by rivet. T h(l different members of space frameworks are usually c.rigidity.:PC tr::~n~mitting part o[ tht: load Jrom one vertical truss to the other.e structure.:]) nnd JJ1NFE whon tl1e loads P are S)'lll llletric.5. whil~t those of a plano truss may do ~o •mly about an axis perpnnclicular to the p lane of th~ tnts.5c.ing at ono joint can rotate ubout. nny line passin~ through the point of intersection of their axes. GENERA£.5. to a combination of plane structures (trusses). must allow rolalion art~und three mutually perpendicular axes thus providing Lbree Ut!L!I'CC!S of freedom as co111parcd to Lhc single one of the pi n joinls of plano trusses. Thus.t be designed as a single unit. compu tations taking into c. whic.ed or weldccl joints. of the individual mcmhors of: a space framework must be sur h that they should forllt an unyielding co mbination .5a can be r~Jdurod to two vEu:Lic. 10.nsional framed bents in which all the joinl.s are made and regarded rigid) . In a most general way of speaking tho term !1pace framework indicates threodi monsiona1 thwugh slrHc lnrcs capa ble of resisting load s in diiTerent planes. if lho same trus~ were loaderl unilat()•·ally..
a space framework is a geometrically stable structure.24.cd in different planes r Ftc.4 Consequently. consisting of a number of bars situat. no flexural stresses arc inducod in any of its members which become directly extended or compressed.5 and connected together by socalled universal or bellandsocket joints. ~Mx = O. When such a structure is subjected to a system of loads acting at the joints. 1. ~Z=O and three e~p1ations of moments ~My=O. Any system of noncoplanar f6rces in equilibrium must comply with six statical equilibrium equations which may be gro\Jped together into three equations of projections ~Y=O. .
Similar ribs existing on the lower surface of the rocker make a ny lateral displacement of the two impossible. T he first consists of two flat parallel slabs with a ball in between.e.2. it is advisable to seek such systems of equations in which each contains no more than one unknown (two at the utmost) .. 3.5.constraint. 2. It prevents displace . 4. (2) the spherical roller support (Fig. a vertical reaction R r being developed along t.5).!. 2.wurk Supports 245 In statically detcrminaw systems these equations are a lways sufficient for the computation of a ll the reactions at the supports and of all the stresses in tho individual members. (The arrangement precluding upward displacement is not shown in Fig. the.5 y and z.5).:L Spam Fram. (3) the spherical fixed support (Fig. This type of support permits free rotation about any axis passing through t he centre of t he ball and a longitudinal displacement in a direc. lower rocker bearing on rollers which lie on a slab provided with lateral ribs. 2.he direction of this !. The second type of support consists in principle of two rockers. The conventional schematic representation of a support :of the first type is shown in Fig. Only the displacements along the za:xis (both upward and downward) are prevent. 2. It must be borne in mind that the solution of these equations becomes the easier. the upper and the lower. the smaller the number of unknowns in each of them. as well as the displaccm~nt along any direction lying in the xy plane. SPACE FRAMEWORK SUPPORTS Spac.e frameworks are connected to their foundation or any other unyielding system using three different types of supports. This type of support allows ro tation al10ut all the three axes x. with a hall inserted in their sockets.5). Thus only one constraint is imposed by a support of that type.ed.tion perpendicular to the roller axes. (1) the spherical movable support (Fig. (b ) /? if.5b. Therefore. 2.5).
point B 1 c. hence. joint B1 is fu lly immobilized. three c. An example of .. but cannot move in any direction. ~. Acc.ions. 6.onstraints developed by the support al this same point.re nt types described. 4.fall on the line BC.onstraints on lhe body it. Rx and R z or flu a nd Rz (depending on the position of the rollers) will develop n. Two reactions .5a).5a provide t he required stability . occasionally refen·ed t. thus imposing Lwo ~. provided point A does not .t a support of that lype. I r t.o si rn ply as spherical su pport.orners using as heretofore three supports of the diffe. 'J'ho minimum number of constraints necessary to maintain a body in a fixed position is a lways equal to t he number of equilibrium cqun L ions.. cat•ries.ordingly. lf it wore attached to the grou nd nt. Sche matically Lhls support is represented in Fig. let us consider the hinged quadrnnglc J3 1 /J 2 B~ I3 4 in Fig. consists of a pair of si rnilar rockers wit. 4. B 3 and B.5. As an example. while t he other part will retain one or more degrees of freedom. in the case unrler consideration this n umber '"'ill c<JIHI. T ho joints JJ 2 . three reactions R x• R y and R z may develop.o that the upper rocker can only roLate alwut any axis passing thro\lgh the ct. for otherwi~ it may l1appen that one part of tho s tructure will have redundant constraints and will become statically indeterminate. a t tbe same time the displacement along BtB 4 is made impossiblo due to the presen<:e of a horizontal constraint nt point B~. 3. The systam could be made immovable by 1\dding two const1·aints and effectively. Fratflt'work mout along two di1'eCt. for its shape cou ld be altorod in its own plaM.5b. Tts conventional representation is shown in Fig.S p tl CP.be structure proper does not constitute an unyielding combination the number of constraints at the supports should be increased accordingly.a n move neither along the vertical.ntro of the ball. but no roller~. 6. Tho body l is provided with a fixed spherical SllpporL a..Ga.tion B 1B 2 due to the c.t point C nnd a roller support at point 8 whic. A support of t his type will impow three constraints.h l~avos the body freo to L 'Olato only about the axis BC.h 11 ball . one being perpendicular to the plans of the roll!!r axes aud the other pnrallal to t heir axes. four supports of the roller t y pe as sh own in Fig.ill .. This las~ degree of freedom will be oli minated if a movable spherical support is added at a t hird point A. T he position of the sup})Orts must be judiciously chosen. are connected to the first one and to the ground using a sufftcient numbllr of bars (constraints) to make the whole system co 111 pletcly ~La hle.l !'.5b."X and t he simplest comhiuation of such constraints is ~<h own in Fig. J ndl•cd.i. 5. T he1 efore . and furthermore it co uld fold around one of the diagonals. nor along t ho direr. The fixed spherical support (Fig. it woulcl conserve two degrees of freedom .
5 (b) . ·1. G. '). s (1(lt'e Framework .S'UJJfX>rls 247 (0} Fig .J. !i.S (a) Fig. .5 Fig.9.•• .5 raJ Pig.
6. each connected to the already e.s to new positions indicated in dash lines. which will remain statically determinate and unyielding. say bar BD (Fig. y and z projections of all forces (internal and external) applied to this joint. This could be corrected by shifting the constraints marked with a cros. may he introduced to form new structures.onstitute(l by a triangJo ACB shown in Fig. Tho pyramid so obtained is the simplest t hreedimensional framed structure.24S3 Space Framework a faulty distribution of support constraints is given in Fig. for tl'ianglo ADC can rotate llhout AC.xistiug system by three separate noncoplanar bars. Ult us add joint D using two bars A D and CD as indicated in Fig. for at each joint we may equate to zero the x.5b. + . 7. Let us now !l. The direction of the horizontal constraints at joints B 1 and B 2 coincides with that of point C. whereas both joints B1 and B 2 are free to move towards A.Xamine the relation existing in a space framework as described above between the number of joints. 7. Tn order to obtain D A (a) {b) B (C) B Ftg.5a.J au unyielding combination. 7. 3. the number of bars and the numbor of constraints at the supports. 7. THE FORMATION OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE SPACG FRAMEWORK The simplest unyielding plano system is c.5. a third bar not lying in the plane nf ADC should be introduced. additional joints.5b. The system obtained will he uustahle. Let S be the number of bars. The total number of tho unknown stresses and reactions will then equal (S S 0 ) and tho total number of equilibrium equations which may be used to fmd these unknowns is 3K.5c). S 0 the number of constraints and K the number of articulated joints. t hese two constraints become redundant.
8.'3. the system is statically indeterminate. when these stresses are nil. the same results could he obtained for the structure given in Fig.5c it is easy to prove that at zero load all its members remain idle. tl1is condition though necessary is not sufficient. But if we apply this reasoning to joint D of the systcm1 shown in Fig. 8. 7 . but furnishes no information on their mutual position. The same reasoniug shows that the stresses in all the other members of the system are also nil. Accordingly. Indeed. for the equation S+S0 3K=0 pt't'rnits the determination only of the number of bars and support constraints required. The latter must be known in order to deterrnine whothet· the system is statically determinate or not. the system is unstable. 5. having made sure that i = 0.5) When i > 0. N 2 and N 3 • The rernaini. K = 4. 7. 6.~ we obtain N 1 X O+N2 X 0+N3 X 0=0 which is an identity satisfied for any values of N 1 . In the case of the simplest structure shown in Fig. separating joint D and projecting the stresses N1o N 2 and N 3 acting in members AD.5. 5c we l1ave: S = 6. 7. the stability of the system must be examined by the method of zero load described for plane ~tructures in Art. However.5} are the same as in Fig. BD and CD respectively on a normal to plane ADC (Fig.5. S 0 = 6. when i < 0. J n the case of the structure shown in Fig. for joint D can move along a normal to the plane ABC. the expression (1.ng two equilibrium equations which Jmay be wrilten .3 X 4 = 0 and therefore tho requirement stipulated above is satisfted assuming that the constraints at the supports (not shown in Fig. but when they are indeterminate and may differ from zero.5) showing that in this case i = 5 + 6 .4. As will be remembered.5) we obt. and only when i = 0 the system may remain statically determinate and form an unyielding combination. the system is geometrically stable.5 which differs from the one just mentioned by the fact that bars AD.. 9. BD and CD lie in one and the same plane. 1'he FurmatioTL of Statically Determinate Space Prnmcwork 249 Hence the number of redundant members and/or support constraints i will ba given by i = S +S0 3K (1. this method consists in the computation of stresses in all tho members of the system at zero load. the system is instantaneously unstable.aiu N 2 cos~ = 0. However. which mt>ans that the structure forms an unyielding combination. wherefrom N 2 = 0. thus making the wholo slructure instantaneously unstable.
Pa~sing consecutively to points D.5 projoe. each connected to the remainder of tho system with the aid of t hree bars oaly.ting stt·esses N 1 . <.250 Spacr Frameu. = 0. D and C. oach with three conncc. The system which wo hnv~ ju:.5 Pig.ystem may be statically determinate.5. . B 2 and B 4 and considering their equilibrium. C.ork l'or this joint will cnutain three unkno wns whose values therefortl indoturrninate. N 2 .t examined does oot bulong to the catogory of simple structures for it is i mpossible to d is mantle it by Lhe successive eli mination of joints. This indicates clearly that Lhe system is instantaneously unstable. vre buve in this case r~main and thus Lhe ~. E. For in. 10. Let us l tO\\' toxam ine the structme reprt~sentcd in Fig. N 3 and N~ on a normal to plane A CB 2 B 1 • T his leads immediately to N. Such systems are termed complicated and may he ob tained by replacing one or more bars of a simple system by a corresponding munbcr of differently situaLed members. if in ou1• systom we roplnce the diagona l AB2 by u diagonal B 1C (s hown by n dotted line) we shall be able to take tho s tructure down by eliminating successively joints A. which proves lhat this str ucture is both statically determinate and geometrically stablo. Proceeding now to joint E we may easily prove t hat all the bars moot ing at this joint remain idle. we shall fiud t hat a ll the othm· bars of om· structure romaiu unstressed. Thus the complicated system shown in Fig. 9.taoce.5 in solid lines can bo obtai ned hy alt. B1 .ting bars. 10.ering the position of only one bar in u simple system. S. Applying again the zero load method we shall starl by separating joinl A a nd by 8 F ig.
\ f/1 Fig.he S('e.5.5 assume that the central triangle of this trus~ is r igidl y connac ted to the ground by means of 6 sup port co nstraints we have S=11. If. Dop<mding on the equilibrium equations used and 0 11 thu pm. T his metl10d is used fo1· tl1c co mpul~a tion of stresses in th e members of s imple framed struct\•res a md consists essentially in passing a section through a certain numb1n· of hal'S in which the stresses are sought .~ a nd has fo ur degrees of freedo m.5 Ft~. i= 11 . a H the joi nts of which at·e of tho universa l typo.5. (c) the method of reducing the s pace struc.ically determinate space fra meworks: (~'~) 1he me thod of sections. K = 7.4 T h\lS the i. IIIIll and JVIV.herc£ore the number of unknown stresses determined for a single section may not e xceed six.he method of bar replacement.63x7= . STHESS A:'XALYSIS I N SPACE FRAMEWORK The fo llowi ng three methods are in use for stress dctl!nniuation io stat. these forces baing t hen determined with the a id of equilibrium equations.Li oned hars.e method of moments. indeed.251 In conclusion let. In general six equations of st atics may ba written for each section aJtd t. 4. If we 41$6 II 'I IV. 11.xamine t ile plane truss repr<>seu ted in Fig 11. us e. S 0 =6..J. The portion of the struct ure r<'movcd is replaced by the intemal forces acting along 'l. (3) the roothod of joints. may fo ld a long lines J. . {b) l. (2) the method of shears.i· tioo or the section itself this method may be subdivided into: (1) tiJ. i t. We sh all examine each of these methods in turn. 10. (n ) The method of sections.'}'Stc m is un stabl~.ture to a series o{ plane <lnes .JI.
t\s an illustration of this method.5. In order to determine tho stresses N 1 and N 2 acting in the diagonals let us pass section R and assume that the projection on tho zaxis of all forces applied to the righthand portion of tho truss . 2. B and C of tltis truss are rigidly fixed by means of six.m we may equate to zero !. let us determine stresses N 1 and N 2 acting in the legs of an elevated tank appearing in Fig. s upport constraints (not shown in tho drawing). the system is statical ly determinate and [orms an unyielding combination. 12. Using expression (1. which becomes immediately apparent if joints 1.l.5 h Nt=N2 WFJQe 2csina The second method is analogous to the method of shears used in the analysis of plano structm·cs.lout the ax:is 1l. The stresses N 1 nnd N'l. 3 and 4 are isolated iu succession. Joints A. Having passed the section m.5) we find that t = S+S0 3K = 15 +63 X 7=0 and since under zero load all the bars will remain idlo.1'11 of all the fot·ces acting on the upper pot·tion the structure a. this method is very si milar to the method of rnomonts described in Art. As its name implies. where their l'OSulm tant is resolved into a vertical and A a horiwntal component. are regarded as applied at point A. This method will be madll quite clear if we consider the cantilever truss represented in Fig. 2.252 Spau Pn•meu·ork J 11 the first of these three methods the equilibrium equations are obtained by expressing tllat the sum of moments of all external fol'ces acting on a body in equilibrium about some preseltlcted axis is always nil. N 1 = N 2 and therefore c F ig. In this case t he equilibrium cquatious oxpress that tho sum of projections of all external forces on :some conveniently chosun axis is nH.M1 = WHQa(N 1 +N~) c s in a=O where the angle a is given by tan a=b Owing to the syrnrnetry of tho loading.4 for plane stntctures. 13. This leads to the following equation or 'i.5. 12.
Separating joint 1 and equating to zero the sum of forces pro. The equilibrium equations used in this case do not differ in principle from those used in the previous one.5) all three bars aro idle. = N 1 a sinaN 2 asin a. When three bars meet at an unloaded joint.l2 of thu same truss (seo Fig.. . 9. 13. = 2 P Whtm the section passed separat~s only one joint we obtaiu the method of joints. y Ftg..is in Space Pramr.5.worJ. 13.d. . In this case as previously mentioned (see Fig.=O arrd therefme N1=Nz ~Z = • ln this case the sol ution of 0 yield!i stu a N1 = N .5 We shall usc this method to determine the stress N 3 acting in bar . Stress Analy.: 253 is nil ~Z = P+(N1 +N2)sin~=O Taking the moments of N 1 and N 2 ahout the xaxis we obt.ed on the zaxis we obtain ~Z = P+N3 sin~=0 wherefrom Na = si:~ The method of joints is particularly well suited iu the following < :ases: t.a in ~M.5).ieet..
Let us take up Lhe c.f' · .tua l structure th)s hat· is absent.t. the b ar~ wh k h nre being replaeed will rcq nire Lhe s olution o f several equat io ns with severa l unknowns ·~qual in number to Lhnt of the bars: wlwre x. i mpossiblo to pass a sec tion cutting six bars only.ad!:$ immedia t ely t o (2 .u.Let X be t.l.SpaC't: Frame. (b) The method of bar replacement. with the exception of <>nc.ase Lhe detormination of ~tresses in.ork 2. tho stress in the member which is o trtsitle this plane will be Hil..o n simple one req uire~ the replacement of sevtmll ba r·s.un lly applied.ress in the same member induced by the load uni t y X = 1. Having introduced t he substitute bar. . Wt! must equate f.tllJ'l' by t he actual set of load8 P S.turo so obtained 1111der the adion of the given set of loads <lnd of the lo ad X applied a lo ug tho direction of the bar replaced.'ts in tho said plane .om can be reduced to a simple one by replacing one m· mo ~·~~ ha rs . Denoting by . When all the bar·s meeting at a joint.• '5) Once the \·ahw of X is known.e X and by a load unity acting in the direction ol' X. we may wri te Nx = XNx Tbo <'omhlued stress in the substitute har may be then expressed hy Np XN x· As in the ac. let us consider tho simple strnc.h lo.ically inapplicable . tho forc.r·ives from tho fact that any complicated s tatically determinate :>y~l. thus making the met:hod of St)elions pt·ac.ruc. = s t. lf no load is applied to such a joint or if this Joad a<. Ja the la tter c. the stress in any mernhcr of the stJ·uetur(' will he easily found nsing the fo~:muln s lross induced in rne mher k of the simple st.V11 • Nx ancl :Yx the stresses induced in tho substitute bar by tho loads »r. re~poctivcly .o<~O d nrc can he followed wheu the conversion of llw giveu ~ystern t. The basic principle of this nwthod d~..he stress in the bar to be replaced. The method can be advantageously used for complicated space systems when it if.his stress to zero + }{p +XNx=O whic. The ~a me pr.ase of a eo mplieated system which can be con ve r ted in t o a s imple one b y the replacement of one bar o nly .. lie in tho sn me plane..
5.'asily ohtain the stress in har A2. 4.l:1 by bar A2 (Fig. Stress Analysis in Space. = st.h shows that at least ouo of the basic requirements is sat. [n the ca~e under consideration S = 12.s remain idlt~ will be given latct·. As u~ua l let u~ check fi r·st whe !:her tho system is statically de lcl'minate and stable.idental Pig.load unity H[)plicd at joint 1 N~. This slress may h1. f n order to illustrate the use of the above method. It wilt be readily seen that in this respect therf! is no difference hchveen space frameworks and plane structures (see Art.ained direc. 14 .5a (inc.tly by the method of sections).h joint 1 we lind the SI.i~lie. = st1:ess in bar A2 induced hy the . Jet us compute the sl. separating then joint .he stress in the substitute bar may be found by the nret. joint 3.5 ly these stresses could be obt.4).4. ~ G. StarLing wil. 14. . 14. passing to joint .Jet us examine tho stress arising in the same bars from the application of the unit load X. The demonstration that under zero load all the har.d. Framework 255 just mentioned.'j we see that undel' the action of this load bar 23 remain~ idle..ress in the same bar induced by tho sa me load applied at.! repr~scnted hy Nx ~·" 1V~+N: where N. S 0 = I) and 1\. whcr·eft•om i=12+6::l X G=O whic.Sb) we obtain n simph~ structure for which t.Z we shall (.resses in the structure shown iu Fig. This hojng donP.J'OSS pr·oduced in bar 12 by Uw load P.hod of joints. HepJadng har .
Heturning to the demonstration that under zel'O load all bars of the structure romain idle we can now state that fo1· P = 0 the force X = 0 and accordingly har 13 is idle. Then X becomes indeterminate being ex !H'esscd by ~ which indicates that the system is instantaneously unstable.= .. whereafter each of these \'. 14.P Ax 2~• 11 2 Once X is known. ln such cases all t. the stress N~ is opposite in sign to the stress N p and P times smaller than the latter. This method becomes applicable when the structure is composed of distinct groups of coplanar members.tructure to a series of plane ones.= . (e) The method of reducing the :~pace ~. and both terms of the expt·ession Nk=Nllv+XNhx rHduec to zero indicating that the ~y~tcm forms an unyielding com hina tion. Separating joint~ 1. 3 and 2 in succession we shall find immediately that the same applies to all the other bars.and accordingly Nx=2lv~ As will h~ readily observed from :Fig.256 Space Framework Owing to the symmetry of the structure N~=N: . The stress Nx =1= 0.5b. . 2. Then in the absence of external loads X = 0.hc external loads should he resolved along planes coinciding with those of the groups of bars just mentioned. Determining the stress N x induced in the substitute bar by a load unity we may meet with two case~: 1.. the stresse8 in all the members of the structure are found with no difficulty. Hence :r' N 11 2N P 1\x= pand Nx= 2N~= pSuhlltituting this value in expression (2.5) we obtain X= Np NpP 1 ::. The stress N :r = 0.rr.::. The method of bar roplacemont can be of considerable help when investigating tho geometrical stability of the structure.ophuar groups may he analyzed separately.
i . fou r har. tho nurnher of bars S = 3. R r nm plcs o. .ecl hy load P Fig. Tho lHHn hc r· of support const.\.E?. gi\'ing i ::10+ 3!"i . let us resolve Lllis load into threll c. In order to fincl the stressn:::: ind1rc.thod oj sulions .rlll purwl ol' t!tE· cantilevet· str·11cturP J'l' prosenLed in Fig.omponcnL<... 1. we l'rnd !:hat bars 78. ·x 2 ~. N 2 Huu .IJ 2 wHl take up Lht~ enUre load.' main id k.:hall prove that the same applies to bars .?. and component N2 ooing divided between the t wo in HrtY urbi Lrary proportion.\ME WOH K Let us detennin e tlw stm~~<e~ in Uw mom hers of tlw ~l'nt. A c<:Mdin~ly. 10. .tu t·e to a ENi ~·s of plano lrl! S!.ing the struc. Start hy Jl''<>Ving Lhat all the weh mem bers of the pla no truss S8129 rmnai n idlo.5.> pHTaling consew tively joints G..?10. . 10. 8.omponcnt N a to Lho ~concl.d 111 I<ig. isolating joints 9.h od oi sediou and h.S .. the sy. 8. c.3 X 15 =0 Sr. 15 .5.'i and 5l:!r. tht) structure is both s tatically detenuillnl(• and geomc~ trica lly :>tablt.1. N 1. Isolating thcwaHer joinls '7. 1 . .raints S 0 ::. Alone two [>lane trusses B 2 ti7B 3 and B 110(). 1t>. 9. 7.v n ~duc. 4. l . 4 HtHl :.o mponcnt N 1 being llppli ed to the first one.'i . mee t at 17853 .f Stre$/J A nrll!ISis in Space Fr nmt>u ork ~57 Le t us conside r·.stem r(..0t/.. . 2 and .5 luHh hy tho met.an<:. These trusses may he designed in tho usu<ll 'vay .) ancl the numbel' of joints K ·' 1!'i. c. 2. )0. H.5.5.\':J as indi c n~d in F ig.. For this JHil'pose isolate joint.o..(. (i and 5 wo :. Similady. !) . (a) M e.l presente>. EXAMPLES OF STRESS ANAL YSJS TN SPAC E FH.5.1 and HB 3 remain idle. 5. for i11st. it is eas y to Jlrove that w hen P = 0 aJI tho bars !'(.
lw s. 29 and 10!i) lie> in t. . 16.cosa Fr·om t.>s ~X =2Pj.258 Space Framework t his joint but thre~ (19 .5 Dotcmnine str·oss U 23 by equating tr~ zoi'O thl' sum of mom ouL s of all forces ac. puss section n cutting nll tho mc:mht>rs of the pnnc!l under consideration.Qruu1 loa!l is ap plicHI to th~ joint the sLr<>SS in bar 59 must be niL For the sam e roaS(lU bars .70fi 611.'l10. Thi~ }>(ling known..and zaxc. J. 117 and 712 will rmnaiu idle.¥t.:23= 0 ln order to dot!~rmine stressos D1 and D 2 in diagonals 36 and 310 project tlw forces 11cting in tho left part of truss on the x.a = O }'.1 mt> plane.'ig.Z~ D1 sin~ + D2 s in ~= 0 whorMrom Dl = Dz and hy s uh~titnting in l:X Wtl lind p Dz .ting on the left par·t o[ the truss about the x·axis coinciding with the direction of bur 610 (. and as no e.r ianglo 10183 .(D 1 D2) cw.
.lw ''t!l'tical projections uf loads Ps ancl J> 2 are of nppos it.5. ami thcrofore tht> r~sulting stcss will be nil.1/ wri t e ':i M. St.. 2 = II giving This being known . U .5)..longa also to truss Pig. Ili .EI 8ign Vi = u.l412V shol'.5 (:lee Fig. ..'i .(DI  £ 2)3 .S . As th is same member bL. l7.s . Tho corresponding compnnonts (l<"i g. anuth01· stress lll will be inducNl in it at tho same tirne Owing to tho fact.Therefore In ol'dt~r to dcturmim: s trnSSC'!:' L 1 om! L2 of tho l nwor chord clement!'< (i7 and 10.~P.'l1 iu Fig.5) will 0 1\Uill Nnw t•onsitler the tru~. 17.l~l8 Fig. =0 about an axis xi ~parall e l to the xnxis llut passing through tho ('l'Utl'e of joint 3 ~'11 X I = . wl'ite same ]mint wherefrom ~Mz= O about the ::ax is passing thr<Jugh the (b) Method of rt>duction to plane trus. 18.nrt by res!ll v ing tht' loads along tho planes of the two incliued laLet·nl t1·usses. that t. 5 nnEl determine stress Ui in the uppnr chord m<:mhN 23 .
tress D.D2 cos 1\ =0 ' '• )1 .2()0 S pnc~ F rnmmvork T he l."ijl 5 J As/ 11!1Ll cose :·0.tre~sc·s t!etc. in the diugoual wi ll be obt.lt ahou t pui11t 3 giVl'S ~M 3 = ..~ 2 X !'J X 5 p = 25 p li X 4 1~ Obvi(msly the sLress Dt in w i ll e<JUUI tin~ corl'eSpon•ling rl i11goual of the other truss Finally equating to r.8 Dz ..e=0 whe rd rom and t he s tress Thu~! tlw . .<nnined by both wethods 11ru in _complete agt'(!Olllcnt. .UP1 :~P 1 4f.uined Ly proj(lCting all th e forc~s acti ng on the left part of the Lru~ •111 a not'mal t o the ch orus ~y = '2P 1 ··l.et·o r..
Jci!le rna t. stress ·in a morn hor of a Lr·nss) is hased on o ne o f tho mos t gone l'H l pri ncip lcs of theoreti (.H and t. bnnding moment.urbiug auy of tho cxisl.ing intt'r·nal or.s permits t. noglccting completely the distance a1a2 • For the sa rnc reason we rnay also neglect !.i ntrod nclion nf t he follo wing simplifl c. nhutmcnt reacLion . 1 .ordn nee with this pri nci plo.f shown in Fig.imal ang le dcp ahoul point 0. Sueh dist>lncement.cmen l.raints. KINEMATIC METHOD OF INFLUENCE LINE CONSTRUCTION i. Jocut. tho total work p erformed by any g il.'en system oj forces along olrtual displacements of a.he angle of rotaLion is very small.onst.e.he difforonco between dtp and tn n (d<p) which simpliltf> S very conRiclcrahl y the c.wce r from poinL 0 will shift 1.a 1 mechanics.c.ic method of influence line con~lruetion for nuy given fnnc.G.tion (shear.2 nlong a (~ irc u l ar ure: however.t. .c.h11. any oLhcr pninL n. Jn ac. At the same tiuw the insiguillcancc of those d isplac.un must be nil.0 a.omplished witho\tt dis t.6.horcforo thoy may be ac.t. GENEHAL The.rnction of lhn vil'tun l dis placement graph~.i rotnt. ~inee l. body in equilibriT. tiX L cr·nal com.s arc reckoned inli nH~Jy sma.cd a dist. normal rnn:. we may c:onsidrH· that point a moves along the tangenL to the arc and not the arc itsoH.atio11 ~: when plate .l displacemmls.cs a 11 in1initc!".the princip ll: of virl.un.
Tho methods based on this theory are pnrLicularly well ft t fo t· certain complicated cases where they lend to quicker and more t•eliable results: they arc also very useful (or checking inl'lnencc lines constru~. p Fil(.2(i2 Kt~te. Unlike the statical methods.s represented by thnm supporting b ars (Fig. say. Here under Wt' shall describe only one of the me thods derived from the above theory. arches or trussr1s. 2.G. it ig required to construct the inOuoo<:. whieh require that a section be }H\S.ted by other methods. when a unit load P.ross several bars. 2.SC cl ac.t:\ line fot· tlw s tress in one of these bars. barB.6 i\ s~nnw that. statically determinate or redundant.rnatic M ethod /J f lnj lrU'IICf. BASIC PRI NCIPLES OF THE KINEMATIC METHOD Let us consider a plate rigidly connected to the ground by means of three eonstrainl. This method might be termed the instant aneous centre of rotation mothocl and is extreme ly sim ple and e<lSY to grasp . 2. 2. Une Con$tructton The k inematic theory (also called the strain energy or clastic energy t heory) enables t he construction of influence lines for all types of structurt's: beams. romaining always parallel to itself (Fig.6a).6b) travels along tho plate. us ually separating the whole structure .
e nw nt aa.ion of the load will be tcckoned positive and auy dis placement acco mplishod in tho oppo::lit.p of rotation A.h represonts the equation for t. A naly. or in other words.miug equa l t o u nity.lispl neonwnt bb 1 cli r. .asc un der consideration the system so obtai ned can l'Otate freely about point A a nd is ma intained in equilibriu m by tho load P.s acting along t hQ remain ing s uppo rting bars. t ho force X and the read. tho only possible mo1. 3. A~ point A is r•igiclly contH. l et us denote i t Ly :v wb.etcd along tht1 force X we may wr·it.he stross acting therein.terl to the gr·ound it will constitute tho centre of rotat ion of the plate.k h gives ~P = xdq• He r ·eafter a ny displace ment acco mplished by so me p oint ol' tho pla te in the dirccl.m the p d nci plo of virtu al d is p'Jac.6) whel'e aa1 = Aa d(p. ~P U:x.l'.vc. the compon <>.=.c P6p + XBx = 0 w hich expresses t hat the work performed by the exLornal fon·es actin g on a body in equilihrium remains nil.oments .ion of which will consist in a 1·otation about this point. the method dosr.ion.s: turned clockwise an iniiuite~irnal angle drp {Fig. 2.H. lJasic P rinciples of thl! Ktnematir M cthcd or p art thereof fro m the grounu.r.i ng this expression we no t o that flo m t ria ngle a 2aa1 (l"ig.ho requil'cd inlluonec liue in its most general form. nt of the c .ribed involvos the elimination of one b<tr (or eons traint) only and i t~ rcpl<J<~enlonL by a force X equal to t.e dir~c tionncgati. 1t is clear that Lhe displacements of different points will depend o n the position of load P. 6) whic. we draw immediatel y f rom t he ahove X . 6b) causing t he l oad poin t to shift l'rom a t o a1 and t he point (I f appliea tion of t he fol'ee X fr·o m b to b 1 • Deuoting h y 6p thB co mponon L of the displac. 1 d iredod n l o u~ the Ioree P and by 6~. to t he dista nce of t he l oad poin L t o t he <'entlfl .2. T he l oad P l. (1. Jn the c. Snppost\ that the plato ha.6. lt follows tha t bp = Aa cos Bd(p Aa co~~ being equal to the l over arm of the load P about: p oin t A . this d isplacement being p roportional to th~ lover arm x. Let us apply to this syste.
onstrnction of the inflnc.h t he (.blr:. hy tho method of the ins t anta neous centre of rot at ion s houl d be cnrt'i (. As both Lhc point o[ appHcation of the force X and its direction rcnn aiu constant.\'WW fa. T . Thus.Le t. .cnrwnts of the system made possl. or. .ho t>onstraint corresp o nding to the Junctio n under eo u ~ itl (~ r:aLion an(L roplaeo it by l. us examill(l the term 6x.6 nunH~ 1·ic. the ordinates to the tnftuenc(! line for any ju.i n from Fig.in<' Con struction H.a.Ga for which i t is required to eonstrud the influe nc.nclton are equal to /. 4.21V.ant illdependcnt from t he pos i lion of the load P.nv i ng deterrnincd tho d isplac.)d o ut is as follows : (1) e l iminalo t.ained upon elimination. of the said con1. fn1k cd.al value::. the denominator· ~ x be exactly known..by the elimination of the corresponding constraint divided by the .traint.e line for re a(~tio n B. (/J:) detennine the signs of Lhe ordinates to the influence line.lotcrmine the scale factor pertaining to this graph. (H) <.hose of the gra.nc. f.ph of virtu.~placement graph of the system .ho ordjnates to thi~ lino requires that the va h w of.cments have been drawn. Using the same reasoning as 3bove we ohto.jp Fig.. 4. 5. (2) draw the graph of virtual displacements for the rncc hani~m ohl.~pla. and rnay therefore be roganlecl as rt}prescnting the scale to w hic.hc force X.t:i Ox= bbt cos r = Ab cos 'r d(p = r dq.P we may represent t hese displacements grnphically obta ining the ~ocalle d diagram of virtual displacements or di. the di ~ pl ac.clor ~x· Thu scq neuce in whic.oment <> x is a cor1st.e li nef. :u.h the vi r tua ( displac.l di. the shape o( Lho i nfluence line will depe nd solely on tho numerator Op of the expression (1. K illf!rlwUc l•rfethod of 1 n{luence.G) hut the detcrmi natioH of 1. let us consider tht~ example of a ca11tilover beam appeadng i n Fig. As an illu::. Ji'ig.em en ts of all t he possihl ~ points of application of the load .tration of tlw above.
6.• ~. 1f in our drawing we put 6x = 1.6 disjllac. ln the following articles we shall consider more compli('ated cases.cmcnts of all the points will he •·epr•escntcd by a straight line intersecting th~' hcanl axis at A (whore the dbsplaccmcnl is nil). 5.tethod The dimination of the r·ighthancl support )caves the hl:. .6) will give ln order to obtain the influence line fo1· reaction Ball that J•enwiH~ to h<~ done is to ehangc the gign of all the ordinalel:'l to the d iS()Iaeement graph as shown in l''ig.tn is lllt'IH>d count. The displacement (jx is positive and equal to the ordinate t~ot respondiJJ!{ to point B.g. which will tlll\f'('for(:> constitute the •~entre of rota! ion of the syslem.. .6c. e. Hasic Principle:> of thl' Kinematic ".2. The ordinate~ lo this lino wilL he reckoned positive to Lite ldt of A (all the points bci11g rlisplac.:xe_ p =1 (a) (b) (cJ Fig.ed downwards.er•dockwise l.'am l'r·t~e to pivot about tho t·cmaining one (point .ion of fnrcc P) lind negative to the l'ight of it. along tlw 1lired.hrongh an angle d<p about this centre tht. If th~ h(lll.sion (1...4).. cxprc:..
. It is the member for which the influence line is 1'equired that should bo t•cmoved. 8.6.il some of the more typical cases of ('Oll. HI::PLACEMENT OF CONSTRAINTS DY CORRESPONDING FORCES As already stated. (J fb) Fig. which corresponds to a positive reaction inducing a compre~sivo stress in the eliminated bar. .ontal bar is removed (Fi~. In this case the lixed support should be represented by two ·con<.action. 6. this direction coinciding with the direction of the thrust reckoned positive.6b. again directed towards the hinges. the construction of arl influence line for any function starts with the elimination of the corresponding constraint whkh must be replaced by a fon~o.tres.sLrl\int elimination. G. fa) {b) (a) =Fig.6a.'Shown in Fig. In this case the hori1. lh) Elimination of the constraint corresponding to a thrust. 7. 8. 6 us shown in Fig.wJs in truss members.'urrcnL bars one of which is hori:wntal and the other vertical Fig.supporting bar is then el~minat <)d and n'placed by forces X = VA directed towards the hinges as . (c) Elimination of constraints corresponding to .2116 Kinematic :Me. 7.thod of I n{1uen ce L inP. The forces X should be . The vertieal . 6.6) and replaced by forces X = H 11.Constrnction 3.()).fi Let us consider in deLa.directed a way from tlw joints thus indicating that tensile stresses are reckoned po:::itivo (Fig. (a) R limination of the constraint corresponding to the vertical re.
.e X= Q CouscqucnLly. Adopting for L he c.'Y=QX= O whenc. 9 .d by a connection consisting of t hree har·s a~.6.H..ally in Fig.6b the force acting in t. or It hent capable of resisting lho action of a ]lend ing moment. A11 y cross section of a beam. indicated in Fig.h i rn ( 0) N "' Fig.i L ion of thoso ba rs may be varied at wi ll but tlley must al ways e ns ure the rigidit y of tho c.ttmlnts by Corre.J•lfJtl'ment of Ctm.onnection b ars a pattern represented in F ig. ~traint co1·re.ob.Gc.tio n whic.< 2G7 (d) Elimination of constraints corresp onding to shearing forces. I n the arrangemant appearing in Fig.tion CC reduces t o the construction of that for the stress X i!1 the vertical bar. l O. 9. 9.~ponditlf! P<Jrcc...tion I I }'. t he construdion of the influence huo for the ~hl'ar acting ovc.hll vertical hal' is equal to the shear..0 plio5 t ha t these three bars may never h ave a com mon JlOint of in ter:scetion. 9. 0 wlterefrom . an arch.hemati c. Tho mutual 1)0!. (e) Elimination of the con.onncc.X . lfr. whieh follows from the oquilihrill fll of vertical components o( all forces aeLing to t he lt•fl (or to the righ t) of sec.r sce. Upon removal of t he vert ical bar t he two parts of the beam will ha ve a mobile connection represented sc.fla and projecting all the forces acting to the lefl (or to the right) of section II on a h orizontal we obtain kX =N . a shearing or a normal force may be schematically teplacr.~ponding to a normal force .
•.rncLion of inl1ueneo lim•..hc con. {i {b) 2C}[ . ll.X=M Fig.ain whel'cfrom ~ YM . the sti·e~s in the hot·izontal bar is nqual to the normal fore.icu] rod with tho one coinciding with the neutral axi~ of the member Wf!. which is equivalent l:o a hinge.. 11. Upon removal of the horizontal bar the two parts of the member will have a mobile corwection represented schematically in l•'ig.nu! /A1w Construction In other words.~'J· . olll. 10.ros1'l section we may construct the iJJflwwct• line for the stl'ess X ind\leod in the lower bar of Fig..ral axi~..s for lht! usual stmss functions mav he roduced to tlw consl•·uctiou of tho. lf r equal to ~ 1. 10. '14 . in~tnad of constructing thn inl'luenc(~ Jine for the hP11diug momcu t. bal'.f)b. 11 Jib.on~i~t of two hnrs intorseding in its ll{!Ut. 1LH. The connecting bars may bo placed as indicated in Fi. acl.ing ovet· the c.6 Fig. the forc.e X in the connecting 1·od wi II he nunuwicaHy th~ moment X=T=Jlf and llms.fi Passiug .y (aJ {!IJ 1 Q {b) X~N .lw mcmiJCl' Will r. Upon elimination of this har Lhe comHwtion betwe1m the two parts of l. 0 il N .e N acting in the member under consideration.Kint!malir Af1•Lhod of lnfiue. All the above shows thai.sl. t. (f) Elimination of the constmint corresponding to a bending moment..soction //and equating Lo zero 1:M ahout point K at Lhe interscdion of the verl.6a.~c for a uorma] forco acting in a.::. Schornatically this eonneclion is rc~presentud in Fig.
in Fig. 'J'hus. P will equ.hoir o•·dinates differiug by 11 constant l'<ldor only. =X d<p when) . 12.Hc it ha:J been chosen h()rizontal.6. Let us examine the consl. The displacement of point. 2. CON~TRUC'l'lON OF THE DISPLACE. t2.!i. rn along the direction of. For.e of direction see Art. this reason it may be said that when tho displaecment graph is compleLed tho main bulk ol' work has been done. will exe(!pting parallels to the direction of foree P.r is the distance of the line of ~ction of the fo1·ce to the centre or rotation (always meas11rcd along a normal t:o this line. regardless of t. The axis of ordinates must he always l:ll ken parallel to force P. The :caxis of 1.noter] on 1. (a) Displacement gmph for a single plate. . i\ssnme th:At plal.e 1 wi Lh une il xed poiu L 0 is acted npo n by (I lie moving loud P ··""" 1 Fig.(:i).6b tho :ra:xis i~ normal to the line of: action of force P while in Fig.d (soc Art. l).\mNT GHAPHS The virtual displacernmtt graph deL~rmiues compleLely the ~hape of the influence lines.hc direction adopted for the XHXiS o[ l.t·nction o[ displaeenwnt graphs in Lhc case o[ one. the dirocLion of Lhc former may he arbitrary.1J and a flxod force X.hc graphs by the same letle•·s with a prime index. t. 0 in a cloekwise dir1~dion {on the dwie.G) 61. Let plate l tum an angle drp ahonl point. The {IOI'Linent points of the system will be de.hc graph). two ~wd four hingeeonnoetetl plates. 12.hc graph may he dwseu al.
6 of the forcn P. Lot.esimnl di::$placement.l1er hy means of hinge . 12. a syst e m will bo i.G).1[rtlrod of lnflue.emcnL graph will form a .. whi lo to the.xis at point 0' where . 1:1.l1e scal o factor is eq ual to the displaeemcnt.he right of point 0 ' the ordinates of the graph are positive.ilmction Dw above expression showi' dcal'i y that in the case uncle!' c. Con.antn neousl y uns tab le . .ong a normal t. t3.a Wd in line with points Ot and 0 2 (Fig.tion.:r reduces to zero. t..nce Line. its motion involving ii1fmitoly small rotations of plate I auoul. us toHsl.emcnt graph for two plate~ I and II ftxed at.270 ](inemalic.cement 6p coincides with the direction {a' Fig.nst.straight ljue intersccl.oJlsiucratiou the displac. graph orllinalo rnoa~urcrt a distance r from point 0' Wig. ~mch. As we know.:~6J) In other . It f11Llows lhat for x = r t\.ted to one anot.ruct Llw displttc. left of this same point the ordinates will be negative.s al.o line 0 102 .l loc. as tho direction of the di sp ta. hinge 1 being able ln sustain infinit. points 0 1 and 0 2 and eonncc. for t.6b anJ c).l111t. To l. (b) Displacement graph for two pinconnected plates.his portion of tho pla tc will move in an opposi to 1li rt1c... ords. The scale fndor will b~ obtained remembering t.ing ~he xa. .
such systems being frequently e ncountered in prac:tke. of lines Oil' and Oil' intet·socti ng at poi11t 1' (Fig.l P a distanee r from point Oj. The scale fact. measured alonJS a parallel to the rlirec tion o( forc.hc displaceme nt graph nnd havi ng found l. wh ich will eon~i s t.l on t his axis we rnay p1·oceod with the consLrucLion of the gmph itself.ement grap h repl'£•sented by the line . (c) Displacement graph for a system of fou.8. If wo assume that plato .or c. lt is very conve nient Lo adopt as such the instantaneous centre of rotation (otheewise called the instantaneous centre of 1. 0 1 . or by tho rotation of plate I I abou t poi nl: 0 2. III and IV connected by means of hinges1. 2./ is the immova ble .e ment graph nnd nothing except the hatching of the graph area would alter as showu in Fig.. 14.koned immovable un<l no chango whatsoever will oc<. il:' caused by the rotation of plate I a bout point 0 1.he p rojection~ of.~ u r in L h e outlin~ of tho dis placement graph when the label "immobile" is shifted fro m ono plale 1o another. T lu~refore .Gb) . Tn order to comple te the displacement gt•aph for p late .Z' 2'. f ndeed. Gb).ni losimul rotation a bout point 1 in a clocb'v·ise direction we s hall obtain a dis plac.lll the disp laeoment of only one oxtra point is required as th o displa ee~· ment of point 2 is already known (point 2').r plates. 0 2 and hinge .xa xis of t. 1~ .. Thus far we h ave admitted Lhnt plates I and fl arc lhed to the ground at poinls 0 1 a nd 0 2 whieh re main im mobil e. if it we re assumed that p la le I I is the i m 111ovable o1w.(. it is a bsolutely im mater·ial which of Lhe three will be rec. poi n ls 1 and 4 will lie on the a:xis of the graph (points 1' a nd 4' i n Fig .1.e of the above rem ark resides in t he fact that in a rl\1 m her of cuscs t he cons tru ction of t ho vi rtual displacemcn Lgraph mny he <~onsidornb l y simpli fied by an appropriate choice o.f that pnrt of the struc ture which will be reckoned immova ble. both scale fac.he a:x is of t.e m of plates /. 3 a nd 4 (Fig. Construction of the Displacement Graphs 271: poin l'. 'fhe importanc. thereby i mplicating the presence of a third un moved plate con~ t. 11. lor~ will he exactly the sa me. a11 d in t he seeond by t he lengt h of a similar i nsert but meas ured a dis t:a nco r 2 from point 0 2. Jn the ftrst cMe t he scale factor.6a). 0 2 • Hav ing chose n t he . a sysl. line l '02 should bo a dopted as t.e1·o velocity} of this plate with . will be give n by t he length of the i u~el'~ between t he line bounding the graph and the xaxis . Let us considet. 14. iLute d hy the ground itself.he disp lac. 0 1 and of plate II a bout point. 13.an be found assuming eiLhcr that L h e displacemen t o~ point l. Tf measu red corroct:ly.6c. commo n to hoth plates. (n t his respect it is quite importan t to note that from the vi ewpoint of theoretical mechan ics all of Lhese L hree plates a re p erfectly equi valent. Imparting to pl a t e II an infi.
li cLitiou:sly enla rgiug plate ll.<. Conslrrtclion reference to pJ ate I.i. 1.{ r.<st.6a. and the second by pla tes T.l:i ng the same reason ing for plate JV we .a in Lwo iustanLane~JI I ~ Iy unsln ble systems formed: t. gadl or t.onslilut.s clear· that this po iuL is in effect L hc instantaneous t'en tre of r·ota tiou of: plate I I.es tht! 1·equired Ctln tre of rotation .llcst~ two sy~ lems is in every res peel: similar to the ~Sy~le 111 of rv . As li\. 2. Hepca.ion o( point 0 " auil fixing this point we out.l2 until ils intersection w ith the line 34 w provo Lhat point 0 1 c.hc projection of point 0 1 on the :~xis of the gl'aph will provide the extra poinl.ing Lhc point 0 1 does not prevent in f11 1iLe. r cquit·e~t and l.TT anu Jhod at points 0 1 and 4 and hingeco nnected a1. by plates I I au d 111. it i.<( fl.'27~ K lnt>m. Z' Ftg.I recko ned inuuovahlc.~im al dis plac.lhod o j 1 nJlucnu Line. rcspcclively) and hillg't'COUilCCLod a t point. N . .ati r.enw nlfl of plale. poinl. Indeed .~.li ·eac h having one lixed poinL (point~ 1 ~wd 0.onstiLute l\w displaceme nt grnph ror the plate III. In ol'der to find this centre let us extend Lho liue . III and J V wi lh n~spect L o pl alc . for on the graph this point will necessarily lie on the axis of ZOJ'O displacements.f until inchl:. It follows tha l: t.he iil'. . }.T.hnllllnd t hn t li ne 4' 3'0' forms lhe dis plucomont graph for Lhc lntter. It is easy ~t point 01.herel'oro line 2'0'3' will c.Fig..
l'egard]ess of the anglo formed hy the axis of the graph and the direction of the load (see .) helonp:ing l.r.regarded as immovable. point :..re given in Art.s.0a plate I is fixed in which case liuc .l.6).2' 3'4' constitutes the entire disphH~Hnwnt gr·aph o[ l. 5.ry & 1x.x will be conditioned solely by the motion o[ hinge 2. di~plnc<Hntmt b~ing nil. Ji ne H' 4' would constitute the axis of thf' gTaph from which all the displacement~ should be mea~u red. 15.e.l11~ values oE the scale factors dol. It is obvious that regardless of the procedure ndop1.he entire force X is 11pplied to plate l i in which ·~ase the Col'l't!Sponding lever arm will equal r 1 • The scale ractor 18853 .H. the scoJe factor may be obtained by measuring tht• ordinate to the displacement graph 11t a di. hnt rwvCl'l. should lie on the axis of thH graph (line H'4').t point 0 2 formed by the inLcr~cf·Lion of lines .o plate II.. where r is the lever arm of the force X about this c<'nln·.ion o[ the force X equals Ox= r d([! where:ls the clisplaccmeut of any point of t. Ou the displaeement gr·aph the colTesponding point. etc.rmined iu (liffercnl ways.o plnl. 15. 1') · (' )C) • Exn m ples of scale factor delerminaLion. DE'l'.u.he system formed by four hingeconnected plates.. '1g. plate IV were regarded as the reference one. The instantaneous ccu tm of mtnl.273 Thus the broken line 1'.he plate along the di1·oction parallel to the load P amoun Is to bp=Xdlp lL l'ollows that for x= r Ox= bp Thus. H. fo1· i nsta nee. Tho di~placo menl 6~. when tJw sy~t(Hll consists of uue or two plates.E. t. A::!Hllllll' that in Fig.l4 and 23.e I which i~ . for all the three helong t. 0 2.~ l'. 2. itt the d il'ect.ion of plate If would be located a. On the graph distance r must be always measul'ed along a normal to the direction of the mobile load. the displacemonl.H111NATION 01' THE SCALE FACTOR As :llrcady known (Art. w1>. 'l'l1e1·e are several ways of obtaining the value of the scale factor when three or more plates nrc invulvcd.cd we must always obtain U10 sauw resull. 4..1'~4' in Fig.e the axis of the graph. it:. As~urne that t.lwlc5s for the sake of clarity we sha11 denote l. 2' and 02 mnst also lie on one and the same straight Line. Poiul.Gb will constittlt.tance r from the projection of the centre of rotation.
will acquit'~ a certain displacement and therefore the required St'a lo factot· will bo represented by the algebraic sum f>ax = ~3x +1'13~ where 63x i.274 K irtemalic A1elhod of I nflltence Line Constructi(}n 6 1x will then be equal to ordinaLc Lo line 1' ·2' measur·erl a disLancc r 1 either to the left or to the right of point 1'. . H. th<t lever arm r 2 should be measured from point 0 1 and tho scale factor (b) Fig• . on the other hand.~ assuming thn L plate IV is rendered immovable.6 0 2 x would he given by t.s the displacement of point 2 and 63x tlw t of point 5.15.he orrlinate to the line 2'·3' measured a distance r2 from point 01. Let us determine the scale factor 6 3 . the force X were applied to plaLc fll. In this case both points 2 and :.
koned positive. when the load is directed upwards. All the ordinates to the influoneo line in that case will he opposite in sign as compared with the ordinates to the displacement graph. This will be fulfilled if the motion imparted to the plates coincides with the direction of X. In that case the lever arm equals r:i and the insert between the axis of the graph (line 3'4' in this case) and the line corresponding to the displacement of plate III (line 2'3') measured a. 11i. :c If: the load P is directed downwards (in which case positive displacements 6 11 are laid of£ below the graph axis and the negative ones above the axis).1x let forc.ement graph for plate I which will be represented by the line 0'1'2' of Fig. since X is equal in amount and opposite in sign to ~J> [see expression (t. The lever nrm of X . Afll'or<'l3x it~ valno will be found by applying force X to plate I. Line 2'9'4' will correspond to the displacements vf plate II and line 4' 5' 6' to those of plate Ill.6.6b. Impart an upward motion to point 1 c. those of the ordinates t. and those below the same axis negative.t! X act.et·minalion of signs will he greatly f.~trw:tion 275 In orde1·to determine~. Eliminate thQ constraint at the support B and replace it by a force X.o ensure in every case a positive displacement along the line of action of tho force X.6. solely on plate III. EXAMLPES OF INFLUENCE LINE CONSTRUCTION Problem 1.ion llnd sign with force X and construc.t the displac. for point 2 moves along the direction of the force X. THE SIGN CONVENTION The correct det.oinc. Solution.6a.o the influence line which are above the xaxis will be positive.. H all the opet•ations wore carried out correctly all the seale factors ohLainl'd will he in strict coincidence. fot· in this case the scale factor 6:x: will be always positive. Examplt!S of Tnjluenu Line Con. Vice versa.6)J. di~place ment is negative and therefore the value of &3x will be found by subtracting the length of ~3x from that of ()l!x· A comparison of the three scale factors obtained appears in "Fig. Hcquircd the il1fiuence lin<' for reaction at D of a multispan staticnlly d~terminate beam l'biJwn in Fig. 7 .7. 16.1' will represent Osx· It must he rec.implifted if the rotations of the plates were such as t. 18* . positive influence line ordinates will be below the xaxis and negative ones above it.6. 15. distance r 3 from point .iding in dircct. 6. the lever arm in that case equalling r 4 • The insert between the graph axis and line 1' 4' (rcprcsenLing the displacement of plate f with reference to plate IV) mcasmed a distance r 4 from point 4' will yield the value requit·ed. Thi!'.6c.
= .ame influ enco Hue was obtained previously using statics Fig.2cl.. Solution...10'. The two displacemento:. l'rolllem 2. Tlw :. 55.nul G' on t)Jl.ement graph at point J.2c).6a. negative ones ~ (Sl!(J Uclow.l 1t is madily seen that Ox is the Slim oft\~ and The same innuencc line hcul hcen obtained Jln•viou!')y uRing stntks (S(!O Fig.~ay. will l1e reprerentod in the graph h~ th(~ lines 2' iJ' rn' an1l n'9' . ~tad< points 5' . !14. 57 .1! of thl) heam am rotated thi'Ough tho ~>ame infinitc1:imnl angle dq. Tmpnrt a dod< wise rotation to plate I about point A and a similal' rotation tH plate II ah"ut point B. If the latter is adopted for unity the inlhwnce line will m~•·gc with thl! displacement graph. tlwsu two lines being p:trallel a~ hoth JHll'l.. 3./. t'Cl'pectivdy.5l (bl .lib hntween the two p. 9 and 1. 4 and G will be found from the similitnd•~ of trinnghls ~ 3 B Yz = +. .l' and mal'k on it aU tho fixod points of the hcam (points . of the gra11h. St•loct a graph axis. line 5'11' for Jllate H' anllline 10'11' that for plate V.1)..u·ts of the beam sepnrnted by section mn and two forces X = Omn I'eplacing t.. Hequired the influence lino for the ~hear in cross soction mn of the bonm roprcsented in Fig. . 16.o to the displac. · Line . I 7 .6 Thl! ol'(linutes at points 2. 'fhe value of gcale factor Ox will be given by tlw onliuat.7'2' will constitute tho graph for plat..CJ 1/I. Influence line for · reaction 8 >6· Fig. fl6 = Po!<itiv(• +'T hrdinates arc above tlw xuxis. the whole gril{lh cnnsi. o:. Introduce a movable connection 88 shown in Fig.. 17 .ting of the broken line 1' 2'!i' 6' 1 0' 11 I • In ol·cler tu det()l·mim) tho s•:ale fa1:lor as~ume that plate T is fixed. Then ()x will he l)qual to m' n' which will he l'cgardl)d a~ unity Ox=m'n' ~.o.. Q I 2 0 " Ill 0.l. line 1'.27ii Kinematic 11fethod of 1 nflueJlCI! Line Construction ahout point 0 is !!qual to l..) eorrcSflOnding lint•.lto verticlll constraint at this cross section.
.IIIII:..ation of Jllnte I nnd countl~t·clMkwise ono nf plate II... H1•place uppllr chord member 4G by the ~tress X= U 46 • It ~hould btl nottJd that Uw elimination of bat· 46 does not entail that of the corres!)omliug f:tringer.7.6 Sol•~tion...'". The ronesponding d i~placement g•·aphs will 1~~~ reprc8en ted hy ...~ !IJ }' 11 II 8 ~ (C) Fig..~ IV S 7 8 .. rcJ :%.J ::III Z J . Coustruction 277 trus).0 of a deck!Jridgt~ l8...ll.~ rt ... 17. IS...~J I Ir.6. of fig. Hequired the influenM line for the streR~ U .. Examples of fn(1uNic~< Line...G The fol'ce X will ~~ause a clockwi~e t•ot.li1~.!:.... Fig. Problem 3.
Indeed.278 K l n e11~at k M e/Jwd of ltlfluence Line Conslruetion Jiuo..hrough hridge truss shown in .. Eliminate the diagonal uuber consideration and rcphtcc it hy t wo rorco.ll.:Fig. . f8. ... The fore<..Gb). Tho same influence line had been obtained previously (see..• X will impnrt a dockwi~e rotation to pinto I about this centre. 71. graph 6'12' will merge with the .s X = D 56 .4). Problem It. plate II •·otating about point 5. Requirod the.. the corrnsponding displacemt!nl.xaxis (Fig. Let plate II be fixed.. nccordingly.6 (hatched on tho drawing) connected l·t> one another by two bars ii7 <md 46 the uirections of which intm·sect at point K. 19. line 1'5' bec.. ~. it is easy t.o determine tho influen ce I ine ordinate y 0 at tho abutment A... The scale factor is found assuming that plate I is rendered immobile.6b) and the instantaneous ta.... Tho lever arm r of stress X about this point Qquals h = 4 m and. The system will be thus transformed into two plates I aud Jl {a) (b) . Knowing the value of thts insert and t·eckoning it equal to unity.. I fixod.ements l1oingin that case nil..mtrc of rotation or plate I will be at point K. inllueuco lino fo1· the stress in diagonal 56 of a t. Fig..Fig. Yo= ::1. tho scnle fa ctor will be given by the insert between lines 1'5' and 5'12' measured vor~ically a distance of 4m from point 5' (assumin~ plate. Projecting on these lines points 4' and (}' we obtain the displacement of joints 4 and 6 or the upper chord. 19..1 '5' and 5'12' (Fig. Solution.. from the similitude of triangles.omos the graph axis). line K'4' representing its displaceutent graph whilo tho lines 4' 6' and 5'7' will represent that of bars 4fi and 57. Hl.... Its displac.. .
'r pruc•!ed with the rloterrnination of tho scale fact. which leods to the formal. Jlcquircd the influence lino for the bendiug moment ac.~ . .6 m frorn point K' will provide tho value of Ox = 1. tho sign convention stipu lated in tho provious section remnining iu force.m 5. Proble.12' and the line representing tho displacement of plnlc I (line .tion.7./1).tod using statics. 7 .ht! ~T itph . The insert hot. /aJ ( b) Ftg. 6 2~~6 =0. of a parabolic threehinged spand!'el a1·ch of Pig.wtwn the graph axis 6' . !(.:<R! soc. the lever nrm r of this force nlH>IIL point K will equal 20. 13 and 17.Ha. Ui'\iug tlw similitude ()r tri11nglos oLtaiu ordinate y 1 untlcr the lefthand ahut. points 1 and 12. . .ro.!tion 2i() . 20.6 SolrJ.i•·o displacement graph will then he reprosentod by the brol<en line 1 '4'{i'12'. rr.he plate 1I but the ground .\ cttwll y i ~ is no~ L . IJ I and IV connected together hy me~~ns of four hinges 9. £ntroduce au extra l1inge ut cross section J(.o X acts on plate I. 20.87/t Tho inOnonco lmc thus obtained coincides fully with that of Fig.fi l~:camples of b1(luence Line Construf.if)lt {(.~to •·ogardccl t.mont v.inn of fo\lr plates l. i.4 construc. Assuming that plato f f i~ immobile anrl that forc.l.l. Therefore trace li ne 1'12' and adopt it 8 $ the f111al axis of The t'nt.1' 4') HH!asnrod at a distance of 20.Ling ovor c. that :>houl1l as 1\xed .=18 Y1 = 1 20.6 metros (see Problem 2 in Art.or. li!. 'J'hereaftl.
lum marked on the displaccJment gl'aph for Phtte I I.o plate I (point m) whidt will bo I'('Jll'e. .'ngth uf the segnwJtl.he ahutment hinge !i will h() found flo~Jm !Jo •h wlwrefrum =1 '"h Yo=Oxx~t=1xk=1 All the other <Wdinates t. aud points 5'.l' and 8' afe plotted on tho graplt uxis. hetw(. The lever :um of fol'cc X may be.'ell t.c to tiH~ iuflnt:'nce line for the hmuling moment 11t t. Iu urder to dcte1miuo tho scale fnctor ilx Jllate II and let fnr<.em of plates usiug ttw im:laut.>.o the influenc.htH·c.·aflrr. Tho 8calo factor 6"' will he given by the l(.aneous ecnt.plate /11. Knowing the vaino of this ~t'gmmtt the ordinal. :!.280 /(inemutic l~lethod of 1 nfluence Line Construction Cmtstruct tho displacemMtt gt·aph nf this syst.f rotation of plate Ill with reference t. taken equal to 1 meh't.re o. point 4' on tllllt for. ou Jllat(l 11 I causing it to rota to with •·cference to plate 11 about tlw hinge K.lw graph nxi!l 9'K' and the line representing tlw •lispl:u·•!rnent o( plate liT (lin~ }(' J. ()' and 7' on that fo•· plate 1 V.(l X ac(. Points 2' and 3' are t.6b).o line will hr readily found t.'f') mt>aSurcd one metre away from point }('.0. Comw<:Ung all lh11se })oints tognlhet· the diSJJiacemcnt graph of all tho panel Jl<lints of the deck will he obtai !lPd.~cntcd by the brokon line Y'K'13'17' (Fig. Points .
.7 shows l wo differcn L types of retaining walls and a sheet pi lownll wh ieh in numerous cases may serve the !'lame purpose. • • • . • • • . the active and passivepressure of the earth Eh E 2 .reLe and consist of a foundaLion slab CD :md a vcrtieal wall AB. They aro suujt>ctrd to their dead weight Q. Retaining walls of muc. of' the doa~l weight Q. its main dimengions b and h being of the same order. etc. . The retaining walJ shown in Fig. GENERAL Retaining walls are structures intended to prevent the sliding down: of slopes too steep to remain standing on their own. 7b arc usually hui II. Fig. of the weight G of tho column of earth resting on the foundation slab. RETAINING WALLS AND EARTH PRESSURE COMPUTATION 1.tive and passive pressure of thH eal'th E 1 and E 2 developed over the rear and front faces AB and CD and the rcacLion CB ucLing over the foundation.7a is a massive eonstrucLiou. Q2 .7.7.7 type a1·e usual1y huiH of I'uhhlo or rnass concrete. 1.. The forces acting on a wall of this type consist. of these walls renders it possible to ma1<e usc of prcfahl'it~n tion techniques. 1. 1. The reduc. WaLJs of: this. and the reactive force. Fi~.cd weight.h lighter construction showu in Fig. the ac. o[ reinforced conc.s d islributcd over the lower surface of Lhc foundation slab. 1.
0 tons per ·cubic metro for water saturated matel'ials.n order to determine the pressure exerted by a granular mat.onsidered arc the ac.aro always neglected. • • • . Dry sand and grains of cerc. As one cubic metre of t h e material conta ins T] per cent of voids. In the actual design ·of retaining walls cohesive soils a re frequently met with but tho forces of cohe~ion are usually neglected and the soil is regat·dcd al'! . Its porosil.y 1l given in per cent and rcpresen l.() tons per cubic metre for dry sand to 2.lose as possible to the definiLion given above. both t ho acLive and the passi ve eart h pressures may be computed on the . l. 2. The dead weight of shoat piles and the vorl.:2R:! R etatnt n. :1.g Walls aml /i. reinforced con·CI'(.Ite.a granular m as~. Its weight por cubic rnett·e "Y usually given in tons.~ ide using specia l equipment. E 3 . Accordingly..als in large q uantities consti t u te granular ma terials which arc as c. the only forces that must be <:.t:t·iul 011 a reta itri ng wall the follow ing physical properties of this material lllUSt bo known: 1. the loss in weight duo to its immersion will he equal to the weight of the water displaced or.ti vo and tlu~ passi vc prcssutes of the earth E~o E 2 . The weigh t of the material suspended in water 'V\) also given in tons per cubic metre. etc.. This weight varies from 1.all the intergran ular voids to the total volumo of t he material.7. The des ign of retaining walls and of shoot piling must b e always preceded by the det.arth P ressure Computation Sheet pilewalls are built up of separate wooden.ing the ratio ot . or steel sh eet piles which are sunk into the ground side by . For <Compacted sand 11 ~ 30 per cent. . for loose sand H is close to 50 per cont a nd for dry clay i t may vary from 25 to 40 per cen t.ussumption tha t the earth consti t utes a granu lar material. 2.i\nd therefore the only internal stresses that cap develop in s uch materials are friction and compression .et·miuaLion of the loads and forces acti ng on these s tructUI·es including the earth pressure E. I n all computations pertaining to retaining walls the dcplh of the structure in the direction n ormal to the surface of the drawing wi ll he always taken equal to one mett•e. to where Yw is the densit y of the water . which must balance each oth er. in other words. \Vithout comm itting any serio us error.ical reaction applied to their points are so small that they . PHYSICAL PHOPEHTIES OF GRANULAH MA'l'EHIALS Gra nular materia ls consist of very small solid roundocl particles .
Thi~ dovicc consists nf a metal cylinder separated horizontally in two parts (. Thus for f1•r for for for dry sand humid sand wet sand dry c.h is the steepest anglo to t.ude of the angle of ropose <p depends greatly on the d egree 1>f h urnidit. Tho rnagnilu do of this force is registe1 ·ed at the precise moment whon the stat.7) <:1.ed in Fig. F being the art~a of tho cross scclion ab. The angle of intern al friction p characterizing Lhe fricLion between the i nnet• particles of a large volume of the uwtcrinl. sign of sliding o£ t he upper part of the cylinder along the pl ane a. At this moment the compressive stress 0' acting ac.~ical Properties of Grttnnlar Mall!rials 283 Conscquen t ly (1. udc of this augle can be determined experilltcnt. 2. 2.b is detected by the dial indicator 4.y of the material. in olhor words. .7 (b) between the particles at the surf:ace of the granular matot·ial (all forces of cohesion hei ng neglected).hc horizontal a t. transmitted through the plunger d ie 4. This angle is ch aracteristic of the friction developed (a} Ftg. Phy. The lower Pllrt of Lhe cylinder (part 1) is fixed whilst the upper one (parL 2) cun move h orizonta lly under the action of a force T. 2. T he specimen of Lhe granular material 5 contained in tho cylinder is ::>ubjected to a cons tan t verUcal pressure N. The luagnif.lny wet cluy q> ~= q> = q> = <p q> = = 3035° 40° 25° 4045° 2025° 5.2.t and 2). which a heap of this material will stand on its own (Fig. The angle of repose <p whic. a plunger die 3 and a dial indicator 4.7.7).ross scc Lion ab is equal to~ while Lhe shearing stress 't equals ~.e of limit eq nilibrium is reached. The ma~ nil.a ll y using a dovi1~e schematically repreflen l. at the moment when the firs t. 1b. and to a graduall y increasi ng shearing force T.
~surl! Computation \Vhcn lhe st11tc of limit equilibrium is rcacherl. Olhcrwise it may be cxpre~st~d as a fr!lc. t• G. the sul'face along which the contact occurs. A device similar Lo the one desc. and for very emm~e surfaces & may approach the angl~ ~ <p. .S. The c. The an~ll' of friction between the material and the faco of the wall t>. which depends mainly on the condition of. equals 0.7.t.idered app•·oxi mately equal to ils angle of repose <p..R. gt·avnl :md rounded peb hi~s for sandy loam for n~·dina•·y loam r = p = f1 = t> ~1040" 10'J:)w 1530° = 10::1oa The value of. In other usual soils the cohesion will amount only to a fraetion of a ton pEH' square metre and thNcfore it may he ~afely negleeted.ion in sandy soils may he c. of iutcrnal friction p. the angle of inLel'llal fl'ir.tion of the nugle o[ internal friction {) ~ 2 p up toT. snch as sand or grain. Building Codes usually stipulate the following fo1' tho ungle of the internal friction: for fino s:md p = 2030° for mo1linm sund for colll'!:O saud. When the sul'face is very smooth 8 almosl. In actual design wol'k 8 is frequently tnlwn oqual to ZL'ro.hc force which it will develop on some surface when the latter move~ over a ve1·y small distance away.ohl!sion C whieh is usuaJiy expressed in kg per. ACTIVE PRESSURE OF GRANULAR MATERJALS Tho active prt!ssure of a granu.l). C is practically nil.S.· sq em or in tous per sq m.ow:. i.lar material is t.rihcd above can he used for the detm·mination of the cohesion C which is related to the normal and shearing stresses hy Coulomb'~ for·mula 1 3 .281 Retaining Walls and Earth Pre.{. p 7. the resulting stress p is deviated from the normal to the plane along which the slidiug occurs by an angle equal to tho anglo of internal friction given hy tan P'"""o wherefrom T=atan p valu~s ~ 'l'hl! U. In dry granular materials.
seH ·is in a state of unstable oquilihl'ium.le of friction. compt·ehensive solution. The gl'anulal' materials contained within the wedgo at'L' considt!recl solid. The surface which separates the moving par. The si mpliiied Wt!dge theory given hy Coulomb (1736180()) is based on the following assump Lion!'\: 1.~ge surface is rcplnced hy a plano wherehy Hs p!'ojeetion on the plane of tho drawing becomes a strnight lino IJC.downwards. .1.7 directions of the pressures E and R exerted hy the gr•anu lar material cannot he dci. The lnti.e.85 As the surface AB of l<'ig. The eurved deav.::1. The c Fig.s projection on the plane of the dmwingthc cleavage or slip line.\{alerinJs :!..Cl' a. 3. Actiue Pre~sure of Grannlar . :~.Nrnined with certainLy. 2. The paths of the particles contained in the wedge ABC arc very intl'icate and depend both on the clwradel' and the magnitude of the displacement of the surfnce AB.7. the correct determination of the presstH't' devHioped by the earth againsl some surface is therefore extremely complicated and has as yet not found a. i. in a state preceding im modiately its sliding down. fol' th~ stat~ of limit ·cqniJilwiliTH will never be reached simultaneously at all poinls along the surfaces concerned and therefore tho stress will not he deviated everywhere from the normal by au angle equal to the ant!.·t l't•om the one remaining immovable is called the cleavage or slip pla:ne (surface) and i t. Tlio wedge it.B 1 a vart of the granular material contained in the wedge ABC sl:al'ts moving.7a shHts lo a new position A .sst~rnp tinn permits to determine the directions of the rcsull:ant pres .
both depen ding on the angle just meu tioned. 7c.urvc shown in Fig. When the angl e o made by t he c. for {} 90° e the c.sin Gq From this triang le we ohtain !180"t"'P + 'II')I w herefrom E = G q q sin sin t<t+'¢ p) < "'.mal t o this surface by an a uglo cqunl t o the anglo of frict ion IS a nd therefo re th e resultant p ressu re will also make a n angle 6 with the normal U. 3. When the surface AB moves <~wa y .he wedge G1 = resultant of t he forces G and Q. 3.p} = = 0 and Eq = 0 . will be devia ted fro m the norm al V by an angle equa l to the angle of internal fri ction p. t he wedge A BC s tarts sliding down and the forces of friction whi ch develop along t he surfaces AB and BC within the maLerinl will he nlso dit•ected downwards.p) (2. havi ng t he shape of a c. if represented graphically.1) This expressio n cannot be used as yet for tho determination of Lhc active pressure Eq for H contains the angle it made by the cleavage plane with t he horizontal wh ich remains unknown as well as tho dead weight of tho wedge G and the magnitude of the su r·· charge Q.0 • = + .lcavage plane with t h e h orizontal varies it enta ils a cor resp onding variation i n the value of th o pr·essuro E 1 • this variation. 7b) when an arbit rary surcharge is app lied to the surface of the earth .281i R etaining Walls and Earth Pres$urc Computation s urcs E and R . l t is obvious t hat t h e maxi mu m value of the acti ve pressuro Eq will correspond to so me intermediate valuo of <)> = a. Assn me th at G =dead weight of t he wedge ABC (G = area A B Cy) Q = resultant of the s urcharge acti ng on t.EO ='P L acb = 180°(& p +'I') Eq _ sin (&p) .hc pressure Eq developed agains t the surface A B (Fig.ho limit equilibrium is reached . s in (o . Lot us determine t. Knowing Lho magnitude of Gq and the dircetions of t. If t. Similarly the pt'essurc R.hc pressm'«)S E q_ and R we may construct the triangle of forces abc. evet·y point along tho surface AB t h e resulta nt stress will be devia ted everywhere fro m the nor.p. ·rho :mglcs of th'is triangle are L abc={} .leavage plano BC will coincide with tho back of tho wall A B and both E 11 a nd tho resultant Gq will also reduce to zero. G11 = G+ Q.flirnultaneously at. L cab = 90°. ·when tr = p.
BH will meet tho line BC.he surface is pl ane.. T he angles of the triangl e BFnKn aro equal to L KnBFn = ~nP L KnFnB = o.e8 = lp . The line F. will repr·e~o nt the amount of tho pressure corresponding to the direction of cl eavage line BC. for if the stnmgth and stability of the wall are insured under these mos t adverst. Fol' this purpose let us measure to some scale thodead weight of the wedges along the axis BD and the pressures E.e) + p.he active pressure En in terms of lhe direction of the clcavag~ plane (Fig. the equation ~ = 0 may be solved only hy graphical methods. Tf !.~.f }frf a:cimiU/t Actiue PrP. = (O<Y . parallel to the axis of coordinates . 2k7 When designing a retaining wall this maximum val ue oE tlw· active pressut·o should be lakcn into consideration..(p 1. 4.J(..surcharge is applied thoreto. when the wall is founded on solid rock) the pressure it will sustain may exceed substantially the maximum pressure computed on t. . 4.7.. GHAPH ICAL DETEHMINATION OF PRESSUR E MAXIMU~1 ACTIVE Let us determine t. at point Kn. of the corres ponding A.he direction o( the cleavage plane corresponding· to tl1e maximum pt'essure developed against the hnck of a retainiug wall AB when lhe surface of the earth is irregular in shape but n o .~ conditions. 7}.leavage plane.hobasis of the aforesaid theory. in cer tain cases whon the displ acement of t he wall becomes extremely small (Eor instaneP. However.4_·7. the wall will remain standing for any other direction of tho· c.1 along the axis BH. Gmphic1tl Dr·trrminatiott o.F. The valne of the angle '1'}..ivc shows that the pressure thus oh· tained by Coulomb 's wedge theory is indeed the maximum one. = v '< (area of t riangle ABCn) Assume that BFn represents to scale this weight . di rect computation becomes possible.k of a retaining wall may be somewhat smaller than Eq max determined as abovo.sure.. When the surface of the earth is of irregular shape.. tho weight G. ltb actual praclicc the maximum active pressure developed hy tho earth against the bac.~) = 90° .BCn will equ al G.. It may bo sbown that the Jength of the litte· K. Indeed .0 corresponding to tho ma xi mum of Eq may be determined from the equation dEq dtt  O The sign of the second derivat.. Adopti ng an oblique system or coordinates IIBD we shall ftrst C<l nstruct the graph of the variation of: t.
Jcngt.ve shall lincl a series of poinls .. by a Sill<>(>Lh curve we shall obtai n tho r equ ired graph showing Lite variation o[ E(l.hcmatica lly represented in Fig. this line (always rneasurccl to scale) will give us tho Inaxiruu m value ol' the activo pressure E which will ho developed nguius t thehackohhewaH ABwhile the line BKC will i ndicate the inclinal. t.~y off a long the axis BD tho dead weight of l. in t erms of L he angl e{~ ~xactly in Lho snm~ way as the gmph sc.. K. 4. = BF11 a n d the r·ay ac = E... . 1. H 0 1 2 3 4 Scare fOr 6 and E .~ ·iutersoction with the corresponding cleavage liM B Cn at point K. The l ength of. in or·dcr to determine the prossure dovcJopcd by a grannh~t· lntllt.r>.lllgeut. we nrust. I 11 t.hnt ease the . Thu graphical method de.~Sltrt' Compu.lw magnitude of the pressure En.K. JJC 3 . 3 .ht' wedge ABC" (rcprese o Lod Ly Lhc length B.Jr'n mc1um r·ed to seale will rep resent.tatirm L ot us now co nstruct the trianglo of forc. H we repeat the construction just describe(] for· a number· of couvcoiontly c. Comparing tlu~ triangles abc and FnBKn we remark immediaLely that tht:Jy are identical and ther·efore En = KnFn 'J'hus. elc..tion of the deavagc plane BC.s abc in which the ray = G. 7 ·Th<. \ .sc.e.ion of lhe cleavage pl a ne..ribed above romHin f:\ valid when a snn:.h of tho line K..JI'ig.ing the~o point.hosen directions or tlw dcavage planus B(. etc. tr·acc the line KP parallel t1> the other coordin ate axis BH. ln o rder to fwd lhc maxinnun of En we may now trace a t<.ha1'gc is applied to the s urface of the earth.. Conuect. 3.F..288 Retaining W alls and Earth Pre.7c.1 we must l..1) and then trace t hrough the poi nt Pn a li ue parallel to the o lher axis B ll u n t:il its (Lb c.rial against the f~•ce AB for any given dir·er.0 the curve p:u:allel l o the ax is BD and th rough tht! point of taugun<:y K.
provided p = 40°.35 X 1 X 1. 7. 5. For tho wedge ABCt tl1is weight Otplll\S G1 ~ 11 rn e. . Prohlf:'m. C10 equally at one metre mtervals..85:1 . =.64 tons BF2=G2 =8. C. X 5.t vornb Ca. • . . Stnrt with tracing the coordinato axes !JD and BH. Graphical Determlnalion of Maximum Active Pressure 289 dea d weight of each wedge should be increased by the amount of the lond which it carries.U tOll!. Solution. G10 which are a.S6 tons DF7 =G7 =33.. 84 tons JJF8 = G8 =40 .24 tons wm 4.7 ::i. 5 10 15 20 Ut Scal e (or G and E F tg.~J . 1.36 t ons BF 5 = G5 = 21. 5. 12 tons BF 4 =G4 =i1 .7).dopt a number of dt•avage plane directions givon by I:JC~> BC 2 . . o be equal t o 1 Ge .88 tons BF3 =G 3 =12.6=6.G5 =2X 7. Compute the dead weight of the wedges. Determine graphic. Gz. etc.. Set out to scale along the axis BD the dead weights of the wadges G1 .r cubic metre. 28 tons lJFo =Ga = 27. 8 X 1 X 1. pe.his purpose divide the line A C~ into five segmon~s oach ono metre long anll solec.allv tho maximum active pressure developed by a grannl11 t· material against the surlaco AB ( Fig. 2.40 tons BFto=G 10 = 52.s follows nFt = Gt =4.60 t ons 19. abutting to the IHwizont al CsC. b = 5° and v = l .12 tons lJF 9 =Go=46.<\.6=4.28 tons T ho weights of the other wedges abutthtg to the line A C5 will be exactly the The woight of the wedge C~C 6 and of all the othor wedge:.. For t..
K 1 • • • .e the line A 1M making a n aogle (p + 6) with the s urface A 1B until its intersection with L he line BL 1 nt point M. . (2) through the point A 1 trac. . the th iekness o£ which is given by ho = .i. l ayer of earth .he procedure to be followed when a uniformly dist. (7) the line BC1 connecling t he foot of the wall with poiul C 1 constitutes the projection on the paper of the clea"Vage plaue..h~m aximnm activo pres~·um developed ngainst tho surface AB E = KF=13 tons 5. F~K 2 .. Conne<~L the point of ta11gency K and the foot of the wall B by a stl'aight lino B KC which will constitute the cleavage lino.BL1 as a diameter. • • . traee a scmic. . Thereafter: (1) through the point B trace a line B£1 making an angle p with the horizon lal and meeti11g the upper surface of t}L e equivalent layer aL L 1 . (:~) using the line .ce of the granular Ill !\ tcria 1 and the AB are plane.290 Retaining W1dlR aud Earth Pressu. \Vithoul eutering into tho theoretical dernons t.t'Hlio n of this nwthod (based equally on Cou lomb's wedge theory) we shall describe h ereunder t.ut.le.dn~ this surcharge hy an equi yalen t. . 7). Star t wHh repla.B£ 1 unlil it!'! intersection at point N with t he semicircle just mMtioncd. F 10 trace t he lines F 1 K1 . f.re Computa.ion of the cleavage plane correspon ding to t:he maximum of the active pressure Eq is determined as follows.lm~ ohlaini ng tho graph showing the varintion of the pressure E developed agai nst the surface AB. Trace tile line 1' T tangent to the graph and parallel to the axis B D. the d etermination of the m axirn nm aclive pres1:'tu·e may be carried out by a graphical method dcvi~ed by Poucolet. !( 10 by n smooth cun•t• t. (4) nt point ilf erec. F1oKto p.F parallel to the axis BH a nd mea!!m·c to sc.t n pe 1 ·pendicular lo the line .l to . 7 . (5) fro m point B swing an arc with a radius equa. Connect the points B. sud~c c P ONCEL~'l''S METHOD I 11 nlJ eases when the s u rfu. 8. F 2 . the posil.ale the length of this line which will represent t. Through tho same point of tangency trace a line li'. (G) from point 0 traco line OC1 parallel to A 1it! uulil its inter·scct io n at point Ct with A1L1. 6.7.i. Through the points 1\.ting tho line /3 D1 at point 0 (BN = BO). The line AB is eon tin ned until its intersection at point A 1 with the up per surface of the equivalent layer (Fig.uull~l to the axis l:J II. . y This being done.BN c. 9.irc.b.ticm 5.t·ibutcb surchar·ge q acts on the s urface of the earl.
.cubic metre.7 trian~le (9) connect poin ts C 1 and P by a straight.5. 7. procl~ed with the determination of the magni· tude of the pressure Eq developed against the suriace AB. 1' = t.. e""' 20°. H the surcharge q wore uil. of Fig.he arcn o[ triangle POC (see Fig. Horitonlal line .h line BL1 at point P. 7.. p = 40°. (I>) from point 0 trace an arc using OC1 as radius until its intersection wil. 6. 7 would coincide with tho lint' J1 CL ancl tlw point C. ex= 10".a i ll l llg' tho OC1P.he . Ponctlt t's Method 291 This being done.7) multiplied by 1 and by y E =i' X (area of triangle POC) l't•()blem .7).Fig.~t th~ surface AB. would coincide with the point ( '.6 ~ons per .. as for the rA ngnitude of the maximum pressure it will be given by !.bAck of the wall A/J (Fig.:c developed again. 6 = 5°.7. T he ()ircction of the cleavage plane wHl remain unchanged. line thus oLL. Roquired to determine graphically lhc active pnlssure de\•ulope41 njlainst 1. 19• . 6. (10) through point C draw the line CRS parallel lo HL 1 • The area of the trapezoid P RSO multiplied by 1 and by th1: clmsity of the granular material y will give the magnitude of Eq . provided h = 5 mo~rE\5. it would suflk.~ to take h 0 = 0 iu which case the line A 1 C 1L.
~t pressure we must ll:rst J'l'dnr.!.7. iuu Sol1. to 3. METHOD OF DIRECT COMPUTATION OF THE EARTH l'HESSUHE .lMvage plane (llngle 11' 0) .tr'cs.\!2 f< p. :\feasurc to scale the base anrl the height of the tl'iangle POC equal. respecti vcly.Z4 .he r.he maximum of E<i determine the JlOSiLiou o[ t. 0.are meMes 5..08=5. l•f. Z.aintng W11lls and Earth Pressure Compulat.'1ion d:~q pr·oviding for t. Fig.4 metr~s anrl 3. Determine the position of the cleavage plane BC.:. Compute the:> tll'(\i\ of the triangle POC F= ~ 3. Thereafter using the f•xpre. Dl<tormiuc tltc magnitudo of tho act. 7. C.08 me.4 X 3. P.= 8.s A. 38 tons (). Having found this angle.s value in the expression of Eq thus obtaining the maximum prcssu•·e rcqnirl'd .7) to the following form Eq =Cf (lt) where C is n certain factor independent of 1'}.'!. 3.7 4. N.o Conlomh's formula (2.24 SfJU.T n orucr to compute directly the eart. L Oetcrminc as just explaiuod Lho pusiti(lu of the point.6 X 5. ::nbsti tute il.t.tivn.ivc pressur() I'Njuired ll'=1.
7 (<'! = 0 and & = 0).an p After the above transformations. 8. In that c. /(ofr)=cot~·tan('l'lp) . The resultant of G and Q wlll be G9 =G+Q= ~ AB·AC·"(+ACq=fAC·y (AB+2f) Substituting in this expression h for AB. Let us Lake up the most simple case when it is required to fllld the pressure exerted ~gainst a smooth vertical surfuee AB sltowH in Fig.evertiug to the expression (2.re 293 Due to purely mathematical difficulties. Barth Pressu.7) becomes E9 = ~ ')lh(h+2ho)cot~·tan('l'lp)=C·f(\l} whl'J'O C=.·e h0 is the thickness of tile equivalent layer) we obtain Gq =2 '}'h(h+ 2h0 ) cot{} 90~.>) sin (i}+'ljlp) sin (~p) cos(~p) = t (·~ ) .' only in some particular cases.u~e Lhe dead weight of the wedge ABC will be given h)' G = ::~pplied A. yh(h+21z0 ).e. 8.6 by the Iractioua I part of this expression becomes cqua I to sin (~f. this method may b!. i H. when the surface of the granular mass is horizontal and loaded with a uniformly distributed SUJ'('hu1·ge q Lons per square metre. Method of Direct Computation vf tht. the expression (2. Lot BC represent the direction of some cleavage plane. by h cot{} for AC an1l ho for ~ (whe. 7) and replacing 'lj> = 90<>.7.7 = 0.5 ·AB ·AC ·1 ·y and lhe rtlsultant of tl1e surchar~c acting on this wedge hy Q =A C ·1 ·q. Fig.6 .
cos&= sin (~p) cos ('~p) or sin 2'1'}= sin 2 (1't . lf n = 0.£.8 i! 2 .(''} .p Leading to p = 0.~ ) and suhst.7) . Therefore. Computation Ill i n(. we obtain & = 90~ .tan (~P} + cot&cosz(~p)] =0 Reducing both terms in brackets to the same denominator and dividing the equation by c sin2 ~ cos2 (~ . 1.7) Substituting this value of wo _oJ>tain ·1') 0 in the expression of the pressure X Eq ·= C · f (1't0) = C cot (t~0 ) tan ({} 0 p) = C cot ( 45° + ~) X tan (45° ~) Heplacing in this expression cot ( (l5° ~ by tan ( 45°. 3. .\d The angle of the cleavage plane and the horizontal will be deternsi ng the equation dgq dtl =0 or :6. This solution is ineompatible with the physical properties of the granular malerials for which we always have p =fo 0.294 Rt!tairtin~ Walls and Earth Pressure. When n = 1.j. 2.Hul:ing its value for C we finally obtain + ) Eq = 7yh (h + 2ho} tan~ ( 45° t) (4.45°'. ...p) we obtain sin . we obtain ~ = '(} . 2' F or ''<~lut!S of n greater than one we obtain again a set·ies of solutions ineornpatible with the terms of the problem.p) The roots of this equation are 1't =n 90° + (1t ('frp) whero n = 0.(Cf (fr)] = =C [ ..p) leading to 'fr 0 = . . the only t·oot of the equation to be retained corresponds to n = 1 in which c:nse the angle formed by the cleavage plane with the horizon equals (3.
Method of Direct Cumputatton of the Earth Preuur~ 295 If th~ surface AH hacl a batt~r (e 0) and were rough (6 0) and the surface of the earth s loped towards the wall (Fig.) COS f:COS a.7) This expression permits us to construct the graph just mentioned (shown in Pig.!!. It is easily soon that this graph is a coni c parabola.7.7) replacing in the laUcr h by the ordina te y.}l/siu(p 1 b)cos(ea) o cos (e. lhe 111agnitude of the active pressure would be given Ly the followIng l'ot·mula. x 0 =K0 h1 hy (7 .ion let us first consider the vnriation of the active pressure Eq i n terms of the depthy (Fig. 'I }' ) \.a) ( (6.6. l cos (e . (5. 9. Tn order t.7a). 7b) which represents t he increase of the pressure E q11 with t he increase Ftg.O) sin ( pa.) 1 COS(f+ 6) 0 1 J deterroin ~d K[ (1+ cos(pe) ] ' K K ) cose whm·e h 1 = c•:~ 8 (see Fig.7) K ..7) Eq = ~ yh (h '2ftoKq) l( * * + ho = . When the depth y is increased b y dy the active pressure Eq 11 is increased by dEqrJ· '!'his increment dE 911 is distributed over an .7 of the depth of the foot of the wall. 10. The determination of the point of application of tho acti ve pre.q K l = CtlS (eo:) = sin (p . 9.a.() obtain t his distribut.ssure requires that the distribution of the unit pressures along tlu~ surface of the wall bo known. 9.7).10. thus obta ining ·t ' Eq 11 = 2 yy (y + 2h0 Kq) K The posiLion of the cleavage plane wouldJbe .7) . For this purpose we may use expression (5.
10.296 Retaining Wa1lg and Earth Prusure Computatio1~ elementary area. ) If we now trace a horizonlalline through the centroid of tho graph unLil its intersection nt point 0 with the rear face of lhe wall Al:J we shall.vorUcal proj«. i t.e it acts upon equals dEqv Pqv = dV or . 7c) PA =YhoKq[(.y). Differentiating Eq11 as ind icated we obtain P9 y=y( y +h0 K9 )K (8.ermine the unit pressures nt any two points. t he unit pressure t'eferred to the .•·npezoid h 2PA+ Ps 97 Zo=g· PA+Ps ( .a of the drawing is considered equf\1 to nn it. the vertical project ion of which is equal to dy mul L iplied by 1 (as the depth of the s tructure in the direcUon nor~ mal to the sul'fac. using for th is purpose the well~l<rwwn expression giving the position of the centr(! of grnviLy of a l. Ftg. sa y. In order to construct the correspond ing graph it will suffice therefore to dot.7 Thus.>ction of t he surl'ac. at A and at B (Fig. in oth er words.> pressure Eq . equals the first derivative of the resultant pressure in terms of y. 10. find the point of application of the activ(.7) This expression shows t hat the un it pressura varies along the su~: face AB linearly. Pn = y(h+hoKq)K Let us now determine the vertical distance from the centroid of t his graph to the Ioot of the wall.
lt i:~ r!lquired to c:ompute the active pressure dtwcloped against t. computa~iou l'r obl em. 951. dot. e.7) if p = 35°.t. .os25 ' ]~ 1. 11. y = 1. 682 0.984 0.t>nuin()d with the aid of the unit pressure graph.259 1 w·. its point of application will be situated at the same level as the centroid of the nntt pressure graph..ration. the magnitlLde. oj the active pressure developed by a granular material agMnst some surface may be calculated using e:J:presston (5.·.7) The laltor expression is more convenienl for actual than the expression (5. . 906 )2 1 _ . The direction along which the pressure Eq acts will form with the normal to the surface AB an angle equal to the angle of ftiction B. (10.1434 (H· 1.05 K .5° = 0.7). / o= • K = V sin43" c. from Pq. ..os ·ts• xu . Upon integration of both pill'\.= s•.7. Indeed.1V.263 [ c. 7). 10.~ltre will form an angle o with the normal to the surface u.. ' I!/ it follows that dEqu = P qy ·dy. Solution.8 ton per t>quarc metre.> lower par t BC of the rear faco of a retaining wall AB (Fig. a= 20". ( 0 .lu.. = di1 !. rmd the direction of the active pres. .5 m '\' _ cos cos 2o• K ·1 cos to• K =sin1. 263 y 2 . 7a).951 x0.434x0.7) determine h0 as well as the factors of the K group ho =L =0.6.7c). The magnitude of the ac. 72 = 1 .ted using expression (9.1l5x0.nder comide. 0·"4 cos1ll" . I n other words (10. Using formulas (6.263)costo> cos18° 1.ive pressure may also be. e = ·to•.263 V 0 .\:(ethod of Direct Computatton of the Earth Pressure 297 (Fig.l .985 = 0 ..6 tons per cubic metre and q = 0. 7). Thus. Ali the dimensions aro indicated in the figure.~ of this equation we obtain The righthand part of this equation represents t he aren of the nnit pressure graph Fig. the position of the point may be calcula. / 0.
7) P8 .6 (6.73i metres The point of application of E will lie at tho i ntl'rsection of the horizontal thTough. 5+0..434=4. this centroid and the fnce of the wa ll A C. 1 (11 . JH'I~~ing 7.7) nnd (9. 12.8 tons or tho graph will be given by the expres f 1• The ord tnate ·or tho centroi d 4 2 X 2.5 X 0.6 (2.06 tons pur sq m Pc = i. 11.5 +0. (8.94) 0. Substituting h 0 = 0 in the expressions (5.4H4=2. 84 + 1.7).ln nf the Fig.06 + 1t.7)..7) I zo=a (12 .7) we obtain E= 2 yh2K P~=yyK. 1.06+4 .298 Retaining Walls and Earth Presmre Computation This being done.7 .1cti ve pressure req u ired E ! sion (9.84 t ons pur SIJ m Thc:roafter compute t he nrea of the graph corresponding to \h e lower portion of the wall faco IJC. this arcn reprosenhng th<. 94) 0.84 zo.7.' rnagnituc. 7) PA=O. PARTI CULAR I CASESJ OF PRESSURE COMPUTATION (a) Pressure developed by an unsurcharged granular material (Fig. Ps = vhK. .5 X 0. The directi on of ll will form an 11ngle 6 = 8° wi th the normal U to this surface. dotermino the vnluos or the unit pressurcl. (6. 7} L (2.3 X 2 _06 4 .7).8<1)4 = 13. at points JJ 1tuol C using fol'mula (8.
7} and (6. Putting s = o =a..1 cos?. = Yl!o tan~ ( 45°f) t P8 =y(h+~)tan2 (45°~) J ~ yh(h+2h0)tan 2 n (4.l = (45°%) P 11q = y(y+h0)tan~ (45°l I P .ex) _ oI ( = [ (1 +K0K 1)cose V cos(p . = 0 (Fig.7. This case was already considered above (see expression (tl. 1:3. 7) and (6.7) and (9. 19.7 l ler·eunder we sho. 12.a ) K _. 7) become E.~es o/ Prusur1 Computatum 29!1 The direction of the cleavage plane will romain unaltered as the factor K 0 is independent of the intensity of the surcharge q acting on tlle surface of the eat·th. / sin (p+6) cos (e.'5.E) ]2 cos(e+o) = (1 +sinp)~=(1+sin p)2 = = f s~n P tan2 (45~t+sw p 1 cos (e+ 6) sin (pa:) . (8.i) for the same case.7 Fig. q COS(E..7) (1.. K=cosecos"= i I CO S(E . (b) Pressure developed against a. D Fig.ll use the more genera l expressions (. 7) . 7) we obtain K = sin(p")=sin. 7) I. P4rtU:ular Ca.p ·tain2p P) 2 With these va lues of the K factors .'3. 7). the expressions (5. 7) Zo = 3· h+2h0 h h+3h0 (14. 7.7) in lhe <:>~ prcssions (5. vertical smooth surface by a uniformly surcharged granular matertal having a horizontal surface.a:} p.
300 Retaintng Walls and Earth Prel$ure Compu.7) P11 = "(Ytan 2 (45°.7 with L.tiOil The posit ion of the cleavage plane will be determined by laying off ns heretofore the length x0 along the xaxis [see expression (7.. 7).7} Zo=:r " '!'he posit ion of tho cleavage plane remains the same as in cas~ {b) when a uniform load was a cting on the surface of the eart "~ j.7 Fig. i 4. pression (3.t without surcharge (Fig. 11.) The same case as in (b) bu. Pig. c. (c.L ABD = ooo. 7) fonnd previously.f ). . T he angle ~0 made by this line o. Substituting in the expressions obtained above h 0 = 0 we obtai11 E= ~ yh2tan 2 { 45° n (15.1800 2L BAD = = goo_ 180" .he horizontal is equal to ~0 = 900. wall repl'e::. 7)} where xo · = Koht = 1 X h The lir1e conuecting point D with the foot of the.ou ls the cleavage line required.. PA=O. PB = j>htan 2 {45°f) (16.~0"' + ") = 45o + ~ which coincides with Hs value giYen by the ex. 15.ta.
putatton 30t (d) Pressure developed against a polygonally shaped surfctee (.7. the pressures exerted against the portions AD and CD will be c.las (0. 7) in whkh a. Computing as usual the fac LoriS oi the K gronp 11nd s ubstituting them in th e usual formulas in which the h l\t lcr of the wall is taken equal to e 1 we obtain E~ = ~ yh'(h'+2h.7) in which t he ordinates . Fig.7).t ion of A 8 equal to h. 15. = e = 0. the unit pressure gra ph for both parts will be . The depth of this layer ho will be taken equal to the sum of th e thickness of the layer h 0 . tl1t• vertical projection of AA' equal to h0 and the ver ~ical projcc. 7b}.e Yr> of the point D equal to (h+ + h 1). T he magnitude of the pressures developed against AB and CD will he provid<'d by the corresponding areas of the abovo graph z.h a spm. The pressure developM against the lower portion BB 1 may be cornputed approximately assuming tha t this pressure will he the snmc as th at acting on a n equivalent pot·tion of a p lane surface A 2 8B 1• I n order to compute this pressure. Thus.K9 ). 16. 16. trace lhrough poin t B lb<' line BD p:u·Rllel to the surface o[ the earth and consider the weight ot the overlaying portion of the material as a uniformly dist. respectively) will bo takon equal to hand th e ordinat.7. surch arge of intensity q = yh0.7).2.Fig. The fa ctors of the K group will be computed using Iormu. 7) t hrough (10.presen ted in Fig. The pressure developed against a wall of this type will be detcrmin l'd separately for each of the plane surfaces constituting its rear face.'18 nnd Yc {corresponding to points B and C. Partl.omputed using expressions (1.cular Cases of Pre11urt Com.. '1'110 pl'essUI'e E q developed against the upper portion AD of t he pol y~onn l surface ABB 1 will be dotermined as he1·etofore nsing forrnnlns (f. 7b.=a h' + 2h'K " q h~ Kq) K h ' h' +3hoKq + E!=zhPb E2= 2h1(Pc+P<>) 1 t .given by one common straight line ab (Fig.K P~ 11 = y(y+h~l(q) K P81 = y (h' • Pn=yh~K 9 K The nnit prcssnrc graph for tho case under consideration ill re.ribt1ted.7a represen ts a more complicated case which mny he met with in the design of reinforced concrete retaining walls provided wi t. 15.
7} nlono. As for the portion PH it should he subdivided into two parts FG 11nd GH. Tho corresponding unit pressure graph will bo rcprelmnted by a strai~ht line cd. t..hiR pressnre being independent of the weight of the overlaying material.7) putting a= 0 and e = . AL point G the unit pressure will be computed uiing formulA.30:. 16. p.tor K 0 entecing this expression will be computed using formulas {6. The portion FD will he subjected to tho pressure developed by the layer h 2 (Fig. (12.' and Earth Pru &ure Cotnpu.ion of the wall eonsiderod will equal pns.~ ing Es=2h2Po t . ll.7) for Yo = h 2• The pressure acting on the port.7 the face of the wall of a line parallel to the cleavage plane a nd' through point D.£ 1 .! Retaining Wall. 16.tation The horizontal surface BC is subjected to the action of a vertical load G equal to t he dead weight of the material contained in the prism ABCC1 and equal to G=hbv There is uo load applied to the horizontal surface FD.7) xo=FK=CFK0 The fac. the slope of which is steeper than t hat of line ab. point G being determined by the iot~rsec tion with F'tg. The position of the cleavage plane is dctorminNI using formula (7.
7) through (10.!_. The hydrostatic pressure W cun be found usi ng CX}}I'8Ssions (6.e rear face of the wa ll.. =h+h1 +h2. +Pn) (e) Pressun· del/eloped by water saturated earth (Fig. Ko = o . Pnrllwlnr Ca~s of Pressurt ComputnUo" 303 As for the pressure sustained by the wa ll below G it is already dependent on the weight of t he whole granular m:~ss. Yu=h + h1+h2+ha The corresponding graph will consist o[ a straigllt line ef parallel to cd and i ntersec ting the graph axis at point a. the hydrostatic pressure at point B will equal W=)'0 l f . K 10 CO.7) on the assumption that p = ct = c5 = 0 and ho = 0 We obtai n K1 = 0.· 7 . = ~ h3 (P(. The resu ltant 11resRure sustained hy portion GH will tlloreforo be E. 1 cos ~ .7). n . In the case under r.7 . 2 TfZ rB'· _1_ cos e T he indetorminalo val ue of factor K 0 indicates thn~ Lhe h yd1·osLn Lie pressure is completely independent of the position o£ the cleavage :mrfac..7 ed as s ubjected scparatoly tn the hydrostatic pressure W and to tlw pressure of the enrth whose weight is reduced by the amoun t of Wl\ter expellorl. when unit pressures are deter•mined at points G a nd H we must adopt y(. T hereforo.onsideration the rear face of the wall A8 mn y bo regard· Ptg.'H~ W = . Ro(erred to tho vertical projeclion of Lb.e.. 17.
Ltbir.sence of water.h due 1 caused by the water.he water acts on the upper part of the wall situated above the surface of the soil alone. metre must be taken eqnal to y0 instead .7)1 owing to the pre.1'tJif.<> weight per c. In that case expressions (11 . to the active pressure of tho earth il'. Pressure computations are very approximate in this case and arc caniecl out assuming that t.~I(M Retaining Walls cwd Earth Pressure ComputaliCJn The point of application of W will Le at the same level with the centroid of the unit p1·essure graph Zo=s In Uw computations rela tive . The hydrostatic pressure W will b~ computed as heretofore and will amount to 2 W="Ys(Hh) z cos e h 1 1 .7 of y lsco expression (1. 7).ter (Fig. 18. l:l Fig. 7) and (12. it. whilo the lower l)art of the wall is subjected to the pressure of the earth on which the water act~ as a surcharge. 7) will give E=2YrNK P 11 =yoyK PBI=O 1 PB=yohK zo= 3 The total pt·essure sustained by the wall will be lhus composed by the hydrostatic pressure W and the earth pressure E computed '13gat•d to the alteration of its weight per cubic metre wit. 18. (£} Pressure exerted by a layer of irnpervious soil surrnounted by wa.
t his wo.h) y As Lh o su a·racc of Llae cai'Lh is assu med horizonLal (a = 0) K q· Ct)SP. Passive Pressure of Granular Materials 305 Its point of application being given hy Zo = .es of fricLion which develop within t. = V(y P 11 . PASSIVE J)HESSUHf.he d~I•th ho of tl tl:' cquiva leHt layet· of h 0 c~HLh hcing = Vn (IJ .853 .leavagc plane JJ C.7) Lo (f!..: OF GHA N ULAH MATER I ALS The tea·m passive pressr.~ ~ yh (h+ 2ho) K P.7). cos a cos te.od towards the g ra nular materia l a wedge ABC is formed again.h) t. 19. uclc of I.sure do velopo<1 by a g ranular material againsL some surface when the lnLter ~<hiits o\'cr a very small d istance towards this rnat. 7a i ~do rr.c. + fto)K 2Pn. .8. T h o forc. nh T he vertical pre~. f1.7) Eq .sumplions made in the development: of L his ihcoty remai ning valid.7. a ll the m.Jgo bchavi ug as H solid body and slidiug upwards along the s11 rfueo AB and the c... he passive pressure may be dotei'Jati uou us i n~.g.. When Lhc surf~1cc AB of Fi. and the foroes of: f a ·iclion a(~t in the sa me 20.crial.h0)f( zo '" "' .a) = i The value of the active pr~:ssuru Eq. h 3 8.7.Lre refers to the r·~s ultant Jll·e.n. The magn i I..he wedge along the two surfaces just monLioncd are directed upwards.r the same wedge tlH~ory of Coulomb (sec Art. will he rcmcrnbued that in the case of the active pressure Lhc wedge moves downwards.3  . + Pn Prh+P 11 ~"" yh0 K Pn ~ v (h l. 3.suro dovolopeu by tho layer of wat er ou the s urface of the eart h amounts to q=yn(H. the values of the unit pressures and t he point of application of Eq may be now found using cxprcggions (5 .
306
Retatnlng Walls and Earth Pres$ure Computation
direction. When a state of limit equilibrium is reached lhe passive pressure E~ (which is the resultant of the normal earth pressure and of the forces of friction) will be deviated clockwise from the normal U to t he surface of the wall by an angle <'5. Similarly, the resultant pressure Rq is deviated from the normal V to the cleavage plane BC countcrclockwis~ tluough an angle p equal to t he angle
Fig. 19.7
of internal friction of the material. The resultant of the two pressures E~ and R~ will be equal to the dead weight G1 of. the wedge ABC. The triangle of forces abc' for the case of the passive pressure is represented in Fig. 19. 7b. For comparison the tt•iangle of forces corresponding to the case of active pressure is represented in the same figure in dash lines. It is clearly seen that for one and the samo position of the cleavage plane the pasf;ive pressure is t~onsid erably greater than the active pressure. From tho tria ngle abc' we can determine the magnitude of the passi vo pressure E~
( 17 . 7)
where
1j>' = 90°
e.+ 6
Comparing expressions (17. 7) and (2. 7), wo come to the conclusion that the magnitude of the passive pressure can ho computed using the expression for the active pressure, provided the angles p and 6 are replaced by (p) and (6). which is c11sily understood if we remember that the forces of friction act in the two cases in opposite directions.
.~. 7.
Passi~e
Pre~.,ur.
of Gnmular M atertals
307
T he angle {} of the cleavage plane BC with the horizunL!Il will be agniu doLermined using the expression
~=
dE~
O
The sign of the second dcrivalivo indicates that lhe valuo of the pa!!sive p ressure obtained with the aid of the ll hove expression correspon<ls to a minimum. Tho general exp,·essions for Lhc computation oi the passive p re~" Sill'S obtained by replacing p ~t n d 6 in expressions (5 .7) nnd (6. 7) by (  p) and ( o) are
E~=}yh(h + 2h 0 K,1 )K'
P~q =v(h +ho K'~)K'
(18.7)
(19.7)
T he fact or!' of the K group entering these exprcl'Sions a ro 1\' _ sin C r• et) 1
K _
1
cose.~a
~~~
q
t:os lila)
l
I
J
K' _ .. /s :in7(p + :rll:lc::::.o:s:: (ea~)
o
(20.7)
/\.'=( ltrKoil'i c<>s<r +el ]2 )COSII
:S
V
cos(eliJsi u(p +o.)
llOS(&  6)
1
The ordinaLe of the }Joint of application of t he passive pre!'Sure will be derived from
. = h . '::.:.i:o... 2P.A + Pn z0
P_A+P~
(21. 7)
Ju case the renr fac.e of the wall ill vertical and smooth and tho surfnce of th e carlh is h orizontal , the mo.gnilude of t he passive pressmc cnn be c.a.lculated using formulas (4.7), (1 3.7) anti (14.7) nftcr roplaci ng in these formu las p by (p)
E~=; vh(h+2h0 ) tan2 (45°i ~)
P~q=y(y+ho)tan 2 (45"+ n
PA=yhotun 2 (45' +~ )
Pi,=y(h +h 0 ) tan 2 (45"+
,
Zo
(22. 7)
1
>
(23. 7)
n1
= 3 .
h
h + 3h0
!t+ lho
(24.7)
308
Trelai11l11g
Wall$ and B11rlh P re$.tllri! Comp1ttat1or.
[n the above expressions h 0 is as usual the t.h.ickne:ss of the layer of earth equivalen t to the s urcharge of ittlensily q. T he r.urrospondi ng position Cl[ the clea vagc plane will bo obtained hy lrar.i ng through the top of
:1:'
l:ho wa 11 A (Fig. 20. 7) tho 11.xis rnaking an angle r wilh the
horizontal anrl by laying off along lbi~ l ine a lon~:,rth AD'= x~ =
= K oh = h. The. tina BD' will ruprosent t.hc ]>rojedion of tho c:loav·ng..,
or slip plrllle on the plane of the dl'awing. t<'o r Lhe sake of compudson ;c' we give again in t.he samo figure the ,p osi tiun of the clcnvage plane ED
corresponding to tho cnse oC
at~. li ve
formod
pres:;ure. Fig. 20.7 The Lrinugle ABD' permits lhu determinalion of I be angle \}' by the deavage plant) BD' with the horizon "' J.ro p (27) v ='1·) ~ ,),
ods ptlrroil Li ng lhc
Jn r.onc lusion it is worth mentioning that all the graphical rneLhdol~rmi nation of the activo pi'!!SSure l'Cmain
F t~: .
2.1 .7
8.7.
Passi~·~ Pr~ssu r~
of Granrtlar llt[atuials
30!1
npplicnblo to the case (If tho pns~ive pressure, provided the angle$ p ancl 6 are replaced L'verywhcro by (()) and (6).
PJ·oblcm. It i!:' required to <lotcrminc gruphi<'ally the pal'~ivc pri'S..'!ure dt•Vt•l· thl\ surface An of Fig. 21.7, if J1 = 5 m, p = 40°, f> = r,o, f·  :wo, a = 11) 0 , y = t.G t.ons per cuhic metrt•. Solu tl011. 1. Start with determining the positiorc of points A, M, N, 0, D, C nnd P in a way Qxa<ltly sirnihcl' to tha one nSl'<l al1ovc (sL•e Fig. tl.7) but replaciliR everywhere the an~:les & and p loy & and p. 2. DotcH•nrinc the position elf tho dr.ava8e plane BDC. :~. Mc!ISUT(I t.o ~.nlo the b11SO and tho hcrgbt of Lhn Lri:wglc.> OPC, which a•'l' equ11l. rCSJIL'C.th·c.>ly, to H.O ru and 10. 7 m. 4. Comput~ lht• an~a of triangle OPC
OJll'cl~:~gainst
I Jl =21 1.0 X 1.0. 7 =5!!.85 sq m
5. Detnmiuo lho passive prt>ssuro oxort.cd against the surfaco AD E' = 1.6 X 58.8594..2 tons
6. Compare tlw value of the passive pn,ssuro thus obtained with that of thl! act1ve pressure compu ted [or an identic.1l caso in Art. 5.7.
E' I?
= U.'J.2
8.38""'
11 2 .
8.
STRAIN ENERGY THEORY AND GENERAL METHODS OF DISPLACEMENT COMPUTATION
t.8. GENERAL
The stress analysis of redundant structures t•equircs that usc should be made of displacement equations in addition to tho usual equilibrium equations. It becomes therefore necessary to delermine the deformat ions and strains in different par.ts of the structure. Moreover, the deFlections of stulically determinate structures must he also frequently determined, such Rtructures having to fulfil cor~ tain requirements concerning both their strength nnd thoil' rigidity, in order to avoid excessive deformations under service loads. For this reason the study of variorLs methods of strain and deflection compulatiorL for clastic systems acquires the greatest importance in lhe theory of structures. This chapter will be devoted to lite study of general methods permitting tho determination of the strains and deflections o[ various framed structures, arches, rigid frames, otc. V•le shall start with reviewing certain questions concerning the work accomplished by the oxternal forces and tho potential or strain energy nccumulaled in various elastic systems during their deformation.
5.8, ':'!01\K OF FXTf.IP\AL FOitCC:S
During t.he loading of a ny system its clements uro p11t iulo rnotion, acquiring certain velocities and accelerations. It is clcnr that. the rate of growth of the deformations will increase proportionally to the rate of loading, and if Lhc latter becomes very small, the rnomonLum acquired by the system when passing from one state to another will become quite negligible. Hereafter thi!l latLct· type of loading will he reforrod to ns stlltical loading. In order to determine Lho work of any external load P applied gradually to any elastic syste m (Fig. 1.8) we shall make use of MaxwolJ's JH:inciple of superposition, ptovided the material follows Hooke's law. Consequently, the displacorncnts suffered by different points of an clastic. syslcm will be in direct proportion
2.8. Work of
Ex~rnal
Forces
311
to the loads which have caused them. In its most general form this may be expressed by the following equation
6.=aP
(1.8)
In this expression fl is the deformation sustained by the system along the line of aetion of force P, and a is a factor depending on the material itself, on the pattern and the dimensions of the structure and ort the point of application of the load P. Let force P increase by dP; this will immediately cause a corresponding increase of 6. by dfl. The work performed by the load
Fig. 1.8
P along the displacement d6., neglecting as usual t.he infmitesimals of the higher orders, will be dA=(P+dP) dfl= P dfl
Replacing dfl by its value adP (1.8) we obtain
dA=Pclfl=aPdP Integrating this expression from zero to the final value of tho external load, we obtain the expression of the work accomplished by this load during its statical application
p
A=a
SPdP=T
0
a.P'
As fl = aP, this may be equally written A= 2 Pfl It should be noted that the direction of the displacement caused by a load P may differ from that of the load. As the work accomplished by a load is always expressed by the product of a force by the length of the displacement measured along the line of action of this force, the displacement fl will always represent the projection of the total displacement of the load point on the direction of the load. Thus, for instance, if a load P acts at an angle j:'l to the axis of a
1
3i2
S1r11fn Energy Thl'org and Methods oj IJtBpl!lcein.ertt Compttlctton
hcnm (Fig. 2.8), the displacement 1!1 will be givun uy th e lengt.h of tho line ab, th is length being equal to the projection of the total dunoction aa1 on the line of action or load P. The work accomplish ed lly a ('oup1c or moment.~ can h e found in the su mu way provided the displacement A wrro:!ponds to that
Pig. 2.8
typo of loading. Tt will be readily seen that in this case t:. must rl.'pru.'le nL the angular rotation of the cross section to whic.h the nforoso id momont is appl ied.
~\m
Fig. 8. 8
Lo the beam of :Fig.
Thus, the work accomplished by a moment 3.8 will he given by
m applied
statically
A='2 rot~
whtml ,') is tl1c angu lar rotation (in radians) of the ct·oss section to which tho momen t rot is directly applied . Thus, the work accomplished by any extema.Lforce applied gradually to an cdastic system. will be always given by half the product of this force by the length of the di.~placcm.ent measured in the direction of this jorce. 'Ihe tt>rrn force applies in this c~'lse to any external action including moments, distriuu ted loads, etc. As ror the ter m displacement, it will mean the defonna tiou corresponding to the type of action whose work is being studiod. 'l'hus, a linear displacement will correspond to a coocontrated load P, an angular rotation to a moment IDl and the area of the displacoment graph of a loaded st reteb to distributed loads. When a. xystem of loads ts gradually applied to a structure, the work accomplished by each of these loads will equal half the product of its
1
2.8. Work of Ert.entfll Forcr.s
magnitude by the displacement corresponding to this load but caused by a.ll the loads in question. Thus, in tho case of the bca m of Fig. 4.8 which carries two concentratl•d loads P 1 and P 2 and which is suhjectcd at the same time to the action of two moments ID'l 1 nnd IDl:>.. the work of the external forces will equal
A= P,.t.,_;.. P2,\2 I \JJ/ 1f1 1_
.2 .
\>)12~2
2
2
2
The negative sign of the last term of this equation indkatos that. the angular rotation of the cross section to which moment ~m2:
Q
a
dx
Fig. 1.8
Fig. 5.8
is applied is opposite in direction to tho said moment. Thus,
A= L: P~!!.; + L: SJJI~{);
(2.8)·
The work pcl'formed by the external forces along tho displacements caused by these forces can bo equally expressed in lerms of the stresses (bending moments, normal forces and shears) which are developed in the cross sections of the structure under consider.aLion. Let us take the bar represented in Fig. 5.8 and let us consider an infinitely small length d;1; bounded by two pianos normal to the bar axis. Tho whole bar will comprise an infinite numbor. of such sections. If all the loads act in the plane of the lJar axis, the elenar.nt dx will be subjected to a normal forc.c N. a ben eli ug moment. M and a shearing force Q. · F or a har as a whole these actions constit11te internal forces while for the element dx they may be regarded as external loads whose work will then be expressed by the products of N, M and Q by the corrcspondir•g rlisplaccments sustained by the said element. Hereunder let us study separately the work porformed by each of those actions. An element d.x subjected solely to a normal force N appears in· Fig. 6.8. H we admit that its left extt·emity is held fast, the righthand ono will move a long the direction of force N towards the
.314
Strain Energy Theory and M cthods of D isplacemertt Computation
eight over a length equa l to
A 
ux 
Nd:t
EF
where EF is the tensile or compressive rigidity of the bar under consideration. The work performed by the stress N along the displacement ~x will he therefore expressed by
dA,,·=:zN~x=zN EF
1 1
N dx
An element dx acted upon solely by a bending moment is represented in Fig. 7.8. Once again let us assumo that its lefthand extreA~
Met
·~.
\
dX
.r
\
.~:·...      4  ~
Fig. 6.8
Fi~.
7.8
mity remains fix.ed in which case the angular rotation of the righthand one will bo given by
~il = EJ
Mdx
.EJ being the flexural rigidity of the bar section under consideration. During its statical application the bt>nding moment wil l :therefore accomplish the work given by
dA,v=fML\~= ~ M~jx
Let us further examine the element dx of Fig. 8.8a acted upon by a shearing force Q. If we fix again the left end face (Fig. 8.8b) ·we must apply to the righthand face transversal stresses rdF of which the shearing force Q is the resultant. In the case of pure hend.i ng those transversal stresses will he given by Zhuravsky's formula
rdF=
QS Jb
dF
·where dF is the area of a horizontal elementary strip situated a (Jistance y from the neutral axis, while S is the statical moment
2.8. Work of Eztunal Forces
315
of that part of the cross section above (or bel ow} this strip a bout the same axis (Fig. 8.8c). The magnitude of the mutual displacomen t of two identical strips, one belonging to the left end face and the other to the right one, will be equal to the displacement
Q
Q
dx
(a)
(b)
Fig. 8.8
y dx of the right end (the left one being assumed fixed) and will therefore be given by the expression
ydx =Gdx where y is the angle of shear. Honce, the work of nn elementary transversal stress • dP along the displaeement y dx will be given by
"t
.1.r; dP· y dx 2
Integrating this expr ession over the whole area of the cross sec.tion F we obtain the work of all the shearing stresses acting across this section
dAQ = .) 2:•ydxdF =
P
\' 1
s
1:lldz
20 dF=
J
F
~ Q2S3
dz J'b 2 2C dF=
0
In this expression GF is the t r ansversal rigidity of tho cross section considered, while '11 = :2 s~: dF is nondimensional factor
p
depending solely on tho shape and size of the cross section. Qdz Denoting TJ Gil by L\ 11 , the elementary work dA Q will be expressed by
31(;
Slraln Energy Theory ond M clfllld,• of Dtsplacement Compulallou
l n this expression ~Y may bo regarded as the mutual ''OtLical dL'iplacomont of tho two cross sections bounding the e lement dr (see l~ig. 8.tsb}. Fot• rectangular cross sections t he value of factor 11 will bo o btained replacing in tho corresponding expression F
by bh, J hybh~ , and S by b ( h'l. T 12 2
y2 ) wh ich leads to rt
=
1.2. Fot•
a
cifc.ular secLion t he same procedure will y ield 11
= ¥f
whibt fol'
H or fo r !shaped section tho app1·oximate val ue of 11 = : may 10 ho ndopted, Fw being the cross section of the web. If tho ele ments
under consideration are acted upon simultaneously by a normal stress N, a bending moment M and a shear Q, the wOt'k nccompl ishcd by each of these ac.tions along the di.s placemonts caused by the two other oue!l will remain 11il. Consequently, the total work will be expressed by
dA= dA.v+dAArf dAQ =z N
.
t (
N dz AI dx Q d.x EF +M E J +QGF
'1
)
I ntegra ting the expression of dA ovor t he whole length l of each bnr constitu ting t he structure and summing u p the results, we obtain tho fo llowing expression which pet·mits the computation of the work of external forces expre~ed i n terms of tlle internal ones for t he who le structure
A = _!_(~ ~ MM d.x + .E {' NN dz
2 .)
0
I
I
EJ
~
EF
+ l:
s
l
QQ dx ) CF 'I')
(3.8)
0
0
which mny he written as follows
(lt.8)
I n Lhe extnession (3.8) the letters M, N, and Q represent the internal for(·es acting over a cross section situated a distance x from 'l o th e t erms Md:r . . o [ coor d' t he ong1n mates, wh 1 EJ , Ndx EF an d Qd:r 1 30 11 are the corresponding displacements of tl10 clement dx of the bar. Tho above two expressions permit thr, computation of tho wOl'k a1;co mplished by the loads in terms of tbe i nternal stresses developed ulldcr the action of these londs. Expression (4.8) shows that tho work of the external loadR will bo a lways positive.
3.8. Strain l!ncrgy
3.8.
STRA iN ENEri.GY
fl
During tho loacliug o[
body the external
fore(~:;
accomplish
.a certai1t amollllt of work part or which may he used to overc.ome
the internal friet.ion, to alte.r the temperature or the magnetic properties of the matctial, etc. ln the materials u,o;ually considered as elastic thi~ part of the wor·k is negligible and therefore we nJi'IY a(lmit. thal a ll tho work of external force~ is transformed iu that c ;ase into potential or strai n Qnergy. The !aLter is acwmulat·cd in the body uuder consideration during the period of increasing strains and deformations caused by thel:c forces. When thc,l body is l.IJl londed, this encl·gy is roslituted as work ac.complishcd by the internal stre~ses . As no energy is over lost, we may say thnt all the work A acGomplished by the external forctlS is transforuwd into strain onorgy W or, in other words, that
A=W
in this equation the value of A given hy Uw expression (4.8) we obtain
Substi~utiug
. f W = :I;~
0
l
Jlf2 dx
2E.T ~~.) 'u~·p
1
f
l
:V2 dx
+ "' ,)
0
"
f
I
Q2 dx 2GF 11
(5.8)
0
The analysis of this expregsion leads to the following conclusions: 1. The strain energy is alwa~'S positive, for the above exprossion ·contains tho values of the internal Iorces Jl![, N and Q in the second 1Jower. 2. The strain energy is expres:sod by a homogeneous func.l.ion or the stresses or strain~ in t.he sec.ond power, the strains being directly proportiona I to the sl.r·cssM. 3. The strain energy tu;c.urnulatcd under the action of a certain system of forct!S is not. equal to the sum of strain energies due to <tlach of those forc.es separately and therefore the principle oi superposition is no longc1: valid. This follows from t.hl' fact that the strain onet·gy is a function of Lite second power of the stre.sses 1l'l, N and Q and !;hal. the square of a sum is never equal Lo Lho snm of l.hc squares. 4. Tho s t!'ain energy ac.c.umulated i n a body is indepenrl(~nt; of the :sequouce in whic;h l.he external forces are applil:ld, the final ·vnlues of the stresses Jf, JV and Q being independent of this scquoncc. ·Consequl'ntly, the sLrai n energy cloponds only on the 1i nal state {>f an elastic body. Stalt~mont. :·~ can Le confrrnwd by Lhe following example. LoL us consiuer· throe different ways of load application to the !)lastic bar showu in r'ig. !J.8a, viz.:
318
8trair~ Er~rgy
TMory a11d Meihods of Dtsplcuement Computation
(1) loading by a .single force P 1 (l"ig. 9.8b), {2) loading by a singlo force P 2 (Fig. 9.8c), (3) simultaneous loading by both forces P 1 and P 2 (Fig. 9.8d). Tho strain energy accumulated in tho flrst two cases as given by oxprossion (5.8) amounts to W P~l W PU
1
=2EF;
2
=2EF
ln tho third cast> it will be given by
= Ptl 1 Paz + P,P2t W 3 = (P,+,P2)2l 2£1!' 2EF 2EF Ef.'
Comparing W 3 with the sum (W1 + W 2) we note that the sum of strain energies due to each of the forces separately is not equal
P,
ra>
( b)
(C)
tdJ
Pz
Pig. 9.8
to tho strain energy due to the simultaneous action of the same fot'('O~. Indeed
W :~= W t +W a+PEF 1P2l
For A better understanding of the above equation let us imagine t.ha t at first load P 1 is increased gradually from zero to its final value and then remains constant while load P 2 slowly reaches its full value in the same way. It is clear that the application of load P 2 will cause the end of the bar to move downwards au arnount :~, anc:.l that during that time the loac:.l P 1 (assumed consLant) will perform the work equal to ~/ . Thm:, the last term of the ex pres:;ion for W 3 gives the value of the work performed by the load P 1 when its point of application is shifted by fol'ce P2 (ol' vico versa, H the sequence of londiug is invot·lcd). '!'he above example shows clearly that the princ.iplo of superposilion docs not, apply to tho computation of the stmin energy accup p l
.1.8. Strain
Bn~rgy
319
mula ted in an elastic body for otherwise the terms of the oquation. taking care of the work accomplished by one part of the loads along the displacement caused by t he other part of the loads, would bo complct.oly lost .
Problem I . Required to determine tl.lo s train energy accwnulnt.cd by an nndsupported benm of rectangular cross suction (i ts width and depth equalling
IO) t~~
I
m:\
I
r
I
1
1
1
1
M
grapl•
tblt~m
:
(c>
(/graph
IJIII\1 1 1 1 11 !IIIIII iil l00 11 1 1 1 1 111111 1 1 1 1 1 \1 1 1
Fig. JO.·S
~
band h, respectively), tho beam being loaded by a couple ~Jl acting nt its rightband oxtremity(Fig. 10.8a). Solution. Draw the bending moment and the shearing force diagrams as shown in Fig. IO.Sb and c (norJDal strcSc:es in this particular easo hoing nil). The mngnitude of thcso stres...ooes in any cross soction will he given by
M= Tz
ro~
and
Ox = l
srn
lntr<>ducing these values in the expression for the strain energy (5.1:!) wt• obtain
t
l I
(' M2 dx W ,) 2EJ
0
+ ,)
0
(' QZ dx 9)12 (' 2 2GF 'I]= 2l2EJ ,) • dx +
0
+ 2l2GF TJ ,)
0
rol~
~
I
<))(2 (
d:r=212
3JU + GF
zs
1jl )
=21
9Jl2 (
12
1J )
3EJ + GF'
Let us compare nc>w the magnitudes of tho strain energies due , on tho one hand, to the shearing forces and, on tho other, to the bending moments. For tWs purpose let us replaco G, P, J and TJ by their values corre~onding to a cross section of rectangular shapt!
G ~ OAE,
F =bh,
1 = 12'
bh3
and
·11 = 1.2
r.uu<lt<..2 ) = 2~JI2l [ Ebha t+4 T 3 ( h )2] Thl' :>ct.8) ln this cxprts. .onstaut OV<)r tho whole length of t>ac. 1 lu lito c<ll:'O o[ boams rnol with in act.1 +<i:"'i"EM t2 l~ 1. i:.. £\equinHl to <h•tol'lnine tho : > LI'ain mwrgy accumulated in tho tn• ss U ..r'O"''> st>c.h v£ tiro bars cau:<<.~ol hocornr~ ( • . stress in eac..:320 Strain Energy Throry a.~ion N . When tlw rntio iRequu I to (beams with n groator rat..hc <ll Fi~. u~:~ually much sma. all t.ute. 8 Solulinn.ring [on~es ])flL'.ngtiL of lhll hn•·.al practice fo1· wlrich L he ratio . till' iufl•tonce of tho shearing forces will drop rapidly with tho <l<l<·re••so .o•t. A!. about 3 por cont o[ tho total ontlrgy accumulatefl .••·c h is tho depth uf thu cross section and l is tho sp:m o( tlto boam.hc normal sto·o~~:.lt hnr.>nn in l>rack<ts l'l>JH't>stu•ts tin• r·olative ""<•hw nf tho st.) It follow!! thnt in tltl> cu~t' n nd~t· con~idtH'<\tiua tht• ~tmin enorgy duo to the shParing fm·ces con~tlt.8) giving t. tho hllftdilJg mom·~·nts an•l shcn!'ing fon:c)S remain Joil iu all tho ]>Ill'S ol' the tru~li an<l as t. This tl'I'Ul is diroc·l·lr Jlroportional to the mtio wlu. iutlutnu~o of tlw slw:. ~R2 ( =u :~Ebh.. Henco. N2 ~ N2l W =~ 2EF ~ r.[ this ratio.lto ei<Hn<:nts o[ this truss haviug lite samll c..cum11lat.:ol dirn<:1. F ig.. 11.8. Problem 2.tion F.l:c=~ 2EF 0 lG.rnin cn<'rgy ~luL' tu Llw shou ring fortloS.u.. cxpl'nssioll (5.ho amount of tho !!ll'll i ll "neo•gy ac.ncl Mrthorls of Displacem.io 111'0 l'l:'ldom 7 ! ij met.<1 hy the sy~t•~lll of loads applied l = (. t. t.nt Computation ·rh is lends to ~t .Jiot·. N un<l th<) r igiditiO!' EP relllain c.Olnt •!:' quito n<:>gligihle.
m N21 12. Of course. li7 25. those bars wbioh remain idle may be neglected . th ~ prod uct N'l r~maining alway s nll when N = 0.m will rep resent an angular rotatio n ex pressed in radians. 6 .. . ')'otal :V* .Jn 2·3. WORKS (THEOBEM 01'' BETTY) L1~ t us consider two dHfer:ent stales of the. TH~:OHE:\1 OF REC£PROCAJ.f B elly) 321 The s ign l: 3hows t hat the s ummation of the energies ntUSt be c11rri~d over all tho hars of Uto trus.•flectton along the line nf action of load m caused by thR load n .ation of 218 ~ 3 • ~.ry li<'Cumulatr d in the wholt> of th<' truss 125 125 U' = ( 2 pz + 2 P2+11iP:I X 4 +0 X 2 + 2 ~ Pt + GP2) _t_ ."'.he ahovo Tuhlo."C 83 !_! I'~ trul!~. CR . S .8.~P 2 ~p2 4 5 Tp2 12S p z tl I (}/ .he system.h e va lues of N2l for each llar nf the 'J.8 Dar No .llr. tons str~ss 1. T lttorem of . the first of the index letters m indicati ng t he direction of the den~ction and the second n the num ber o f tho load which has ca used this deflection. We shall denote by ~mn the daflection sustained by any point of t. Tabl ~ 1. ~$ and similar structures strain energy computati on~ bou ld . T hus. 6·0 46 0 0 25 /'2 :Ill ' jl2 3 5 (I _ !!_. When the body is acted upon by a moment. same elastic system in r.. in the Jhst sta le the system is n<:.EFJE boing exprcssl'd in t ons per sq m and F in sq m) wo shall ohtain the \'aluc nf ll' s traiu eneq . (\ 125 p2 3H ijpZ p G T he las t column of the Table contains t. Summ ing utt all these values nml di\'iding the result by '• 9 36 2/ ?F i S EP 4. d mn wil1 indicate the dt. . In th<' case of trn ".8). momen ts or combinations of distrihu tctl load:.q nil ihrium and let us assume t ha t.bl~ carried ou~ in tabular form ns indknted hereunder.z 125 24.ciprre~zl lVorkR ( 1'heorcm o.f..tcd upon by a single sta tically nppliNl load P 1 and i n th e second hy a s tatically applied load P 2 (Fig. 4() _ 3_[' 3 2P ~p2 {I 5 4 1:J : 35 57 : 7S t. The a ction n may consist also of several concentrated loads.tressos N has not JJcen inclu<lerl in t. •Tho compn t. 12.
es acting in the beam !see exp1·ession (4.1mn J n the caf>c und~r considerat ion the various displnccments uro: defled ion along the d iroction of lond P 1 duo to the snme load .. Lel All he tho work perfo rmed by load P 1 a}l)og tho direction of this same lotul (in other words.8) leads to t he following values of the work corresponding to each of these gtatcs.tinn of load P 2 due to t he load P 1 j 22 = deflection along the d irection of load P 2 duo to the same load.) 2EJ (J .. 12.~ of Displare~Mnt Computation .) 2/U 0 I J I +~ (' Nr dx + ~ f Q~ dx ~ j2i!F ~. P 2 ~ 21 = deflection along the tliret. Expr'Cssion (2. These foUl' deflections are dearly shown in Fig.CP 1] Qi d:r . Lot a lso A 22 be the work performed by the load P 2 along the dci'Jcctions correspond ing to sla~e I I.) 2CP 'I'] 0 I I "'" I I ') 0 I J 122 = ~.8)1 ~ ~ Mt dx "1•t = L. "" ~ N~ d:r j 0 2EP +. b~ : "t.322 Slrain Enugv Theory and Method. provided the loads are applied gradually T his work couLd also be expressed in terms of the internal forc. (' 0 I ( 7 .z ~1 ' I I 1 I I I I I I I I I Pz State II I ( b) sLate l). (' llf'i d:r .8.11 2 = deflection along the direclion of load P 1 due to the loarl...) 'l..8) "'". t he work co rre~po ndiug l n ~ 11 = (aJ~ I I I I I I I I I I r ·"' I I I I I I I State I I A 11 1 1.
.flection alon~ the direction of this load (Fig. va1·y during tho npplicnl. 12}~b.1.8) is increased gradually from zero to its final value.r..amo way.\ 12 . 1'/I'. 13..12~. the deflections sustained by the sysLom and the stresses developed in that case wi1l be exactly the same as those corresponding to s tate I of Fig.Jr. In particular.essed (see !::q.1 nnd P 2 m ay be exp . 2.l 11 and the work porformod by this load d\tring i ts application will amount to Au = P 1~' 11 • After tha. {~'k+~ .. C ~ uI. l':tlve due to P.P j 2 112 + P2622= p. at the same time A 23 = \_"~ 22 ._:: _:+a i. _ _ _ __ flast.Orl!m of R n l{'ror:al Works (Th~urt>m of /)l'lly) 323 Lot us assume that the same ~y~te m is loaded in tho fo llowing sequence: fir.ion of loa~l P 2 it will travel downwnrrls n distanct' equal to tho additional dt•llection ~ 12 p(~rformin g Lhn work A 12 = P 1. It foll()WS that tht• totaJ work accomplished during tho loadiug of tho system first by load P 1 ntHi next hy load Pz will equal load P 2 will perform the WOJ'k 1 (8.L\ t2)+ P2(u21 + 622) 2 2 2 whererrom 21• . and P2 / P...J.8). This will ontail the development o[ additional slrl'sses and deflections. tho deflection under load P 1 will equal .hese loads by the total d.~t. A= P.1?.8) by llalf tho procluct of ~ach or l.8a. load P 1 (Fig. these 8tresses and dofloetions hr•ing equal to those sustniued by t.'\tio n of load P 1 will equal ~\t:~· As Lho load P 1 d id nol.t let load P 2 increAse in the F.8) At tho same time the work pel'formed hy loads l'. :'.:.L::.~zz) Equatiug the above two l'Xprt1ssions we obtai u P~~~~ 1.('m in l'late TI of Fig. 1/.. J2.hesysl. ""flasuc curve due to P1 thlL" the additinnal deJtccliou at Llw poi nt of applic. ~"'=_:.z) + P2 {.
emont!\ due Lo these same loads. Let us exprN.hc henning rnorrwuts. 12.red in l/tP direction of the saul actions.w acted upon by !l ilY uumbor of c..e actions of statl' 1 I along tke deflections due to th" ac/ion. lJ8ing expression (4.ding to state II is equ11.• F fg..324 Strain. Co••scquontly ' t:'hu su mo rosul L woul1 l l1o ohtain(<d if the body under. . ~ (" (Q 1 +Q2l!!tlr 2£1 T .~ and shears dl!vcloped in tho first nnd iu I he Sl'co nd slate. (state IT of P.onccntrat. all tke deflections being me·ast. 1£•1~rgy Tlteory and Mtthods of n tsplat:erntn. !. ! 2.8) wt• obtoi n A12= A . N ~ nnd Q2 arc those due to t·ho ap plical.) 2/:: F I"'·' 2GP T) I) I I l ( '1'1 .g tlw d('flections caused by the actions ct>rm~pon. 11.n\Jsecl by load P • of slate I.l to the work performed bu tll. r~proscn ls the work A 12 perfol'm<•d by load P.Ll z. co usideru· tion W!•.ion of l oad P 2 • .8a) a lo ng the deflection causod by load P 2 following tbe direction o f load P.1 performed hy load P2 of state JJ aloug the d~flcction following t he linn of aclinn of this Jond c. N2l 2 dx . 1n lh•} samo way P 2 ~ 21 rcpresonts t h<> work A :.f .s of stale 1.l CMIIfJUltttlon The product P 1A 17. (<:on cspond i ng to state I of Fig. the work performed by lhe actions of state I alon..c.R ~ ' .cd o r rlislrihutod loads or moments.8) 0 I n t his expression 11{1 • _N 1 anrl Q 1 are rcspectivl·ly l.. . L('(Nt . A2z (HJ}l) H ere A repr esents the t()Lnl work produced by luaus f) 1 aud P 2 a long the displn. From ex prc~sion {8. .811)..1 n Fig... norma l slre:.8). the normal 11l. Thus.s now the work A 12 in terms of the bcnchng moments.) 0 ~('( .l12l2 dl'.A.':. t his work may ho expre$sCd by A = .rcc:scs and the shears devdopod in Lhe rn•~mh~:~r~ of the sysle m undo r consi de1·a tion due to th e application or load 1' 1 • while il1 2 .
8) .EJ ._ + "SQ _Q2 dz I L I J 0 I EJ .5 . .: 1 or unit moments 9n = 1.} lEI' X 0 0 I + IJ.crn.) due to the actions of state I and the total strains of M 2dz the ekmcnt dx. 0 21 will indicatu the displacemout duo to tho unit load P 1 a lo ug tho direction of load P 2 whilst 012 will indit:a le t. due to the nctions of :. tho bending moml)l\t M."" (1:1.Ni d 'L.ccdiug article we have shown that P1on = P2621 As P 1 = Pa = 1. in order to distinguish thum from tho~ due to loads or moments of arbitrary magnitudes which shall bo drnoted by . 15. 5.MiM~ dx+:E ~ (. Tlteorl!m of R rctprocal f)Up lo.lc 1!! L ~·M Mzdx+ :E\ ¥ N2d. angulat· rotations or dencctions) caused by unit loads P .8) and using the values of 11 11 and A 22 derived from equation (7.8) u 0 l n this expres~i o n each of the terms prl\CCclod by the integral ::!ign may bo c..temenl$ 3~5 The sums (M1 .8.: L Tbus.onsidcre!l as the produet of a total s tress (say.!.otion of load unity P 2 • T•• the pre.'V 1 + N 2 )ZNi. this cxpre8Sion becomes o ~n=021 Goncralizing we rnay write for any uult y actions Onm = 6. M 2).>J .tate U. THEOHEM OF JlECCPROCJ\L I) JSPL:\CEME NT S (THEO RI!!M OF MAXWELL) Let us take up onee again two dilfcl'ent states of one attd th0 :amo sys l. say.} I I ~F ~. I.ne of action of load P 1 due to the applic.8) .hc d isplacc m ~ nt al11ng t he 1i.8) intv cxpressi<)n (10.. the first s tate corresponding to the al>fllicatiou of a u11it load P j and the second to that of a unit load P 2 (Fig.8) we obtain ' 1 12  _ "s L "" (Mt+ M2)2 ..orncmLs H oreal'lo1· we ~hall usc the sign (:>traius. (N1 +N 2) and (Q 1 +Q 2) represent the total1·esultant stresses in CI'Osll sec lions duo to the combined action of both loads P1 nnd P 2 • Introducing the value of A g iven by expression (11. 1 Gf' T) (12.8. to indicate tho displac.
~ ~::::f. fn state I the boam with a builtin end is at~tcd upon by n unit load P 1 while in t he second ono by a unit moment m.. 1u._ p = 1 f}a=.326 Strum Enr.) .t nity are always e.qual to the displacement due to this second load unity along the line of action oj the first one. t}a = Yt· Lc~t us < .'t>tflods of D isplaummt CampululiOII T he l>:>.8) will obviously ramain t r•1w even when loads !' 1 anu P 2 have arhil rlti'Y but equal values.8&) y. Jn sL11 \.~ ~ ~·I >: I by a load w~uy alonf! ike line of actton of another load l.xpression of Ma. 'fho rotation '"" duo to the unit load P 1 must bo munorically cquo l Lo L hc doflccLion Yt due to the moruent m... : pression thus obtained is the algebraic e. of ''~u and of y.~placements cau.t•.8a) fra = . (14..8) An illustration of .rw1•ll's theorem which rulls as follows: in any clastic system lite :.~ ) nnd i n stale If ~Fit:.t) = 2 ] ~~ (z.c I (Fig. 16.a' = ~~ (t. (Pta + p.omputo now the valu('.:.rgy Theory and .W.~ ) Sirrre ID1 .(z.(tf) which con firms that nnd y..8...= .~ed 15. In this case t he said expression will become ~~~=~~.. di.  :PJm 8u I I I Slolf! Il • J 8n _ _ _... 1G.. i. Eq11a t...M axwell's t hcororn is afforded by the example of Fig. using on~:~ of t ho prowclurcs developed in the treatises on the strength or matel'iaJs. ~~ Pig. =~~ [ IDl ~ +im (t.' ~ I I stale I 7 .ion (13.
(Fig. = 1 differ in their dimension from Lhe usual strains and deflections.Q I a (b) Slutt! II Fig. in the previous example the angle of rotalion <t·a produced by a nondimcnsioual load unity P = 1 (which is entirely different fL ·orn n load equal to 1 ton or 1 kg) will bo expressed m (a J Stai.8a) nnd in the second state by one single load unity P1. in other word s. 8 in kg•.8.8b).ffi1'liODS OF DISPLACEMENT COMPUTATION Let us consider two different states of one and the same system.r. 16.m per kg·cm or kg•. Similarly the detlcction produced hy the unit moment j)J~ = 1 will also be expressed in c.od by a unit load is given by the ratio of a displacement to the aclion which has caused it. 17. I ndeed.8. and displacements caused by llondiman~ional l.ment Cnmptttatton 327 The strain!. Let us compute the work A 2 1 produced by the load unity P 2 along tho displacement ~ 21 due to all the actions of state I Azt = P2/'J. its dimensionality will be exactly the same as tbat of an a ngular rotation duo to a :u nit l oad. :'.6. Thus.at = 1L\tt = 62t . 6. ln its first state the system is acted upon by any number of loads and moments whose values mny be chosen at will (Fig.lflit loads p = 1 and moment:. MethJJds of Dlsplar. 17. the dimension of a di11placemeot cau!.
eHtratcd moment applied to Lhis section.dx OF 'I') (15. N 2 and Q1 indicate that tho~ slrosscs are due to a load unHy.M.!Single load uuiLy is applied to tho system as the imaginary or unity state.dz+~('Q2 .8) and (12.s~>11d in terms <>f tlw interna l stresses using formulas (9.age when t}ae sarnt~ system is acted upon by the com bination of action~ effectively applied will be referred to as the real or actual state. toe unit action must be a noudimonsional couc. on the other hand .n~rgy 1'hrory and Af~thods of Displaument Computation This S<trne work is exprc. Hereafter we shall refer to that state when a .. a defiection at any point of the system) the load unity must bo a concentrated nondimensionnl load acting at this partictdar point. When a linear displacement is required (say.8) becomes I I l A 2f =k{' M 2 .) EJ I . while the c. 17. If.r<' N 2 N.) EF .) Thus the displacement caused by any combination of loads way be exprosscd in Lerms of the stresses developed by tho !:'aid comhinaliou and by those duo to a load unity.8) 0 0 (The dashes ploc"d over M 2 .liou .~~.8 load unity must coincide with the direction of the displactc>meot u ndcr <'onsideration.J. it is required to find tho angular r<>tation of a certain cross ser.) 0 Q. The line of action of tllis Ia/ ActunL slnlc (stale I J ~" Ill~ I I Ftg..328 Strr~fn F. ln the ~ame way the term unit graph or unit diagram will refer to the graphs of the stres~s developed under the action of a .
N. tht>so .8) 'fhe three expressions (15.8) or (17. (16. In the design of the redundant structure it is some ti mes required to find the mutual d isplacement o:£ two preselected points. M 11 d:t 1 ~~N. ~ MmMn dx+~ ~I'~ NmN. due to the applied loads for an arbitrary cross section in terms of i LS abscissa x.' m and n.8) arll frequently re£ened to as the general displacement equations or Mohr's equatt0/1$. For the c. Apply a unity action at the cross section whose defiection or angular rotation is t'fl Q uirtJd...8 may be rewri tten as follows I I l 11 t1mn = ~ . 4.ad by M. The expression becomes in t hi. its direction coincides with that adopted for the unit actioH and when it is negative..d:&+"<'('Q .s with the hlllp of the~ expressions the Iollowing sequence will be adopted: 1. .ermine the stresses Mn .) mEF""..os i n expression (15.8).oruputation of displacemont. and Q. and flm in one of the t hree expressions (15. or p and k).es it bcc.8) instead of tho numerical ones (say..c')• o 0 0 0 where t1m 71 is the displacement along the line of action o£ load unity Pm due to the actions applied iu reality and b~Jonging L<> the group n. Compute the stresses M m• N m and Qm due to lhis uni t action for tho same cross sec. I uLroduce the values of the stresse~ Jf. N.6. Nm. Mtthods of Displacc~M11l Compufaii011 32't load unity . In t he first place det. it is opposito to the one adopted for the uoit action.. 2. a concentrated load < :orrespond ing to a deflectiort or any other translation and a morncnt to au a ngular rotation..ed a distance x from the origin of coordinates.omes more cortvenient to use alpbabcti<:aT indic.tion of tho displace ment roquirod. dx+~ G~ ~ QmQ 0 0 0 dx (17.) mcrl1 A (lfl.:tiou siLuat.al graphs and the corresponding stresses will 1 be def'ignated by 1 1 1P• N P and Qp.8) aud integrate along all t ho clements of tbe entire structure.dr ''mn=". 3. When t he cross sections of a ll thll members remain constant.8).s cnso I t I '<'~ . When the dis]Jlacemcnt ilmn th us obtained is po~it i vc.8. the expression 16. these stresses being denot.. In certain ca~. 1 . (16. Nn and Q"' as well as those of M m. N and Q.whi lc tho diagrams of stresses due to the actions crfectively applied will be termed actual ot· rP.8) and (17 .Q.)mm EJ ' "" . In that case n system of two unit loads of opposite direction should be applied along tl1 o direc.
the displacement obtainod werP.8 using Mohr's formula in the sequence mentioned abovo. it would me. they will not differ in aoy respect from those just described for tho case of a linear translation.8b. if it were required.ting along tlw li nc CD ~hould be applied to both of these points as i ndicate.8a. as is the ease for all the hinged systems. beams. keeping in mind that the stresses M ·.aneuos action of both load unities jusl mentioned. 18. Jn the majority of cases. f (G) (b) {C) Fig.lfethods of Displacement Computation uuil: loads being roplac. both terms depending on the bending moments ar1d shoat·s may be negleclecl witllouL any appre· . If the displacement obtained is positive.1'130 Sll'ain /'Jne.rgy 'l'IUJIITI/ and .an that points C and D are brought closer together.negative. fol' instnnce. in other words. Ivm and Qm will be those developed under the simult.. 18. on tho contrary.•. Thus. these moments acting in opposite direction3 as shown in }?ig. ()f some structun~ may bo calculated in exactly tho same way. 18. As for the computations themselves. if t he structure works mainly in bending (thi~ heing generally t he case for rectilinear.8c.t tension or compr·ession.. only one term of Mohr's formu la has to be retained . the distance bet:ween points C and D will increase .·.d in Fig. The relative angular rotation of two cro~s sec tion!. to find the increase in tho d istance between points C and D ol' the portal frame appearing in Fig. All the comptHations will be carried out thoreaH~r D . Similarly when the members of the structure work mainly in direc. i t!l direction coincides with the one adopted for the load unities. portal and building ft·ames as well as for flat arches) it will suffice to use only the term containing bending moment!>. unit loads ac. Thus. 18.•.ed by unit moments when the displacement in question is an angular rotation. Iu the oxnmple just montionod two unit moments should bo applied in that case to points C and D. If.
h(' deflection in puro bonding (i.ed. Dewnnine t..ral.lmn..8c..nTLlmn () l 1 \' '1 !\<{ d¥ "'mn'.'2 0 I:2 .. · s olu. 1 M~=zx Mm=y:t 'l'ltc cort•t'sponding grapl1s are giv1'n in Fig. d..en times as great as the dept. 19. JJrovided the length of the straight element dx is repl nc.t ion of an end<>npportod IJonm C)[ CCJMtan1 St!CLion acted upon by a concentrated load P. Mohr's formula for rectilincnr bnrs may be u:.onc..h of it~ tt·oss :sect. l'·• duo so)LI)y to Lho hcmling u1omonts) whil$1.:r GF ~ Q111Q. 1'hc influence o[ normal sLrcsscs nnd shears may ho wmally IH!.6 .11 A Q z' .e or this hct1m w'ill correspond to ~ho aprllicatirm of a c...ioa. 19." .GF . For all tho 1:ross sections of the be~m to the left of !>Oint C the ben~ing monumts Mn and jifm and tho S!Joaring forces Qn und Om arc given by .lways neglect the influence of normal stresses and shears on the dcfl. "" " • !\! . dx 0 Q  1) l \' b tho Jlnrt o[ tho lotal deflection caused sololy by the shearing forces. P 11 l3 ~mn= EJ. T hll imaginary stat.glectcd. e anti f. follows. 19..ase~.. 'l'hll normal strei'Sc:>$ will rmnain ~~onstantly nil mHi thoroforo :\fohr' ~ Iormuln will llecomeo l t.r·zxdx= 48EJ M 1.. t.J_ "r 1) \' Q Q d < ..Ef ~.8b).!___ P.ed load HTtity in tho diro1~tiou uf tho defll'i:tion roquired {Fig. with the excepLion of a few specifuld c. 2 d:t. If Lhc clement uuder consideration is a curved bat· whose radius of c·urvature is at leasl.lw doflec. P.X~£.h t·(lo term~ of Mollr's [ormulu should he used.~.8.8.tton.). Q ~ ~ . Introduciug these valu~s jnLo the expressions giving tlte two differt>nt parts o( Lite to ta l deflection.) 0 " • jf >4 d .. at midspan (Fig..) . we obtain 2 ~ x Pn.) 2 0 . ~~ross Problem t. UN! shall a.:ction of rectiltru'ar beams and rigtd frames. /:.4GF __ Pnlll . Met/tl)dS of Displacement Computation 3iH eiable rcrluttion in the accuracy of the result:s obtained.. GF (') m 11 . 0 is t..\m.mn=~ A " l l 'lnvYJfl 1 \' EJ . All tl\(l t. In all t ha t.ed by the length or the arch ds.ont.
graph 1 I I\ X l /t.j ~M. 'l'he lota\ ilcll•!clion will be given by M Q Pnl 8 Prt"ll ~mn = Amn ~mn = 4BE / 4CF + + (a) I I I I I I Unit stal.& · z I . the left one. I I I I z \ (C) I I (d) !~! ~. sny.= l I cl +. wo may integrate only nlong one haLC o[ its length.e I I (b) J.332 Strain Hu~rgy Theory and Methods o/ Dt6placeTMnl Computation The boam being symmetrical about a vurtiCitl axis. I I I I (e) : 1 I I . grapiT  I 'I ~ I Fig. 8 . ~ r. I (fj I ·' I!II!! U£>"11J IIIII 1 ' I I l' ! rllte ! l~ a. 19.
t.omparison with tloo tttrm L\'~ 11 • Thus we~ ohtain t l Jt' wQHknown cx. from . us now ilet. 20. 20.ive val ue were ohtainnd.<f• l acem. 12 000 bl!l F =bh= 10 • 1)=1.auco :r fl'om therigh~hand ond of the beam equals _IJ·~ . Let. is obvious that in the great majol'ity or casc:s the tc.ct. it wcmlcl inclicate thut Jlcplacing in Llw above cxpu>s~ion J.ive importance of hoth pnrt.E olltaio ~~" 12 X 1.r ~) .s of Lh<.1 l.Jear t. b.'vf••lh.lw~ \Y ium tho value of this •lo OecLiOJl is positi\'(~. is I'Oprosentod in Fig.2 and G=OA.n lt.. t.udo of the> lmndiug rn omen~ at nny cross 1wetion a dist. i.ars.'d hy t. It is c.>r with t. 11 and G hy the followiug values bl l=i'f= WI! Mt~ .ht' c.>d load i~ rcttmsontcd in J?ig. 20.hi~ moment will difillr from zoro only 11t the cross scr.iding with that of the dP.ion C) .~:.inn. follows that the deflection produced by tlte shear. . Compnto thEI vt>rtical deflection L\c of point C of a unif<mnly loadt'il hl:lam builtin at its ldt <. Solution. 3!13 th'" hoiUll is tl•)flec~ tc:d in thll opposite dirl'etion).Qds of Di.'ll = 12.8 .. t.6 .lw orw duo to the bending moment and the othOJ' du~ to the slu.<.'! amount$ t. Tlu~ magnit.l!~ol = 100 m. Tho ht•ndin~ moment curve duo to tlu.torm deponding on ~h() heuding moment. Neglecti ng the ~l1ears and integrating the. F.fJ 3 per cent onb· o[ Lhat part of the deflection produc.tion t·equire<l. il.1 unlfo•mly distt·ihut. l) ~ to l where its amount will h~! givc>n by constantly nil to Mm.• nn ~~" JOllY be cnrnplet&ly negh1r. its direction coinr.s direction will coincid(l with ol thol<l<ld unity (i( a uogtlt.' tolal dofiQct.lions of ~he bC~um situated to lhe loft of p11illt C{at . 20. wo have already it.crmiuo the relat.8a)..'ls~rUonal dimensions of the beam he band h with h ~ 0.. :z: .hat l.~..Oec.lie )f)ad unity P..8ci.prc)ssion Pruhlem 2. Tlui'.imagi nary ~tate will cm·respond to the application of a coneentrated load tm iLl' 11t point C.ros.e.=  ( .ted by r.l'nt Computation. rtflil for = 2i) . Tlw influmtce of th& It ~hears will decrease tog&thE.!:. r.8c) .~ U~i m remaining llu~ rig hi.000 X t• X U.ed by the bending moments. . uf ~ncl. lleing vertical ( Fig.he ratio ~ .m d (Fig. Tho diagram of the bending moments Mm incl ucf.2 X Eh/3 X 1(1 :S l!..
. /(jl '../ ! Fig. 27.(b) (C) i~graph (d) Fig. 20.·....._tf.. .(bl / .•/._ . 8 ..'JA /.• . lJ .
'n pa!:<sing througl1 this same point ( Fig.[!:_ .ho maximum tran$lat. l' roblcm 3. Jfclhods of !Jlsplaumcnt Com. =u J stnq>dq> 1. ~c= L·~ Jl:lmll.1 hor ize>ntal (. ~ (xf) IJ~2 d.dx=d.ht• usunl wny.< pnrpo~o Wli' .h<.ral a~is of a l'.hat c11so tho bending momont~ <> induc<.oroponl'nt8 indltce.~S S('<~ti(. constitute for ~tny section M 1 = f ·R sin q>=R sin <p Remembering that ds = R tlcp.Hrn•d bowm 8!' wdl a.~ _ (l i 2)~ . its direction will coincide with thnt adopted fol' the lon<l untty in Fig.8c. n al forcl''> 1Je.ho hcnrling nt<mJcnts.l/2= 1·.. using expr<>ssilon ('17 . 'rho in.y will.8'1 b!lcotn(lS :It IE't u::.~.4.ornponont '.t. The totnl valun of tho displacement will be found theroaflol' in t. ln t.ion of point.\ S!n rr•eos<y tlq: = .ed in thi~ case by t.811.8·1.gligiblo mul the d in•ction of t.omont 1~1> of this smno point A . Solution.liort w~ obt. )<fohr's formula ('16.!lb." t.(1!2'! 3l] 2E I 1 6 lr ' ti = 17q/4.o= ·ud  ain2•1• ):c nJ>!(:I o Tho value of r.6. PR3 ((' .!luomo.n tho neut.iog ue.·~l)::: = =q. ~ L 2 l (:ra_:t) dx= ziJ (~'. apply at point A a ]l(ll'izontal load unity as indicated in l<'ig. [n onler to dl'tl111nino th1.ain.ncoment thus obtained boing positive.8.r= l 2 l ~ = 2.J.cos tp)=.'ll by t.:t.puta. For thi!. 2Uln).EJ 0 .R (( COSCjl'l Using once agnin expression (1ti.tion t·cmnin ing unknown.h() tran~la.c of the shears aud uort.'!te. A holonging t.shnll upJ)ly a verticall•wd unity as inrlicatorl in Fig.if..ho lonrl unity hocomo .ill di ~plac. load uuit. wo ~hull c•m•put(\ $e}Jar·nh•ly its horizontalt and vertical c.H (1.•·min(> t. D<. Let us comptttt' now the vet•tic. 'l'ho magnitude of tho bending moment induced at any se.o displ.:\ jp of tho total diSJllrtl~'rncnt (' PR sin cp R sin '4' R dcp J 0 EJ n = PR3 ( ((' = EJ Jsut2 'i' d<p= Rl Pfl3 (' . . (> ) 2J>Ra. y .~13Hc J \. 21 .8) we obtain n 0 .ction by tl1e load /' is given by Mp=PRsin <p Tho vn\uo u[ tho bl'nding mvmont induc. 21.ho angu lnr I'Otutjon of lh~: c.d hy t. 2·1.r(l.
' · .n a dircel. one for tho di~trilmted loads q ciTccLivoly appliorl and one for tho imagina ry unit.~ PRsinfp·1·R d~ _ 2PRZ A3p. Problem 4. F:nerr:u 1'/~ur!l a11d M ethods of f).Mads . 21.IJmpr·ise one Lcrm only depl.t. point A must travel .. i.. o( 110int A will be given by z 2 l i t\tp ~A=.8 Draw the two bending moment c.'2PHa)2 EJ = Jl}t3..) EJ .. 22.) EJ .. . . for ltoth r.urvc.EJ q>=:l'( ~ :t _ '1'=0 0 The rlirt>ction of this rotation coincide with that of tho unit moment . moml'nt M.. fn that case the bending moments induced in the beam w~ll re111ain q constant and equal to unit y. The total d t:splnc•\rn cnt.8 Fig. 2. + l\ 2 p = ...8.wo c.tt..8d).Ill.ho sn·uc...... t'tJS()(Ictivt>l~'· Analytically tlw vnlues of t..ion A3p of cross soction A will he obLained applying to the cross section an imaginary unit moment M 3 (Fig. which means thnt tho cross SliCHon will turn co. Actual state Imogifllrry J'lale ..111 tending t. Det.splnc..l Comrmtttlion oppo~ito This lli.l'·• upwards.... '2:i ..ill Mm Fig."'1 anguJat• rotation of ct·oss sc<:tion A will bo given by ~ M 1.. Consoqucntly ..1.... EJ V 4+'• /~ ~mid Tho angular rot.mtel'clockwise .~e t..ion to tlte ono selected for the lou•l uniLy.l.<....urc...ho bending nH•InP.«.o turn this ~ection in the rlirt'c tion of the rotaliqn rcquir(ld.un•es are givon in l<'ig.ion C of the knee fra:mo a unit moment .. 1'lu~. tho ...... 22..336 Slrriln. ..(>ment b<. splacM!~I/... al!4ls will be givr•n hy: f<ll' the upright ...8<t and b.. Soltt tton. ln that cMe the n onnal forc es and the s hear!'< throughou t the structure will rt>main con~to.. V /(nPR3) 2 2EJ + ( .'nding on tho bending monwnts r}von if it w•~r<! desired t() account fur all the stresses ind uced in t. Apply to scct.ntly nil and Mohr's formHla will c.'rmiM the angular rotation or the free r:nd C of u kuoe fr1m1o appoal'ing in Fig.>ing nt>gati"e.
ed by lhe applied loads '" '. t he strains arc duo to n change in tompera1.z = mutual linear displacenumt of the sa me faces along the axis of the element.hat.) 2 .M ohr's fo rmula (16. of the bottom ftbres o. = Q~~z 1}= lheir mutual displacement in the direction normal to tbe axis of lhe member (see Art. ~ 1 dx+ 3 EJ 0 1 qz2 ~ 1 qa2 2qa3 . TEMPEl\ATURE STnAINS I I .8) may be wri lten ns follows l ~mn = l: l] ~ M mt\pn + Z ~ Nm~xn +!.1 = mulual angular rotation of the t wo cud faces of clement.1 =.he.1 qx2 =z and Mm = 1  !utroducing t. EJ dz+.ripLio u 1\lohr's formula may be utilized uot only when the displnc. SQm~un 0 0 0 { 18."'" aud 6. Consequently.8)..tz(l:..4' 7. Temperaturt: Straltu for the uorizonlal ~IIlli 337 M.) 0 ~ 2 .8..7 .tu·e.8). I n the case of a symmetric. \ xn = 111 d:r .$..(tt+t2)d X 2 The mutual angular rotation of t he two cross sections bounding this clement will be given by A _ A _ CX (lt. Assume that t he tompel'n ture of the top fibres of element dx has been raised by t 1 nn~ liL'Il or the bottom ones by t 2 (Fig.emen ts t..1.. Asl:'ume nlso that within the bo~y il.8} we obtnin o a <p=6. this expression may serve for the solution of pr·oblcms cOllnected with thermal expansions and contractions. un of an elemen t dx arc induced by Stl'esses themselves due to a system of exttm1nl loads. hut a lso in the event.se valul'S in expression (16.. . The expansion of the top fibres of the element dx will equnl at1dx c\lld t. In this lransc. 6. 24.c where a is the coefficient of Lhcrm~tl expansion.selfthe temperature varies li nearly.t2) d '>qm '>q.~) wlecrc ~~ = ::. 2..t  h :t 2~853 . 6. dx induc.al cross section the expansion at midheight will equal half the sum of the expansions of the extreme fr brt>S '>xnA _ C't.
.7 ~ .3:i8 Strain Energy Theory and Melhods of Displacement Computation As Lhe rise of temperature will lcacl..2 mus t be re placed by t 2 1~y where y i ~ tltc distanee of the lower frhrc to thtl gravity axis.ion. ¥dx z 2 \ \ \ «/'dx z I . .i>?::~='"M"72..vl andY curv('S.1st..ho lon~h of <'nch particular t.orrcsponcling integrals may be compu ted a~ the areas lHJunded by l he diag rams of uni t st. I ntroducing the a bove values into formula (1. 2.1 h~ t t~n ~'M ~ t.f I (HL8) 0 0 fa this expression th o sign ~ iodicalos t hat tho summation mus t be card e(l over a ll the members of the system..i nncl Q. I \ \ tJ ill I \ _ _ 1!...8.a.8) we shall ohtain t he expression pormilting direct computation o( stntins and dtlflcctions arisiug hom l.. to no vortical disp lace ments of the element dx Lhe term d 11n will romai n ni l.8 (t is obvious tha t only those members wl1ich have been submitLed to n tompera turo change must be takert into considcral..i2l~ a~ z Ftg.y iuoicate tile areas bounded by the .# (20. 24..sio u to tho fol lowiug form which is exlromoly convenient for prarlical dosign "'mt ~ = .e m pernturo ch anges• f I Umt = ~atl ~tz SMmdx+~atttt2 sN.. which permi ts to reduce the above cxpmc.. \\'hen tho cross section is nonsymmetrical about its neulm l a x is Lhc lt~r·m .. %~/':~. +tz Q + .resses. • '! 'his ~<tprossion will be valid cmly if the chnngo in tomperature and th<l lt~igh t of tho cross ~Lion do not vary within t..+tz + ltt2 t <:3 + memhur forming thc1 structure..a . For rectilinear or polygona l bars of constant cross section the c.8) Hero Q. dx .
that.negative.lngc It shoulll abo be not. Tempt:ra.. Tloo areas bounded by t. 25. Conscrtuently. (Fig. whon the Indoor tm nporo. o h~ai n ed Problem._ I. Z2.l•men~ r·equir•od llnd drnw the COITOSJlOIHling M and N curvN.7.tur·o risos by 10"C.o c<ompute the terms dopcuding llimdly on t. llu~ Clutdoor tem peraturu mmnin ing constaul (Fig.fibres of tho knco fra!Tle wh ile the unit lunol showu in J<'ig...$.Jw cloauge t1 + tz = 0+10 _ 5 l.lure Stratn1 339 T he sign1> of all t.cltOIZS produced by the shearing fo rces may no lonJJer be Ju.81.ecl that an incr('ase in lhu indoor templ'r:l~ti i'C leads to oxtcnsion of tho inner . us al:.emt~nl of point C of L ho knno frame apponl'ing in Fig.c!l both Ly t he variation in temperature and by the load urdly at'C of ~he snrn o d irection Lhe COTrl:lSJJOnding LN'III o[ t. (6) Fig. liD It sloouhl be ob:<erved that tho la:t t<>nn rQ(lrcsentiug 1 h!' total ch. The sn mo willnpply 22* .c~mpornturc 2 2 I lt121=1 010izz10 in tornperoture mu~t he always taken in absolutr value regard lee!' of its sign . 25.hc terms appoaring in th e a bove forro ul n will he as follo ws: when the str·ai ns of c lcml\nl.urvos will amount to ~·~ =1· a =a ltf L<!t.il. H<Jqui r•ell tl1e vertical displl\c. (U) "00 T A ® / ~' . the Lcrm would be negative. term of tho e<tuntion which acc. In tho eomputntion of t hcrm rtl d i$p lac<'ments the .. d:x i uduc. 25. .horwise. if it wcro ol. +~c .8 Sol •~tio11.!:::.8 cauS<~s th<Jil' contraction.f a ~ .ounts for Lloo b~nding mmocnls will bt.~trams and dRfle.hc cquatiou will be posWve.1).•glected for tlu:ir relati ve ualue may be qu~te appreciable. Apply a lond uuity along the dir·octinn of tho d ispl uc.h<!SO c.kllnnd cj.. 25.
·am may be bounded by nny cu. the meaning x and a being clearly shown in 0 Fig... dx =tan 0: ~ xMn dx = 0 0 tan as 0 ! X an.dx• .340 Strain Er~rgy Theory a11d Methods of Dl. DISPl. Consequently t>m t =  ~ :x.fm) reduces l.~placcmellt Comprttatiort to the tcnn ac..hniquo . 0 I represents the statical momont o[ the gr/\ph area about the 00' axis (Fig. for an increase i11 tcmpllrnturc leads to au extension or the upright while ~lte load unity adoplell entails its contraction.8.un•c (Fig.8.8).s OmQn dx ~ lfmNn d:r () nnd S 0 L . t!Jat.t4 t5cx h a'l 8.'\rl a..c.ounling for the normal strcssos.= Q. or Introducing this value of ration. Conl!ccpleutly. 26. of J\.'! lite product of two ordinates to the Ji. Q. 26. 'fhe ordinate to any straight line may be always expressed by iiim = = x t.· l~ I forth~ ca lculation ot lhe inlegrals belonging to the type ~ }\[mM.ec." and M. This technique will apply.hnique will ap)lly t.cchniqtte the graph multiplication method for it is lnlsed on the ract that the expre~sion preccdcrl by the sign of the inlcgral <Jont:\in. we obtain L Mm I into the integral under conside ~ MmM.his l. \.x~ 0 *'fhe samE' l£'C. It is well knowu that t.ACEMENT COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES In a lllllllher n£ case~ displacement computations may be simplified very consid~rnbly by tho introdnct.8).ion o£ a special t. The other diag. where Mnd:x = dQ11 represents the differential o( the aren bounded by the 11:1"11 c. provideu at least ouc of the curves (say.his l'ttatical motncnl may be expressed by l ~ xdQ..o a straight line.1 curves.o l • ~huilar intogr:d. tho expression SxdQ.\'o shall name t..oken liue.·ve or br. 2()..
8) differs ·t from Mohr 's in teg ral by the a bsenc... to tha first Gravr:ty c<:ntre of M11 graph o' r.S..~t is bounded by a straight line.. the product of the multlplicatiM of two graph.R. 26. t. Tf both of the .+.ar ried out by Vere~hchagin's method must be later divided by EJ. H ence t he r·esult of the graph multiplication <:.8) Hence.1l_ _ .~. 0 I but sinee Xe tan a = Yc we obtai 11 finally ~ M rn!l1. lhis method is known also as Vereshchagin's method.l . It follows t hat I SMmMn dx = Xc tau a~2n.8.8 graph mt~asured along the vertical passing through the ceutroid of the second one..c. oru> of which at tca.ow Railway Transport Institute and lherefore in tho U.:::::::: .gin when he wos still a student of the Mosc. VcreshchD.S.8. This procedure has been suggestl\rl in 1925 by Prof.nYc 0 (21.r Q Fig. /)iSplau~nt Computation T t!chniql•cs 341 :r0 representing t he abscissa of the graph centroid.tor EJ . A.. It sllould be noted that the IcH part of expression (21. equals the area bounded by the graph of arbitrary ot~tline multiplied by the ordinate Yr. This product will he reckoned posit ive when the grnph of arbitrary ou tline aod the ordi nate to the rectilinear grn ph are both of the same sign and negative when the two aro of opposi te sign. It should be always kept in mind that the ordinatu Yc must be measuT'cd on the graph bounded by a straight line .+'¥+ .e of lhc fac.dx =9.
.342 S trai11 Energy Theory ond M tthods of Displacement Corn. ' .putlll ion graphs were bounded by straight lines the ordinate Ye r...oul d mu ltiply t he a1·ea Q. bouudcd by tho ll1 1 curve. bouruled by the Mk cur·ve..entroid. T it us. in the case just nteulioned we would ohtaiu al ul al (2c d ) bl ( r 2d) =6 l • 2YG+zYb=z 3+3 +2 3+3 (2ac+2 bd +ad + bc) ..ould l!o moasurco on any one of the two. l>y the ordinnte y.. 27. When n lrapozoidal graph has to be nml ti·plied by anotht>r grat>h of t ho same shape. if iL were required lo f111d the prod uct of the gra phs for M 1 and M" of Fig. : I b c~d (c) Ftg ..8a one could either mull. measn~d a long tho vertical pa~ing through tho centroid a (b) : f :_ . 27.8 o( 1 . by the ordinate y.alttd in Pig.. it is convenient to suhdivido one of tho two into lwo triaugles as indic. 27. measured to the M 1 curve nlong the vertical passing through the Q" <:....iply the area Q 1 .ontroid of OllCh Of lhCSQ triilng l e~.. Thus..his ar·ea to t ho JVh curvt>. or else one (' .8b and to multiply thereafter· tht• aren of each of these triangles by the ordinate to I he o~her gnt ph me<Jsured along Lha vertical pas~ i ng through the c.
Table 2.8 peculiar to Lhe uniformly distributed loads and that the ordinate to the centre of the parabolic segment is always equal to g~z It 11111y h11ppcn that both graphs are irregular in :>hapc but one of the two is bounded by a broken line. t lte araa of this gt·aph should be subdivided into two triangles and n parabolic segment. both should be subdivided into two pa1·ts.& and d. Multiplying the graphs of Fig. + . 28.8.wo graphs consist.2 (Yb}=2Ya+2Yb When one of tho graphs is bounded by a conic parabola . wore neeossnry to multiply the two graphs represented ir1 I<'ig.8c we would obtain aL 2Ya + .igh t line. the result of their multiplication being given by tllo sum OtYt !J:!Ya· One could also subdivide these graphs in three portions as indicated in Fig.ation would be given by Q. Displacement Computation Techniques 343 'l'hc Stlmc proc~n ure could be followed if each of the t. I t will be remembered that a parabolic graph is ( bl) al bl {0)~ I I I I I I (b)~2 Fig. stro. 28.8a and b.nphs could be replaced by two triangles ABC nnd ABD Lhe ordin ALOS Lo which would remain of the same sign along the whole length of Lhe graph.8. Thus. 28.ed of two triangles or opposite sign (Fig.8c).east one of the graphs should be bounded by a . 27.om pula lious. 'fhe introduction of two additional trinnglos CBK nnd AKD would hnvc no effect ou the fmal resuiLs for thei1· ordinates arc equal in value and OpJlosite in sign. One or the two gr. 27 . if it.ys + QzY2 + !JsYa· Vcrcshchagin's method requires the r11pid evaluation of graph areas of different shnpe ~tnd the deter mination of the position of their cen troid.8 represents the areas and the centl'oid positions for various graphs and is intended to facilitate these c. In that case the msuh of their multiplic. In this ca~e both graphs shou ld Le subdivided into a number oE portions so that in each of thern at l.
t he product EJ would have . for the computation of the deflections of beams and framed structures. This table will be of considerable help in the computation of di!':placements.Table 3. tho different spans or members of which do not vary in their t•igidity.8 gives the values of Mohr's integrals ~ Jl:f1Mhdx eomputed for V}Jrious graphs of clifieren t outline. Vcreshehagin's method is particularly well iii. Should this rigidity vary along an element.
l O....r.. The mom<mts of incrtin of all the members of the . These compulaLious should be carried out in tabular for m.. Examples oj Di. The deflections of hinged structures are computed using only that term of Mohr's equation which takes into account the normal stress{\s. 29. .hown in Fig.&. 19. e nncl f. if an approximate solut ion were deem od sufficien L.ment Computation to remain under· the inlegr1d sign which would make Vereshchagirt's method inapplicable..~ .8...hc strosses induced by the load P.: ~ i j Hm Nndx gp 0 The integt·als must be calculated separately fo1· the whole length of each member of the structure whereafter all of the values of Lhese integrals must be summed up. all tho mem hers of the structure cou Id be f1cti tiously replaced by other ones whose rigidity would vary by jncrernents. Tho effect or .. c.GF This result coincidos exactly wi th tllo one obtained in Art._ The imaginal')~tatc of tho IHwm ns well as the graphs of t.. Rcquirod the horizontal displncoment of point C of lhG portal frame :.. and by the unit load P. Con&•· quently. • 11 ~ x~ _ ~ Nm N n l EF (22. 1t would then become necess<~ry to cnlculate analytically Mohr's integrals or .8) Thus th e computation of the deflections of t russes and similar structures reduces to the !'urnming up of the products l calculated separately for each bar.9.ts P. 6. .. _ ~ N . Required the deflection of point C of the heam appearing in Fig. In t he great majority of cases the normal stresses Nm• N no the crosssectional area F and Young's modulus E wi ll remain constant wilhin the limits of each member in which case tho above expression becomes ''mn .~plarr. EXA!\IPLES OF D£SPLACEMEl\T COMPUTAT£0N USI NG VEHESHCHAGIN'S METHOD P roblem 1. N£:" 9.mn=E/·4·2·2·3·4+ GF'2'2'2= 48EJ + 4.\mn = ~~. d.8. Solution. · · .. HUlb. Using Vereshchngin's method we find 2 Pnl l 1 Z l 2'1 Pn l 1 P. Problem 2.~tl.8 by dinJCt integration.N ~ d Et.· '·'' ··"' . It will be remembered that lJending momen ts and shears remain nil in all the members of this c lass of structures. arc roprestmte<l in l~ig..bpth bending moments and slwai'SSbunl•l ho accounted for. Mohr's formula refluccs to A L.
.!~ '·'·1 CJ ~ C'!flltpara~ .) ~ (h 5 h + 4eh' +h6') 1i." )..·iJ •. ..h 3 k 6 + h.i/.h~ l l c~cz y f(Jttic poratml o (i hz(2c:ac 1) /..c 1h 5 + c<!ke)  ."!.. 11 2 (2h5 +h6 ) /if+ ::r 1 "I }.'! .'1'11h dJ< ( tbe ~~ i grapll Mk gr~pll ~l·z "JGJ ~L ]h q z ~h.4 liz 12 t3he + lf S h5) C.z .!t~) ' u ~~ Ihi I :.l . Jr.~ C... A y lfhz (h~1IJo) r . '"12 lj2h2 !~ (3h5 +hs) __________ .t___ _ 1J ... h2 (2h4+ 113) { 12 ( h:.. • (.c .ho+ czh51 lfth2 r.lflt~ / \'i.h. .. ' h~r__ 3 lht h2 lht 6 (2ho.. 12 ( . ~ h 2 (2h' t A.. {}/i~. + h~h6 ) +· 1.Vn luc of Mohr's I ntegral s ~ M..
+ ('2) ll2 3 lf' ( .·) l • l f ' h2 ..k ' + 2z X X (k' +A. +8zf lf2i' ~ 15 (31.  J tl lht (21lo:A • ') S " lh ..J. + i..c3k+tie0 h.c1 k' 11 4e1hd.hho+ +11. J. .1/.).'l 1~ 1.l'.h~c3 1 lh 12 (·3ha+h.. t.')l. I" (3k' + liO . :.c2c3c 1c 4)[ 12 ( 3('. k d ·r ~~. + \CJ C4 ) l/12 T li2 :.2::' 1 . 15(k' + 1.. +c2l .i.S base Jcnglh o£ <'11Ch gr3ph hl'J ng cqunl tu l) OJn~ ptJrol. 2&' (k+ A.' } :.12z'J 12 (3c~ .)+ + :3.' + k'). (2r 4 c3) l I lf2h l I 12 lf2h 2 ~. "15 . + 12~' 1 3 lf .) r· T (h3.l'z1..) + lei.Tfl bl e S.. .A.' ) ' 12 (li2 lf 1 3c. o't2(2c3 +(. (.' +..o "~z S ft~ t'lmlc paru!Jt!la U:nk {Jt1/'171Jclo /n .' + +c.3Wh. ')+ L8z'l ~~ ( .1.')+ . [2 (ctl'3+ c~.) (h3k' .t..f5(31c+ l.. f2(hac3 + +h~c4 )lh3c~ .h. ) <.3 ~ h~ (k' + ~ '=!hol :.d c 4) 5 l f tfz I( tf ' 5 lf.cz) lf~ 30 s !zw 15 lf' 1 5 (k .A.)!+ 12:1 ~ [2kk' + 2/.
<1 the actual loading i s given iu Fig. 29J:k.nt C will be obtained by multiplying nil t.:.o Llw lirtitious load unity. 29 .<> heam we find . Using Vm• t'sh chagin ' s ml>thocl and Lllking into acc(lunt the dilT(u·(tnt rigicliLlc•s of the colu mn an<! of the cn·os.8b. Young'.'s Lo thE> graph rlue t. The h~nding mnment dingram corres ponding 1.aut throughout. to tho J1 .( 111\. Solutloll. u1ay b~ omitted if desired for theSt> graphs are always d•·awn on the s ido or the extended fihres.heo ordinutel.348 Slrttitt E11ergy Tluory and Methods oj J)/SplacemMt Comput<ltion frame am indicatt>d in Lh<) same figure..fa . The imaginary loading c<ltt!!i!'ts of uno horizontal load unity actirtg 11t point C. modulus E remaining const.8 nctual Joncling hy tho ordinatl. . jr' (d) Plg. 2!l.. The signs of the llondi ng p Jz = ~ moments npp oa1 ·ing in these graph:. Tho corresponding bending 111omont graph is given in l<'ig. Tho displaccmont of poi..:> F ig.10.[lllll'.t:: bending mon•ent grnph col'l'OSP<IIlrling to tlte (a J I~ ast (c) ® .
Honco the corresponding ordinaw to the M g raph equnls ~ .5! x 1 x 1 ) t. Let us apply a load unity a long tho dircct. Multiplying tho two graphs Ollt> hy another Ulling Vt>reslldtagin's method a11<1 rememhol'ing that the separate mombers of t. thoso two di spl ncom•mts hcing due respcc.o t. The hen ding moment graphs corresponding to the act ua l loading are> indic.8b. x0. 31.e.tively to the application of a concentrated load P and of a uwmcut ~Jl..8c. il1. Ht•nc:e the nctuul di::.8b. Apply along tho directions of the displacements 1·equircd a unit load ( l''ig.orl·esponding t. 30. x.I iu Fig. Examples of Displa~cment Compl•Lalio tl 31\!) Tho displacement thus fow1d will be negative for the Jl1p aud M graphs are situated on difTenwt sides of each member of the iramu thus iudic.8.5!+2 X 0.. towards the right.3PlX l+0. x X ( 2 X 0.he cormsponding bendi ng moment di11grams ( Fig.ion of the di ~ placcment required.1112 graph.2Pl x 0..3Pl x 0. .h by tho maximum ordinate. Solution .uLiug that the hen ding moments Mp and M Ul't' of opposi te signs.phlc. f{ l:'roblem 3. 1 qa2 qa3 QcD=s · z·a=6 The centroid of this graph is situated a distance i as mea~ured from point C (see Table 2.at(!. . h.ho actual loading appears in Fig.5l + 0 51 e. 30.8c) m1d a unit momont (Fig.8). 31.. 30.ht> htam with a builtin end llppearing in ~'ig.3P! X 0.8c and d). 2 = EJ 2 2 )*'Proble m 4.5!x. given in Fig.8a.e. Solution. i.. Tho lvfp graph will be first multiplied by thl\ ~~~graph and then hy the .5Pt x 0.8a. Hequired the horizon tal displacement t)f point D helongiug to t'hc structure repre~entotl in Fig.htlr with Vcreshclulgin's method. 30.he> structure ar·e of different rigidity.J Pl = . we obtain T he aroa o f the M P graph pertaining to elemenl CD is bounded by a concnw parabolic curve and theruforo i ts area is equal to one thi rd of tho profhlct of its base lengt.Pl X l0.rn(lnt uf J!Oint C will ocelli' in a direction opposito to tho onr~ ad~>pte(l for the loud unity.QEJ 2 1 ( 0.5l) J= S~. The graph of the hcnding moments induced by this load j.2. :!0.8d) and traco t. Tho bending u1oment graph c. i.5! x 1 x 10..t. The deflections and angular ro~a tions will be con1puted using Mohr's fQrmuln togel. Hequiretl the deflection fi 1 and tho angular rotntiuu 8 2 of t. "= i 1 [ o..2Plx 0.9.
~}5 r:: {a) (b) II I I I (C) l. c 't) I J ~ · :.:  q 0:::. ~ . ~ . 91 .ory 'lnd .350 Strain E nt<rJ:y Th. ® (d) (e) Fig. N Jz :2J.Method$ oj Di8plocement Co mptLlaUon (1 8 J. 8 Fig tJ2. 8 . y I I I Jl I I I 1 .
:!. 32. 3f.c=.!ld in Fig. ..8b nrc ~tb!\Ointel)' idPnt•cal.rnmp~s of Dtsplaccmtnt Computatlot~ 351 Problem 5.& at load point. 32. llcquired the deflection <l 0 of a beam built in at its loft oxtromitv and ... 32. .!_+ ql2. eacl1 of these parts r(. .S.8 .rabolic segment 2G352 with positive ordin~ttcs ( Fig.. 32.!. Solution. .ilml' of the lcfthao cl portton of the< bomn Is shown in F ig.!_ (qtz.__ql2) _'ll'l . The n111Ximmn nrdi uale to thi s graph equals ~ ..p rcgcnting rP. Ul~iformly distdbutc•l load (Fi~..!..!._.86). 1 1 equally o pplioil to 11 (b) n triangular gl'aph due to tho shearing forc.i_+ qlZ_.. 'l'he graph of tho benc'l ing womcnt Mp actitag across tho Sol:t.1. EJ [. Thill oper·ation may }JO carried out in two dHferent ways: L Tho M 11 graph for the lefthand part of the beam will be regarded as consisting of a trapezoid 1·2G341 with negative ordinates and a pa. Havmg dr11Wn tho M 11 graph {F~g.384EJ Jf P roblem 6. Th(> maximum ordiuat. 32..8e. 33..carrying a . ln the structure under consicleration the boam will work only in bending :md t.ained ruultiplying tho ordmatos to the parabolic graph by these of the oue houndod by a ~trnight line._ilL ) _ 17ql' · .86} apply a vertJcal luad unity at point C and draw the corrl!spondiog bending moment diagram (Fi~...e q~ 2 duu t~ the bending moment M = IJ! applied 2 t.o section C. · Solution .L. 'fho maximt•m ord inate to this graph t.he wir() in diruct ten~>ion.£] ~ 11ql~ 2 2 2 3 2 3 8 32 2 1S 2 2 384..i. lt can be snbdividod into t hree parts :t:'l in<licat. For llu• w il'Q .!.lliplying each or those three graphs by tlltl hcnding moment gr·nJih 1lue to thl' load unity we ohtnin !!.9.c to tbe parabolic graph will equal q( .s. 32.EJ 8 2 4 4 2 2 3 8 :t 3 8 .8a). Hence ~\lohr's formula for the beam will reduce to one term which contains the product o( bending mom ent.. As will tm rcadil¥ seen this graph and the gra ph 125841 of Fig.e Q = section C.=32 Multiplying tho M P graph by tho ~ v ql~ '51 graph wo oht11in t!.8tl).. the cro$5 section of tho wire F..~ .\Lu. Isolate tht' left half of tJto bOillll replacing the ac~ion exerted hy thl' righthand part by a ~2 =B 1111d a shearwg forc:e Q = • ~ (l''ig.8c).Spcctivoly: (a) a 2 reetangul~tr grnph having for ordinat.. ... The vnhw of the deflection L\ 0 will be obt.2.(·· ···. E. 32. ..8e. .../?J bend111g momllnt JW' • 2. {{equired th<' deflection of tho structure appearing in Fig. Tho left end or the horiZOJLtlll bar is bingcsuppot·tcd whi le its right extremity is suspended to a ficxihle wire.!.!.otnls q~~ • . Th(> moment or inertia of the beam equals/. . (~· ql" + :!.... Young's modulus or tbo material of both being £. 2 (c) a paraboli1: graph due to the uuiformly di~tribnted loads upplicd to the loft hnH of the beam.
·efore given by f t.\= J o l M pM dx EJ  + J :er0 .PI L ) 2 l Pl9 2 2' T'2 3"4= 4.. respective ly. Th o corresponding bending moment graph appears in ~ (a) A J~. Computing the first term of the ex pression given above by Vereshchamethod we obtain f J 0 I M pM dx /J /  t ( 1 . r 0 ' J_ I·.35~ StrCiin Ertl'rgy Th~ory and ll!ctltods of Dtsplact!men' Computattoll \lulu·'s fonnula will consist of tho term containing normal stres. 88.8EJ EJ ' Tht• lotal:t. ) 2 E i : . The correspouding graphs of these graphs gives arc 'givPu in Pig .f.8a and b.r. The . __ .'!es. _ __ J ' I I I I i I I i~' @ El .8 gin':~ Pig. I· I I 2 Fig. Tho total di~plac<lment of tho Load point will he the1.cnsilc strt>sses N P and N in this ht1oger due to load P and to the ~r~ultiplication unit load will amount to .Sb.~ ~ N JJlV dx <I  Lfl us apply w the oonm a uuit load acting along the dircctiou of tht> <hsfllaro(lment required. 33.. 33. and { .
4 t. Equation (c) gives V 8 = 6.nns sq m. Requimd the augular rotation of cross soction 6 8 o[ the threchiugocl frame appt>nring in Fig. _ Pl3 0 .t>mcnt Computation :!53 The total dt>.9.1.Sa . T lw rMc. ( a} Fig.tion o[ the :mgula1· rotation r·equirod.\ = 6.ion in t.'\ tons and equatiun (d) gives H 11 = 1.t.6 tons.5VA=16 (a) ~Mu = If.3V. :K8b).8 SGlr~tion.3R5~ .xm·al rigidity E/ of all tho ele.flection will be given l>y Pa. ( Fig. 8b. Excw1ples of Di$plar..e reacLions WI.om:. Th is being don() .8.ments of this frmnr) ronu1ins c<>nstant and cQIIal lo 25 X 104 t. of this frame will ho •leriV(>d from wherefrom 411A ..ion~. Knowing Lhm. ion~ at t ho supports u~ual tho equilibrium r~qunt.4 tons an<l H. 'fht~ Oe. X 2VA X 3 + q x 4 ( ~ + 64) =2H.an draw the bonding moment diagram nPJlO<lring in 1:'ig.' c.t.48EJ+ 4EF Pruhlcm 7.. n 2. let us apply a unit moment nt ~cction which will turn this soc.ho <lirec. !Jd. 34. 34 .VA+ V R = 0 :EX= HAlf8 + q X4= HA H11 +2X 4=0 (b) (c) wherefrom (d) From ~quotions (a) and (Ill we o'htain 1r A = ll.t+2X4XIo=O wh~roftom 2f!A +3VA=32 _ry = ..
= 2 X 108 kg/sq em. "ZMB=lf.X2V.:. 4 Fig..5 = 0 (e) [. [ !Ui X 4 3_ 2 .6 x 6 (2 2. 35.. 4 X 4 X 2 ~ 3_ ·: \[l .'5!).1 3 ·X ra Hlns d' Pruhlem 8. 34.. 34...uding moment gr. .8+32 57.ipl ~·ing t.Ef 2 X :! X 5 I 3 X 2 X 5 + · 1 !U. t .2 .5 2 +9.~plt due to Ll111 unit mmn!!nt (Fig.2) =25 x 10' 15 ·15 + 15 +:j5 \( 10~ = 1.~l mult. The cross scr. 35.EX=HA1HJr=O ~~qua lions give V D ~ (e) llnd (f) yield VA = . )] x 3x5x 2 .. :rud UA = 1 fo while equa!.EY=V.a+V11 =0 . x1.354 Strain Energy Theory ar~d Methuds of Displacetnelll Computation 'l'J1e reaction :~t the supports induced by this action will be obtained as follows (Fig. the nngular rot.tions of all the members of this truss remain constant and equal to F = 125 SII em and Young's modulus F. Hequired tht• vorli!~lll doflcction ~ 5 of joint .6 2.8c): ~Mc=flAxiVAx1.8c). uht.ions (f) (g) (h) (g) and {h) I5 4 tlllU HD = W· 1 Know·iug these reactions we may draw tho be.8 tao The valut> of..aX3 I1 =0 .\'ll>ocl ahovo by the ~cco11<l one • _ .8a.lw !ir:<t o[ gmph~.3x 5 +3x 1 = 2 2 1 (76.aLi(HI will ho obtaiue.!.:unod as !losc.i o( n stot>l truss rep~ resented in Fig.
llar I.8 Sl.P.a m=3.<> of tho p1·oduct. tons l lc·oa unity .OI25(156. 78 5 . 3. 67 25.h3ll ohtain tho tlir.72 x 10.omputations aro tahu late<l IH!r(..2.rie8 nnd dividing the total hy /iF we ..8) 01 1 lf=''f~ • "'. 1...ains Lhe bc11ding m fwumts (~ee Art.5 15 0 0 i 90 t0.) 37. 56 ·'~ 5 6 !i5 0 12. 4G 13 .10.hod of llisplacemcnt c. Slratn Erwrgy M r.liH7 156.~ theorem which states lhaL the' partial derivative of the slratn energy tn terms of the unit actton is equal to the displacement induced by the ac.> d~flection A5 wiH hu given by the exprcssiMl L\a ·~ l:ET . m l~nt:"th HCtual Jil:l.Qn metres.hc value.1oht''s f.tua} loading along the direction of the said unit action."t .17 X 2+80 X 4 + !JO X ·I)= = :i.· ding Np. ~{> j7.:. fi~~ 21.25 104 .!l33 O.'unckr (sco 'Iahlo lo . Tlu.) 2EJ 0 I .r<~ sscs lltJ(I' to Dar ::\c.olurnn tJf this lahk g ivo t. Summing up all these e111 .72 mm Ttlble.8).omputatiou is based Castillia.ormuln only one term which cout. STRAIN ENEHGY METHOD OF DISPLACEMENT COMI?tiTA'riON The strai n llnergy 1110t.nl C(IITiflltlaltlllt 355 Solution .17 4 ao I I 81) I 0 (! 23. The Mlri~?s 1 '11 the la~t c.8.Nl ior t>ach ]Jar in t.5 25 0.1 X 2+'10·'. N. In order to simplify the demonstration of this Lheorom we shall rcLain in J\.11.placenH> nt rotJu inul 65 All the ncm~s~:rry ~· zx 107 ~ O.YrN t c.833 O.no ·.thotl Clj Dtsplarcm..y NpF. lnn !Mli'C~ 12.
r . coinc.l ion the dollcction uf which is sought.. 2.prcssion o[ the ~lrtt in energy should be di£fet·entiatod in lcnns of Llw sniJ unit a('. . l'roblcm. }rln are the bending due to unit forces P 1 = 1.. In th is expression jij·i· lVl 2 .PdM2Pz+ . The strain energy due to the adual loading and Lo this unit nction should be calc.. ]jijli• ..:. Solc~tton. ..356 Strtttn E~rcy Theory and M4tliods oj Dl$pla~e.Ll'tlal derivative.. ticc Caf\Wliano's theot·em i::~ seldomly used.P. Tho magnitude or the displacement will uc t hPn obt...8. its inlerl!:t being mainly the01:etic. +MhPh + . Pz = 1. = 1 whose linos of action.roduced iul.tem unclcr considera Lion a long the direc.ide with t hose of the c01·responding applied londR. .. 311."<fd:r l uM l•ut 8Pit =M" and consequently iJP" = " j ~ 0 aw As ~hown ·iu Arl.&).. 3.nlar load that will be int. f>h = i. A cerluin action should bu a pplied Lo the sy:. 0.. 'l'hr value of tho hen<ling momont nt n cross !'i~C~ion sit. t:lcquirod the angulnr rotation the £reo end of a uniformly loullctl bcnm with n builkin end tFig. . of this exp1·cssion n•prei!ents i. .~ M~t. it will be Lhc value o£ t.o the JH.Xb. H it were desired however to use it the sequence or opcratiorlS would be as fo\lows: 1..idcs with the t..e) 2ifT (I l SM iJl't dx =~ BJ 0 l_ .aincd from thi~ expression r~ducing to zero L ho mngniL11de of the unit action for in reality Lhi~ nr. P.s eoinc. Tho partial derivalive o[ W in tl•rms of Pk will be moman~s cJW CJP11 iJM  = iJP11 ~ j 8 ( ~M2d. 36..\ J.. ••• .his pat•Lic.ulatod.c end will be given by .p and lbf:lrcforc ow i}}J" = ilJ<p Tn actual d~!>i gn pra~. .icular N\SC when one or tho load poin\. Ld us npply to the free oud o£ the beam a couplo ~ 1 15 ~hown 10 Fig.tion is nonex istent. +M. the righthand ·part.tiott.ross st!c.ua L cd a dist<nH:e :~: frutn the il'o.ment Comprttatton Let us l'Xt)ress the bcndiug moment as follows M =M. ln the P•HI'. The llX.tion of the d i~placcmenL requir<?d.
t•. THE ELASTIC LOADS METHOD Tho method described hereunder permits tho determination of deflections and angular rotations at a certain number of isolated points of the structure..8. Assume.8 ddlcciion of a br.arrying a CtlllCI?ntmted load at tht! other.. 0 l iiW Pl3 b.gt·ation W=EJ j ( w+G+2 q2jS ql3!1J! 9JI2t) Differentiating W in terms of Wl and reducing thereaftl•r its valut> to zero we obtnin q>= 1 (qt3 ) ql3 (&W) ON/ ro?=o= EJ sfro?L =sEJ As alrMdY . ) 2..tm l ( .) 2EJ dx= 61!:1 .. The Elastic.~c M=Pir \' p2z2 p2za l+ = .8.~tated. vihen one oi the lo11ds is actually applied 11t t!Je point the olisplac<:uient of .am huilt in at one end and c. 36._)'<p .= aP=3EJ l1. the clastic curve of the deilected system will be obtained with a precision increasing .o W = \' M2 dz = .J1.) 2E J • 0 0 I s q.:t2.J dx which givt>s after iniA. ~ ~:1 (b) Fig. 2 2l!.lf trrrrrnoni1 Hnqcu)~ l... ~ .~ll_l ~I ll! q (al ·< :.< no need to apply imaginnry loath. that it is required t() ilot<H'mintl th<' maximum il ~lUI l U:~t!~!~.hich is desired to determitte tbero i:. .'""" ·.. Increasing their nu1nber. for instanc.. ln that ca. Loads Mt>thoil 'l'bo corresponding strain eMrgy will amount t...
urve !io olttilinod Jnighl ho also tcrme(l the tHsplacoment graph of Uw l'. 38.+t· U~ing the theorem of Zhur·::~vsky we may wrilo .o broken line connecting the ordinate:.ermcdiatc points might be obtained with a eerLaiu fl cgl't\e of approximation hy mt>n. sudt a graph will resemble very c·lof'cly a hcndrng moment curve of an endSUJ>po·d ed beam acted upon by Ye¥ornl cotH~onl:rated l..!!lH'ing the or·dinates to thif< " " . 'flat! c. Itulecd .11 hrokon line. if the vah1es of the <lefJections detel'IItiued at a certa in nnmbet· of points Wlll'C set. so obtained would c.retches f. m. of this gl'aph wil l.nrve. lio in the vertical pas!>iug lhrougll one or t:he load points. nf all tho inl... Tf the axi:.hc st.Hllllin stmight and couscqttcJLtly the de(ol'med axis of the lowel' (or· upper} chord will.'y!>tom.a l ~ pa.d Methods of Displacement Cornptdatton iu direc.• 17.1t along the Vl)r·tic.ho elastic.raph Fif . t. The above doe~ not apply to hinged structures s uch ns trusses.358 S t rain Energ11 Theory an..he bending moment ~.K 1·epr·esents R part of some structnro for whic.:sing tht·ough these points.onstilutr an approximalion of t. follow a broken line connecting the deOected joints.h it is required to f'r nd the del1cctious at.. for in reality tho elastic line of a member will be 11 s mooth curve. Let llS find the maguilaliles of these loads. purpose we sha ll compute the shearing forces Qn and Qn+t acting at Lho exLromities of t. anrl /.:ecr: aisplureme":ts ~. c.t proportion to the numher of point$ COI1$:idN·ed. Each apex... Assn me that the broken line of Fig. It is this resemblance which forms the has is of the method de~cri bed hel'euuder..tion1.h.~7. Fig. !! Y~· Vi:rt. fo1· as long as the loads act at the joints all the bars n. of the displacclllcllt graph is normal to the uir·ection o[ thll dclloclious.oads. 'JhC:' defluc. For· thi::. .8a repre~ents t.traph. a ('f~rlain number of points.
38.8) It fo llows that if the heam is subjected to the a<:tion of th e concentrated loads Pn calculated as above.1 Mn+t ..?.. . ( 1' ) M... The Elastic Loads Method 359 Let us pass two sections through the beam one immediately to the l'ight and t.1) will also amount to + Pn. and Q.hc other immediately lo the left of point n. The element isolated by these two sections is rcpreBen ted in Fig. its bonding moment g•·.Qn+2 llltroduc. Projecting all the forces applied to this element on a vertical we obtain ~Y = QnPn Qnt1 =0 P.+t . The end faces of t. and On+t· I t is oloar therefore thnt the concentrated loads acting at points (n 1) and (n .+ 1 J'eckoned positive.... 98.1 1 + .8 Q.On+l The latter expt•ession shows t hat the load acting at point n IS equal to tho difference between the shearing forces Q.8b.$.\pb will coincide exactly with the deflection graph of the structure u nder consideration.!nil'fn .M ''  An An+t  _1_+ n1 ...."'" "n+l "'"+' (23.ing into these expres!\ions the values of the shearing forces in terms of the bending moments we obtain p _lJ. Since the two curves given in Figs. 37.Mn.11 .8 and . =Q.his element aro acted upon by the shearing forces Mn1 Bendtng mome11t grop/J Fig..1= Qn1Qn Pn+ l = Ont1.n +M.:.
.8a and b) represents tire work accom p lished by this load a long t he dofledion of this point (. Let \JS a~su mc also t hat each of tl1e o couples is consLi L nled f /JJ by two vertical forces amounting t.Yn.. However..t that the fort·e ~.hnractel'izcd n 1 by the nct11al Ol' existing loading and let us apply at points (n .tual stn•cture. :19•.'.. lnclcod the values of tho clastic loads give11 by this expressio1\ depend on the uoknown ·~n'~'" •' dcflec. it is possible to olltain nn expression of the clastic loads in t. is direcl"'d upwards whilst the deflection of point (n . ropresent.ausod by tho actual loading... the product of the vertical load).IAr~+t (24. acting at poirlL (n . = .8a a•·e identical .~tate the st:ale of tlw struct\ll'e c...ual o nes.J +y. T he value of Lhese elastic Joads will l>e thus given by W. which will in(]uct> i n a n endsupported benm a bcuding rno Wo shall thus obtain the expression of the socalled tllastic loads ment curve coinciding with the np pl'oximatc dellecLion graph of tho ac. The procedure is as fo llows.Mn and lvln+t by the corresponding deflections Ynlt Yn and lln+t· W. n.tions." + A7HI ropresenls tho work produced by the forces 1 and rn "'n+l ~ of the iruaginary state acting at point n along the uoflection . '!'he corre!>poncling state of the structure (Fig. Similarly. Indeed.hand p11rt.prcssion appears t)lOfOllghly unfit for practica l usc....1) is dit·ectcd downwal'ds....8) At.fur t e An . l ot us replace in the expression of Pn t ho values of M...1).s the work performed b y the imaginary loads a long tlu~ lleOecLions caused by the act..8a) will b~ designated by tho term imaginary state.9 " "'n 1 1 h fac. 3:1. Taking up oxpre.LJy. the produ<:t I 1 ) y.·st sight this ex.crrns of the oxt. 39.. Let us designate by tho term actual .ernal forces actin~ on the structure.. The negative v alue of this term is due to the Fig. ( T. n <llld (rt 1) two couples both equal to unity but of opposite sign .o L (L + for the first one and to .ssi on (24.8) we no te th ul its right. t second. + J.3GO Stra lu E~rgy Thtory and Mtthods of Di>plaument Comp11lalitm 38._ 11 .1) 11.1 by th e deJ1cction l/r11 (Fig.
) Q~ 0 0 ~N 1) dx 0 I ~ . .!tf11 dx l ~ "T N 1. Onc. Let us now express the work accomplished by the forces which form the imagina1·y couples along the actual displacements in terms of the slrasses M.8.Z ~MET+~ . The third term of expression (24. The deflections of trusses and other hingeconnected structures ar& compuled using only the term containing direct stresses..= .) JV EF +'1~. due to t.1 i 1 1 ' 1 +· ( > . t.hcs. of the beam where the bending moment differs from zero.his expression is considerably simplified as only the term containing the bending moments must be relained. the normal stresses must be also accounted for.) N 0 ~:M 1.'·n+l · Yn+1 = =. while the sheal'ing forces are taken into consideration only in a few particulal' caseR. th0 deflecUons are readi ly calculated using the rollowing proced urc.ic loads are known.. Tl1o choice of tho 1H!am mentioned above is governed by the following considerations: 1. The loads just mentioned are a·pplied to an i mnginary beam of appropriate length and rigidity and the bending moment curv(} is drawn in the usual way. The values of t he elastic loads correspot1ding to different points of the structure are obtained through the application o. In the c. When used for the computation of deflections of beams and rigid frames.as.Z .) QGF (25. Tke E lastic Loadg Method 361 y.. N and Q induced hy these unit couples a nd of lhe stre~ses M 1}. dx I .f imaginary unit couples successively to two neighbouring elements of thestruclure.8) Wtl may write ~ 1/n. ~ .e the values of these elast.8) 'J.'his latter expression constitutes the general equation gtvmg lite clastic loads in terms of the internal streSS()S.he acLnal loads. The ordinates to this curve will ho numerically equal Lo Lhc deflections required.o of flat arc. Np and Qp due to the applied loads.. to any deflected point of Lhe structure there must correspond a cross secLion.71.) M EJ +~. + Antt) Yn. To each point of the real structure which remains fixed theremust correspond a point in tho beam where the bending moment induced by the elastic loads is nil.Q P dx 0 I and consequently W. On tbe other hand.8) 1s again equal to the work performed by the force ~ along the deflec"<HI tion Yn +t• the minus sign slwwing that the directions of the fore~ and of this deflection are directly opposed. Using expression (12.dx 1 ~Qpdx 0 I EF +112: .
Thus. in othor word~. other ond of the imaginary beam t ho valul's of the bending moment M~ anrl of the shearing force Q(.e. ·. <Pb 0) we ·must have in the i magiua ry hearn * Jlf~= 0 and Q~ = 0 At the.. grnphs induc. ··. the C.ituting those couple~ ·being parall el to those of the derJec tions required. in the case of a beam built in nt one of its cnile.ed in the lefthand col umn. chosen as abov(\ two uni t cotlples. J.. .. Table 5.. Apply successively to the adjacent poinl~ c.<. wherever two adjacent cro~s sections of t ho beam rotate one with rofer(lnGe to the o t her..ng sequence should be adopted for· the construction ·Of tho disp lacement gtaphs usiug tlu~ nwthod under consideration: j . .. 7?lm .. must he on the conITary differon L from zm·o.···. 2 .B L'io. 72}..8 contains the schematic drawing:> of conjugate i maginnt·y beams eorresponding to the struc~ures represcn l. .od in the real strncture by tho actual Io~ding.·. B egin with the. Rc~. 3. . 'Wherever the slope of the deflected a:x is of the real strudure varies or. 2..... the direction of forces const.. = 0 nnrl tpo: = 0) and free at the other end (y b =F 0.1 J .. Table IJ. (Ya. Choose stwh points of the strueture whoso deflections will 'be chat·acteristic for tho 8tructure as a whole. ······5 J))..Qrresponding ct•o~<~ sodions of Lho imaginary Learn must he act~d upon by shearing forc...362 Strain Enagy Theory <Wet Methods of Oi~placemw& Compr< ttUion 2.· . The followi. loads. detorminatiort of the i~fp .·4 ···.. Np and Q 1.. induced by t:h Q clastic.~J structure Jm.
p nte the values of the elastic.. 40..() the l1ending moment.urc. loads ciLh cr hy dii'(!CL integraLion or usiug Veroshchagin's method descriht!d prtwiou:.'IIPLIFIED EXPRESSION OF ELASTIC LOADS FOR :BEAMS AND lUGID FB AMES The dctcrmi11ation o[ the deflection line for solid web structural members is carried out by subdividing the total length of such members iTt a series of s hort stretc.tion in which each of tho two couples Lenos l.enr.8.onformity with the r.• ill33 4.ent stretches meeting at p()int n (Fig.t Nn = ..~. M. 7.. Sl.e the cliagrams of the bending moments induced in thi~ henm by the olnstic loads.hese unit COUJl les will lead to the appearance in each strott~h of normal fon>es equal to: (1) within the stretch between points (n .e orr the corresponding ]lending moment graph and therefore t.l'he forces c.sses are c. In order to find the elastic load W.0.and ~ (Fig. Normal st. Choose an imaginary l1eam in c.tnnl Joadil1g.. Simpli{l.8a). The l1ending moment curves due to the applied lo11ils are as Ul>ual drawn on the side of the extended fibres. These loads will bo reckoned po!!itive when they arc of the same direction as the adjacent fot•ces forming two neighb01J1'ing unit couples and the bonding momt1nt graph will be a 1ways traced on the side of the ~xtendecl ftbres. Com.o ro tate lhc corresponding stretch must prud.tion to tho deflections of the real slnicture.ed Expre.. '.n. Incir.re.J. diagram thus obtained will be equal both in amount and in direc... Trac.. for which iL muy he admitted that th e unit strl'sses remain constant..harader of the defotmations of Lhe real stl'Ucl. 6. The elasLk load:s ac. dentally this means that the elastic load will be also dircetod Vl\rLic.i.hes.onsidcrcd constant and positive wiLhin the boundaries of each stretc.n sm ~n 0  1 where .hcir computation becomE"s unnecessary.ally.. Let us consider L\VO adjac.ho (Fig. Draw l.ting on tile imaginary bc:un at its $Upports have no inll u.•tqn qj Elastic Load~ for BMrn.h.ly.uce un extension in the member on the same side as produced by the ar.8b). let us apply to the system two couples consisting of vertical forces .12.i3.. 39.8). Th e ordinates t. Nand Q graphs induced by Lho said unit couples 5. 12.1) and n ~n. 4.onstituting t. The direc.
... 40.= _ s.1) 1 . 40..~ _ siuBn+ t __ t!tlll$n+t The mul~iplication of the bending moment graph due to th~ actual loading (Fig. (M11t + 2M..)+ 6~~:: 1 (2M"IMn+l)(26. (2) withiu the stretch bctwee11 points n and (nf.364 Strain Energy Theory and Methods of Displacement Computation and consequently N.8 the unit couples (Fig. =_ tnn 6. Nnt1 =.. 8..8a) by the bending moment graph due t.8b) carried out by Vereshchagin's method provides the following expression for the elastic loads • W~[ = ~ ~ MM :~ = 0 6 %... 40.Sin ~IH1 where wherefrom N n H .() Actual state (a) Imaginary state {b) Ftg..Sn+t COS BtHI.8) . cos~. llon+J sin~.
o dispt•nse with a number of intermediate opt't'at.onccntrated lond P. Uswg expressiun (26. will be obsot•vod Lhat it is nwc.z : + (M_ 1 I 2M 0't I l ( l'l) 12/.~o (Mt + 2Mol+ 61~~ 1 (2M 0 ! M1 J.. or The elastic load '~ornputcd as just described will havtl tho snme dirccl:ion as the adjal~ent forces of two neighbouring unit couples as long as the value of this lolld remains positive. theru will be no longer any need to apply to the ~tructuro lhe unit couples.. lt will servo no usofu l purpo~() to det. 41.. Hcquircrl the ci<'Occtiun line of the cantilever lo<Jam of F1g. tho actual loading e~n the sido of tile extowlo'l fibros.8) as it becomes possible t. Thus.._1 + 2M. t h e total vnlue of the elastic load taking i nto acc. au ~"" + EF"'+ Nn+l .r. ln order to take care of the normal stresses Jet us compute lhc ·value of the integral X Nn+tSn +t EF.e. t A EF.. Solution .hange sign within the l on~Lh Qf elemenls Sn and Sn+lr tlw clastic load W n will bo direcled towards the bonding moment curve. (.ount both bending moments and normal st. 2410 5PtZ . and Sn+l eauRed by the norrnttl forces N" and Nn+t· Thus.orrcsponding ~>tresses and t.h of inftnil~ rigidity. .:~. thiR load hn vlng no influencl' <ln Lilc str<'s~s in the imaginary boum. If the 11ormnl stresses may he neglected and provided the bending moment graph due to tho actual loading does not c..+t tan ~... Slmpllflcd E:xprt'S$ion of Elastic Loads for llt'anu 305 The above e:cprt>ssion aceounts only for bending moments.M. (2.e..li.12..ions.T . lo traC<' the diagrams of the r. 1 In this expresf'ion en and Bn+t nro the unit strai ns of elements S. = 6~. . Problt>m. tan~.8 supporting at its frt><> and a c.] 2 ~' 1 ·...resses will be given hy W.1/. tlw lmndin~ tuoment graph clue I... Wo . Subrlivillo tho beam i11 two oqunl pnrts choosing points 0. + (2"' 8) '· Nn+l t A + IJFn+l an I'R+t Tl....an t'n+t = A = .ttdc of tht' clastic l!lntls at points 0 and 1.ermin0 tho oln~tic load at point 2. 'l'rac.+ t  N.} + 6:. In computing the mngnilud<: of the eln8tic load Ill JWin\ II il i!l asmmc•l that the builtin en•l i~ rl'Jllttr<!d by a stretc.lt easier to compute the elasti c load using cx.pressi(HL (27. 7 nnd 2 at the ends n[ those parts..o cany out the multiplication the graphs due to the actual loading and to the said unit couples.Mn + Mn+t} ~.8) dotormino the magnit.en tan ~n r e...
8} Iu this expression N reprcseJII..8. 42. At points 0. It represents at the same time tho deflection grnph of tho real beam.J. 12.S the normal stress due to the unit couples applied to Lhe bars meeting at the joint n for which t he . /!J • 2 0 'dEJ 13.(Jcl 1ry the ordinates to the abovo gruph ..Hl two loads at po!nts 0 and 1 of tlw Imaginary beam built in at: it.~ .onst.·• Hc . · o.2•t i Flg.1 will bo WJ = 0 ~~ 1 (!llo+2M J+ f:l~~ 2 (2.. at interml~diate poinH there will he a sJigltt difl'erencv between the two. apply t.i(iG Stratn Energy Theory and M ethod. Tho values c.8. 1 and 2 tho deflections of tl1e rcul l1eam will coint.rurt the corresprmding bending moment diagnm1.EJ Pl2 .8 of tho oxtoudcd fibres.koncrl positive wiHm ~ituatcd on the side p ~J. _l · ' t" w•l =.8) hecomes (28.• of Dt. ~owal'll$ the bending moment curve dut• to the act\Jal Loading.he. Tho ordJJH\tos o[ this dingram will be rcc.. rf lho rt>al be~tlll were subdividE'!) into n greatet numher of part~.s rightlwn<l extrPmity (F 1~ . 1 and 2 nf the imaginary bl!um will havo the following values 2 8 The gl'llp]l of the bending moments inducotl in tbB iwaginary bc:>am by tho clastic loads is given in Fig.·c _ .(l· . the doficction c.. Mc=W l+W I .~placcment Computation The olastic load corresponding to point . 42.iilo !!Xl\ctly with the dofleclions 1'epre8ent. and t..urvo of this beam would have bol'n obtainrJd with greater precision..lwrofore the bending moments at points 0. !lJ)J < Ftg.8) ancl c. The elastic Jvads are directed upwards. SlMPUFIED EXPfiESSION OF ELASTIC LOADS FOR IflNCECONNEC'J'ED Sl'll UCTUH ES When applied to hingeconnected structures expression (25.!!.tt 1 1 +M2) = 12~J ( Pl+2 l ( ~l) + Pl ) + 12L:J :tz+O = 4.f the dn:~tic loall~ being CHkulatcll. in oUter words. whilst._ ~· w2 X 0=~ 4.!.
2..'ernent groph for points si 1 '\latcd along tho broken line 01' 23' ·45' 6 would necessitate the determination of t he elaslic loads acting at joints 1'.o each two bar~ of the lower chord meeting at a joint. Sinlplified Ezpr£'SStl!n of Ela. The cross sections of all the members.l'.8 loads which must be applied t. 1'2. L et us l~ompute the values of the clastic.j.. Let us assume that it is required to determine tht>. If it were desired to find the deilcc. q3.. ! the bars by these couples.8b) ann compute the normal stresses indun•d in . It is readily seen that all the bars <.<tfc Loads for Stmcturts 361 value or Lhc clastic load is sought.8. 49. In order to find the magnitude of this load let us apply to bars 01 and 12 unit couples consi~ting of for~os = (Fig.1' will remain idle.<l(lnts the totnl strain of these bars caused by tho actual loading. For this purpose let us apply UJ'lit couples SUI:Cef'Sively t.8.tiou line of the upper chord th~.8a. . 3'. TllO· truss is nctcd upon by a single vertical load P = 1 tou acting at joint.18. d(1flection line of the lowet• chord of a truss represented in Fig. this load represents the angular rotation of bar 01 wiLh reference to bar 12.~ un i 1: couples should be applied to the hars of this chord. 0. 3. Simi· larly. of the truss aro the same.>xc. 2 . Let us proceed with the determination of elastic lond W 1• Incidentally. 43. The reactions at the end~ of the truss will also remain uil. tho construction o a displa<.1. 4 and 5'.o the imaginary beam at points corresponding to joints 1. while lllp repre. 4 and 5 of the lower chord. 3 and directed upwards.epting bars0. 12 and t. it' Fig. The application of the elnstic loads method to the deflection computation for a lruss is illustrated in the following example. Stresses in the loaded bars are given in Table 6.
·Not· + + ( .5'(} F 23'.. Cross sq m 0. Tota I stress 01 12 01 ' r T 1 1' 2 11' :r 5 + . .8 Bar No. 56' 22'. Tabl1< 6. to l scc. 3' ·4.j__ 0 () 3 3 4 // ' 4 The data contained in Uwse two of Lhe clastic. . 8 .. l +NoJ·No..  7HJ'2• 1'2 1'2TlV11'"1 l ' •ll ' = EF l 1 [ .resses in all tho members of the truss due to the applicalion of tilL• load P arc given in Table 7. 1) X. 56 3 3 F s 3 8 2' 8'.r 1 .1 1' 2. 34 33' . 12 2 +n 5 St.NNp . Langtll ot bar. 11'. " 1 : EP (No1Notlot +NuN12l12 .s thl:l computation Wt = l:. 4'{/ F F :=. Length m s~ctfon.8.x . Cross Sol m :s rtss. 3 x(f) x3+~x!x5+~(:)x5+ (~) x X 0X 4] = + iu~JP .8 J:lar No. 3'4' 3 5 F F ·t·.368 Strain Erlerg!l Theory and Methods o/ Displacement Compttf<>tion. This table contains also all tho necessary i11furmation rogarding the length and the erosssectional areas of the !Jars. T able 7. T OL:>. i\T '\' 1 HF = .1 str~ss Dar NO. ~ j· ·ttons / 3 Bar No.1. 15' 1' 2' . load W1 tabJ~~> _ pcrrnit. of bao·. 23.i ( ~ 3 ) . 44' +{ 5 ''if 5 9 3 4 If F F F 8 .ti on... 15 01'. 3 12.
'1'.8.lw .8 D<\r )(o.oads for Strutlurt•R 3G!l Siucu the systt. The final val ue o[ W 2 will be obtained by summing up all t.71' and 3.•·es!ies wi ll be devl. load acling Ill joint 2 will llc obtained npplyiug t.<S or those s lrosses a•·e g iven i n Tal)](' 8. .va lut.r .8 and 8.lata contained iu Tables 7.8.11 1 I 23' 12 5 All Lhe compulntions relative to clastic load W 2 are carried ou t in Table 9.$ lu this case s l. SLtCS4 I Ha t Ko. 1 5 2' ·9' +4 1 11' .. 0 fal "' " {I J' q' (b l F ig.loped in bars 1' 2'.TI! +T.1'2 .~3' +.8. T ht. 44. I Stress I 11ar No. ·11. 23' • .ud 23 (Fig.7'2' .l'2.8 usi ng c. Table 8.ho wlit couples lo bars 12 a. 2' 3'. Stm{lli(ud E~preRsion of Elastl~ r. a ll lh c oLilOl' hal'S romaining icll l'.ic.8a) .<m is completely synunetrical.I i S~ren . elastic load W 5 will have tho same value W 5 =Wj = + 1 U~P Tho value o[ Lhc olnst.13.
"' I H2EF + 8 3EF .~4 eF 3 EF '8 H !J 5 .tJ' 5 EP .$ l:lar ?\'u... 43' 23 . 1 s 1. l'n olhcr words.lockwisc with respect to hal' 23. Nogalive values of Lhcso two loads illdkatc that tho mutual rotation of bars 12 and 23 occurs in a dirf.il:..t]).load W. lt\EF :. I I I 7fi7 unit conplt's Str~ss~s N ln<luce<l..:F 39' Z:F 4 /. by Stfi:SS(IS N p i n duced l>y actual IOit<llog N.(1 Stresses N fll(!uct·d 'by unit COUJII~S 5 Uar No..!.7 )~ .J.£F Owiug to the symmet. 5 8 5 + 3 EF +T..pl tond inll . +4 3 3 ..370 Stratn Energy Theory and Methods of Displacement Computation Table 9.24. tho ela~t.. . b.12 1 +~.12 will rota l:e <:.IURF !) 1 ' 2 1'2' 2' 3' 2..H . 12:1 + 'Jti'"_./:l W2=.!.olumn of Tuuh) 9..'l\. wil l have t he same value.:F" 23' 5 RF !) +n +iz 5 I 5 +~ 8 ..ry of the system.il:d."\i 1' lnduc••d by ~:\'.F '. rJF 125 I.F !) 5 12 +~ 8 I 33' EF I ' ··a 1  31!:1' '• en tl'ias of tho last c.ion opposite to the one of the unjt t~ottples.. I ~:F' Stress..•(·t. EF 5 EF fo +_t_ 4 +··· H:EF 125 'Jiib.'F T 2 ::~ 8 t . 'JHJ::F J•)::. .s >iClual . T1tble 10.
at. f 7. ' Fig. that is in the same direction as thE> adjltt>ent (a) Actu(Jl. and being jlOI"ilivc. Adding up all the entries of the last column of this tab le we obtain w a= 24EF 1117 Elas~ic loadg w .8b. 44. 45.l upwards.h~ end let us appl y unit c...:F The· deflection Jin e of the lower chord will he given by t ho values of the bending moments at the poi nt of applic.5.s 371 Tt remains l. lruc (ut r. will be directed downwards.same order as heretofore.?. lt represen ts a hori wntal endsupported beam carrying 5 symmetrical l oad~.• w3 w5 ·~~ " ..1..8 force~ of neighbouring unit COHples. The ab11trnettt reac. . The negative elastic loads W 2 and W . .8.ompntations appear in the appropriate columns of Tabln 10.8b) repeaLing all the computations in the . The conjugate imaginary beam corn~sponding lo t.ion of the elastic 24" . 1.ot•ples to bars 2iJ and 84 (Fig.he truss under consideration appears in Fig.ssion of Elastic Loads for St~~telure.Lious produced by these loads wi H be directed downwal'dS and will amount to Ar = B 1 = ~ 1 xE F Uu ~1·· 2~: 2~ + 1~) = 1 r. These c... directet. .o find tho value of the Jast elastic Joorl W 3 • To t. these loa(h will be. ·~ ' ".8. Simplified Ezprr.
<() 'r. for i nstance. DEJo'OBMAT IONS 01' STATICALLY DETEnMINATE 81'1\UCTUHES CJ\U$ED BY THR MOVBi\fF.> aid of :\Johr•':..Jy th<' sa llie as that c.'F X ' 2. Assume thA t the r ighthand supporL Sl'Ltles vertically 1111 amount ll duo to uude l'mining o1 · any other.on..tic loads i~< cxac t. The value oi t h is dentl~lion will hr gin~n by . [£11 =!IF N~l N l~i ng numoricnlJy equal in [. ot· normal sLressl\s in Lho mem bers of t he s tructure.his pnrtic ular rnso to N.h t...F " :HJ X .1 6EP .I'JEF X M' 3 + 16E/" 9 65 = !/:J ~ 6/i. .=Y 2 = ' 4 =Y~ =.. 16... all the joints of tl•c lowt•r dtol'd wi ll deflect in t..'f 1:ompu ted hy lhe mot hod o[ elac.1.nrc provided th e s upports t ravol a lo r1g tho 11i rt>ctio 11 of Lhc corrcspo11 rt i ng reactions ..86+2. for:mula the rlell(ICI.j'['p It iS SHUll that [.~plac:crrunt Cnmputflt l rm loads Lo this inu~ginary 1 heam X r 23 .8 given nbove ~l't• = l>r•w"= rs'r [ ({ X 3 X It..( 2 r ir '< 108 '7fll1 +:l:{:t 1 '.8.l'J'tniuing wi1.he samt• direaiou.<.+ ( X !) . All the nbovcJ t•ompu l at i on~ may be c hetckcd by dHf. we may tt·nct• the diagJ·am of the l>tJnding moment product>d by th ~ clastic loads.2F. . LeL us examine.. cause.'ili li4 ·tz.M. All the datu uocossary Jor tht'so computat ions will he found in Tnble 7..orrospond cxaclly both i n arnouut and dircctiorl t o those of lht• lower chol'cf deflectiou line of the truss. . 2 x 3 x 4 + ( ~) x:~ x 2 + 1 2 x 4]= E~ . for the load P itllcH equals 1 t. = Yt= M$ = y~=.J )1fT 23 (j' m:~.. the frame of Fig. T.8.110 cJcfltl!'( ion 01' po int..:~ .3 g + HiEF 9 X 2lt E F X '3 =  4$F 127 T ILes(! dnla heing ohlainod.6/tP 23 3 = ..(f ) ..lhod.~ of Ot.J) .ou.Nl' OF SUPPOHTS No stresses result from n displacement o[ ono or more support~ of a statically d ot orminate stf·uct.372 Stmln l~IIPrgy Thl!ory alld M'r. T he load lwing dirocLcd 11pwartls.ht. ~(i. Suc h a sottl e tn c nt will pJ'oduce no bending moment::. The o l'uinul cs to llti!$ di a~l'nm plotted on the sid~:~ of extended Jibrl\S will c.omputad using i\fol11·'s formul a. NN..ion of joint 3 inducod hy the nppliC~ItiOJI of Llrt• vertical load P = 1 t.
ts on the crossbeam at point k aloug the direction of.he l'eac.Jenwnt of .8 in ouo of whic.ion or the displacement studied. 48. l. I I I I I I I I I .'or the two sta tes tept·osented in Figs.h (the aelnal stale) the struct ure c:u·t·icR no l<>ad at. !) ~formation of Staticflll!l Detr.= 1 ac.ti on R at Lhe cort•egponding support induc.. This d i sr>lacemcn t.his unit load at the supporl which has set tied.. 1fi. Let 1Z be the reaction caused by t. the displacemont required (Fig.8 write on Llw hasis o[ anti ._ \ =0 BuR~=O and. 47 .ling <llong Lhe llirec.well'~ t:lwo rem o[ rociproenl works that. will he reckoned positi ve when the cJ irections or l'eact.ermiua te 8yst:cm caused by t he sett. i'ince X= 1 \fax.• R Fig.8 Fig. X.rmin.8 nncl 47.s 373 In o•·de•· to determine tho d isplacement of p(1i ut.o the product oi the amount of this settlement hy l. k along t he direc.14.8.~H .ion R and of the displac.iug on the statically determinate system of Fig.11U! Structurr. could be obtaiucd from t he strain t•twrgy equation ~ X/Jt~ +XtAHRL\ =+X1611 Tlw left part of this equalion represents the wot•k accomplished hy all t he external forces (reactious included) act.f l.l. consequoutly ~u=R~ mc:ulitlg LhaL the dif. a unit load X. 47.. we may lmaqina..ry slote c '\ r:'1iu k I I I . 40.8).8a in c.£'.tion ii iuwgine that.lcmont (or any other movemcmt) ol' a support is equal l. The same result.od l>y H IJiliL load ae. 8 .p)ucemcn l: ut any point of t h e s tati ca lly del.nso tho sott. all.cment ~ arc opposed <lltd nl'giJt:ivt~ wlwn their directions coincide.' A' •/.
The two X{'' I 1 1 I I I I I   (a) Fig.ond case and represcntecl by the ri~hthand part of the equation.8 parts of this equation must have exactly the same value bec. It follows t hat the strain ene•·gy accumulated in the first case (represented by tho left part.374 Strain Energy 2'heory and Methods of /)isplacement Comp•~tatit>n support B takes place after the application of the load uuity X. = 1. It is required to determine the verticnl ..he same (a) Actual state (b) Imaginary state 0 Fig.8a. o( the equatiou) must be exnclly t.8b). t his equation leads imrnediat.•re in the sec. 48.8 as tho ~tmi n energy acquired by the struct.=R:) which coincides with the result obtained on the basis of Lhe theorem o[ reciprocal works. 49. and the right part of the same equnlion represents tlle work pt•oduced by these same forces in case the settlement would roaeh its final value before the application of this load (Fig.auso in both cases the total deforrualion of the system remains the same. As X. Let ns take up a beam provided with an intermediate hinge as represonted in Fig. 48.oly to ~•t. 49.
50..tion of the rotation required (Fig.c C C 1D'' .tion whose vertical component R 1 will be equal to and the horizontal one R 2 to ~.al settlement of the righthand support.=y Fig.14.= 1 aL point C (Fig.5lt6.0. 50._ C' I I E D :£\ l ) Xi.hrougl:t the angle 6.8b) we obtain + Xt~u. 50.8b). 50.8a) and iu the imaginary one (Fig.xed end is rotated t.q: The negative value olltained for tho displacement indicates that point C will shift upwards in a direction opposite Lo the ooo adopted for the unit load xj.L VI h.llion of Statically Determinate Structures 375 displac~nwnL 6.o 6. Let us consider now the more general case when several support constraints of a slatically determinate structure yield simultaneously.5Liuq> =. 'fbe deformations o( this frame are due to a horizontal displacement and a vertic. Rz=.<~>.ual state (b) Jmoginory stut. 1 Fig. :•t the outc.=/ <::1 ! I I I I ! 8 .R 1 a+R2b=0 . 50. ltl ordl'r to find the angular rotation of joint E let us apply at this point a unit morrHmt X 1 acting in the direc.8a.8 .y = .8 . This may be done applying a unit load X. 11 of point C of this beum when the ii. Equating the work llCcomplishcd by the external forces in the case of the actual displacemcnL (Fig. DejtJrm.omc of which the system will occupy the position indicat~d in dotted linos. At the righthand support this unit moment will give rise to a reac. we shall study the fram~ appearing in r•n D Acl. 49. On Lhe basis of Maxwell's theorem we may ·write wheref1·om By+ 0. As an example.8b).
cr·mine the roar~tion!' produced by the said unit action a long those o£ the constraints which remaining stationary in tho i magi11ary stutc yield in the actual one. As.. modif1ed (Fig.fl).1 1 be the projection of CC' on the direction i . forming a br·oken line. = 1 lltu =R1aR9 b Iull'oducing in this expression the values of reactions R 1 aud R 2 a b ~~:>=T2h 'J.ated to the left of joiul n remains frx~d. ::!. 4.. Tho similarity of trinnglcs CC' Ct and CnC' yields + C'C 1 = ~~ = C'C cosy =nC6. Ohtain the value of tho displncornent r·equil·ed solvi ng the aforesaid equalion. :·L D et.in Er1a::y Tlu~ory and ]l{ethods of Displac~mcnt Comp11/a/ion and.idiug in direction with t. Apply to tho st:ructure a unit action Xi= 1 coi11c.urne that this anglo has chauged an a moun L 6. 51. ol' the existing eonstmint.i and y l.The angular rotation 6<Pn will cause a displacement of poinL C which will occuPY a new position C'.8. cosy .t. Form 1111 equation cxprcssiug that t ho work accomplishtld by the loads and reactions of thtl imaginary state along the displacements of the real one equals zero. n 1 l~.atc of Lhe stnu:.1. DEFORMATIONS OF A KJNEM1\TIC CHAlN CAUSED 13Y THE MUTUAL ROTATION OF TWO NElGHBOUIUNG LINKS llel'enndcr tllC lel'rn kinematic chain shall apply to any system consisting of a number of hi ngcconneclod rediliHOar eJcmcrr 1. Choose an imaginary st.ructllre by tho movorncnt of its supports (l.. Lhe circular arc CC' may be replaced by the normal to nC.8).. since X. n and n .em along the direction ii when the angle formed by two neighbouring links n .cp. Let .ture for which the sup we find port in question remains fixed.376 SLr<.ion ~. !:>.<.. 51. 15.he angle formed by line nC wilh Cd normal to ii Wig.s) we must: 1.he displacoruent required.. in order t:o determine the rHsplaccmonts inclncod at auy poinl: of a statica lly tlctcrminale sl. Let llil examine the displacement of any point C or such a sysl.' hu~.(p11 nnd that the part of the system sila. It is clear tltat the angle C' nC will h~ equal lo 6<ji" and sincn the rotation is supposed to be vf!ry small.hese supports being s hifted along tho dired.
.ement requii'NL Should we represent the angular rotation Ll<p.~ ment (If _ lhis vec.1\<pn is equal t..he projection of the nC segment. The displacement D.l.. L\ 1 of a ny point of the syst.ted parallel to the displacement Ll 1 requirod (f.· 0 ii caugcd by a c hange of the angle <Pn / formed b y two neighbouring links and a arnounting to L \ q>.8) . Apply this vector at poin t n of the Ryst em along the dir·ection of the Fig. ol' Fig.he rno..o t.8.om pmilurc(l IJy a c hange of angle ~p. Cornpute the moment of lhi~ vector abou t tho point whose displacement H is desired to obtain. 51. by a u amouu t..tor a~>Out tl~e po. 1 T ·:· the disp lacement. on H normal to t he displac.1<pirr +~<p2r2 + .15.<'ig. may be found as ' ~ follows: . Hepr·esent the angular rotation orpn ' ' "' lJ y II V t'C tOr. + ~<PmTm = ~ .h repl'esents l.8 dirplacement required.2. hy a vector· applied at. 3. J)ejtumalions of a.<p._' ·. I hus.. .. wh ic.. n and rlirec.1q>r I m (29.8).. 52. ! 1.." · whose displacement 1 s stud1ed . poinl. ' the kinematic c hain al ong a direction 1 LJ.i~ 1t C 1 . t... 6 1 of some point of 1 J. I_ 1 ~~'.' LHP.t of any point of a kinernaLic chain resu lting from the alteration of several angles will be gi ven by the expression j ~~ = .8 01p" by the length r. 51. tim displacerneut.ho produc.his rlisplaecment 1 will be nnmerieally equal to t. /{inemr~lic Chain Causerl /Jy llotalion .~77 As nC cosy=Cd= r we obtain finally ~i = OIPnf Thus.
8.8. and therefore the general expression giving the deformations of such systems will contain three t er111s. about t he principal axes of ineL·tia y and z of the seclion under considerntion . Apply at point a ~ hor izontal vo1:to r 6<ra· Its rnQment about point C will give imm~dlntoly the horizontnl di.) 0 Qll" d~ (' Q  zm~ 'Yh Qm ~ (30. Determiuo tho horizontal and vertical displacomonts of point C he longing to tfto knoe fr·amu of Fig. DEFLECTIONS OF THREE.DIM ENSION AL FnA. each of which charllcterizes tho displace ment due to one of the three stresses mentioned. we shall ob tain the e.(L\~) 2 . Following exactly the same procedure as in Art.8 whun tho foundation CJf this fr·111ne is rotntetl a!Jout point a clockwise throu~h au angle ACJ>a· Snlution. 52.8) .) Mym y+1: .. N nnd Q act uc ross a section passed tlu·ough a member ot any plane system. X 0 0 0 I I l X aPl'lv + l:..xpre. 6.Ma Vh 2 + l 2 Tho same rosult could be ob tainoo. one torque moment jlft about the longituclina ~ axis x of tho bar.'!ion of the displacements will consist of six terms.l followi ng the procedure outlined in the provious article.)M:m ~+ 0 l II (' M11nd~ ~0 I M:nd~ +Z SMtmM~~:z +1:S Nxm N~"p.dx + kSQII. in this case tho general expres.M ED STRUCTUnES In the most general case throe different $tresses M.= 6q>nh The vertica l displacement of point C will be obtai ned in exactly t he same way 6~=6'fal The total displacement of point C {the distance CC' ) will ho givon by CC' ""' V(6~) 2 i.378 Strain Energy Tluory and M ethods of D isploumeut Computation Problem.. 16.s placorncnt roquircll 6. I n threedimensional framed structure the cross sections or any member will lle acted upon by six stresses: two bending moments M u 111Hl M. each of which will represent th e displacement due to one or the aforesaid stresses. Consequent ly.~ion g iven here und er permitting the di splacement com ('Ill ta tion for threedimensional framed structums I ~mn = Z. o11e normnl stress Nx and two shearing fo rces Q11 and Qz pa rallel to t he aforemon tioned axes y and z.
f 1. \¥hen the cross sections of all the bars remain cons1ant.ssion (a0. Hlwarns.s in the case of nngular rotations) whose direction coincides with that o[ the di~placement .lurg les of small width (such as the (ll'OSs sections of Tbeams. 2. EJ z• GJ t. CoeHic.• ll4 zn• Jl.:entrated load.8) in exactly the same way ns in the case of plane st..gra1 signs.8) will be retained . section lt =0.16 .8. Tlte computation of displacemeHts is c.63b) b3 a> b) ror erOS$ sections consisting of several rect.rin~ stresses may be neglected. =a (a0.1Vf"'"' O"n and Ozn will indicate the strCS. if it were desired to determine the defle~....8) .tures described in Art.o.ienls 11 11 and fl z will be determined in rela tion with the shape of the e1·oss section (see Art. when linear: displaceruent.s are studied. while the inOucncc (If the normal and ~hea. The magnitude of J t appeMing in the expression of the torque rigidity may he approximately taken equal to: for a squaro cros.. Tn the same way M 1.8) ma y be plal~ed in fr·ont of the in tc.ruc. represents the torque produced by lhe same unit action.d4)= ~ (R4 .. and unit mornont.Tu. EF and GP as well as the ~oefilcient. 143a~ for an elongated rectangular cross section (at J. Defl~tions of ThreeDimensional Framed Structures 379 Tn this expression M.lions of a th re(\ .) ~ Jr = }~ d3 l (l being the length and a lhe width of the rectnngle) for a c.r '' ) (wher·e D and R indicate the external and d and r lhc inlernal diamet. the rigiditi~:>s E.ou. etc. At the same time M 11 n. and ]fizm represent the hending moment. G.he expre.t~r·s and radii of the ring) .s due to 1. On the contrary.s '1] 11 and Tlz appearing in cxpn)RSion (30.arr·ied out with the aid ()f: expr·ession (30. and N"""' 0 11 m and Qzm are Uw normal stress and the s hears produ(~Cd thereby.<leS induced by the actual loHding. When co mputing the displai'HmMls of threedimensional structures wi th rigid joints only the first three terms of t.8.ircular cross section ft = f p = nd4 32 = 2 nr4 and for an annular cross section Jr = ~ (D4 ..1 nnit action (c.
cd by 111. 53 . 53.380 Strnl" 8nergy 1'hoory ond Method6 of Dtsplaunwnt Computatio11 dilllt'nsional hi11geco nnccted struc..l. i ts c:rn.n•allolld!<.'l.>n equal to O. Thus.R nuJ 51..on:'!lant th rough nul. 53.ents tho torque rurvc• "Mt. No horiwutal hencl ing moments will .~ tc 1 111 Pl2ltl2 Each Loml of righ lhuncl part of Lllis oxpr(IR<iun n•rr·osonls one o( the cuul pet nt'nt~ of th o t otal VNLicul tlisplacc..irnlun it load as indic.be fJ"oe end C o[ o hol'izontnl .li e..tion /::. ull• r in shape 1111d romnin s c.8) > lit T 11 u= X 3 t..8e and f.bu in <luc•!J by Lbc YN iienl loacl P ae·t•ng at point C. EJ 2 + P l2 T lz X liJ "lr Lz 2 1·.8a. ((/} ® ((J F ig.tl 1111 !\hown in Fig... .a ted in Fi((.M~ nc.hcul to ()'\ jlt'C~Siem (::10. 5a.~:Uk rop1 ·e.!'. Fig. 'l'lw dclfl<>c.T r· J.t urc o11e should take into consideration solely Lhe normal stresses .8 M 1 is d!!signat. ApJ)Iy a vo•·t.W1 ludut:ed hy this unit loo.~ section is ci•·c.. Prohlem 1. 5:l. Tlw va lu c. the lirsl Figs.> of G shall ho Lakc. Llu~!!<• lr (b) ~ {(') Pl...ting m 11 vertical r> l ~tnl' normally to t he u:os of tho framl' member·. The frarno is loalled with one Vl•r·ticn l fotcL' P . of point C will he ohtaincd 11pplyiug \'t!roshdwgirc 's rnct.R nwmunts l•cing inclucecl b y tlw nc. Be<IUil'ecl llw v(lr·tica l ddlcJcti un of t. Solullon.:} is + In .m!!nls of pvint C. and t'ig .8b reprcsuots the diagram fur tl1o bending moml•n t s . ~d und trace th" gr·nph~ of the! bonding murn(> llt M~ 1\IICI elf Lhc tor·qu& .k~~le f rumtl npJtearing 111 Fi g. l.
lw lmnding mom<.~ ~ct. of n polygonal beam appearing in Fig.s Sl!cl.j to I'<Jlit L1~ lhlt nmwiJJing part clockwise.. and of t. thi s t or·qtuJ l111ing rt>c.DC.h 1f•l2 = GPJl. WI~ oht.lu~ ungular mlnlion o£ t. respct'\.8p).iug in t.ant.rx 3 x4 X f:'J ·1 .J .tion K will htl dt~l. it tcnd.o< nr·o 11lso of tho samll sign..h o ~amo c.. ( Fig.~.nl plane will remain constantly nil. 1 ) . 5<i.s frorn Lh o ht!uding of the clement .ermine tht~ hod:wntnl 11i~placement . wo o IJt. 54 .'..t)~ Fig.ression ac.a ils an idcntkal dt~Ocdi<UI of poiu t. It will he notPd that t.J =. T h1) sign of the l<lrquo is indirat.ed by Lite adual Loads art!.) 4 • we oht. The.al deflection of point C which r·osu lt.ting ill the plane BCD (Fig.orquo Mt ~~ro shCiwn in Fig.t.0 .s M~ and Iii:{ and of tho t. . Tlwsll gt·aphs lll'l) drawn <Ill the side of t.:JI planc)J arul of Mf (acting in a hol'izont11l plam>) as wttll as the gl'llJlh of tho l<•l'((lll' M 1 incl uc.~ ·J ··< 'I (2 2 x ~t.!l l~ ..tron 13 ahont the honzoutal ax1s through au auglc If• ~ r .'ltts ft<)ting i 11 the hori1.. Tho graphl." s ec.ont.XJII'ossion Jp hy '2f ( whtlt·o Jd= ~~.l.lul al)()v(• OXJ>I'l'~sion f. the graph mull.he torque. 'I'Jw ht> iun is buill in at.~·os. and tlw torquc•.~~~ as woll as t.1.ISE' tile graphs or thl" bending moments wllich am being multiplit!d one hy the otlu.8b. c aud cl. Jla rl ol' tho strut:t.hngiu.lte JJorizontal di:~placemNtL . 3 xz E:f•yr+.r C J'< Jss sect. point A and is of dr<!ulur 1: ros.ht' v crt. E. X 1 X 4 2X2 2 1 1X2 X 4 EJ .at i1m q> <lf t.h~ hending moments M (acting iu 11 vcrlir.ov1~ P.he extended 1\brE''> of each memher of llw lu:m11 .hl) va l tw~ ol' J. The l"eeouclltmn ~::~~ is tho vorLic.ic~l dcflt)(~lilln t•f Jlo inL B (:. load purall<d to elcnll'rtl. 1\(Hinired t. 'J'hl~ conesponding graphs of the bonding momont.:\ <d<mg <~ xis LIC .he bending moments 'Mi.lwse! r•ct. 51\ . Tlw torque kf 1 = Pl 2 eausod in 1~\orwml AIJ hy tho lmH1 P wt.Sk . .'t .ross Sl~~:. A II the rmdnct$ nro posi livo b(\(:IJI. iiiUln) rau~11d li y tht~ hmHliug t > f nll:mher A II. j\tf tl 1 Pl2t1 <". a uuit. f>'I.kouPo po~iliv" when ~cc1 1 frc !lll that.f!.e1 m.IVtJ .u· ~ t. C.s of this exp. tl111 t:hh·d for t.run ..q • .fl This rotation wi 11 caust~ po int C 1. 1 1• nnd G e(]uill 4 ·to :td~ 'J 0 .Re) .> two li rst. ltli) 3 + :3 1.ing in lloriwntal plaru~~ an d the )a!.T s +a+"+a+'• 1 16 ) = 15 EJ The angular rc•t.d4E (il.ion 1\. 54....I p II .i11n in t.< n( t.t he applied at poiut K. t.ennino1l npplying at this point a unit bencli ng moment ac.lu~ ('Ort'r)~Jlllnding 111emhers.ed by Vems. 'l'ho corresponding gmphs r 1 of !.atos .count for tho ht\ntling nulrnPn !.'((Jfl:.ing iu tho ut.. .T p lnt.urn which h us been I'UL oft'.l in Fig. .0 t rav1·l verticall y ovl'r n stn:t.ion whkh rom a ins cmt:.hc..t in Mt 1 a~. i. . 54. showu in f'ig.~ nl'ting in the vertic.t < •tie takes cnre of t he torque. !'JIHI IIy l:\. ipli<:ntion by the methcJcl pl'!>po.Nl in tl>o g•·nph. JJC JliU!.. fc•r a ll ol iL~ d t·nrents .al planes.he eros..f.tw plano B CD.8) nnd curr·ying out.n· rcmnin all the t ime on onE' and the same side uf t. S olntton.nd un1 32 ~ = :rr.fJ (. {'~ing UJIC() again (~..~iOJ\ ca0. E ..roduc.ain finally 1 ( . Ju orclor to (let. I y.> M1 art~ rcpr(l&>ntet. Replac.8 l'robll'ID 2. Thig deflection (lll t.
U etfwdl of D l. The value of the horizontal dillplacemont ll will be then obtained in metres and that of the angular rotation cp in radians.1ds and tbe leng~h o( thll 'hcnm members luJing oxprl's~d in L < ms un<l in mHros.8e) 11nd for tho unit moment soo }'ig.382 S traln 8nergy Theor y and . 54. rc~p~c.r x 1 X 1 X I!J I::J P = ll'J t3+ 1+ *"'TJ Tho magnitude of th~ lm.~L +u+ 4tm (d} (II) F ig. tlio value of Young's 111odulus E mu. Both tbese ''alues being positive.8) give. 11 q>= .tively.s 2+4 1 4X1X1 4X2 X i 1 " t.tplaceTMnt Computaliou Expression (30. ii1.8 he oxprcsso. .8g). the directions of t1 anti 'I' will coincide with tho.J in tons per sq uare metre and that of J in Ulol res in th e fourth power.oo cho~on for tho unit lund (~eo Fig. (54.
GENEHAL \:Vhilc taking his cou1:se in the strength of ma1. whic.dancy . L detorminalion of the degree of redu. At present redundant stru ctures arc widely used in numerou~ branches of engineering activities.h give .oeincients to . InMGd.e of addit ional tquntions.alled statically indeterminate or redundant. The c.ures.ion of tJ1e c. the reader has alr•eady met with structu•·cs whida caunot be analyzed usi11g solely equilibrium equations. etc.e to additional stresses.9.ions or tht> method of lellst wo1·k. while the same factors woulrl h ave no influcnc. namely deformat.hcit· members. the st.loso examination of arra ngement: he primary goal of this examination being the of: their members. in that way WI) are ~ure to avoid confuses with the slope and deft~ction method (see Chnptt>r 13) and moreover both metlH>ds will he consistently named in conformity with t. manufacturing and erection defects. depending on the procedure adopted for the detcJmino. The main difference between the redundant structures and tht• statically determinate ones resides in tho fa ct that.n the t'lasl. " The method <'f :liHllysis dcscrih~d in the pre.eria1!>.t·ncl. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMPLER STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES BY THE METHOD OF FORCES • 1. these materials.t. \Ve prefer to translate lit.9.r·es~.ic properties of.1 ll ussian and to call it method of forces.sent Chapter is rcforroJd to hyvarious authors cilh()r as the method oi dellect.c.c. whatsoever on stntically determinate st. Statically indeterminate structures are also very sensible to such fa ctors as the settlement of Lheir supports. • the unknowns. 1f these members are made of different materials the stress distribution will equally depend o.n.erally its namedrou. .ri. distribution depends for tlu~ frrsl unes not only on t he loading but also on the relative dimensions of 1..ion equations. Their amllysis must always start with a c.lll" nature of the unknowns. temperature variation.omputation of s tresses set up in these structu res requi res tlw u:o. Snch structures are c.
2. u single c. will. nf n s truc. consl:itnt.ions alone do not per·mit the detr.cling its geometrica. always lruusfcll'm Lhest.suppul'l.he llonding moment. We have seen previously thnt this opel'alion is t~quivalmll to the e lirniualion of three internal c.r·odu(~ t. This beam will bccomt! sLaticnlly determinate as soon as one of these bar.9 bat·s cons lilul~s a redundant coJuwction with t he ground . the shear and the uo r·ma l stress. •nenmndr. 1.~ Annl11·•ls of the Stmpl1:r Statically lnd. 2. The frame np))e::~~·iog in Fig.9 Fig .onstraint.onstraints m ocliat~ CCII'l'!!Sponding to three inl. in two Wig. ·.o the tl1i r·d degree.ion of an inlerhinge (a::. for one of the.tion into a s tatically detel'lninnto system requiriug that at least one of its mernhor·s should be c. in Fig. t.ch .·:i84 .ion of.ems in mechanisms whost~ elenumts are endowed wi Lh a cor·tain froedom of movemc111. Thei'O su·c uo red undan t coustmints in a stal.ernal force.~ystems whose shape cannot be altered without (t deformation of their element11.ut.ion::.9b) or t lll'ough t.l stability.dugrul' of rednndanc.ing ~ ~ ~ l? ((I) :l ::l ((t_l I (.9a. 1. Tlw bl~iun appearing in Fig. namely.9c). will signify everything c. 2.9b).> of redundancy equal to three.ons litute:> u structure. + 'l'hl• adjective redundant slltl11ld nt•ver hll regard~:>d as synonynJ(l\lil to super:fluous Ol' UN~le.~ syst.nni11al.ion of these intoma I forees. .rho e<JHilihrium oqua1.mber of tedundant CIJ/1 * whose elimination WOltld transform the given system into a statically determinate one without impe.r the leJ'Jll constraint.etermtna/1: Slructure$ This degree of redundancy is eqlull to the nu.es a stl'ltcttuc redundan l t.apable of preventing the m1rtual displaCI!ll!tJnt of different points or cJ•oss Sl)ct. plaint~d that gecJmetrically stable systems are su.em wiUl a degr·ec. 1 .y is equal to Olll'.straint.hc inl.. In Lho pr·evious articles it hns beon alroady es. Any oLher closed frame with rigid joints l ying in one plane will also fonu a sysl.v$ . L!)a c. whoS(} .·) 7l HA (0) (b) Ptg.icallv determinnto system and the uliminat. its tran~forma.s i$ t!liminatcd (as iu Fig.ture.s acting across the section .
The laltor 2~ 853 . is provided with a hinge at midspan of the top girder.l.. the other three conslraints are redundan t .e strnclurt\s appearing in Fig. Thu~. . the firsL one hy the elimination of the iulerrnediate support.Hb ani! c have been. in addition n builtin end is alway!> equivalent to t.9a.9b.he second one by the introduction of a hinge. derived from one aud the same redundant sLructure of Fig..onstraints will always remain Lhc same..!:' the equilibrium equations will permit the <lctcrmi11aLion of three reac.at. In the frame il\ Fig.'.:··•· . . 9 fo1· t ht>.9b).hree cons~raints and therefore two fixed supports of t he fnune represent a total of six constraints .::·uJ. the uppet· f•·ame has two degrees or redundancy while the whole structure is redundant Lo Lhe fifth degree.ly.nrnpLes of similar structurcs. II. 4.tions only. and t.illg the reclandant constraints iu order to conve1·t the given Stl'ucture into a s l. The top frame bei11g p rovidod with a hinge is redundant jn the secouit degree. ThN·c[ore the whole syslem will h ave a degree of redundaucy equal l. Lhe laLLcr.S''ii IJ·:mtour (a ) (b) Fig. Consequmrlly.'\. the simple statieally cletermina. should be noted that there are usual."V'' r. 1.ould reduce this system to two columns built in at their lower ~nd::: and JH·ovided at their upper Jla•ts with two horizontaL hradwls as indicated in Fig. may he regarded as constituting an additional member of infmite l'igidity... this section would IJe ad.ly several ways o[ eHminal.f P tf .9.1.ically determinate one. lower framt) is comp leteL y closed and ther('lfore il:s degree ot reduudaucy equaLs three. General 385 Th e l wo framed ])Crtts appearing in Fig.s c. but the number oE eliminated 1 . :·t9b wl10se uprights are l'igidly Jhed in Lhc ground. i.9 arc Lypical ex. Tho elimination of all the redundant eonstraint. 4. 4. The lolal uumber of redundant constraints could also be obtained in the followiug W. 3. If we pass a section through this hiugc..ed 11pon hy two stresses N and Q only (Fig.'tJ.o live. 3. The slmctllre appearing in l?ig.9a...t. 4.9 Fig.
1) ordinary hinges. 5. Herennder hinges of this type shall be referred to us ordinary hinges.ated structures may be determined remernbering that each hinge int.kal supporling bars ol' t. whether within the stmcture itself ot· at the supports) and then reducing the number so obtained by the number of all thl:l o1·dinary hingr.a Statically /ndetcrminal<! Structures eliminat~s t he constraint preventing mutual rotation of two ~:. Hinges common to J( lHHS meeting at one point should be regardNl as t>quivalcnt to (K . and H is tho numbo1· .llt'e (rogardle~s of any hing~. In eliminati ng the l'edundant constn1int:s of some struct:urn caro should be taken not to d isturb it~ stability.t way of eliminating the redundant constraint of this st.1) ordinary hinges (Fig.he elimination of one of the vet'l. redundant structure or the replacement of a rigid joint formed by the meeting of two bars by a hinge is always equilJalent to the elimination of one constraint and will therefore lower by one degree the rcdttndancy of the whole stractttre.9) In this expa •essio11 n is the degree of redundancy.'$ (K.386 Analysts of the Sttnp/..o its loft.r11cture ca n be obtained multiplying by t. 1'he introduction of a.9a). hinge into one of tlw mem. 6.9b would be unnt~t~eptahle. From this point of view t. a st.rnr.9 (c) three remaining bars would concur at ])Oint A and .ber11 of a.o bars would be uncapable of preventing the rotation of the whole system about this point.ructare is shown in Fig.ross sections.he framed beut shown in Fig. 5.·oduccd instead of a rigid joint formed by the meeting of K bars reduces the degree of: redundancy of the system by (K. I·Ience t he de~rcc of redundancy of. }[athematically thir. 5.1). the:. m is the numhor of do!led t~ontours which form the stt'ucturc. for such a hinge replace.s existing in the system.9c. for the (a) (6} Fig.t.hree the number of clos~d contours forming this ~t. The degree of redundancy of complic. one situaLed to its right and ono l. consequently. rule may be expressed by the followiag formula n=3mfl (1. T he correc.
6. The horizontal and Comman hinge Ordinary hinge Ordinary hinge (a) Fig.9 (b) vertical bars meetiug at the outer joints of the system are regarded as a single knee shaped member.h 11 syslom t here is at least one constraint that can be eliminated without prejudice to its stability. H = 3 + 3 + 3 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 = 20 aud n = 3 X 820 = q. Any additional constraint in excess of this minimum transforms the system into a redundant one. is afforded by the vertical supporting bars of the framed bent represented in Fig. in suc. Hereundl'r wo shall designate .ing l. there may exist such constraints which cannot bo excluded without interfering with the stability of t ho strucLure. IL is interest. It will be remembered that we have agreed to use the term ordinary hinge for a bingo placed at the meeting of two hars.~.o note that the stre.9a 25• + + + + + + + + .losed contours (marked with Roman figures) and against each joint wo hav6 entererl the equivalent number of ordinary hinges. the term double h inge meaning a hinge introduc. Consequently. = 8. showing thereby that the number of constraints in such systems c. However. these bars being rigidly connected together.Lure is slat. meaning t11at the strnc.ir.onstitu tcs the absolute minimum. reqniro<l l.. the elimination of any 011e of the constraints of a statically determinat.f> ensure their stability. 5 . GeneTill 387 of ordinary hinges. 6. m. It is c.Jear that. As already montionl'd .9b consists of eight c. An example of a necessary constraint.ed at the meeUng of three bars and so forth.o system transforms immediately this system into a mechanism.1 .ssos correspon ding to the necessary constraints cnn be always determined with the aid of statics alone.9.ally indetenninale in the fourth degree.snd1 ronstrnints hy the te1·m necessary constraint. The structure appearing in Fig.
o t. if it is dec.cessary ones.9b is corricTI out by the removal of lhret> t>..hll couslrainL which prevents the rot~ttion of one part of the ccossbar about I he other. 8.ed syst11rn of fnrccs all.onuecLo!l to t he groul'td by means of Lhree supporting baT'S. Thus. (b) liS being four times internally and twire externally redundant. The lwrizont.. on tho contrat·y.ally determinate structure by the introduc. of which cnn be complct.c. 5. if some sysl. n _ · • dant. On the ot her hand.«e. 5.uc. If. 5.')tic.ided to t1·an~fol'lll the given system into a statically determinate one as indicated in Fig.nro may be there[Mc n1gurded as internally redun constitute a hnh1nc.9c.9a) constitute a n example of the latte r type of constrAints.ely determined with the F ig.9a may be r egarded ns extemally redundant if one rl ec. if one d('<.il!.'idcs Lo t ransform Lhe frame inlo a stalic.ttrmlnau StruclurM Neither of these two bars can be removed without rendering the syste m un s~abl e. the fi:a me 11 f Fig.s provi(les t hree independent equations.9c. 7 . the s tresses i n these bars may be <·o mpnLtld using cqnilibrium equations alone irrespectively of the deg•·ee of rcduntlancy o[ tho whole ~ystem. i{ one decides to consider as redundant t. We know thal for t•nch system of copl~tnar forces iu cquilibrinm st.annot be derived from the equations of equilibrium alone.xterual constr·ainLs (for which purpose one huilLin end is set free) and of th ree internal constraints.his same fram(' l'hould he t~ousidcrcd as art internnlly redu ndan t.ides to elim inate o no of the ho1·izontal supports i11 order to trausform it into the statically del. H ils c.cm is c. T ho stres. 'Jho frame of F.erminate system showu in Fig.9 aid of sta tics alone.iogc as shown in Fig.hcso conf'traints c.tr. 7.. The coust:raint~ which can be elimi nated without projudicing Lho sLability o( tho sys~om form lhe ordinary redundant constraints. A similar ~.he llxtemal (support) conslrai•lts belong to t he category of ne.'! corresponding t. 8.onvcrsion into a simple statically determinate "lnwture appearing in F ig. in other words.Lion o£ a h.an n::suall y be considered both as c~ternally or inte m ally rorlw1dant.8. a structnrc is endowed with more than three exterual constmiuts such a strncture c. Indeeil.3M Analysis of Lht' Simpler Staticnllg l ruf.al supporting bnrl! of t ho portal frame just mentioned (see Fig.9. oue. one ca n ch oo~e at will those o f the constraints wllich wi II ho regarded as tho red u ndauL ones.9a whose degree of T·odundancy equals six may he co nsidered: (a) as being Lhrcc Limes inter·nally and three l:irncs externally redunda ul . t. For such systems all t. t. Henc. Externally this structure is statically determinate for the abutment reaction!' and the external loads .
if the simple struc.en structure redundant to the nth degree into a stmple statically determi.ly.9 three external c.na.cd into a s t. • As previou!'ly • (~co Art.9.wo scpnmt. It ill clear therefore that this s ys te m cannot be convcrl.) Jinally th~ Si!lllO frarnc mny he regarded e~s b~ing six times intcmally rcdundnnt. C11nonical Equntfon$ Deduced by tht Metltod of Fortu 389 (c.aticnlly det. t he systl'm is redundant in lht> sixth rlcgree while a rnaxirn11111 of {9) (b) I CJ Fig.erations neither in t. 2.o slatically deterrninnt.hc stress distribution nor in tho strains and rloflec.s will inLroclucc alt.erminatc one by Lhc elimination of cxtemal constrai nts 11lone.turo is acted upon both by the netual loads and the additional actions wh ich replace the eli minated const. 8. . lc ane. Th e elimination or any cvnstra int. 2.es t.hese equations are obtained thr:ongh l he transfo rmation of the gir.tme cannot be rt>. tho term force will a1>PIY equally to monu:nts.9d.. The same fr. 8.onstrniul.gardt>d 11s statically i ndete•·minatl~ on ly from the point of vit>w or Hs external constr·aints. CANONiCAL EQlJA'fiONS DEDUCEO BY THE METHOD OF FOnCES In the pt·evious article it was shown that the stress amdysis of redu11dant structures rt!quires ~h e use of additional equations based on the strai11s and dl~nectiou s su ff er ed by these structureii.tion s if in t he place of constrai nts so 1·emovcd we introduce rorcl'S* oqu ivtllent to tho reaction~' davt~lopccl by these C()nstraints. if it:s co nv~rsion into t.clly t he same llil in tlu~ origina l ono and tht>terore the two become equivalent.81.resscs iuduced tht>roin will bo t'XO.e part" is carried out a~ shown i n Fig. Couscqnent.s can he removed without dis rupting its stability.2. the slra. f n the method nf forc.ins and deflections or sm~h a system as well as the l!t.raints. lndeccl.9.
Let us indicate by Xk the magnitude of the reaction developed by the constraint 1c (this reaction being cit.6. +Xn8../ / // .unjugate simple statically determinate s tructure along the same dii'Cctions must also equal zero.+1l2p=O · .e along the reactions at the supports is possible. rxn81 // / ~ . : . +Xn.. At the same time let us designate by 61k the displacement < .'r 6. / ..Uy determinate.).her a moment or a direct stres<..111 +L\tn j. + f.. shows the direction o( the displacement (the latler coinciding with the oliminated constraint) and the sec.zS./ :+1J· p"o 1 / // // / ·/ 'y/ / . ..h omatic.• Main '. This means that tfw reactions developed by the redundant constraints will be such as is necessary to render nil the deformations of the simple statica..9) Jn this way the equivalence of the original structure and of the s imple statically delenniuale one will be mathematically interpreted by a system of n linear equations / xA.Oi.+.390 Analysts IJj the Simpler Statically Jndetermtnate Structures Since no displacement of the given redundant st.x.9) will become + + ··• + ft.vnT + .p= 0 (3.+ .al symbols will be as fo llows L\1 = L\11 ~i2 + L\1.:\. . Equations (4. ..ion t. . structure alonK the direction..9) // / /~· · . Thus ~ ~ It indicates a displacement along tho direc. '>. ln that ease we can J'eplace fl 1h by X~t6 tk and tho expression (2.tion t caused by tho reaction of the constraint k .z .9) constitute the additional expressions based on the deformations of the system which permit complete determination of all the support reactions and of all the stresses induced by ..nt +X.tion or constraint t caused by the applied loads.." d{(Jgonal . + /. In the same way.Xz 0 n2 + .ru<. The e<)Uat..=O "... expression the ftrst of the two indices following the lctL(. =X~o.+Xn8nn +iJn./ ' Xz8z7. . 111 will indicate the displac. . + X26l2 + ..· . the displacement!' o[ the c.fp= 0 (2. . 6.8z.ond one tho action caH~ ing this displacement..entent along the direc. /~ / / / '' / (4. / // + .9) In thi:.. of these reactions.tur. eveu if some of those supports wtH·e eliminated when converting the former to the lattet·.. Secondary diagonals ""' .ranslat:ing the above s~at.r.__ // ~.'../"<.tion.e m ent iulo mat.aused hy a unit ac.
traints. Thus coeffic.hc Method of Po. It is important to now that both tho number of term!\ in each of the separate oquS~tions and the total number of tllese equations dcptmd solely on the degree of rcd.oefficicnts will also depend on the elastic prOJ>erlil'l.' r. a unit translation duo to a concen~ratcd load will be given in em/kg while that due to unit couple in cm /kg·cm or in kg·1. In tho same way a unit angular rotation duo ·to a unit load will l>e given in ltg1 and an angular rotation due to a 11nit couple in kg· cm1.< DtduCI!d by t.2.9) form thP. Canonical Equation. these deflections heing due to unit loads and moments ac. t.s of these coefficient. . a nd so forth.undane.Iutter.hi:s name indicating that these equations are of standatd form and that the unknowns a t·e the reactive forces developed by the t1 liminated con:. that the displacoment of this same s l. the secondary deflections situated symmetrically about the main diagonal will he always equal betwoen themselves •It ~hould be remo10Lcred that the dimensionality of a unit deflection is that o{ a utio of a deflection to the action which has caused it. • Bu.ting along the direction of the eliminated constntints. (4.y of the structure and are in no respect influenced by any of its other peculiarities.cn 39l the given system of loads in the original redundant structu re. socalled canonical equations of the method of forces. The lirst of these equations expresses t he idea that the displac!lment of th& simple strnclut·c along the direction of the first eliminated constrai nt (that is along the direction of force or moment X 1) is oqttal to zero.9) rcpre:sen t the dt< floctions of the simple structure obtained by ulimination of thll rcdunclanl mcmbel'8.icnt t3 1n entering the above equations will represent thl' d&nection along tho direction i induced by a unit action (moment ()r load} ac.s depend on the layout of the structure and on the crosssectional dimMsions of its mt>mbers.ructuto along the directjon of the secon d constraint which has been removed is also equal to zero. Consequently.9. which means that it corresponds to the rlegrcc of redunrlancy of the given structure.. On the basis of Maxwell's theorem of reciprocal <lisplaccments.=&ht* .\umericall y the value. The nu mber of those equations is alway~ oquut to the number of the (·onstraints removed. the second. Should these members be made of different matrrials. LhcS<. Th(1 coefficients Lo the unknowns of equn tion~ (4.. of the . The unit displacement lirr situated in the main diagonal of tho canonical equations and characterized by two identical indices will be termed herllafter principal deflection whereas the deflections such as &1" standing in the secondary diagonals of the aroresaid equatiollS will be termed secondary deflections.ting along t11e direction k. The system of simultAneous linear expressions suc h a!.
stt·nc This roduces considorahly the volume vf work necessary to deter t..* The main or principal deflections will be always positive whilst Lhe secondary on~s as well as those due to the applied loads migh~ be.. The diagrams of· bending moments indnced in the conjugate simple structure by each of the unit actions (X. OM should trace the c. = 1)_ will be traced separately. When all t he eoeflicients to [. forc~!ll. loadiug (the Al1 • graph).tions applied along the directiorls of the elimiuat. Tho Jlertinellt ordiuate. • • .ing all the rcdurHlant ml:'mbOI'I> wore subj~~cred simultaneously to the applied l oads and to aU tht• streS8t>S acting in the oliminatcd members de termined as described above. The operation consists in the multiplic~tion of all the ordinates to each of these graphs by a co1rstant factor equal to the magnHuile of the action just obtained. The roo l:s of these equations will furnish tho v~ lues of the unkliOWll stresses acting ill the redundanL members. fL is eouvt\nient to use for this purpose the unit graph. the same applying to the actual. lt is recommended to carry out those cmnputations using the proc. Wt• have ll()glected tlw influenco of norm(ll and shearing lf it were fleslrcd to accO\rnt for tho. * Jo'or simplicity • . aud &tllnputc tht> COfi'4!SJlOllding producLs.s tmcod proviously .url:'.s t. The borrcling monwnt graph due to the combination of all these actions may be <:onstructcd ·using any of the wellknown proccd ures . to the unknow11s.orJ·csponding •liagrarn:. each of these graphs bearing the number of the eliminated constraints. etc.eed with the solution of the said equations. both positive and negative. TJ1ese will permit the conslrnction of the bending moment diagrams inducE:Jd by X 11 X 2 .s rrlirm tJH~ coefftdent~._ . onu may proc.he graph of the aclual bending momonL Mp. Th.edures developed in tbe preceding. Th<.ese are usually olltained l>y computing the deflections of the sirnple stl'llcturc pr:oduced by unit ac.o the diagram of tho hending moments acting in the l'edund<lllt structure will be obtai ned through the sum rna tion of the ordinates to the graphs induced by the stmsses X and by the adual ltHtding in tlw aforementioned simple s tatically deterrniuate .n(.RH2 Analysis of th~ Simpl~r Statically lnd~lerminate StructU/'e. X. by the unit graph M" whereas the delloction due to the applied loads .ed constraints. T he same resul t will be achieved if the simple structure obtaiHed by eliminat.~e.ion of lhe unit graph j}t['1 by t.he llllknowns entering the systorn of simultaneou~> equations (unit !lisplacements) as well as t he deflections clue lo tho applied Joads arc known.1 unit dl:'fleetions 6 1tt will be obLnincd through the nndt:iplication of the conesponding unit graph M. in all Lhc necessary member~ of the structlll'e.chapter.1ip through tho multiplic.
s pt'cventing mutual displacement of t ho two faces of tho c rossbar situated to t he right and to the left o.2. Lot us c. let u s tnke as an example the port. T he sim ple Sll'liCtu rc obtained in that case appears in Fig.9 with Jet us elimiuato tho t hree cnnsLt·ainLs which prevent both t ho horizontal and t he vart ic.9. .f tho cut. .s X . T he ll nlwuwn. 9. (cJ !J.9a a nd let us exa mi ne t he various simple structures which mny ho derived tl10re from .nding moml'nt graphs of the simple~t possible configuration for the nw•nbcrs o[ l hc simple sl ruc t ure. One should ah.~ l framo 11 ppearing in Fig. 9. by cu ttiug in t wo the top har as iJidica ted in F ig.o endcvour to ohtn i11 hc.ion of the computntior• th r·ough the rNf uction to 1 . T his is equivale nt to the olimina lion of tb reo constrai nt.9c. t hese different s tcu. To begi n Redundant structure structure Simple x! .ero of a maximu m nu n1ber of secondary dcDccLions. Jt is very i 111portant to choose t he one load ing to the grentest possible simplilkat. To make clear the ahove statement. X 2 a[td X 3 will rept•e.9b.. each o f t he uuknownii Xh X 2 and X 3 will rbpreson t in this case a group of Lwo opposite forces or couples ac ting over the two cross sections just men tioned. 9. xJ (0) !Xt (/J) Fi~:.ctures being obtained hy t he elimination of d il'fo rcnt mombers regardl~d as redundant. t ure. As to the system of canonical equations. it will al ways re mai n of t he same fol'm regardless of the way in which t ho simple stat ica lly determinate s tructu re has been ob tained. \. namely. Hence.. Carumtcal ~quation~ Drdl<ctd by thl' M ethod of Forces 393 I t is worth noting that severa l d ifferent simp l~ str uctures may be used for the computation of tlte same redunda nt ~>tru c.hooso another way of rendering the redu nda nt slrudul'es statically determinate.stlllt the roactious dtweloped by t ho eli minated constrain ts and t he simultaneous equations will express the idtHt that th e deflectio ns a 11d rotations along t he directions of tlw eli minalcd constraints remai n n il.al rnove mOJI L S and t ho angul ar l'Ota lion of tho lower 1'\ Xlromi ty of t he lefth and co lumn.
A single constl'aint h as to he eliminated for this porpow (that c.ions wollld mean thnt the two adjacent sections through the crossbar remain motionless with reference to each other.he case of the simple strucLure or Fig.0 (5. The equation. Apply o.9c.ond case the sa me equat.ow the unknown reaction X 1 to thc can tilever beam at its free end together with the uniform load of q kg per unit length as shown in Fig. ANALYSI S OF THE SntPLEn llEDUNDANT STR UC1'URJ::S Let lL~ exami ne the sequence of operations leading to the deter · minatiou of all stresses in redundant structures taking as an example a beam builL in at one end and f.9b the coe fficient 6u r&presents tho horiz.ree ly supported nt the other (lt'ig. However. 9.s alteration of the vertic. The si mple statically dt:~torminate stt'll (~.al distance between two adjncent cross sections of the top hearn induced by two horizontal unil.9. As for the simple !ilnH. becomes XtBu+j. 10.orresponding to a roller r. 9.ture of Fig.aused by the vertical u nit load X 2 = 1.onlal motion or Llle lower end of the left column c. turo cau be uerived £rom the above by eliminating tlle righthand support thus obtaiuiog the beam appearing in Fig. 10.3!M A1u:lyslt of tlu Simpler Slalkally Jmielermtnak Strucl~rts ln t. In the l!ec.9b.9b. 3. expl·essing that the deflections of the simple static. Tn t.9a). the coefficient 8 12 reprcsent.ally determinnte strncture and those of the g iven redundant beam aro identical. theso equations do not exclude the possibility of tho two secLions moving or rotating together. The determination of .1q.he first of the two cases considered above th~se equations would express the idea that the movcrrwuts of the lower end of the lefthand columu re main n il.u pport) and therefore the given structure is statically indelerminatc in the first degroe.9) More precisely t his equation shows t hat the deflection along the direction of the eliminated reaction is nil. force~ x2 = 1. 10.
.:..9).U::.9 will be found raising to the second power the unit bending moment graph M1 (Fig.. will equal at midspan M = M1X1 + Mq = 16qz... lJ Fr..9.9 Fig. 10.. 11.... 11..t of the two representing the deflection of the righthand extremity of tho cantilever beam along the reaction X 1 caused by a u nit load acting iu tho same direction (Fig.. 10. 10.U.1..oofficient ISH qj_2/~...9) and solving this ()(Illation with respect to X 1 we obtain X 1= ~=sq A1•r 3 l The diagram of the resulting bending moments acting at tho cross sections of the given redundant beam will be fou nd summing up the ordinates to t...8 and at the wall 9  3 qt2 =11f' ql2 ...he M q (Fig.vf 1 by the M q diagram due to the actual loading (F ig. and the second the denection a loug the s~me direction due to the loads applied ..8EJ ql~ Subsli!:uting these values in equation (5. EJ = .9c). Hence 6u ""'" l·2· 3 · EJ l 2 l = L3 3/U 1 q!2 3 I jtq= a·z·l· 4 .9c). Thus the ordinate t o the resulting bending momNit curve.9. tho fir1...g........~ of the Simpl~r J/e.~...9d) graph with those to the M 1 graph all t he ordinates to which have been proviously multiplied by Lho magnitude of X1 (Fig. 12. Analysi.d1mdant Stmct~tr•s 395 X 1 req11ires that t he values of t]w coorficicnt 8 11 and of the term L\ 1 .. The diagram so obtained appear~ in Fig.9d). T he c. 10..ip1ying tllC area of the same unit bending moment graph .. 12...1 should be previously calculated. As for the term j 1q it will he obtained hy mu1t.
Haising to tho second power the fll'ea of the il11 graph we obl.mts can be easil y derived from the diagram of the I'esulting shears Q fol'.·vdurtion ol' these values in expression (5.on at tlu. the secti.ros. while the graph of the bending momcr1ts due t o the applied . the zero ordinate points of t. '.9c.he bending moments.'he simple endsupported beam obtained in this way appears iu J.H) g ives Xt== o'll !:! ..9 this now system by a uni I.~t. 13. The graph of the bending moments produced i 1\ reJ ( 0/ ~ ~. as it is well known.!. eouple acting a(. 13.3!16 Analy. aj the Simpler Statically fndeterminate Structur~~ The maximum and minimum values of the resulting bending tn(IIIH. • wall appl•at•s in Fig. i::I. 10.his ding1·arn always correspond to the extremal values of t.9a) could be analyzed using for sin1ple statically determinate structure the one obtained eliminating the constraint which prevents the rotation of the buil~ in eud.l. ql2 1 2 l ~~q = s·l·s · Atq 2 1 2eJ ~ 2''£' ql2 ql:l Thu iul.'ig. :l3.Hd.ni u <lu = i·l · 2 • 3El ·~ 3/U Atultiplyiug the same graph by the area of the jl!fq one we gnt . This same boam (Figs.loads is giv~:>n in F ig.:.' ffr 1 rfj j !II i I ·r· ·· ? (d } ~ Fig.9b..9a and 13.
X.>ntling momc. mu ltiplying one by the other t he unit graphs mentiOTJCd in iLem 4.md Np)+*lt is !itnmgly . X 3 = 1.e to the unknowu actions X 1 • x ~ X ". Onl\ may also apply to the simple s tatically dett.onvoniently adoptfld for· the l. S impll'r Htdtmdant Stru~lurcs 397 Thi~ !. il wunld h o mc~l'sar~· to trace ('quall y lbe d iagrams for the shPars and no nnal strussos duo both to thP unit a cli ons (Qt a nd N1) and to tho nppliNlloads (Q p . . • All the abovt> refer!: 1:<1 s trudurcs.advised Lo traco new bc.9) expressing that the displac. • .rm itlllte sl:ructuro a ll the reuundnnt rcaetio ns and stresses just dotormi ned logot h .9b). + . 1:3. ig.ruclurc hy Lhcso two 11<:tions will re prt•se nt the beurling monwut diagram for the gi ven redundant structure (Fig. TJto r~l.l an d shearing for~/!.91).>nt diagrnm s indu ced hy the rl\!lundant ruaclions and not to alt~c~r tho scnlt• of the unit graphs traced pf't)vious ly. Apply suc.oincid es exactly with that of Fig. The »hove t\xample :::hows that the foll owing soquonco of operati on ~ may be c.9e). . H e place the e limina ted cons trai nts by uuknowu forces acting i n the same diroction.es to the bending moment curve due to the actua l loadi ng. or the con cspo odirrg bending moments 1 W1 • Trace equally the diaga ·ll m of the b cudiug mome nt. 7. 13. If it were othorwi ~•.) . = !$ nppliod to the left t1nd nf t:he bonrn :uHl by a uniform ly distributed load o. Porm ihe canonical equations (4..ions X 1 = 1 . of forcNs: I .10 .t. Analysts of thr.f q kg per metre (Fig. 4.l ress analysis or redundarlL s tt·uctures by tho method. Solve the s ys te m o f si rn ultaneons equations with rororcnc. .ing those coustrain ts ll ro equal to zero.er procllrlure is a source of fr4!q ucnt error'S. s im pie s tructure (sec l<.Compul~ lhe ordiuates to tho rMulting bending mornonl ~: •u·ve hy s umming up lhe ordinates to the unit graphs multiplied previously by the magnitude o[ the c orrll~ponding aclion** wi th the onlina t.!1.cossivt>ly to tho s imple s tructure t:he u nil~ ar. It is tcadily seen thaL ~his diagmm c.. X 2 = 1. to th(. Choose a simple s tatically deter minate struct ure obtained Ly eliminat ing all the redundant cous traints of the givtlll one. Xn = 1 and trace the d iagrllm::. for th o latt. For i. . ti..bows that the simple statically determinate system is acted ql2 upon hy a momonl.his 1 >1 1 f'Poso t he uni t gr·aphs must he muiLi plied by t he Mp graph d ul!.9 .eu1t• nts of the simple s tructure aloug the directions of tho climinntecl constraints under the combined act ion of: the loads npplied :Htd or the unkuown mo ments and forces re plac. 2.9 <1htai ned previously IlS i ng a different.ico ll y unaffected hy dir('c. :1 .he coe ftkients 6lf1 to t he unknown~.s Mp due to the applied loads. 12. Cnlcnlatc all t. Calcnlal:e by t he ~arne procedu!'o t he free terms 1 1p.. ap plied loads.nlling btmcling rnomcnt diagram i ndnced in the s i m pie s t. . deformation~ of which remain prac t. ~ .
· Fig.611 +.~ ET.liou of !he lllll'er r:nll of the sim pie structUJ·e is oil be<:omes x.teing re(]ult(lsmt to llt ll fu·st llogrllc. This diagram will coinc.6.> ordi t nnr.ide wi th that o{ the gi Hill rt>d undant structure.l tL4 fa~ .. . l{edtJfldOn . 16..398 A 11nlu~is of the S inwl~r Stnlirally I ndettrm illate Stmctllrt. (4h. Solutt<>n.uu. llonc. '!'he moment 11[ inllJ'tin of the crossbl'aD\ Is twico as large us that of t.os to lhC> bC>nding moment diagram due to the npplied ](. the sim ple statically determinate stntcture mny be obl.> ordinate. 3<1) p PhZ (lh . 9.alnod Ellimi nnth1g ~lac h~tri 7.8. This graph apJh:ars in Fig.=o.. fl.\la..al Clln1itt•aint at tho rigltthnnd s upport (_Fig.9a.7 Tho rr.> coefftcicut will be given by h. 15. = 6HJ. Lot us proceed now with the solution of a fow problems.:)a. traciug thereafter the comuined bending momt>nt diagram. The equation expressing that the hurizontal denec.I Sttr!IJ/c strvclu"'ll ~I (b .llltve lJeen given in Fig. ·• . .Po Th<.suhiug honrliHg moment graph will he obtained b y mu!Liplying all lh<.. . 29.. Trac..c x. p ·'z =ZJ. 14. Problem t. 13.9. a)""' a+r.8 Pk2 ( h t.nt graphs due 1 o the applied lo~ds ancl to a unit loRd acting 11loug !he directivn of tlw oliminatecl constrninL..8b nnrl c uf Art..he uprights. ~ljl ·t2r1..J ~~~ ·a"· The dcnoction due to tho Applied lo:td has been comp\•h•d in l'rohlem 2 of Art.' llrutture J. in Fig...< or \\"ilh the actual loads.ad!'.! 2 J I hah h2 I _.c the bending moment diagl'nrn for the redundant knee frnme.. reprC>~llnted Pruhlcm 2. Tho portal ft•arno undt•r consid<lration l. Trace th e l1endiJJg momE~nt dingram £or th e porta l fr·arne or 'Fig.0nt. .9 Fig. 14. . 14..9 Thl' hcnd ing mome. 6u =22 EJ . to the unit graph by ~ anrl by adding them there11ftt>r to th<..9b)..
'1. ~ 12 is g ivon hy tlte produ ct o[ the ifi1 anJ 1 a a:s . 16.a lly dcl.:.. 17.!) ""'=~lll!..·7~ '}1 N_.od consllili uts as well as .9 pie !'Lutic.cJ1llinate ~truelure of Fig. Analysis of tlu.9.'l · : '. 16.iT2 gt·aphs 6Jz = c521= .9b.EJ ll·a·:r= 21£! na ising to LhE> second powur the jfj2 graph. .l~~rr •I I <~ i Fig.61q 0 X 1~1 +X2022 +A2q= 0 The graphs of tht> honding moments indu«cl hy tm it loads acting along th P ul im innt.91 becomes X16u +X2612 +.fl(lrolJy the siln Solution.3a. 17.3EJ a~ 2 aa .. This stnJctur<' is stntically incleterminntc to th<' secontl <lcg•·oc. 17:J.9. The corresponding 5y!'l<'m or equation~ (4.9 The codficit>nL o11 w1ll 1:~ obtained ra ising to the second power tho Ji 1 graph 1 ( a2 2 ) 4n3 6u ~ ET T ' aa+a2a = 3/!:J The cuofliciont. q '.by the loads applied appear in Fig. we ohLain 6 ~2 = BJ I '2 . \:f'~·ttl! ~·tr~ . Sinlplu fll't/undnnt Stru#urts 399 Lelu!! el iminate tlw constraints at th e lower support «lbtaining t. l ur!' (il) I OJ Fig.
3 lu ordr•r to oblain the bonding moruonl diagram for the rcdundaul st ructtu·•· apJily simullruiC)ously to tho slrn plr stnt.tetl /it:!Nlt VI{/ N grotJh i b) _t_l .on 1/ .1 Mid t.ti on. l10ing negaliv•> (Filo(. he tli1'(~r..qxl 1 2 =:..qu.rt =O a for z1 =. 18.!B qa X 1 = :.c.he unlwown r~ar. 1 z•+3 . Sr.!lo:).aily dotmminato uno bot h tho actual II):Jrls and t. 19.roducing tho va)U()S so ob tained into tho :.9 Ffg.r M1 = 0 M 1 7 3 qax . The exp•·r. its valur.r tlto ~ lrncture willtw ob ta inNlas u~u nl considering th{' lowl!r en d or the column ns its lch han<l extr{'uuLy nnolmarking tlt i« end with 11n <~Strri..y5tem or equaLions and dividi ng bMh of the&' (l<jUIItions by EJ we obtain I..40(1 A ualysts of the.X2T. 3 • 1 !\ x.ctt..·s~ifJns of the llllndin(! moments ac\ing in car It memhur .l Ftg.<:k. just dcttmni ned. Ht)ar.X2 + 1S q11~(• 2 1x 1 .ic.1 = \r for .tiou X 1 mu~'t.: .v· T ·a:.1ll""' 0 Tlw solution of these two ('<Jllll~ioos yields 3 X2= :.n nLnate.flj towarcls tho left.tJnyg = 3 qa2 3 fl qa'l 5 56 qn2 for x 1 = 4 M r =:rljfJG z= rr qaZ .(L3 MU lut. 18.he Ji12 gt·aph$ hy the M q grnph 1 ( q112 a ::1 qa2 ) Sqa4 8 tq = I~J T ' a '4 °+T •l·Q = 8EJ t qa2 a qa4 L\2q = . Structurt•s Tho fret> wrms of botl1 equations wi ll bo obtained rnult ivlying Lllc 11/. S lmpler Statically [tldetr.
for in that cast> it ht. The c. 21 .z2+7 qt~T ·1/II~ 14 I M r = 28 qlla+T qa•.9b.t{ue. qa2 <!8 ga. From t.lto first.H. Honce our choice will fall on the latter. :3 3 .hwith. 19. deri.r.res 401 The maximum v.9c .turcs of Fig. us t~ompart> thl' tlm!l' ..'ttl will be found equating to ali \' tl t•l the above cxpn•ssiou with reference to . of . Tr:u)t• Lil li bt>nding moment diagram for the portal !nunc t•l' .his viewpoint prdNellce should be ~iven to syrnmetrical S)'Stt'!m~. B<>t.!lb and c are symmdric:tl lHtt it will htH!:tsier to traco all thon< )CI)Ssary bending moment gmphs for tho OJW appearing in •'ig. l'rohlcm !!.1 7.r= y 3 3 • qa'l qa~ Tho •·csulting bending moment graph for the redundant structu re is shown in Fig.9 (c) t. On thoso ground~< tho simple structuro appenring in ~'ig. 20.Fig.lu• or1o which will n•ducc to a minimum the nmount uf computation.\ltJ sh <tuld he rojt:etNl forl.!J with a 'o'iew of p Possible stmple strliC't ures (a) rb.·· SertiOit !III M If = .nlly dewnlliuate structures slwwn iJ.."tr.heiJ· pmclucls only for one half o£ tho structure.un! is t·Pilundant to tho thir<l d()gl'l!(! . Lflt. Svlotiort. Tlli$ Slnrcl.L Strut. A naly~i> of thr Simpler Redunda/I.9. 18 .9.h sLrnc.:'imple ~~alic.! Fig. 20. 2685. chot~'ii ng .9. 20. 20.mlmos possible to trace umt bending rnom<:>nt graphs and to compute t.ot·respond ing hendin~ moment graphs are represented in Fig. 20. Fig.Cro t.
0 Xt <\zt ·'X 2b22 · l S ~6~:! · x .2· .!.11urX~t21 X:t<l t'J .htl dghHtmHI hulvr~ 111" tJw luUc:r Me eq ual in llllll>lllll lttt(.loc gt'ill'h' ~lUI loc .wtrit:f! l one.~is of ll>e Simpln Stalictfil!l /rulttermin.. l'qUilli•lll~ thNUS<'lYl'S lJ~COIII\' X1611 :. A :lJ• th('.. uuJ (". r all ~It«. =0 1lel~~re Pr•~<:!'Ctling with the cc•mputalio n .ht• pot· tal frllml'. 021..!<Uhtl ivulod inlu l\rltllll lllricl11 (1111'1..alculnt~ onl y tilt~ d" l'h•ctiou:.lwo hnv•· <'IJlllll i•lll ~ wl ll l'l·ducl• t<• 7.!J com]wttd 1/t.\211 ~ z2 a. 032.:\.6:!2 Hone•' w() net>tl c.ml 6~~ 2PhZ a I Jlh·~a .! .• Il Xzl'>:!. 1. 1) ant! X:.' (if......\2}• >. X.. H <'all hl' ca:ily prond thnt 11/l the d<'(/r(llous @T ~~ hi P.l ..IXJll'CSSiug IIHH lite mutual dispii\CI. !!l. Mul :4{3) aud IUtti~Ytuuu~Lrit:lll Ol'les lifr2 ancl M 1.• w i ll l•r rllrcuys ntl. X.o.l'ru 6 1z.'• Fit(. heiug Silualt•cl Ill\ ciifitH'I'IIl· lli ti()S Of lht~ Clll'll'I>Jlt)nl\i ng ruclll het·s 11f t. n.~ym... .hJ (/ 15 z~ '~ • [ ( II ) 2 2 ·2 ·3·22 I (/ ·h·:! 1iTT"" 2 .. ·· 0 :.<)Jl$Cljlll'lltly.n tlw fir$~ l\\O lead ing imuu~dilltely to X 1 . bz.1b 1 ~ =II X sloasXali:J:~ .~ile in l>ign.J .'lllelll l\ or Ute tWil filt'll' of the Cro~bearu un Jwth Sides (o( the l'lllllt'tlltil."lwu ld he d t·awn Ill lht• r.402 A naty.I~J o2 ·t u~i·(•t tih) .iOII " appllnl·ing in t. 0 2. o A~ 1 .. t>z 1.· t. O llj)(J.~ LN ttl\ form llw OCJUntion~ I.ulli('lytnf{ symrrtdricnl ::rnl'hs by •tnll.('t that ull t. .uXzb~· XJ·'~:• . .< coolfmimtls a llontiou ..:.atl' Structurl'. Tlw urdilllllN' Lc> the ldtlw ml nnd t<> l. Fur thi~ nut•t> ro U~t• following cldlt>d...l2.1...
and tho rax is.. hin~cd l'rohlcm 4.!\ing t.. • . to thl' ru.ltod l•t·tont<~:< inu \>(lrat.ing in the rc•lull<hm t .• J!P '  0 26* .~qucnlly . 9 Fl. grnph du o 1.Cons.la.nt'!l hy t.r an<l ctts 'I' lliDY he Wlkmo ectu al LO 1.onsidt..iplyi ng the nr<litHII.. ~ l) 1 M: I d& • ~ N I ds /JJ .he tangent. prohlem i ~ not vcr·y complicol<:d fnt• willH> ul upprcc inhl() ermr d.<iuu ij II .. Lot ns I'Cgard it~ red undunt the lt<ll'i 2o ntnl c. For On t.s le11ds to ri~ X1~11 +6 tr =0 (6. l'rlnlu·'s iulll!Jl'als wi ll huv'' to I~<~ cnUJfllll<!< l nna lylit·al y.ha n <Hte li ftlt uf 11 !'span :1ncl tho ~tiff ness of tl. rt should ho rcmemhc•r!'d that IHII'mlll s t. The neutral lin <~ of t.~. This h<~tHiing nwment cliugt•nm is rt•(II'C~ent()d in Fig. 23.ltl• l'XJII'CI'.j•lncemcnt of flflt orcht:$ due t.hngllt'~ nwt.911).hcm up with tho ordi ua ~~s to thc !tf1. The nnglo op ju~t mentioned i~ the :ongle foo .~ mPy ht! rl• plact'd hr tl.!.. 9 fhc iult~ration will h!! c<tt'o'it'd cml J>p(.!1.._ rntion wh1m coroputlug tht' lw riwutal di. = I ..!< cro:s n•muins ro11 .iVt) unit llu:rduo·. 29.OJtlJH•ncnt (thrn ~t) uf till' t·onc tion < lo•vt'IO(ICd at the lefllt:uo tl SUf}pur~ 1Fig.tt·u•·htrc ma r bo now oht~\in ed mnh.o ltol'iznntal l11n1l..ulal<~ci 11.ncffiCil'nt 6u wi I he cttlc. _ Gl'h.~s to the 111 2 graph l1 y tho mngllltndo of X 2 nne! sununing t. 22.:1) SecingthaltlH• Mttll'<lili tot' .tant :wd equal to EJ. 23.mtrol linr.·c:h fo llowl' a J>ar:obobe t:Ut'I'O gin•n hy 4/ !f= [ i ' (lXj:X Tlw ~ection~< of tltis urr h h1 lt'SS l. :y I Fi!f. Solution .r'l'l'i'l':Hilllst bl' tak< m into r.~ ' za (a +(ihl 'T'hc linal dingrnm of ~~~" h~>ncling moments act. Ot>tomtinc the t hru ~t dl'\'co ln pert at th t• ahutmcnts of lhc l"'"' ardt appe11ri ng 1u Fig.\I'N'II r ~ tJ nnd :r. arch o•$ thi::.11 tho a1:Lnal lo11ding. Vet•eslt c.. 22 .r tht' arch i• u curw). H t'n CI: Lin• c. 'T'hi.h is a.
"01. 2•1.·t.(2 (' I (' 8 j :L 011 =/IW .. Thll ('OrreS(I<IIlding l'qUII(. Bars . whorl' A naly~i8 of the S lmpler S lntlcuLly lndr.1 11.alically determinate one by cuLLing diagonal G ( Fig. Solution . 21.ical fonnula lontl~ will hu dHermiul!d lt..= "15 IU 0 (I I + EF The diap laceult>nt .t.turc ol!'o o[ Lbe Sllmo cross section.9/n.cosq. of tho St:ludard form :IJl(ICal'iug in Fig.~l ng the "her(• Tla i~ ltladS to 'T'IIll solu~ion of equation ((:.5 and fJ \w vo n o common hinge at milllengt.nnlnatn Strru:ll<r"s and N1 == 1 cos<v= .!· 1 ) ~·ields imml•diatl'ly tloe value of lhl' desired thrust X 1 1 .9a. P roblem 5.h . due to ve. Siuco lh" str·uctme is o·oolundant to tho til:st degree wo uw ~· ohtnin th e simpli! s.) r2(lx)~dr + w. f\()I)Iacing ds by dr and putting cos qJ .l r.iOO will !)e. H~'<JUired the l'trcs~s in nil tlol' dements flf tht> frnmerl structure .) d:~. 'I we ohtaiu I I 16. All the members of thil' ~tr·uc..
s hy the unit lone! X 1 ~ I. :\o ...l/2 2Jla Pa 2 Pl/2 0 l'n al/i tJ 1 0 al/i (2 +2 l• > tul ..vz .!J u.p~ !.9 All the l)(l(~(~S81\I'Y cn knlaLions Ill'(~ gi\·on in 'I'ahlo u~.ional areas of all tho bars has hot'H omitloti. Pig.l 1 _ A. 1111d i''p arc the stresst>s due ~n tho ap11lied loacls. tht>w ~rcas remaining constant throughCiut the ~LnlC. ~twulcl Table J.~= J::f ~·''tNvl I" th ~.1 4 I V2 1 l I> 112 V2 I) Pa a 2 a " a ..'F . 21.Vi ·I I p Pa 2 a 0 p 2 II " al/2 aV2 ..1 I 1 2 $ 1 .rts 40:'> Tlw dt'Occtinns 6u and A1p may ~: obtamed u~mg tho e.3 ./.xpre:<:Sillns dev~l opt'd pr~vi<)lf.V2 I ..(3+2 1f21 Vi l/2)a .· Nit = 1 J. Aualysls of the Simp~r Hrdund<m t Rtruelu. Tho C<I IIIJ1HI wllieh normally contniu tl1c cross~cct..L ll' 1 "'"'t iV1N.(y for through ~trurtnws l'H """ < · " ..:e ~xprt>~shm~ :\' 1 ar~ ~ho strc~~:s indurt!d in the difTcrcnL hur.t\11'1' .9..
The equation will Lo of tlw s tlrndnrd .< type 1>f stress developed in each of thcs(. 25 .. 4(1 1 v:n v:.:\ n> and 0 11 . 1.he l'tHiundunl c.Xi 'J'IJ(> fwst turJII ~>£ Uw right.s \\ril l "')IIIII N.tit•u u[ t..· l' roblt:m 6.s..2 =N. Jkquircrl tlrt' ::.!'~i on cmJstitu~e< tli us out> of tlw applications of t iH! princi pll' of supO I')lOS il.onst. Lhu t.Cital st.(·3·..am wh o~ L t'ngth is C'!(ual to the t. The m(t!n be.9 Pig. 28.uliar to lht.l part.2112 :l V2 i!t ot.t.<·os. T his (I.V...embet hy the J 'C< Jc.amhtrrl tlq uati<m we Otll <u x. S ol1~Uon .Y..'1.1~i ng cxpr<!!iSion of tlw g iv ou st..ailH~d i n tht' above table we may easily com pute t he values o f . ruclurc will l.l .~ ion p p _ .ing these valncs intl> the st..7..•turt' p ~v (bJ Simple structut·e Fig. \Ve ~hall a~sumc that the cro~s ~ectiun:< or all t.by U1l\ applied loads.f>nt. 12) p ['a l~F 1/'i ..s 1. anrl the !:'ec.t. ( I v L t~u= {iII F ) :t+2 v ::! lnt rodur.ond the strN ii intluct.J. The displacement of the two cliff~ren t.t·es~es in a troSS!!tl bean1 appt•ariug in Fig..:ll .9b. = N. .ttn·u wor k~ iu Lroull iug . } <m· bar• 2.Je rcndi ly N. 2.hand part. ·:·N·X =P + 2 P ' ( 1 · ') 1.XfH'('.h e reinfo rci ng mombors remain c.>cl itt the same w.. j. imJ.>tflnuinate st..\J.9 just as ~hose o[ an ordinary truss.ft(IG A nal!fsis of tlt~• S i mpll'r StaticnllfJ I ndl'trr minllll! Slr11clure.(> 3.~ Using ~he data c. 2 . of this o>pre:>~i<> n J 'ept't•sents tlre stre~s intluco!l i11 th t' cor respond in g member r>f the sinl)ll'l ~tructul'o .ructurt> will he obta im\11 Lry cutting bar 1 2 a s inilica llltl in Fig...onstnlint..!L 0 (rf) Nf!dllni1ant ~·tr. while the reinfor·dng members WOI'k in d i rect toli~JOJI Cll' C<IIn pre. '!'he s im ple statically dE. parts o[ the structure will he cakulatud using e xpresRion s pec. 25.ant.<ltal !~pan of the l'! truc.P 3+ ? ~ • =P •) 2VZ+" vz v· :.tainod Strc!iSe~ irl all the difforeul lll(t~nher•....
9. 20.h tlte qtt~.in~ ml•m b()rs.~iliat'Y .cn Jl<ISl.urvcs multij>lied by Uw nwgftitud~ . ..t·an~mil.oit' degree or redundancy.H. 1"2 I! 11 a Vi (I V:i . tucing the X1 we obtain lalt~r valtws iutn tho stnmlnrd equation anti solv uog iL for Tllll o lin grams (If th11 lwnding mo ments acting in the ma in hc.. 'J'he~t~ st resse.t('<l dit·l'ct.. {}1/ aV2 ~~ 0 l 0 (l (J 2a :!tl 12 2/1 14 0 () () 1/2 . 'l'ht) ft.ho ortlinatos L11 tlut strn~ curve dUt th o a pplied Joacts w fth the.>sos in tlw au.·1 .9) and the vnlues of liHJ normlll ~tre:.9 Llw t.~tl>'' tn al l Lhl• h:t t'' <)f t. Hcfordng to the differe nt structura:l appearing in F ig.tuw will hll \ L l> <tbt11 iucd i<S usual hv tlw su nunali ou <1f t.ll  I I  I 1 I (J I a(:~ ·H V2} IJd. Strllcf rtrr·.f.ly to t.f tilt• Simpler U(< dulld(W/. Analy~is o.ul:u Nl~o hl.•)mprL\~8iuu in 1. J'rz l>lc 2..~scs d eve loped in l.9 v .o uuity.~y~~m...udent wi II (1) determi ne L b.n.xiliary mcm hcl'S of the redundn n t.•<.he nol'llolll s tr().a l !tar 1~ will prnduco" cotHJlt'I!S~ion in l\<1t.'i n~ al:<• J l'qual l.~ will ht• t..>am and .r t.ltt• a\l. ~<truc.ic. bll to tht' llltkn<l " 'll X. 27.r x1.'llowiug t.ro. the ull!f(llitu<l~ of this r. 1 una of l'lw frt~o t m·m llm will he nhtaiJwd using heuding moment graph for the ma in h~am t Fig. unit ~t.hl• mniu lwnm .I 0 (1 t) 2.his JIM l.• ft>l'lll 407 X t<'>il ·~17' = 0 The values of tho C<tt~ffit:it• ul.. 1' ht.ablo giv~s t.lw amou nts uf ..J·e~s X 1 acting nl<mg tJae lwrizout.lw ruin furc.[) a 0 T•>l:.tJrtlimt tes to th(l unit r.
oj (7..~~n~z~ ~.. (:i) form the cort'esponding systems o( canonical equat:ions.s of the c.3 + .. . 6nn have t. 27. (4) trace the diagram uf the unit slresse. 6 12 .oi" + ~.ompute one of the unit displacements 6 for each of 1.. = o 1 1 ~~6~ :+. L\ 2 tt .~~t ~ ~ t +x36.. . • • • . • .o1l 1 X26•2 +X~o. StructTLre~ (2) lind arJpropriate simple statically determinate structures and ehoosB the better ones.' ~ · .lllltl lnde.onjugate simple structure along the redunclanL eonstraints X 1 • X 2 ..·.!. STRESSES IN REDUNDANT STHUCTURES DUE TO TE:MPERATURE CHANGES lu the event of temperature c..he standard equations used jn the method of forces become X..tormin.o~l ~t·x2~~ x.hauges l. • • .(lte. while the terrns ~. ·{~ x"6n~ +~~t .9 4.. .0~3:.hos1~ stru(~ f.ures.~2~2~ ~ ~3. (5) c.9. ~ 11 1 are the doflect iou..$1) In these equations the coeffidents 6 11 .~ + ·.. . Xn eausetl hy ~he thermal gl'adicnt.()$ Analysis oj the S implrr Statir.. . ~ x.he same meaning as heretofore. Fig.
1 aa 2 ..:ltt = o. 2~.haTI g<'<L Solution.H for which the stanclarrl t•quat.H} Proh)em.a= 2 15a h .9) ox. .<>ntroid of tho cross sec. Redundant structure £J Simple structure )1 04~1· '1 ..lw c. of thtl simple deterrnina~e str·ucturc along the directions of tho clim~ inatcd c.8) developed in Art.ll)lu·ing in I!"ig.8) and (20.t6 rtIL\jl =0 t8.()nstr·ainls r·ernain nil.nH~ture :l}lJ. Wllru it otherwisl' "'\\"tl shall adm it that !.tions may he obtained using expressions (H. 28..9 and L•·ace tho c. 30Jl) .·dantltwt Structures These dcflcc.~t should he 2 y wh~:t'C !I is the db lance from the ftbro lwate1d to t to replaced by t 2 t 1 2 the c.8) j ust cit{>d we obtain . 10+0 ao+T .8* (i'J.2 ..\l.l.une reilundnnt st. f 4a3 =·.:h 100 ( aa) a.a '.urves.. Allupt tho simplt> struct11re nppr~al'ing ill Fig.5a•t As f . 9 . 9 X . assuming tllat the indoor tempt•ratum rises by 10"C whilt• Hw outdoor onr nmwins nnc.8) Eq •Hllions (7 .orrusponding honding m<. 29.lt1 jlraph ( l<'ig.ion h<JCornes (lsillg 1•xpre%ion (20.4. 1}:J Fig . 7.:t . 29.fi! Fig.tions..H t\ 11 its ''nlue will <5 11 ·no fllund raising to the secotld power tho area of tlw .>ment c.r<•ss scct ious of all tho elmnents involved llr<l sym2 • z.rt•~ses mdnce1l 111 11 or)(.press as nsnal tho idea that the deilectiou:.9. + .8) 01' (20... Stresses In flt.'~3 =El 2 il ' EJ 3EJ motl'icol about tho hurizonLal gravity axil. Dt!tt••·mmo tho st.
~ lnlroduciug lht\:!1: h tLO cqua\wtt (1:1.$tl'llc.mf!Lr 9trurlut7! . = Au ~>e'" (. ·~ .._ ..!1.L. T he horizonlal and vcrlicol displacements of tho <ll\C .tut•ll hy llw givt•n t.9 or rnorc of their :~upports s uffer a liucnr translation. 3 1. +.re . J /!'tJC(. . 32.I) ~r.:p (dl 8 I ~tl (() .~ 1 IJVI •w r 0 _ (bJ fA .9) and sol vmg tile Rame \\'C 11bt. T...·erely slreS$Cd not: only du o lo lh~ ap}>lication of c•xlet'nal loMis or due lo J .. v111lu~s Strutturt.'t. Let us study this problem using as no example the portal frame of Fig. slatieally indot1mninate stn.. .emperaturc chang('s but also in the O\·eul whon fa) I <: I I .9 5. an angular rotation or both.:O'n.' .' =s.41ll A ttnlgsts uf tlu: Simpler Sltttieol/y 1 mk~rmlnaU.empcr11Luro dw ngc can nnw he obtained multiplying t•lllht> o•·diuales tc> Lltt' 311 c un·o hy X 1• Thi s d iagram 1"' rc:J)rl!~·ulod in Fig. STlUiSSI•:s IN HEDUNDJ\N'T' STHUCTUJU:S CAUSED BY TH!i: 1\'J OVgJIH ~ NT OP SUPPOHTS As already montioned. 32.• '11..od from B to B' is iudicated in the same figure l1y dash lines.Q .. ( / Xz Fig. ·.•9n.r fta3 (¥+I) lta...ain t:JaEJ X. ' ' l x. Ftc.t<'IHt'es may heeomo su.9 Pig ..Uructure StmPll.:. .:n"Kl'' J"1 fl~H {":..9 .2 TlHl bonding mornt•nl d iugt'Ittn i ncl uc~•l in Lht> givt>n rt'd undanl .. The sltape taken by this frame afler the righthand s upport has shi£t.9a.
ond equation i~ due to lhc fact that r~action is direct.'action x2 that or the vertical one (though being opposite ill si~n) while the moment X 3 <~c.intr·olhu:tiou in to the canonical equations of free terms corresponding to the said loads.nffcrcd by the cro~~ secLion at the supporl. In the first ease (Fig. 32.snppOit move.Xa61a.:lt. A 2 L\ and 6.£1) Consequently.turc of Fig. a2. On I he other hand.atieally determinate structure ex:1ctly oqnal to those ~tipulated jn the woblern.. c and d. = b +/(p.s do\\'nwnrds. if tlw simple structur·e o£ Fig. H is clear thnt these terms will lwvo tho following values (set~ Art.h tho~e o[ Lhc suppot·t displac.\2L\ = <p (11 . lltt' n.:i. L\2. This would be refloeted by the . to •·ender· the displacements of the . H . The magnitude~ ol' tbese reactions must be such a!'.9d these same equations would become X1611 + X2&12 +. 3 ~. 'J'hlls. the unknown l'caction X 1 follows the d iL'PCtiou of the horizontal d i~plaeemeut.ts along the direction of the l'otatinn r. these term:. the sec.2a + .9b.. } (10.truc.:. The influence exercised hy Lhc simple structure adopted on the formation of the standard equations wiLl he inYcstigatcd using tho example~ of Fig.::.. 32.!1r. 8) x2 .simple st. being de~ignated as usual hy A 1 ~. wer·e lHlopted it wonld hcc.ome necessary to regan! tlu~ 41isplaecments ol' the support B 11s a system of external loads.%) th<l rl ircclions of the redundant eonstraints coincide exactly wi t.cd upwna·ds while the .\ta = 0 } X to2t +X2622 + Xat.ement!'. Slre!lsl!s in Hed11ndant Strucl!tl'f~S snpporl ·will he taken equal to a and b t·cspectively <Utd its angular rotation to (f. Hence the canonical equations expressing this idea will he of the follnwiug form X1~11 +X z012 Xallta =a } Xt&:li+X26 22 +X:l>11a= b X tOat +X 26::~2 Xa633 = q:· + + The negative Ylllue of the last term of. 32. the canonical equal: ions will take the followiug shape XtOI!t +Xz&22 + X:/J23 b + lcp = 0 X16at !X 26:12 + Xa6ss + (jJ = 0 X16u+X2ot2+X:~61:~+a=O For the simple ~.9.l =a....9) X 16a1 rX26a2 +Xaoas +~~B = 0 .
412.
A~<alytls
oj the S i rnpler Stat£call!t [ruletermf.n.,ttc S truclures
Here L\ 1 ~, .1 2 ~ and .1 33 a re the displacements of the eon jugate sim]llt• struc.lUI'I) along the directions of xh X z and Xa due to the verlieal nnd horizontal movcmeuts of the righthand su Jl port..* H was shown in Art. 14.8 that these displaee.rnents are feadil y computed using expression
x lsi;). ., ~R~ = o
in which the left part represents t he work accomplished by the forces nf the imaginary stat.e along tho displacements of the simple struc.Lnre due Lo Lhe motion of the supports. In this rase lhe imaginar·y state of the simple stl'llctnre ptwmitting the determi IH\tion of the angular rotation along X 1 due to tlte displacements of tht~ righthand support is that of Fig. ;)~~.9a. Hence the work MC.O Ill plishcd hy tlte for•ees 0 f the i maginat·y statt! along the di~placements ol' tho si rn Jlle structme when its right hand !;Up port is movod both VGrl.ienlly and llol'i..L I zontally will be expressed hy
{b) u
Zh
_ ;
..:. t Il
X z, I
,
(
_/!!_ I "[ '

·
1 X1~1.:;+ 2 h
1 a.+ Tb=O
( C)
I
.;
XJ ' f
'
....
7i
f
wherefrom
, ;;
SimilaJ·ly, the work accomplished hy tl1e forc.es of the second imaginary s l.atc shown in Fig. :~H.9b along the displaceJH<•nl.<: of the l'imple structure due to the movements of the same i;upport, will be given by
F ig. 93.9
1 X2.:h~+ 211
aTb=O
a
b
1
wherefrom
~z~ = u + T
As for ~he displacemellt ..:.\.~,, it will be obtained frurn Lhc L'Xfl!al ion corre~ponding to Fig. 33.Hc.
Xa.:.\s.:\ f a=O
nleut of t.ho simple struc.tur~c~ along
"'Tlw nng\ilnr rotation of the righthaud 1!nppMI. wi\ I prodowe no th(~ dirt•r.lions of X 1, X and X 3. 2
•
disp hoc.~:
5.9. Stresses in R edundant Stnuture.:
113
w bercfrom
~sA=/i
a
lut l'uducing those values into eqnntions (H.9) we obtain
Xj6u + X~0 1 z + Xa6ta  (
X 1621
+)= 0 +X262~ + X~6u L~, }) =Cf'
;,~ +
Xto3t..i..X:&3~+X~6as + ~ = 0
l I t J
(t2.H)
It s lwuld bt.> remembered that each term of the left part of these
t'<Junlion:i rt>prescnt.s the denection oE the ~imple statice(\lly delcrtal
(b)
Actual
.rlale
tmagmary
;tate f
x,•' 111
Ftg. 94.9
nlinate structure along the direction of a redundant rcactiou
duced ei ther by t hi!> same renction or by t he movement. o[ the support at B. A ll t.he equations of the present article have been, ttiuR ba~t.>d ou the principle of superposition. It may be easily shown that tlw!!L ' same equations may bo based on the theorem of recip1·ocal work~. Irulecd let u:> oonsider t;wo different states of t he sa me simple stH t ically determinate strncture. namely thos{l rcpresont(!d i 11 Fig. 3<U1a a11 d b. Using the above theorem we obtnin immt,d iatcly
Xt&u + X2~2t + X3631 = 1a (1:3.9) The lt>fthand part of t h is equllt.ion rcprp.sent.s the worl< nccomplished by the applied loads of Fig. 34.9a along the denecliuns of the imaginary ~tate of l<'ig. 34.9b while t he rigMhand pnrtthal done by the unit load X1 = 1 of the first imaginary stale alo ug th~:~ nctnat · displacement equal to a. l;~ xn(:tly the same reasoning will lead to the formation or th~ t.wo following equations (Fig. 35.9a and b)
Xt012
Xt~t3+X2o2.3 + X~o~ 3 == 1<p
+ X2622 + Xl>:12 = 1b
1 f
0 4.fi)
loJ!o
Attai1f.fis llj thl.' Si mpler Stntlcall11 lndell.'rn~tnate Strur.turt'R
T he ldt purls of t hcso ecruation~ represent the work accomplished by the npJllied loads along Lhe imaginary dir;plac.cments iuducod
by l.lw unil; loads of t he second and t. hird i magina l' y state:~ of ~551ct and b while the right.hand partst,ho!>t:> accomplished hy t ho imaginary unit loads or the two latter slate~ along the given di ~ pl:tt4.'1llt.'IIIS o f the !ill[l[)Ort. CompariHg eqnnl.ion:; (!Ul) obtaint'cl previously ·using the s implo Slt'U<:turo o[ Fi ~. 82.Hb with those based on t••e thcorom of rociprocnl wor·l<s [equaLions (1H.9) and (14.9)1, it becomes immccliately
fo'ig.
(Of
/mogmary
stale II
( fJ) /ma.flLPOIY
slate Iff
F lff. IJ.'i.9
HJIJHII'Onl that 'the two systems nr·e absoluLely identical for: 612 = = 62,, 6,:r = 6 3 , and 6~3 = &32· :\t•vcrthelcss L he basic itleas corwcycd by the.';t! two sysl(IIIIS or oquaLious art' crrlirel y dirrer~nt. Indeed, the eqrrlltions hascd tlll the princ.iJ>I~ of supt'r·posilion ex.prcss that. the 1:\U m of displncemenLl' alonglhe dil·o~tions (lf t he retlundanl constra ints oro eithN' nil 01' equal lo J>l'c:>dotermiut>d amouuts ; as fur llrose base'~ on th4' th(>{ll'ern of ree.ipr·oeal wol'ks, they oxprt'ss llutt the work on tho s i mplt> SLatie•lll y dcl.el' ru i rHilO s:trucl.ure accomplished Jly lhe applied loads along tl"~ displMement.s of t his sn nHI struc ture C.!lUSl'd by nny one o[ the imngirr1 u·y unit loads is equal to tho work pr·oduccd hy the snicl unil load (Logel.hor wi th bht' support rtlactiorrs due to this load) aluug l'lw displacement carrsod by the actual loading.
For o.x(lrci so let. us usc once again the t heorem of t·ec il>r·ocal works fol' Llro neterminnliou of st.resSt'S ill the S<'lllle por·tal frame, IHlOJHiug for co njugnlll ~implc s~n•ctm·c l hl' oue appeHring iu Fig. :lli.9a. Tuo c.orTOS()onding imaginary statt'S art' given in Fig. 31j.!)b, c and rl. Tho ~l.audard t'quations hased on the pr•inciple of reciprocal works
heconrt'
x.•&u +X~021 + Xr,i~:H = + ~ :t:
X~ . vI> • II [, X•r I> "t~ + ~~ 22 t '~:1"3~ = cp; V,  7
I I I
(15.9)
X l>13 + X 2623 + X:cFiaa =  ~:
J
G.9. Diagrams for Shearing n11d Dlrtci Strrsus
415
Comparing the lall.er set of equations with those derived from !iu.perjlosi lion [oquaUous (12.9)1 we set~ once again thnt they are absolutely identical. In actua l de~igu prtwlicc it is moro conven ie11t to base tlw equations on tho princirlo of reciprocal works when solving pr·ohlems coHncc.ted wibh thes~ttllllucuto[ 8upporLs, the equations so obtained
th~ princ.iplo of
ra• r
~I
I'
...
(bl .<>.
Aclual
_j__
'\
st.:tr.
/mogwary slolr l
Jx, x?~
""
(CI
ifT'IWUIOry
.state if
I I
_ x1·r_.~
· .
lly; ll
ih j f II
Ftg. 86.9
· fi
I
I
h
affording a cleart'r picture of the phys ical reality. The same IIICtbod ('Ouhl be used for stress analysis of redundan1; structures snbjecled to a system of external loads, but it would lose the ad ,·antago just mcntil'lned, for· i.n the !alter cnsc t.he p rinciplo ol' s uperpo8ilion gives a bettor rop~esentalion of the phcnomt!IJOII.
H.H. DIAGRAMS f'OI\ SHEAJl!NG AND DIHECT STHESS ES. CH~CKING OF DIACR1\MS
Oncu all lho redundant stresses and reaction~ X., X 2 , . . .. X, have bt•en found, 011(.' may proc.eed with tho determination o£ Slrt!UI'ing 11 11 d norma l fotccs acting in the structmo under considct'lllion. Th('se will he l'Xnc.tly tha SlllltC ns thoso arising i n the s imple stnticnl ly doLerminate st.,·uctnre under l~h e combined acliou of th(' 1\]lpl iod 1oHds and of Lhe said redundant stresf"es and reHclious. The same result::; n~ay b(' ac.hieved uf"ing Lhe bending moment curves obtained for the giYen redundant structur(' as described in llu.' prcvion:; arLic]('s. Indeed let us isolaLo from lhc res t of lhi~ sLructme a roc til i ne~tr ha.r Ail and let l be il~; length (Fig. :~7. Ha). In the most general c.a~;e this bar wi ll be acted llpon:
.4Hi
A11olysts qf
th~
Str"pler Statfcallv
llldetermlrtat~
Stnu:turl'. •
(a) by the loads actually a pplicd within its limits; (b) by tho hfmding moment!l M,t 11 a nd J~ 11 A at the enfl .sections. th~ magnitudes of these bonding moment.s may be scaled orr d i~ recl.ly from tho corresponding diagram; (c) by the shenring forces Q All and Q BA as well as by the uot·ma1 stroS&1s NAn and N IIA developed at the l!ame cross sectious. Here aod after tho first of the two indices will indicate t h{' posi~ tion of the t~ross section, whilo hoth of these indices togother will
Fig. 37.9
d esignate the member containing this section. Thus, M A 8 will mean the bending moment acting at section A of bar .t1B. Since the bar A B is in oq\l ilibriuru the stres..."Cs Q.4. rr• Q IIA au(l N IIA may be regarded as the vertical and hod:tontal reactions of a n ondsupported beam appearing i n Fig. 37 .9b, which we ::;hall call as before the reference beam. It follows that t he ~lre~se.~ ~cting at a ny cross ~ction of the &lid reference beam and those. 6xistiug in t he corresponding ~c t ion of the given structmc will be uhsolutely identiclil. H ence the bending momen t at any cross ~c tior\ .t: of the bar A B will equal th e sum of the bending moments iuduced in the corrf}sponding section of the reference beam by a ll the actions shown in fig. a7.9c and d
M
when~
= MO +MAll+ MBA ;llf,\11 X
M 0 t•epresent.':i the bonding moment produc.ed in the reference beam by tile external loads or F ig. 37.9c while M,\ B + M IIA ;.1//l[j ;r, is tho moment ari~i llg from the application of rnomouts Jlt[4 8 and ,\If n ,\ lo its end scc.lion$ (Fig. 37.9d). 'l"JH~ tlu~ore m of Zhurnvsky stat.ing that the fJrst derivativll of L ht' bonding m oment represents the shear in Lhc sa rno cross section
6 .9 . D iugram.s for Shraring and nirPct Strt•SS(".<
417
we may wri l~
Q=
·
dM d:r
= dMO + it/DA d:r
M'}_!! = QO
L
+,., /1,, 
:1·1 A. ll
l
(1G.!:I)
llcrl' QO is t he shear induced in tho corros pomliug t"£0!'.<; l;l'l't.ion of t.hc re fe rence boam by tho loads directly applied thcret.o (Fig. 37.9c). T he abovo o.xprcssion p+mnils tho dottJrmi nation of t.ho hcnding nwmonts and g honr~ in any snr. l.ion of a r oc.t,ilinear mcmher belonging t.o a redundant frame d structure ptovidod th e loads dir·ct•lly applied to t.his mcm!Jer and the oonding moment!$ a c ting ut tho t>nd sections aro known. Wh~.n the houdini,! moment curvHs arc trLict~d on lho sido of the o.xt.cndotl ltiJrcs, Llw s ign of the .9hearing forces may be a:;certaincd as follows: the .~!war will be reckoned positive if the rt:J.~is of tlu• rn('rn.bt'r must IJP ro/.ated cloclm;i..se tn order lo come in cotncicimce with the
tangent lo the bmding nwrnent curve, provided llw angLe of rol.a.lion t$ sm.(l.l/Rr than 90°. N U/1U'ncally the shear is directly proporttcmal to t.he value of the na.tu.ral tangent of t.hts angle. This rule prosente.d in Art. 1.2 pe rmits the i mmedi ato dotet·mination of the sh. ear: sign
for anv cross sec. Lion of bar A IJ. 'fir e. dirc<:tion of Lhc !>lu~a ring fur·co will bo obt.ai uotl rc memoot·i ng t.h at a positive !<hear will always t end to rotate c lockwi!!C the ~ction it i s acting npon about tho fnr ond of that same part of the mom her. Normal st rt\'lSilS will lJC d c t ormincd isola ti ng in su cce~;l;lion oaeh joint. of the structure and llJ)Jllying thereto both tho actua l loads and the shea1·ing forces obt.ll ined as d t:'s< :ribed abo vo. One c.ould also u5e thu procedure outlined at the beginning of this artic le.
P robl em. 'l'rnco tho Q and the N c.urvcs for tire porllll frame 3!)pMring :~il.9 tngothor with th e rliilgrams of bendi ng mommtls acting in 111! of its m<:mlmts. soz,,.tlon. l>'irst Ll'IWt~ tho ~hear diagram f<1r column .12. No oxtcrnal l<>ad being applillcl til this m< mtlJ()r, th e bending moment rliagram flums a s traight line and th<?reforc the shear· wil'l remain constnnt. rt will hB reckoned ne!l'ativc for tho c.olnmo axi~ must bo r<llated c<mnwrclockwi~o to come in w inctilmu:u wi th tho tangent ~o thP benrliug momont diagrnm (thl' two coinciding in that pxrticnlar caso). N umcric.:~lly th e shearing force will t•qual tho notural tangent of the aforesaid angulur rotat io n, viz.,
iu l!'ig.
Q 12" Q 21 = 
10.R+5.1t
()
, 2.7 tons
'l'hc same results would huvo becu obtained through tho upplicatinn of the formula gi,·cn at the l1cginni ng o£ tltl' present article
 Q21..  QO Q12 u
+ llfztMI2
Ltz
41tl
A rtaly.~is of the S imJ>ler S tat lr.ally 1 fldetermtMte Structures
Seeing tbul no load is directly applied to t he c.olum n in question, the shear Q~ 2 w ill reduc<> lo zei'O and thc reforo Q, = Q M2tMt2 _  10.8( f !i.4) _ 2. ?ton"
2 21
l it

6
When com putln~ tho shearing forcl's each of the ruontlu~rs shoul d be placed m entally in n hortzontal po.('ition; the btonding moments rocko ne•l positi v(l will 1 h tm prouuc<> an extension of the lower fibres of this member and tho!!oe reckoned nc~ath·oan extension of its upper fibres.
l'tf{. 38.9
Fig. 99 9
T he sh t>a t·ing force in till' ri11htband column will he deteom in,•cl in exac.tl y tho saml.' wuy and will equal ..:.2.1 tons. As for thl! shear in the c.rossh~am, it s \•alu€0 at nny sectton sitnutcd a distance r fr·um joint 2 will he givQn IJy
M~2 Mt3 _ 1 2./o X 9 .t. ,  10.8 ( 10 .g) _ + fO S 2 , Q= \r"'+ {" l23  .   2   2 • U:r 9 •  .·I X
When z = O (that is, immediately t o th.o rig ht of joint 2)
Q 23 = + 10.8 t ons
and when .r=9 metros (that is, immo•lia\ ely to th<' left uf JOint J)
Q~2 = + 1 0.82.1•X9=  10.8 tous The dingram of shear ing for·ccs tim!! obtained is represen ted iu Fig. 39.9. T h .... d iagram of t ho normal stresses can be dorivt>d either frorn tbd for the shours or alternativel y its ordinates may he cnlculatt>d knov. ; ng lh<> reactions of ull the redundAnt constl'aints. Let us determine thc normal s tresses u!ling tho equilibrium of joint::~. At fnst we may isolate j oin t 2 ( Fig. 40.9) ac tl.'d upon by tho shear Q 23 = ' 10.8 t nus rlov olopcd at the left oxtremity or tho cro55b.)am and direct<>d downwards 1 t.hCI sltear Q 21 =  2. 7 t ons dovolOJ!Od at tbe lop of thn column and diroctea from left t1• right and Ly the normal 8LrMses N 23 nnd N 2 1 (hotlo roukonnd po!!itive if en tailing compression) aml acting along tho crosslJc.>nnL .,nd the (.(llmnn,
rc~pucLivcly.
l~ quih bd uru
consi derations y ield irmneilintoly
N23 = + 2. 7 tons and Nz1 = + 10.8 to ns T he norma.! str('ss acting in the rigbtrbnnd column wiJl be obtai ned tsohltiug join t 3 and will 11mount to + 10.8 t on!!. The complete diogram of normal slre~ses is given in f' ig. I, 1.0.
11!l
A conveniont. method of <:hccking the M, Q and N diagram~ consists in the 1$uccc ssive isolation of different parls or joint_g of lhe structure which must al ways remain in equili brium. Thus, tho projection on the vertical of all the support roactions of any framed structure must always equal the vertical component of t,he resultant of all t he npplied loads. Similarly, tbe sum of moments o£ a ll the reactions about any point of the slt·ucturo must a lway!' t•quaJ the moment about the same point of tbe resultant of the applied loads . and so forth. A rapid cJ1cr.k of tho diagram of the shearing forces may be la l~cn compariup: this diagram with that of tho bc11tling momont.s: i nd!:'cd
Z.7t
Flg. 10.9
Pi~;.
tJ.I !J
when t}l(~ mornont curve becomt·s parallel to I he hoam axis, the shear must equal zero; when the tang<nt to the hcnd~ng momonl curvo remains i nclined towards tho same side, tho s hear may not chango sign; its magni Lude will be gmatcr for t ho.L soction for which t he. s lope of tho tangent to the btmding momen t, curve is the steeper. ·w hen two bars form a joint, the ordinates to Luei r bending moment <'urves at this joint mu!lt alway!l have numorically the same values (provided no outside moments act at this joint) since tho bending mo rncnts tnllSt always balance. In the same ca.sa direct 1 utd sheari ng force1; couside.red !jeparately will not bnlnnce, hut com;idercd together they must forrn a system of concurrent forces in equilibrium . liowovor, the control of stress cul'ves based on statics alone docs not provide complet:e gunrante~:~ of the exoct.itude of all the computatious for equilibrium conditions may bo sn ti.sfiecl even if errors were committed when calculatiug the re.dundant react ions. I ndeed, the bonding moment CU!'ve for any redundant structure always results from tho s ummation of the ordinaLes to the cu rve induced i n tho simple sta tically determ inate structure by tho applied loads wit:h those to the curve!! d11o to tho redu ndant reac.tions and s t res:>tiS. If all of these curves wero constructed correctly, equili brium cond itions will remain sntisftod even if the va)u(ls of those reactions and stresses aro completely wrong. ln the majority cases any errors c.ommitted when c.otnputing tho reactions of the redundant constraint~'! will be dctec.l:ed checking 27•
or
t hut tho deflrction s of cet·tain points arc conl!istm1t with t he s l:ipu lations of the problom. The foll owing example will serve to ill ustrate the ahovc. Fig. 42.9a. represents a knee frame statically indeterminate to the second degree. The co mpulod bonding moment diagram is shown
_ _, _ : J _
qg_1
./
~
(bJ
(/
T
t,
(dl
i
Pig. •Jf!.l)
in Fig. 42.9b. This diagram will remain unal tered sltuuld we transform tho givou str ucture into a statically determinate one, say, by cli miuatio n o f the t.wo support constrai nts at the Jowcr enrl of lha column (l<'ig. 12 .9c) ·provi,rlod these constra i nts an 1 replacml by t.hcir re:w t.ions. Let us now eomput<l the vertical dl'l1cr.t ioo ~ v (lf the lower end o£ the t~ l umn in ordor to make snrc lhat this deflectio n remains ni l. For th is put·po:;c wo shall first Lraco the diagram of the bend ing moment inducetl by a verLical load unity actin~ at point ;1 (Fig. 42.9tl) who reafter we ·shall multiply this diagram by the M
6.9. Dwsmuttl for Shranup ond D irect Stussu
lo 21
diagrum l>l'rtaining Lo the giveu ~>L1·nr.lurc (Fig. 42..!.Jb). The n'l!ult is
~
v
=·
1 J::J
a·a2
1 (
1T." ·a 2 ~ ·a
(/it2
1
qtl2
2 )
=0
Lol: us check al~o I'IHit tlw llorizoHt<l l db[>lacement of the same poi11t romains oqnully nil. For that IHH']JO~ we may ruulli ply the bl•nding moment graph durJ to a horizonta l load unity applio(l at t.his point hy Uw aren of the same bending moment tliugra rn ali iu l.lw prcc.eding paragraph (Fig. 42. ~1 b) .
'Tf' ""ifa  yga2a =
qu2
1
1fir2
1
)
=er :r:tz;i •zs !jo = 0
Thus. the. a hove mctlwd of chcckiug tho computed s trcs.'!ill! acli ng iu members of redund~nt s tructures t•onsisls in the following : 1. Tl'ansform the givan redtmdant sLrucl urc into a simpl<.> statica ll y df!.tcrmio ato ouo. 2. Ro·plac.c successively ent~h of tht' el iminated coustrnints by n unit load or a unit mumunt as the 1 :aso mny be. 3. TtDCO for co.c.h of those unit acl:ions o. bending momont diagram. 4. Cornputo the dcilec.tiort o( tho simple structur·c along t.hc diro!'ti!ln of each o( lhnse unit action&. Tho amount of Lhis deflection will be g i ven by tile product of the orclinntcs to the henc.ling momtlllt cun·c flue to the uniL action by those to the diagram induced in tho given redundant sLruc.turc hy the applied londs. 5. H th0se dl\floctions arc consi:>tent with tire stipulations of the problem (nil irt tlw majol'ity of r;as~.~) one may },c rNtsonably s ure that al.L the cumt>ulations were carded out coiTe<:tly. Tho simple statically de t.ermioatc struc turt~ used in that case uoNI not coinr.idc necessarily with tho one uscct for llw dctcrmiuation of the rt' dumlanl str~osses and reactions. D ifferent simple strucllllt'S mn y bo used for the computation of different deflections of one and the same r~:~dundant structure. Thus, for instance, the rosLllling IHmdi ng moml\nt diagram of Fig. 42.9b could be chocked using thll simple sh·11ctm·e of Fig. 43.9a for the computation o£ th~ hurizor lllll deflection of Lhc r ight end of the crossbeam nnd that or f'ig. 4iJ.9b for the com!Hll.ation of the a11gulat· rotation nl thu ::~arne
qa~ ( 1
1 , 1
I )
point.
Ono c.;ul also usc for the same purposo lbc graphs nf the bending due to imag innry unit actions utilized i n the original co m putatiuns. I n tho latter case all t hat need be douc to control tl1o Ul'C.Hrncy of thn resu lting cliagram is to multiply this diagram by the formo1· graph!! au<l to m;1ke suro that their product rcmaiw; cqun I to zero.
moment.::~
.1,22
Arwlgsis of the Simpler Statically I ndetermtrtate Structrtres
The control just de~;cribcd i~ particularly simplified for ~truclures forming closed contout•s or those with builtin ends (which theoretically is one and the same). 1\!;Sume tha t it is required to c.ontrol the accuracy of all t.lw tom]lul;ations pertaining t:o the multispan frame with builtin columns
Fi~.
43.9
(Fig. 44.9a). Let us isnlate a single hent applying at the cuts ~x.tNnal moments and forcc.s equivalent to the internal ones acting at these cross sections. Obviow~ly the bencling moment diagram rela t ing to the i.soJawd part of the fram e will undergo llO change whatsoever. Now let us pass any arbitrary section through one o£ the members of the isolated bent. applying once again at the c.nt ex ternal actions
ff=!11
(aJ
M =IJ .:..~; (C)
b:r
Ftg. 44.9
()qui va lunt to tho stresser;; which existed at this section (Fig. 44. 91>). There w·i(J hfl again no change in the bl\nding moment curves pertaining t.o the two portions of the frame . It may be easily show11 that th~ sec.tions adjaeeut to t he cut will undergo no mutual rotation . Indocd , let us multiply the ·re~ulting bending motnf!nt graph by thr. graph due to a unit ntoment acting at the cut (Fig. 44.9c). As the ordinates to the latter graph will b1:1 constant and equal to unity , tho above mentioned multiplication will reduce ton simple summiug up of graph arcus bounded by the re.s ulting bending momllUt cHrvo . These must be naturally taken with due consideration to thei r· sign11 and the sum so obtained tniU!t equal zcto. If the di1Icrent members of the structure differ in stiffness, the areas of each graph must be previously divided by the sti.ffncss
7.9. StraiM and l>tflections of Statlra/ly lntkterm inate
St~llclllrea
423
of Lhe corresponding member. 'J'hus, for any structure forming a closed contou,r the algebraic sum of bendtng moment graph surfaces mt~st reduce to zero , these surfaces betng previously divided by EJ when necessary. As for tho sign of the g1·aph areas, those situated within tho contour will be taken with Olle sign and Lhoso situated outside with the opposite one. This method of controlling the accuracy of computations is the simplest. If the results obtained are satisfactory, one may be reasonably sure that all tho computations were carried ou t correctly. Jt should be noted however that this method is inapplicable to fl'amed structures with hinged joints or parts thereof. Complete certitude that no error has been committed in any of the computations can be gained only if the number of control operations carried out is equal to the number of redunda1tt constraints, provided these operatiOns do not repeat one another. • Thus, for instance, if the gra ph areas for two contiguous yarts of a structure have been summed up, tho same procedure may not be a pplied to the same two parts taken as a. whole, for this would simply repent tho control s already c.o.rried out and could therefore furnish no new data.
7.9. STRAINS A .N D DEFLECTlONS OJ.' STATICALLY INDETERMI NATE STRUCTURES
Expressions (15.8) through (17 .8) deve loped in Art. 6.8 were hascd on the assumptions that the material of tho structure foHows H ovko's law and lhat the strains and deflections of the structure an• very small compared to its dimensions. Hence, theso express ion!' as well as the corresponding computation techniques can be appliod to all framed structures regardless of whether t hey are statically de terminate or not. Let us therefore use o ne of these expressions for the determination of Lhu ver tical deflect ion 11v of poin t C located along the neut ral nx.is of a knee frame subjected to a uniformly distributed horizontal load of q kg per unit length as shown in Fig. 45.9a. This frame was analyzed in Problem 2 of Art. 3.9 (see Fig. 16.9a). Tho resulting bcn.cling moment graph is reproso!lted in Fig. 45 .9b (soc also Fig. 18.9b}. In ordet· to iind the desired deflection let us apply at point C a vertica l unit load, which will give rise to the bending rnomont curve of Fig. 45.9c. **
+
*'fht,se operations may <:onsist eitht'r in the multiplication of graphs or in lhl' summAtion of their arcns. ••Tho corresponding calculations are omitted hcl'e.
'•llo
Anoly. Yl., of tile Simpl.('r Slatl~ally Itztlelumtuat~ Structurn
Multiplying the two graphs appearing in Fig. lt5.9b and c one hy the other we obtain
~.; '""" [ 1T""2'3'56  8 ' 1fa·5if· 2+ T"fi x
X ( 5(i ··
qa 2
a
2
3a
qa!
2
:i•l
t
a
1
3a. . qa.2 • 2 _!:.. . ,1az . ') ..L ~ . qa.2 _ .!!;_. ,1,, ~ ) _, ~. _!_
14 7 56 5(j 5ti 7 1<\
r
;!
_ ..::_.
X
(
i/<1'~ Z ~. ~ 2 + .!!:.... qa2 ..L 9a . q.1z·) 7 !i6 56 :.!8 7 21! ' 513 5ti
J_!.._ __ ...!£!!!_ 41t8T!J
EJ ..
ll X
Thl\ ul•.galivl'· value found fot· tht~ cl~ fioc.tiou IJ. c ind ic.nt.e~> that poiut C mnv~s upwards, for th e load unity was dircc.ted dowuwat·ds. "l'he procedure do~cribed remai ns rather complirat~cl sinc.Q it req uires that all the strosse$ in thu redundant struclul'O should hl' compntcd twice: once foe the case o[ applied loads and Oll<'.e for the case Qf t he imaginary load unity. 'J'his procedure will be greatly simplilied if we remember th at tho deformations of t he simple statically determin ate str.\Lctnro ncted upen both by L ht> appli~rl londs nnd L he redu ndant stresses an d rea~tions will .be csnc.tly the same as t hose of t he given i ndeterminate structure . .Honcc, in tho cas~ u nde.r considera tio n the oeflectiorl <la may b~:~ r;.o mputed with oqunl success eitiuH for tlu" r~dunda nt structme o f lr'ig. 45.9a or Jor t ho si mple sta tically determinato onu of Fig. 45.~)d. Let us a pply a t p oint C of tho latter str ucture a uniL load fo llowing the direction of the required deflection and let us trace the corresponding bending moment diagt·am (Fig. 45.9e). Multiplying t h is diagram by the resulti ng bez1ding moment graph gh·on in Fig. 45.9b we obtain
~c =2·z·z
a
a
1 (qa2 1 q112 2 ) 1 q<l4 56·328"3 EJ=44}1.E."f
A uy statically determinate stnrctut·e dt1r ivcd from tJ1c gi ven only by t ho eli minatio n of redunda nt constraint~ can be used fo t· doflec~ tion computation . It is in no way necessar y th at this s imp.lo s trucl.un' sh ould he the :>a mc as tho one us~ d for stress a na lysis. Thus, tho deflection o.f point C of t he knee fra1ne cou ld bo obtained j ust as wen using fot· a.uxilia1·y simple strucLurc the one shown in Fig. 115.9/. The application to this st l·ur:ture of a verticul load unity at point C would lead to n bending moment diagram shown itt t he ~me figure. T he subsequent multiplication of this diagrn m b y that bounded by the curve or Ute rt'Sulling b1mding moments g i vcu in F ig. 45.9b lends Lo
Ac = [ tT.·z·:r ·:ra ·aa··T·2 ·1 z·2x
X T 14·3+ 56 "3
1 ( q11Z 2
qa.Z
qa2
a
2
a
qa2
2
a
1
a.
a
1)
J
'1 qa"' E J =  4ASEJ
7 .9. Strams and
J)t'~dtons oj
StaUcallu Jndrtermmak Structure&
4ZS
The cltoice of the auxiliary si mi>l~ structure sho·utd be governed by l.ho following c.o u~ideraLions: the bending moment curvo clue to 1.he load unity must be ns si mpl e as possible, this curve must he obtainacl with lho minimum of computations and tho Ol'dinates
'1!/ '? 8
Fig. 4.5.9
to this curve should reduce to zero wherever tho outline of the resulting bonding moment diagram for tho given redundant structure becomes too complicated. Henco, in L he oxnmple dea lt with prciOl'Onco should be given to the simple structure of Fig. 45.9e ns compared to that of Fig. 45.9/.
la ) i.h wore possible.ma11 be determined using only one bending moment diagram pl<rtaining . 'fhc system of equations .s e.426 An.. It is quite natural therefore that attempts <:~ro frcqnNltly mado to form the abov<! equations in such a way that each of them ~hould contain onl\ unknown ouly.ould be thus obtained multiplying the M gl'aph of Fig. either that induced by the applied loads or else that due to a load unity acting along the desired deflection.uss~s . 45.ttlysis of the Simpler Stati~.vfln if suc.9.resst~s..2 .<. it may bo stated that the deflections of a redundant structure . The deflections and distortions of statically indeterminate tr. qa2 a ( 3a 5ff r· 2 ·1 w 2 a l.. disregarding entirely those due to the applied loads.ally Jr~dclermtnaJe Structures The necossity might arise to determine the deflection sustained by a redunda.9g J\c = [ .ho:. The deflection will bo then obtained multiplying the bonding moment graph due to the unit load aud pertaining to the given redundant structure by the diagram of bending moments induced in the auxiliary simple structure by tho actual loading. The second graph may be traced for any simple structure derived from the first one by elimination of redundant constraints.. In the previous example the deflection llc c.448EJ Thus. that the sysleUl of these eqnations should fall irtto 8cpamtc groups each containing a reduced number of unknowns not entering p~rtainiog to a structure redundant in the second degree is so simple that it is obviotlsly se11seloss to ~ek any further si mplification.2·3·56·. alternatively.t .9c by that appearing in Fig. the. streRs analysis of redundant structures requires the simultanuous snlution of several equations with several twknowns.l.e relating to the normal l'.and other hingeconnected structures will bo obtained in exactly the same way with the only difference that the bending moment ·curves and graph areas ITIUSt be in that ca. 311 3 .n t stru0turo under a given set of loads without being intel'ested in the corresponding stresses. ] X 1 qa~ X EJ=. lhe other groups. 'fliE ELASTIC CENTRE METHOD As a rule.:<c replaced by t. Tho higher the degree of indetermirumcy the greater thl' number of these equations. harder their solution and the lower the accuracy of th~ linal result. 45. In that case one may com·pute only the stresses induced in the structure by a uniL load acting i n tho direction of the desired deflection.to the given structure.. 8.. 2 qa2 a. or.
9 would be i. /17.9).f. we shonld normally form three standard equations with throe unknowns. hoth the lt'nglh and the dirnetion of which remain as yet unknown (Fig. l11 other words. H the magnitude of these actions were S\tch that they would )mmobilize completely the end b of the brac. At the freo end b of this bracket let us apply at right angles two forees z! ami z2 (tho direction of these forces coineiding with that of a new set of coordinate axes u and v) and a moment Ze. preventing h otll its rotation and translation.6.9b.9a. The system of oquations t~xprcssing that t ho outl b of th<' bracket is held fast is as follows z.9.9 F tg. 47.9a and that of Fig.ozt + Zz622 + Zs6z3 + L\zp = 0 Z.l) . Having eliminated the constraints at the Jefthand abutment and having replaced them with three u nknown reactions Xt.turo (point a) would also become fixed :J.9 acted upon both by load P. for instance. the left extremity of the simple s truc.n the sarnt\ c. Tn order to avoid the simultaneous solution of these equations let us fix to the free end of tho simple structure an infmitoly stiff Rcdt. the structure of Fig.f5sr + Zz03z + Za033 + !\sp = 0 Z1l5u !. 46.ket. 46. the fot·ccs Z 1 and Z 2 and t.hc moment Z 3 wouhl lJe oquivalont.onditions. viow·p<)ittt of their d(\flf:lctions the given redundant structure and tho .9 bracket ab .simple stt·uctm·(l of l<'ig. in Fig. #7.Z281z + Za<'i1s+~•P=O } ( 17. 4.ll(l thus from thl>.8. The Elastic Centre Method 427 Passing to structures indeterminate in the third degree let us investigate the possibilities of simplifying the analysis of a closed contour of arbitrary configuration such as shown. 1fi. 47. X 2 and X 3 as indicated in F ig.(tldant struct11re '( (G) (b) a Fig.
let us subdivide tht~ whole of om· .u2 .9) Let us expn1. 47.) 0 I EJ 623 _ (' llf2il13 .onditions govet•ning our c.) EJ us EJ 0 Dividing each of those lhree t'Qualions hy E we ohtain ~u~ 0 I =.J. :r ndccd. 6 1h cu tcring t.) 0 (' ivl 1l•f~ d5 _ EJ I__ I__ (' .b ·induced hy load unities following the direction ot: the unknowns Z 1• Z 2 and Za.hemaUcnlly Lhe c.9) we may write I _ _ I 01~ = (' M 1. lll that case eac h of thfr above three oquations will conlai n only one unknown. • = .o.~3~ 62p (18.) d$ . = ~ u ·l ds """O .. The magnitude of these displacl'ments depends. both.0 0 I .. Donating by t~ and v t he coordinaLes o£ nn elomont d~: of the given struc lnre (see Fig.: (' v u ds =(I . these equations reducing to Zi = ~ vii ' o. Let 11!:1 choose theso parameters in ::~uc h a way ns to render nil all the secondary displacemonts of point fJ.hese oquntions ropre~ent the displacements of the free t1ncl of hrackot a...~ ~ 0 uu ~=0 J.t is fairly onsy to find a geometrical i nt~rpretnlion to tho conditions thus ox pressed. of coUI'SC..022 z~ = • t3p . on the size of the bracket and on tho direction of the nxos u and v.~28 Aualystll of th<! Simpler Staltcnlly lnd•Urmtnate Structr•rrs lt will bo t'emembercd Utat tho COllfft<:icn l. Z.) 0 I EJ EJ v 1 ds=O 0 6~~ = .) v i = 0 I (' d.hoic~ of the af:Mesaid parameters.<>S mat.
::. 7'h(: Ti:l11Slic Centre Mctlwd ~ l.amo poin t b Fi[!. af tht!Sf. osirrg ttw notnt.:'l <lf those imaginru:y loads about tho coordinal() axes u a1 HI v having for origin poiut b nrc nil.>.sum of t.~) lho position of tho conlre of g1·avity of th(..em.9.T . is symmetrical.f: l:lw~c elemonts a n imaginary load~.t.hat Lhe stn lie a L mo m~\u t.hc ~. and t he denomiuator equals the Lotnl o[ these same loads.coming possible.i<:.POlar moment o[ thc. the principal axe.ent.\ load.~ iN brot~ght in coincidence with the ce.r.'1 oj inertia of the.! axc.ro= f) 1 Yo.Htut.ctnre.8 .£< same loa.atica l moments of tho imaginary loads d. clns£< d contour ll'ill reduce to zero providt!d the new ortgi.s lo2H ds a nd let us apply at tho c. that tlw .~ o ~.1 third degree awl forming a.ntr<! of gnwtty of the imaginary loads anrl the clirt:clion d. Tn lhat case t!w ilrst two of the above integrals will mean t.)Y j .>. If tha giucm stru.re ol' gravity of each o. about some axis of euonlinatl•S ( the summation l>eingcarried over t. dS. this lH. The.i nns of Fig.al mcdH1uics: thus. !I 'is equally nil. .ds.1:es of symmetry.£!. ~ wi lL be giver1 l > y J t (• d$ l ~ ds . It follows that all f. origin of tho Ht\W coordinato axes may he rletennirwd U8iug formu las provided by lhcorol. (HUJ) 1n caeh ca!!c the nunwraLor r<:<prosonts the .):r.he secondary disp lacements of a structure redundant in tlu.~ of inertia will coincidt:! with the a.n of CIJorrlinate a~~:e.hc whole lt\ngth of the c()ntour). (I ~ ~ Q ~ ~8 0 1. . The th ird of tho integrals load!'! ni.ru ctu re into elemt1nl.~wilh that of the principal a. . That will happon ou ly when poi rot b coincides with tlw centre of gravity of loads Jll(llliiS a. only whon the eoordinato axos r. 48.oirH~iclo with the principal aX<!S of i uerLia of Lhe syst.
ribcd. Some examples o[ sueh structures aro given in Fig.ion of tho new c. !J) J Tlw imaginat·y loads ~ arc sometimes called Lhe dasllc loads or mafise.9 detennint• the posit.. ~ ds (21.1rwlvsi. Thus . umount.19.xaxis is given by the fo llowing formula developed in tltc treatises on tho strength of materials (20.9 Pig sa ..t rnay bo sl:ated off lHmd that the methorl o[ the olastic centre will yield tangible results.~ and the centre of gravity of these olastic.o resort to the method just desc. H the sLt•neturo is endowed with :tl.ompletely tho advantages gained from the silnpliilc. massesthe elastic cmtre of gravity or simply the elastic centre.9.wcigltt c. . . H owever.least one axis uf symn10try i. of work requil'cd to Fig.Yc] 2 ds I I 1 J J:~~:. '•tl. For unsymmetrical systems Lhe.4:~U .oo1·dinate axes may become so important tlwt it will oul.ation of equation:.9) where (• J:r:cvc=· ~ 3'. It is 11ot always advi~ahlc t.~ <>I the Simpler Statically [ndl!<lenni11ate Structures Tho angle formed by the principal axes of inertia with tJto ..
oonlinato nxes is known off hanc l : it is vcrlicill in direction otncl paSS'S through tl1e crown.rt~rc! with rl'fcr~. ln{lumu Ltnes for the Simrlcr Redundant Slr!~turn 431 l' J•oblem. lhe.!/ a ·' 0 7. Start with cl ~. honco \ 4/ (L.c. illness of iLs cro~1! ~<~ct ic.la. ah~issn o[ !he e. 9.r) z ck ~2 Yo = 0 1 (' dz =.o oxos xoy (Fig. TJlc standnrd equation expressing that the deflection of the latter ~truc t.cos <fx J$ = momt•uL of inort ia of an arhitrarr cross section whoso ahscis.9. 51 .hl\ r. Th(' rc[orc.•a l'quals x f.'!s:ion tt9.:.) r<!mou1hcriug that J x =~ COS !px J.ion of the elastic.'x l .9 Let us compare botlt these methods usi ng as an example thu beam of constant cross section appearing in Fig. 'fll1.l :r0 cqcu1ls where J" f.sser.0i.st:ic C<'ntr(. Determino tho position of the elastk centre for Uu• tixc•l oml llr.HE SliUPLlm HIWUNDAN'l" The construction of influenN> Jines for redu nrl.>\ellll ining the phsi t. Lional momrm~s of inCJ'lia vary imw~cl~· lx · = . Fig.9) and ds=~ ao.' ctrdinat~ it '~ill be found u~ng oxpr~.iott at the c.Jns.> fonned by t'ho tangent to the noutrol Line of th& ar·ch nt point x with the axis of abscissa. Owing t<l the symna~ t. t.>nc.> nou~ral hno of this arch follows a conic paraiH>In given by y l.9.r y •lf the· structure l1oth as rPgnrds its dim(lnsions and the st.h o( fig.(' to tho coordinnt.anL structures may he caiTied out u~ing both the sttttical and the kincntaltc method!'. Solr~tton. 5U)b.f = fr (l  x) x and i~s cros. 5LU).9.ure . As forth<. INFLUENCE LINES STRUC'fUf\ES FOR 'l'.ro\\n of the nr~h 'I'<= augl~.d COS lf. T he inOuenoo line for the righthand abutment reaction will be obtained using as simple statically dctermirrate structure the one shown in Fig. = mom(lnt uf inertia of Ll10 rross scct. one of t. 51. 50.9a.
qual'ter~pan inc.:r)3TU 611 HRn:> tion of the load unity P along the beam and therefore the graphieal reprl1SC nl. 52. He nco . Bnscfl on the princip le of rnagJ\itudo of lhis shear· will ho Qc=Q~~+QcXt (n.remont:s computed using the above expression for X 1• The influence line it:self is reprc~cnted itl ·Fig.r) and & II ~"· r.q. X 1 . R I . and 8 1p will llo derived fr·otn the Jlf1 and tho 11 · 1j.:ttion of this expression will constitute the influence line for the said roac. let us take up the illflttcncc line for the she:~r Q 0 acting at midspan of the samt\ beam.. Those diagrams appea1· in 'Fig.he ap'J:>Iieation ..) 213 Tlw abovo cxpr·ession gives the vall1o o[ r·oaction X 1 fot· any '{losi X1 = _ bt p ~ :r2(3t. tho first of Lhe~o diagrams being duo to t.to tho application of load P = 1 a distance .4::12 . :i/U u 2l 1 /.eJ '"'2 " _:f. 59. Fig.~ of the Si mpler S t aliwlly l n<]P..0) we obtain x2(3l:r.. Slrur. i x~(:~l . 9 superposition the Next.1 n<ll!!Si. diagrams.. s.9 <>fa lon!l unity along the di rocLion of X 1 and the Sl:'oond . Table 3.:1 Jntroduring these values in expression (22. ' < \t p Fi~.o this inflnenco line nl. 52.9 gives ~he ordiuatcs t.tiotl.9) .< a long xl il'l nil becomes wherefrom (2VI) Ou The deflections 61 .u.~la and b.lurP.Z: from the wall.tr~rmitw/r.
54 . The value of Qc remains constant and equal to 1 (Qc = 1}.9 X x2 3/x x. 0 H 128 0 7.9.9 Pig. The value of the last term of expression (23.9 by (1).f this relation is given in Fig.9. 55. ?.!I 4 l T 912 it 2 . 55. As for Q'b \Vhen the l oad unity P is to t he right of section C = Qb = 1 and when it has shifted to the loft of this section Q~=O The inllu<mce line for Qb is shown in Fig. Influence Lines for the Simpler Redundant Structure~ 433 Table 8.9. The graphical representation o. l 0 l2 31 1:6 12 !!t 4 2 .8853 . 54.9). Adding the ordinates to the influence lines for Q~ and for QcX 1 we obtain tlle influence line for tho fu ll shearing force Qc acting across section C of the redundant beam (Fig••56.tl t>=1 llll~iilll+ Pig.9..9) for any position of load unity P is equal to the abutment reaction X 1 multi plied .?_I 4 5 16 81 128 16 12 21 where Q~~ shear at midspan of tho simple cantilever beam duo to load unity P Oc = shear at the samo cross section duo to tho abutment reaction X 1 = 1.
$9.e tor Me Fig. 57. We ob~tin f>.c . ~ =l=LP+H 'f '• It~ ~ ZS6 JZ ~o· lri(lu~•ICP..'se.t. {.l X1 . Tltc method jus t dosGribed is b!I~Qd o n com.9) by 6p 1 as provided for by the theorem of reciprocal denuctions. mid span of the same Ind~etl. T he.~ ~ Fil(.I acting a long the d i roctiou or X 1. Adding their ordinattJs together wn oblain tho influnnco Jinu for JJ ·fc (Fig.9 . An4lysis of Ute Slmpl(. i nfl ue.S of oquilihL"ium t~lonc <tnd t:horoforo it may he termed statical.. 58.:Y.9) . at.9.611 {24 . SS.rrl~}cl i n Fig.r Stat/rally lndcttrmittate Strud11rr.9).~1 !'l[luence iir1e for· M~ ~} . Me= bending moment at cro:s.\{0 =bond ing moment at tho Sli m~ cross ~(~lion bnL induced by a unit !I)IH.nco linP. tl1i~ hondiug rnomont. McX 1 at'O n'prt.'ll as for. tho value of lhis bend irrg mom<mt is constanll y equal to ~ .s ]Jearn will he oblainotl in a similar way.9 Lot us rep1ace no w t he de~ocLion 6 11l i n expression (22.ilf~ as wt..idoratic)J).!I Fig.~ sec Lion C of the simple cauLi lcv(lr heam i nduced by the Jonrl unity P ~++ i·±H: ~4 ln{lllt'!IC£" liue {c"· r""1. is equal to whore The influoneo Jintt for tho bondiug rnomcr11 ..s for . 57.
13y definition this conl)t.anc. For comparison .onstant factor equnt t. In t hat case (6 11) becomos a ~ca l e factor permitting tho convers ion of t.ructuro loadt•d by a unit action following tho direction of that unlwown.9. Such an imaginary benrn wiLh a load distribution c.s Lo a gra ph representing the varin tiou of X 1 when load unity P travels along the beam .~ arising in an imaginary beam carrying an imaginary load distri buled iu accol'rlance with t.· souled graphically will constitute at a certain scale tlw c lal)tic curve of the buam suhjectcu t o the action of a load unity applitd along the direction of X 1 • H owever.i!:~ti ng in ~ho t·enl beanL The ordinaLes to the imaginary bending JHOrnont curve are then divided by EJ.o . point of ·application of a load P travelling along the beam.it.ho ordinat.afte.. 59. which is usuall y described in all the treatises on the strength of materials.9a and construct the influence Jine for the abut ment reaction X" us ingtho kinematic method based on equation (24.entod in F ig.atic method.o (8 11) w<.T) in nny eru~~ sec.r the kinem.ute.orrosiHlnding to X 1 = 1 is •·oprc. fi1. lion of tho i magi nnry beam si tun ted a d isl.c + z2. the va riation of 6. l 3 :z } I B/ 6p1 = 6E..es to the dolloct. at the same time 6p 1 is tho deflection at thl'.'flection compu tatio ns by those of bending momen L.1 2 (lz) :r. Tho magnitude of the bonding moment (divitled hy E. . let us talw up again the beam of Fig.he diagram o£ tho bending moments cx.9.~ shall ohlain the orclin at<'. 1 repre. ln ossence thjs method permits to replace dl. if we divide all t lte ordi11a tos to this curve by a c:.35 Tbongh 6 111 rtnd 6p 1 are always m•merically equal they convey very different ideas.s tho iuOuonc~ line for It follows that tho influence line for X 1 will have lhl..9). Th is porticulat· method o£ influence lines construction shall bo tormcd herc.( T wherefrom lz 3 . I ndeed. Tho deflection curve 6p 1 will be obtained by the graphanalytical method or moments.iou cu rve to those of the desiro<l infiu ~nc. fnJ1Utlltl! Lines /11r tht: Simpln R edundant Strrl(lurn 1. 6 1p is tho daOcction of a lixcd point of application of the force X 1 due to a unit l oad P travelli •tg along the beam. ~PI= .f(3tx) The value of 8 1lt obtai net! by tho kinematic method coinddes uxacUy with that of 6 111 del'ived from statical considerations.o line.. caused by a load unity acting along the direction of X 1• Hence. l'ro 111 its loi't (:llld will be xt.9.r.l same shape as the elastic curve of the simple staticAlly determinate s t. The negative s ign indic<~tes that the forco X 1 will cnuse ll1c boam 'of 28• .
.tnate Structure.Luros and in p~nticular for the construction of in£1uence lines for bending moments and shearing forcos.ou + o. 60. 61. load P whic.ou + c5p 1 = 0 wherefrom Xt= <ip1 ou Consoquently. i..p = 0 or X .rm. 51.9b)* Ou =3FT Hence the equation of the influence line for reaction X1 becomes l3 X1  a p l . 60. Thus the influence line for the bending moment could be obtained by tho method just described adopting for redundant reaction the bending moment M c acting at midspan of the simple statically determinate structure of Fig.li3G A11al.qsls of the Simpler Statically lndete. whereas we have convened to reckon the deflections positive when their direction coincides with that of their cause. The value of 6 11 will be obtained raising to the second power M 1 graph (see Fig.e.9 members of redundant struc. The kinematic method may be used with good results for the construction of influence lines for internal stresses acting in the Letthand portion t1N ~r(C ' L 1zryt .h is directed downwards.• Fig. • .9 )I L 77lm Ftg.r2(3l . [or Lho load unities X1 and P nro diroctly opposed. 52. in that case the influence line for the bending moment at midspan will have the same shape as the deflection line *TI1o vulno of 6u m11y bo dcrh·ed from that o£ <'lp1 suh~tituting l for x and changing lho sign.9.x) Ou 213 This equation is exactly the same as the one obtained previously by the statical method. Ftg. Tho equation expressing that the mutual rotation of two contiguous sections to the right and to the left of tho hinge remains nil becomes · X.9b to deflect upwards.
9 Fig. for the horizontal connection bars preclud. 61.>en the righthand and the lefthand portions of the beam may be represented by three bars as shown in Fig.9.hearing force at the same cross section.e Lines for the SimplP.9. /nfl11.e the possibility of a mutual rotation of the sections iu question. This analogy can be of considerable value both in checking the accuracy of influence lines obtained :~tJn 1. 62. this shape being tho same as that of the elastic curve of the corresponding simple structure loaded by a unit force or moment.en.9. 63.'he stress developed in the vertical bar will have exactly the same value as the ~. 62. '.os· 6u 6sp X1 = 6u 6p1 Thus. ..l. When using the kinematic method for the construction of shear influence line the connection betwE.r. The kinematic method permits the easy determination of the shape of the influence line for any action. I : J ~~z ~ (b) _§~=1 ~~M Ptg.9 by some other method and in seeking those parts of the structure which must be loaded in order to provide for maximum or minimum values of the desired stress. the influence line for the shear at section C will again follow the shape of the deflection curve of the simple structure acted upon by the load unity X 1 • At points immediately to the right and to the left of section C both branches of this curve will have ·parallel tangents.r Rcdllndanl Structures 437 of tho simple structure adopted when acted upon by a unit momoot applied at this same cross section.9. and the ('quations negating the existence of a mutual displacement of two cross sections contiguous to C along the line of action of X 1 arc of the form Xlc5u + t5Jp=0 wherefrom X1= . The simplo statically determinate structure loaded with unit forces X1 permitting the construction of the Oc influence line appears in Fig.
russ will coi ncide with the deflection cu. 62. GJ.9 F'tg. AU these ordinates are negative Io r nnder tho action of X 1 tlle lower chord tends to move U{)\V(H"ds while load u nity P is directed downwards.U. 65. 65.. The corresponding simple statically determinate st ructure is given iu Fig. The same reasoning applying to the lcfLhnnd portion of the beam (Fig.rvo of the sa me chord of the simplo structu re subjected to the action of a unit load X 1 • 'J'he ordinates to t his curve at all the joints have been compuLcd in Ar t.ement along the li11c of ac.onstt·uction of influence lines for stre.er Statically 1 udtterminalc StruclrUC$ '!'he righthand part of tho beam (soc 'Fig.tion of the redundant constraint X 1 is nil Lakes the shape x.9b). u3.011) is represouted . 1 when load unity P travels aloug the lower chord or the t.9 .8). The standard equation showing that the displac. and tl1e curve itself is represent.&u +15rp = 0 wherefrom X.<\5 red undant in t he first degree appearing in F ig. Tho influence line for X 1 obtained l>y dividi11g the ord inaLcs to the 61. 63.9a).'!SCS or reactions at the supports of sLaticnlly indeterminate trusses.he top bar will be extended and the lowor one compressed (l~ig. its top ftbres will a lso be cxLended and the lowel' compressed. As an example.9 of the procedures described above and in particu lar tl1o one wo have en lied the method of elastic loads (sec Arts. To maintain it in equilibrium the moment developed by the horizontal bars must act in an opposito direction and therefore t.. let us tako t he trn.9a). G4.8 to 13.1 curve by (. The kinematic method may be conveniently used for tho c.ecl in Fig. 63. T ho crOII!S· sectional areas of all the members of tllis truss are the same.8. 13.kwise direction (Fig.8 using the elastic loads method. H .438 A nalysls of the Strnpl.~ = 6tt 6 111 6u Tho variation of & 1. The deflection gL·aphs &r 1 necessary for the construction of influUIH:6 Jines by the kinematic method may he obtained using any Fig. 45.9) is subjected to the action of a load unity X 1 tending to rotate it in a cloc.= .
may be o!Jt~ined by the s ummation of tho ordinates to the two other influence linos.=Nr +iV.lrtN / (Jr llu Simplt!r fledundnnt Slruclurt s 439 in Fig.~J As for tho value of this factor.(1 ~ ! /(1/lU(!tiCt: ~~· 0.9 Ftg. the stresses in all t he members of t he tr\lf!S will be readily obtained nsing the wellknown expression based on the prinr. 9 Ftg. Jet us construct the influoncc line for stross £ 23 acting in one of the lower chord members or Lho same trus!) (see Fig.x. it will be oa~ily found by ~'l ling ol'f the value of llv 1 at tho point of a pplication of th~ load X 1• 6 . ' 1 ! I I I : : + ~x. a~ Q7~GV. 67.032 O. G4.9.m O. anrl that for N 1K 1 • To illustrate tho abovl'.OJZ fine f. load X. 9 h follows that the infiuence lino for· tho stress N.9. 66. . p that for N.~ !'!tructnre of the nc tuRl load stross in the same member rosulting from tho application to the same structure of the unit. JZs Influence lint! for Lu · . whcro Ni = Nt = stress in bar i resulting from the application t o the sirnpl~. [n{liU'IICC T . Thus. 69..or L21 1 • Ftg. Gl>.9).J5Z Fig. Lbis inOllonco Jine will differ from the deflection <·urvc o( th"' simple structure only by a con!'ltant factor equal to ( .'fVI /.!1. ln{lflence lifle for j ' : ! x1 : j I : I o.!1 One<! tho influence Hoe for tho reaction at the t•edundant suppor·t has been round.3Gt : ' I I am 1 o.ipll• of suporpositiolt N. 68.
The lefthand portion Ftg. The completed infl11ence line for Lfa pertnining to the simple strncture of Fig. 66. f.9. 70. the oquilibriunr of the left porlion oi the truss requires that :l:M3·=A3dL~h = 0 whurort'om LP.9. the influence line for the second term or our equation (Fig.9. 67.9. The influence line for tho stress D3·~ obtained hy the same procedure is shown in Fig. Summing up the ordinates to the influence line for L~ with those to the influencL~ Line for we obtain tho influence line for the stress developed in bar 23 of the redundant truss. 07.A3d u h =.9b. in other words.lysls of lh~ SitlH•kr StaLicall/1 ln. 70. This iuDuence line appears in Fig. r23xl . Assuming that load Wli Ly P is tn the right of this section. wo obtain a graphical interpretation of the variation of L 23 X 1 or. 69.440 Jht<r.9 of the same influence line wi ll be drawn remembering that the two always intersect in the vertical passing through the origin of moments.!A 4 The righthand part of tho influence line for L~ will be obtainc~l setting off along the vertit'al passing through tbe left suppor'l an .9). 67.dt Urmlnale Struclurn Using the expression just mentioned we may write L2a=LfaIL2sX1 In order to obtnin the influence line Ior bolh terms of tha righLband part of thi~ oquation let us pass section II ns in Fig. 68.. 3d 9 d ord mate equa1 to h= 4 an <lonnecting this point with tho point of zero ordinate over the right abutment. This same influence li ue shows that the stress induced in !Jar 23 by tho unit load X 1 will equal Multiplying by this facLor all the ordinates to tho influence line for X 1 given in Fig.9a is given in Fig.
13 . 6n. 1._ 2. expressing mathematically that the an~. the coefficients <5.mpported or built in..J.hat of ils righthand support. d.. will be of the following form . TH£01\EM OF THREE MOJIH~ N'J'S A continuous beam is a statically tndetermlnate multzspan br(un on hinged supports.. may be free!)• ... 1.._..+l.10h) . The supports will bonumbered from left to right 0...10c. ole. X.10a represents several spans of a con tinuous hea m carrying an arbitrary sy~>tem of vcrticalloods. tho index of each span coinciding with t. 'fl1 + X. CONTINUOUS BEAMS t.. 8. g) and of that due to t. n .~6..1. n+" 611. 1..les of rotation of the aforemen tioned sections over the supports one with respec. 6n. Fig. .l1+1 + + X. A conjugate statically determinate system for a continuous beam may be obtained by elimination of constraints considered as redundant which prevent mutual rotation of two cont. n2 + x. 2. e. • • • .. diagrnm (Fig. Thus. The end spans may be cantilever.l'>. n + 1. l.iplying the 1~. 1.. f. n + X.1. ~ Anp = 0 (1.iguous sections over the supports or putting it otherwise. n.10b. .6... . by the introduelion of a hinge at each of those supports as 1odicatcd in Fig. 6. but may vary from one span to the olhcr.~. oLe. . It will be assumed that the moment or inertia re m ai n~ constant within each span. lz.. n+z will be obtained mull... _. n. all referred to the system of endsupported coujugate beams.10. 1.. l.t to the other remain nil ... n·u + . and the induded spons will be designated by L 1 .10) The coefficients to all lhc unknowns as well as the fre~ term wi ll be calculated with the aid of diagrams of the bonding moments induced by unit couples acting along the direction of each redundant constraint (Fig. .•. The equation.10.b.ho actual loads (Fig. l.10c) by thosl..IH5n...!' . . 1.. At least one of tho supports of a continuous beam must be able to develop a reaction along the beam axis.
ed IW/hls .~! .'til ~ I Xot •I ln II it l@ 2t ! ii1 " ///.. 1. .rMvJs lleam (0/ Conju.. ~.. @ J. f) n•l J.Cl)f]ti. '11 7 t t.'') ~1 .z ~n ·• ~ l 1 {.. l 4t x~... n1 Fig.qo te tmtt·suppor!.. f i.10 . . .
Theorem of Three .r.! +J... sLatic moment of Qn+t about tho vertical passing through the righthand support of span l"+•· The signs of these static moments will be the l':amo as tho:se of the eorresponding grapn areas._1 = slatic moment of Q. SubstiluLing the values thus found in equation (1. llt2 = 0 IJencl•. 'l. (t·'2'3· l." and accordiugly (J.10) and c. and On. 1.he ln and the ln+t spans (see F ig. all lhe coefficients lo the unknowns in equatiou ('I . f.70. e.10e and h we draw Yn = t.+tln+l .. g) On ... 2 i) 1 ( ln. 1..fn graph measured over l.10h) yields the following value ror the free torm of tho above oqnatiou /:o. 1.s <'>n.n. It 1 ln ·I ln I = EJ. 11 ..t:ln+1 l5n.n l }ll\4 Yr>+S  hn+l ln+l we obtain L'l.l~>=~ + n+l... ~. 611 ..\foments for Jlfn. T X n+t ~ ln+t n+l = (j''M &.~'..]n n n+S S'.+ I li...ion of the coeffldent..fn +t and i1fn+z (see Fig. diagrn rn ovor t. while Yn and Yn + t ar<' the ordinates to the ll..10e) by Lho Jfp gtaph (Fig...10c. [<roJH r'ig.. and n. ' 1 '2'3' 1 = llEJn 0"·" · i Eln. ) _ 2ln. .+ t l.1.10) wH.ollecting Lhe tet·ms we find n+s = ln+1 ) X r~f ' In J + 2X n ( ln J t..p = I BJ 11 ~~"y" + B J "+1 Qr~ttYtH 1 I In this expression Q n and Q.h the cxcept.10h).2 • M. u. TJle multiplication of the 11fn graph (Fig. tl2 =0 bn.'!l.¥ sM whoreS.+•· respectivoly. .+t 2 2ltt+t + Eln+t 1 ·y·3· 1 6BJ. +I aro the areas of the M 1. + lilUn+t l) 1 ( ln+t ) .he centroids or ~2.+ t reduce to zero. llf.+ l l Elnln Eln+1ln+l c. about tho vertical passing through the lofthand support of span l.Ti= Bln+i 1 • 2 X 3' 1 = ln. 1. d.. tt+t.1 . Jl.
1. n 1 ln+t..mo· rnenLs at the supports oi the redundant beam Mnt• Jf.ln+l ) + 1n 1l + 1 Afu•·l . will take the following form '" l.I 1 n~t = li .. the equation of three moments becomes i\.n.. and R£ for tlw imaginary t•uaction of the central support.IH) + · Afll+tln+l =  H~t' inn... will be exactly equal to the number of the intermediate supports.10).. +i r. (3.. [ ..lH . The system formed by ali the equatious of three moments consti· tules a particular form of the system of canonical equations. The numlJer of such equations Lhat. if 1.r.o. be written for a beam. +J .. c. universally known as tho equation or three moments. and X.. all the supports of wllich are hinged.10) is eq11al to six times the imaginary reaction R. respectively.. Its . At thu same time each of t... n.1 6s~l+1. n +t.r 1 rept·esent the bending.. + 2Mc (l~.10) becomes thon j frJI._ 1l . This reaction will be reckoned posit ive when thu loads just mentioned cause an extension of the lower f1bres of tlw beams.... the above equation.t 1._2 = ln. which would arise a L the nth sup pot•t of the conjugate system of endsupported hea IllS if the spans coutigIIOUS to that support were loaded with the areas of Lhc bending moment diagrams due to the actual loads acting over these same spans {see Fig.10) where J\1 r...10) J[ the cross!<cetional areas of 11ll the spans of the beam remain constant. of cquat. . The simultaneous solution of these equations will yield all the values of the unknown bending moments at these supports. (lrl + l.: t>S~f. + 2. n·•l {2. i...Continuou s Beams As the unknowns Xn~o X. .a.M.. All the three equations (2. and Jfn stand for the mo men Ls ovt>r tho lefthand .:. and .hese equations establishes the relation between the bending moments acting over three consecutive sup· ports of the wntinnous beam. 2lrcn '· 1 ( JI" + .10) and (4:10) are known under the name of equations of three moments. !Yl. H.I· 1> ./lf.. Equation (3. lz. ·}J .10h}.1J n . \ (3..tu) ~· Muln ·"· 611~ (4. and lR ror the leng th of the spans to the loft and to the right of the contra\ suppol't. tho central and the righthand supports. Therefore the equatious relate particularly to this nth support.10) The righthand part.ion (3.1 = J n = ln+t = Jn+~· etc. Each of them expresses the idea that the mulual angular rotation of two adjacent cross sections over the nth support is nil.. ilfv .
n1+DnQn.n+l =0 wherefrom Dn = Qn.. these beams being acted upon hoth hy tho actual . Theorem of Three Moments 445 groat advantage residt:>s in the fa ct that it necessitates neither the construction of unit moment graphs nor the computation of the displacements caused hy tho unit actions and the actual loads.t (7 . 2.10a. n .n+t· Such an clement is rept:esented in Fig. 2. These same expressions may be used for t. These .ny su.XIlressions reactions Dn are reckoned positive when directed upwards..h hy tho applied loads and the moments at tho s11pporls just determined..1 .pport is equal to the difference between the shears acting over two conttguou. The support reactions Dn will be determined as follows : isolating an infinitely Fig. Qf the shears and of the reactions developed at each support. 2.10) ln tho above e.computations will be carried out assuming that each span is simply supported at its ends and is acted upon bol. 3.~e or to the fall in the shear diagram over the corresponding support (Fig. The same reaction Dn may be obtained if both spans meeting ~ver the support in question are regarded as simple endsupported beams (Fig.10).:fnl X (5. Thus.10. When all the moments at the supports are known one may proceed with the determination of bending moments within the spans.10) where x is the distance ft·orn the lefthand support of this span.~ cross sections located both sides of the support under consideration.ho construction of the corresponding diagrams.10b). The following expressions will be used M = M 0 + Mnl + Mn. Projecting oo the.10 small element ovel' the support under consideration from the rest of tho beam we see that the left face of this elomcn tis acted upon by the s he~~r Q.10) f)/1 Q = Q~+ MnMtt1 ln (6. Hence the numerical value of this reaction will be equal to the ri. n+J Qn.ivertical all the forces acting on this element we obtain Qn. simplifying thereby very considerably the analysis of continuous beams. nt while its right face by Lhe shear On. in a continuous beam the reaction at a.
10) and (10.o i Ls axis.10) Doth rormulns (7. It will he rcmornbered that t he :. D~.ion D. .JI1 n .10) permit lhc compulnLion or all thC' SIIJljlort roncLi<lns or the c.i ng tho vu lucs given lJy ex.* Pig. dC'voloped nt tho right.(>d fl'om the equilib" dum of the endsupported beams just rnom~il>nLIII.L nnd D~. nR ln+J (H.pressions (9.n (8.ontinuotlS hoam when the moment~ nL tho supports 11rC' known. in other words D.H)) Jn L roiJur..10 (~.hearing forco acting at thC' support of a ca ulilC'ver lleam is always equal to L ht> projecLion of all fo rces acting on lhi:::.. will be givou by the su m of Dn . computing Lhe difference heLwoon tho shears acting on l>Ol.10) or. tho bC'uding Hlolllouts nt the supports being disregarded.n arc tho reactions nt t he common SUJ>po r1s both hea rns due solely to the action ot actual loads.lo4fi Conlinuous /Jeam$ londs and the moments at tlte supports already determined.h sides of this support. unll DnFI could al~o lJ(I decluc. In t his caso roact..Mn } 11L D nn • .' 1.no + . + •Tho magnitude of Dn 1. beam in the direction normal \. The rencLion at the support or a eant. in other words. .iJovorencl spa11 will bo determined using expression (7...tln .10) in equation wo obtain (10.. 1n+ I . end of tho lefthand beam and of D 11n devdoped at the tort ond of t he righthand beam or.= DnL+ D.10) in this exprl•ssion D nLDo +!tln.10) or wlwro D~•..
T/tr. 5.. 3.\!!orrumttt 44. 4. 4. providrll Ftg.ioos for thf:'.7 Let us now examine tllo wnlinuous beam appearing in Fig. 4.1 0) thus obtaining aU the da La nece~sary for the construction of stress diagrams.1.ic drawing of the beam iJldicating all the applied load~.pan.. ·1. Cunc.he axis of the beam (Fi{r. tlre aoss section over support . rt•placo lho huiltin end by a. . lofthand suppoxt will also tend towards t. 2. Tn this C.s. This moans that t. If one of the end spans of the beam is built in.10a when the length of tho leftend span of this beam reduces gradually to ze.It follows Lh. vVril..lnding we may recommend l. 4.ro.1 0) and (G.ic curve at.he following sequence or opcr·at.he end of the heam npponr·ing. Determine the bonding moments and the shears along tltt' spans usin~ expressions (5. analysis of ('. tange.T hree .he elast.c a schcma l.orrm of .10a ht~coml:'s ftxerl when tho length l 1 o( iLs end span Lends towards zero (Fig.lt the analysis of continuous beams with fixed ends may be carried out using tho same equation of three moments.ba l. .nt to t.Jse tht>. Trac.l will suiTor no rotation whatsoever.e [or each intermediate suppor~ of the beam an equation of three momenl.10.10b).10 a builtin end is replaced by an additional freely supported :.in Fig.10c) .ho spans. thf:'. oj uro length. N~1mber from le(t Lo right all the supports as well ai'J all l. which indicates t. Proceed with tho simultaneous solution of all these equations obtainin&" t hus tho magnitude of all the bending moments at tho supports (except the end ones which remain zero).ontinuous bt'ams~ 1.n additional simply supported spnn of zel'o lengtll. 4.
= M 2 • In addition Wt' hnvo M 0 = 0 and z. 5.9. (C) I 2 Jx. S. ( (J J Q A ..i.10) or (10. (d)~ (e! "o'' ··t''§ ·' ·' ''·· t lll f i l1 ~ ~ =~ . .10 Solu tion. 7. Trnce the M and Q diagrams for a continuous boam of constant cross section rcpre.10).Ob) and form for support 1 U1e equation of throe moments.10) loads t o Mol 1+2M (l t+l2)+ Mzlz= 6R[ The beam being s. = lz = l. = pt r.ed in Fig. 1~ .moments over supports 1 and 2 will have th e samo values.z P ~ 40 ••:::: ~ ~ p trL~ . Compute all the support reactions using CXJJressions (7. .A.. . 5.Corllitluous JJca. 'l'he accuracy of the diagrams obtained will be checked using one.l0a. r lr =l 2 J l 0 Jm lr = l (b) I J .of the methods described in Art.sent.ms I S. tht. Expres>~ion (4.y mmetrical and symm(•kically loaded. J'roblem I. 6. wltich means that M. . . Construct tho Mp diagram re}tarding each span as a separate ondsupportc:d beam ( Fig. . ~ JP l p ® Fig.
(  2 :.!_ .Blculation of ~>h earing flli'CI'S nt.. tJ1o middle of the c. .he left half of th e ~hear hnlf will btl ol>lained immrdiately.10e repre. The value of this rotation can be obtained eliminating supports Q and 9 and applying to the simple statically doterrninat.!!onts the given beam together with all the loads nnd rc:~clions a cting thereupon. the aneular rotation u11 of the cross section at load point must equal zero. 10. it"' rigllt 'flu• a bove d a ~a arc s uftlc iont for the cons tn1ction of t. the top fibres to\•er the supports will be extended and the bottom oues compressed. Thus.t. 5.. 5 llln II t thl' same. all the cro!l. 10) 3P 3P DoD3= .10) M ~ .e system thus 29 .entral spun wo can procee.li(' moment at.40 .sic>n t7. for t.'> sec tions of the beam. 5.t =  8 3P 12 wt.40 o40 !~) = Dt = Dz= .t 0d.. This diagnm boing symmetrical .d with th e cnn1'l t:ruc: t.£= 1J>l l 2 40 3Pl ( 3Pl) Knowing the nll uos of tho bending moments ot tho supports as well as that nf J .=aO+ l . + 40'""'".40 2 l 3Pl ( 3PZ) _!_ 2 ol i n~tram appea ring in Fig. Fig.s~ :c .l we ftnd 3Pl 400 3P Q.o c.40 Both bcnlling moments M 1 and M 2 thus obtained being negative. Let us check the accuracy of the M diagram which must provido for deflect ions consistent with the sti pulations of the pro blem.itlll I'Jf the IHmding moment diagram for tho whole boam (Fig.1. .. tlrefrom Il'lt=M2= 3Pl .3P l 1 2 4 40 + "'40.s that the wholo system is in equilibrium . In order to construct the bending mon1cn t diagram let us cletermino now tho momont at load point P using formula (5.!. Throrcm of Three M oment$ 449 lienee and co nsequently 2Jlt • 2l +Jl<J . time ox pression (6. Since the boam and the load distribution are symmotrical . The rencUons at the supports will he given lo ~ oxpres."10 nnrl for tb(• s pan J2 we have betwl)om support 1 and the load point Q =!!.10) permits t.he s pan O·.. It is ohviou.
Problem 2. 1:1 =4m. the crosssectional areas of this beam vary from span to span.!) =15 2 3 2 :..~. Construct the M and Q diagrams for the continuous beam appea•·ing in Fig.ions of three moments for these two supports are .10c). The bending moment diagt·am duo to this unit moment appears in Fig. 5. Solution. 3 ~~ 3 "< 4 4 3 " 2 3 . .s x 3.10/.98 t onmetres nnd M 2 = L4G tonmetres.Lions ~M:~+2M2=5 and 6M1 +28M2 =2~l these two equations yield M 1 = 1. The equat._32 It /2 lz lrlr lz/2 6SM 6"iM _M. J and s:~ 0 =0 we f\nd ·~':! : z=2. The terms of the righthand part o( the equation of three moments will be derived from the diagrams of t he bending moment~ due to the actual loading. 6.10a.f) 2M (~ 1_i )_5 X 4=_fiX15~1i x ·IS 2 2J 2/ J J 6·21 4/ Upon collection of krms and other simplifications these two b(~CCim6 + eqn. The schematic drawing of the beam with its builtin end rotllaced by an additional span of zero length and all the supports and spans duly ni!Jllhered from left to right appears in Fig.· 3.. 12ilm. considering ear.urately.M1 It lf l l l '&SM 6S"" (1+_2 )+Mz"2= . 3 +..M2 (~+.. 6. =r· 2 +y· :r·. M3 =5 tonmetros. The diagram for the cantilevering f'nd will he const1·uct•:d in the same way as for a simple cantilever beam._u+2.r s·... 5.3+5x3 (a+.5 tonmetres (see Fig.2!... J 3 . !. 11 =0.:. those acting along the cantilever span arc alrondy known.10c) we ohtain vp 1 [ 3J>l = EJ . and M 2).VIultiplying this graph hy tho h•wtling moment graph <lue to the actual loads and reactions (Fig.1 sxa( 3 +3) sx a 2 3=l::l . the only two unknown moments are those at the first and second supports {M.450 Continuous Beams obtained a unit moment at load point P. . :. The bentling moments acting along the spans may now be easily founrl using oxpression (5.3 /2 /2 Ja · · J3 l2J2 l3!3 Stwing that M 0 =0.10).r·. 6.~.10c). 1 2 =2J. S3 .h span as a separate endsupported beam (Fig.r·4 · ~. lz+ 2. The bending moment M 3 being equal to .10b.:. ~t f = .=IH 2J'~<1 1 (>+M ~= u 2 _ ti ( 15) (i 21 x 2J M.!L)+u3 .4o ·!2·3 1+ 1 2 ( 1Pl ~to  3PL ) 1 ~to 2 ·2· 1 = = l J 4~~21 ( t+f{) =0 which indicates that all the computations were carrie<l out >tcc.. 6.=~.
98 3 x+ 1.'d by Q=3._.2052 =0. . 72 tonmetre 2m~ .S X 22= . 4 1. 615x .1.2. M =oH.d fo1· the bending momnnt. as. mt•t rt's At this c.20" :t=r= .. of Three M omen.5x.aine.542.d bending UlOJnent d iagrnm is repre~nted in Fig.23 tonmetre M=.615 1 .1o6 + 5+L46 x= 2 4 = t...f. 6.o the bending moment c.46 z.615 X 2.ross l!ection the h<'uding moment will rt>ach its maximum* Mma x = .542.385X2=0.982.1 .4G+ fvr 3m ~. 1 .74 tonmetres rn Jlf=1 0jx+t..3 X 2 (x 1 )1.38l> X 'l = 5.23 tonmetro M=4.1.98.<..46+3. 6.5 X 1..ted using the above data is reprc5ented in Fig.1. Span l2 Q= 2.3~ .2051.' st.6 .2 .46 tonmdrcs " .21tx3 = 4.24 tons Spar~ 23 f< )r O~x ~ 2 m Q=3. ~ (j for x= 3 m {or x = 6 m Span 2J for x = 2 m for 2m . m +for x=. first derivative of the expressions oht.ts Span 12 fur 0 ~ x .98r...t. .t{ · =·J. 6153 X2= ..x . 385 tons Tlw shMring force will becom•J zero at tht> c.) X ror x= 4 m M=4 .!1~3 x=11.r .24x M = 11.982.6{5 X 1.2.46 + 3..x = ·1 .4. 982.24x for :p~3uJ M = 1. 385 t ons The shearing force di<Jgram construc.ross soction dutermin•..i .lO.615 tons for x =2 m Q ~ 3 ...2.26 tonrnctrc~..2 m 5+ .1011.ltti1 .5. The magnit\lile of th!l shearing forces acting within the spans will be given hy the.982.0.: :{ tn M=  5 .1{ = .6153x=0 wherefrom 3.6153x lor x =O Q=3..46 7 3 . 1'heorem. 24 x 6= 1...x~ 4m Q= . iOe.98+ 1.5x2 . + " By maximum we mean here any point corresponding to a horizontal tangen~ t.24 X 3 = 5.00 tonmetres The complete..4.~1.11rve.
~ ·... f('_ __ 1 ..L..... 385) ..L~ .385 X 10+3 X 2x 7 i· 5 X 11 = 108 . : I Z  J Fig..I...2413 ......855 + 7..I. .855 ton:s n3 =5(..V.24+5.:. .oms Tho r~?actions nt the support will be obtained rts pr·eviously usJng furmula (7.. 7.L.i.Continuous /Jr... fd Of l:l' = 2.U.LLU...10 lt'I)!'I'SeJllS lh~ h~:nm with all the IO:tds and react ions ac..J. I I I I 1 . tons.. 1 :· · I .J. ~g+105.U......:.U.O::::::::.:..U..6t5(2..1: ... l.j1L:...33.= 0 + ..3X 25=13.: i'f" <..)Si I .855 X 6 7.. 911.:.U.I.W.U. <t>' 'j . :® ...~ 2.~ tous at ....J...W..2. I 1 1 .24 ~ 0 ~M 1 =I ...t•l n<~ c hf.J. I I 1 I I . tO) Dr .. 6.24j=< 5...J.I._i ~.ting thereon ..'Ck whclb cr tho l'tptil i br ium condi tion!' arn salisfioo Fig.. D2 =3.LLJU.. ...108 ..385 ..... . I : I I) S S..!rTT"!'TTTTT:~b::nnrfTT~"l"l:~l.!)8 .
r i.a.y elimination oJ supports 2 and 9) is rep•·esented in F ig.£ co11stant cross section appearing in Fig. This defloot. Tho bending moment diagram induc. 7. i · t. 7.486+3.l Puinls Method Let us cout1·ol also tho ru:cumcy o[ the M diagram using the mothutl Lased on the consistency of <lenections. <>X.>ction of the section situated <l iruetly over support 3. "'' (::J . We may .61. the support pree.:> XS l!:J ~ 2 . 2.195 + + whkb intlic..}j 2 4 2 1 ..xEJ·r. 0 . For this purpose let us compute tht\ deOI.· Ftg. 23 + 2X I 5.10a assuming that only the nth span is loaded. 74+10 X4. THE FOCAL POINTS METHOD The method doscribed in the preseht article becomes particularly interesting when c.46+7 2 l ."16 4 X 5 ..lon mu$t ho ncco:>stu·ily oil. 1'i«• Foc.07518 . l'o.1 X .X .2 X 4 X 1.26) · ·H>) X i J. .2. .10g we obtain 6s= X ~ ( 2 X 10 X 1.747 X L98l:x 'o( 2 ~f+i {2 X'i X 5..nws that all the computations were carried out correctly. 6. 98+2 X 7 X 4. .) = 0 .ontinuous beams with a very large number of spaus must be dealt with or when only a few of Lhe spans carry the loads.· = ...e<l by a vertical unit. :! X 2 ( O 2 ~ 2 • 1 ) 1 5 2 X"]f X .10g. Multiplyil1 g the (•rdinatcs to the curvo of the rosultant m<~ml'liLS M by the ili11gram c•f Fig.26+2 X 4 X i. (15.10.lmling 11..10 Let us examiue the beam o. load acting r~t the c<HTUsponding section of 11 simple statically ilelermina&e beam (obtained l.X. ~6+2 X2 X 0. .10.uy vertical movement of tho h(•a nl.23+4 X 0.
hnt the ratio heLwoen Lhes~ moments will remain const ant as Jong as the spans l 1 and l 2 remain unloaded.l{i. (2) lhe ratio depends solely on span lengthl:! l 1 nnd lz. Consequen tly. (a) Support 1 The equation or three moments becoltlcs Molt + 2M. in other words. The distnnr.l:!) ~~ The latte1· rel ation shows that (1) the bending moments M 1 and M 2 at Lwo uei~hboudng supports are of opposite signs. This diagram shows that in the loft half of the span there il'. The l ocaLion of the focal point. hut since M 0 = 0 + le) 1. (l.Mzlz= 0 hence 2 (l. 1. rcrnains uninflu~nced by tho lengths or t.101>.lled. a point where the bending moment Leco mas zero. the bending moment at the focrd point F 2 will remain always ntl when the latter condition is fu.moment~ which are as yet unknown.c bending momeu Ls at the ftrst and seMnd supports may vary iu t~rms both of the tUOOllnL and of the distribution of th o loads.he ~pans fnrther to lh!! right. the bending moment 1 l1z is in ab~olut~ value four times as large as the bending moment l'vf1 • The bouding moment diagram for span lz has the shape indicatod in Fig. Th. 7. but i!'l comt>letely uninlluenced by the magni tude of the lflOmcnls a11d loads acting along the spans further to t he right.Continuous Beams eli min ate all the redundant constraints opposing mutunl rotation of adjacent cross sections at the supports. This point is kuown as the lefthand focal point of the second span and will be hereafter designated by F 2 • The location of this ])oint along tho span depends on the value of K 2 which we s hall call the lefthand focal factor for the second span. Jn order to find these momcnls let us write consecutively the equations of three moments for each of the supp orts.e u 2 between the focal point F 2 and the nearest support to tlte lefL is given by Z: . In the particular cnse when l 1 = l 1 the factor K 2 becomes equal Lo 4. provided wo replace Lheso constraints by the corresponding bending. or. nor by the loads these spans may carry.
= Th~ [2+ lns (2. l 2 and l 3 remain unloaded.chod 455 and in the particulat' case when l 1 = l 2 = l u2 = 5 z (b) Support 2 The equation of thr ee moments becomes M1l2 +2M2 {la + Zs) + Msln = 0 i Snhst. 7. M '' Ks 'l'hus. the focal factor for span 4 will be given by exactly the !'arne expression as the one for span 3 with the only difference that nll the intervening indices are increased by one.)+M.. = 0 z: + Substituting in this equation _MKa for 1 M 2 we obtain as pre3 vio usly 1 M43 =[2+~ (2)]=K. Consequently.. the general expression for t he focal factor Kn relative to Lhc leftha nd foc.al point of span n will he Kr. for the first span of a simply supported continuous beam we bave M 0 =0 and .=M·=oo Mo (11. (c) Support 3 The equation of three moments will be in this case Mala+ 2Ma (1 3 l. Within the left hnlf of this span there wiJl again exist a focal point where tho bending moment will remain zero as long as three spans lt. Tlu Focal Points M.l..~: we find wherefrom  ~= l2 + 2Mt(la+ls) . M3l3 = 0 M2 1 Ms=[2+~(2)] =K3 ls K2 It is clear that the ratio is again independent or the length of L he spans further to the right as well as of the loads applied to these spans.Mn1 Mn Ln Kns x.L. The shape of the bending moment diagram nlong the third span will be as shown in Fig.10) above expression permits the computation of all the focal factors one tlfter the other.1) ] = .10c.10.2.i. Thus.tuting in this equation M 1 = . .
This diagram shows clearly that in the right half of each span there exists equally a certain point where the bending moment remains nil as long as the span under consideration and the spans located further to the right carry no loads.+12l co l 2 It should be always remembered that the lefthand focal point is a point situated along the axis of a continuous beam at which the bending moment remains nil as long as the span under consideration and all the other spans to its left remain unloarkd.10) ruay be used for the determination of focal factors pertaining to continuous be.) = 21l. 'i .iou (12.!Od. 'l'he bending moment diagram for the unloaded righthand spans will have the sl1ape indicated in Fig.easonlng in exactly the same way. All the other righthand focal factors will be determined in succession with the aid of equa1.ams with fixed ends if these ends arc replaced by additional spans of zero length.10) When tho righthand extremity of a continuous beam is hiugosupported the focal factor becomes intinit.. we shall obtain an expression giving the value or the righthand focal factor.J where 1(0 = oo for the left end if the additiona. For the second span >vo obtain as already ml'ntioned Kz=2+~ lz (22. The expressions (11.ely great just as in the case of a hingesupported left end. Thus. These points are Lhe righthand focal points and the expression giving the value of the righthand focal factor which we shall indicate by [(~ will be derived from that for the lefthand focal factor keeping in mind thl:IL the numbers allotted to the supports and spans decrease from right to left (12.l span is hingesupported. B.456 Continuous Beams which indicates that the lefthand focal point of the first span coincides with the leftend support. Let us now investigate those spans of the same continuous bea m whieh are located to the right from the loaded ones. It is worth mentioning that this is the maximum distance which can separate the focal point from the corresponding support.10) and (12. for a continuous beam with a builtin left end the value of the focal factor K 1 will be giver\ by K 1 =2+~(2. . As l 0 = 0 we obtain K 1 = 2 which means that the focal point will be situated one third of the span to the right from the wall.10).
..6A~ for support n + + + Mnlln +2M..6R~~ = ._ 2 and .10) we fi nally obtain MntK...._. ( __1_ )] M1'11 + MII [ .K.10. The eq\tations ot: three moments for eat~h o( the t.+M. ln) M. ... K. = .. 8.. • <.. = .he Jonded span become: Ior support n .. arul keeping in mind expressions (11... t·~".. 2 K.. Fig." 1 6B1 ....+l = 6B{.10 .Mn I YJ11. for t.... +... are the imaginary reactions of tba left..and of the righthand supporLs of the nth span respectively.= M..M'n+t by ~heir values expressed in terms of tho focal factors "" llfn1 d M n+l = .. it is equal to zero as we have alrendy scon. z.' l. span .10.. Replacing the bending moments at supports M.. _l t... Let us apply t he focal points method to the determination of t. (2)J + Mn= _BAf. ... = r: 6A 1 . . assuming that only one span of this beam (~ny. 1 1. 8.. The Focal Points Mttlwd 457 Af!. (ln +ln+t) +Mn+lln+l = 6R~6B~ In these expressions A~ and B:. M .t[2+ l.t = ..~~:J = 68~ 1 Mn..._ 1 +M.2..l.ho minimum distance.1 Kn+t we obt ain MTI 1 [ 2 (ln1+ ln)  M....1 Mn2l.._t 2M"t (l.. " '.2+tn+l t..he bending moments aL the supports of a continuous beam nppllat•ing in Fig..._..10) and (12.... L. ~:~J + Mnl..6A~ [ 2(ln+ ln+l).an Kn.) is loaded.wp supports limiLing t._tln + Mn Oi"iding both parts of these expressions by l. .
the vah1e of the focal factor for this span will become infinitely great. say.75 K3 = 2t~ (2. the bending moments at all the other supports will be found easily using the expressions for t he focal factors. Having thus determined the bending moments at the supports of the loaded span. ...!. '= K4 K2 =2+~(2~)=4 fo<~al and De~erm i ne in the same way t~ using formula (12.·l) . and provided the left·end support is hinged..1{.) = lz 4 using expression (13.) l n( K n K .xon:1 } Mrilln \KnK~1) 111. z.10) the righthand factors for spans 1.... Using exprcs~ion (11. Ki=2+~ la (z. When !(.ance x from support 1 (l~ig...1) (13.t. Determine the bonding moments M 1 and M 2 aL ~he supports of span 12 carrying a load unity P situated a dist.K11 A. t1 2 (K 2Kj1) ' The bending moments at tho supports of the loaded span wi II be found M = 2 6 (8iK2A~) l 2 (K 2 K. Problem t.= (B~~) ln (K. The bending moment at the left~end support becomes nil and the value of the bonding moment at the other support of the span becomes indetermin~te..458 Contlrtuot~s B eams Solving these equations for M.ck) = 61J. increases indeftnitely we obtain 6 M.. l~ M3 =CO M.K.(>rS for spans l 1 aml 12 Kt=Z:=co. This indetermination will be eliminated dividing both the numerator and the denominator of the expression by K.nd Mn we find __ G(.10) If the loads are located over one of the end spans.i.) =4 o:> 3.!._1 a..= 6(B..10) M _ _ G (A{KiJJi) . 9.. the left. one. Solutton. When several spans of a continuous beam are loaded directly tho problem will be solved using the principle of superposition.10) determin~· the )(1fthand focal fac.10a) .
59 in which . Required the complete annlyJ<is of a sixspan c. 9. t sing t hese Wl' exp ressions find (lx)(2l:r)x 3 n.r (l~ .:. (21z) ""' (l:r) (2lx) x 3! (z +l) 61 :t: {l~zll) O1=~·2 ar = {s~.IJ .. 75.10.L..r) • 1 ..2) ) 6[ 6l X .. 9.>e r(lx) l 6! the bending mornen~ graph represented in Fig.. ·l 2 f . .~.z) (21z)z x (l2z2) r..!.z2) (l.·10a). Begin with computing the lehhar1d focal factors 1 1siug expres sion (H. I M groph !b) a= x3 .. J I I ~ t"'"1 =. The FocaL Potntt M~tlwd 1. 1 _X (l.10} .. .:....10b).__ _.L . 6l M 1 "'" L(4X3...751) = (1x} (:llx) r X 3..L.ontinuous heam uniformly loaded o.L.r2) (l . 10. _ x(l!.10 Solzttion.·er the whole leugllt o[ spnn 4 ( Fig._!"'"''.Lj. F ig.:.JC . [ 6l X 461 J 14Vl 4z (l2 .r) 121z) z 1412 t4l Problem 2.2.""' = 4l..L.
' K~ = K 1 .460 ContinuOu$ B4tUit8 'fhere i:..dlug Is represented in Fig. no need to compute tho focal factors for the following spans.~. 10.q ra>_A 0 ::r: I Ptg. The riRbthand local factors will be computed beginning with the rlgb. ~ L·i=~~ 3 Formula (13. .tend span of the beam.K2 = 4 K4 ~ K3 ""' 3.e bending moments u thl' supports 3 nnol 4 . 10.10) yields immediately tb.10 in~ va luo~ Using lhis diagram as the imaginary load di agram we shall find the Coll'lwfor the ~upport ro~ctlous A[ =D[ =.10b .75 'J'Itu bending moment diagram inducod in the conjugate statically •loternwlnte bOtlm by the given Lon. All the spans of the beam lleing o[ the same lengt11.co K&. wo hn"f.
.a. Let q be the uniformly distributed dead load per unit . moments and the vah1es of tho foc..10c.10 will be usually considered uniformly distributed hut tho position of the live loads may vary quite considerably. '!'he construction of such cur..'he control of fibre strCtsses in co:ntinuous beams and th ~ choit:e of their crosssectional dimensions wj.f!erent load:ing conditions.q l 2 .. f11.al factors all the ot. 12(1 1~ 41 I 4t 2 Ms=· K~~780ql 2 T = 3. J\1o = 0 K2 780 " 3. Bending _llfoment Envelope Curve.he bending moment envelope curves.ves can be best explained using as an example the Lhreespan continuous beam represented in fig.nin at different poinls under di.l ~ A . 11.10.3.ll frequently require the knowlt~dge o£ the extreme values the bending moments may aLI. Jf at every cross section of Lhe beam we set: of[ two ordinatesone r~presenting the maximum value of the bending_~ moment (jl:fmax) and the nthor its 1(1inimum value (M n11n) and if we connect these ordinates by two smooth curves we shall obtain what is usually referred to as t.1 46t Knowing the magnitude of these.. The dend loads . 10.? 2 Ftg.10a.::= q/21.r bending moments.120ql ..K = 208qZ 15=7801Jl 3 Mo 11 i 11 Af 1 = .rmittcd the consln1ction of the dingrnm appeA ring ln Fig.= . at the supports of the lleam are obtained with no difficulty Af3 11 2 4 11 2 Mz=. 3.10.hP. M6 = (J 1 'h& data so o'IJtainod have pp. BENDING MOMENT ENVELOPE cunnS fJ.
12•.462 Continuous Beams length of the beam. Suppose q = 2 tons per rnell!c and p = 3.75 tons per motre. .r rert.10 is SJH'ead O\'E>. which occupies either the whole length of the beam or ( f1} Fig. or is completely absent.ain SJJan lengths only. and p the live load also uniformly distributed.
10b. sum them up and then add them algebraically to tile ordin<~l.he dead lond. V'·le shall thus obt. The diagram of the bending moments due to the dead load {iS given in Fig.he live loads and add it to the ordin11Le nt this same eroS!\ scclion due to t.10. b and c represents the hL•nding Fig.10 moment diagrams due to the live load occupying successively the f11·st.aiu for each cross section the ordinat.8. third spans. Bending Moment Envelope Curves 463 The bending momellts at the supports may be determined using ei ther the equations of three moments alternatively or cnn be deduced from the position of focal po~nts.h section tho sum of all positive ordinates due to t. 11 . '.orepresonting the maximum bend ing moment M max thai. the gecond a nd the. 13. Fig.!'hereafter we must pick out for each of the cross sections under consideration aU the negative ordinntes that may ari&:~ u nder the offcct of the live loads. 12. Le.t us proceed now with Lbe construction of the envelope curve. can be produced by tho given loads.10a. For this purpose we shall f•rst take at eac. Tho .e induced at the same section by the dead load.
1250 0 . +~ I II "' +0.~ way .OG25 + fJ .3 0 . 13. connected togtltht•r.0700 + O.1609 0.2)= 10. 0687 0. 006H 0 .037:>0 0.0. 0950 LO 0. 5 n.08625 0 0 . L.04688 0.OH!) 0 .O!lG38 0.0175 (I 0 0. 2148 0 . 'l'hese tables COh laiu da ta pormitt.375 .0 . . 175 ~0 .b (1.00&25 0.0550 +0. 01875 0.325 .04375 0. 1932 0.tions we shall fmd the ilfmox and M min ordinnt<.05773 0.0250U 0 .3. t49l 0.125 0.Envelope curves for continuous heam~ of constant cross section and evun span lengths aro usually constructed usi ng appropriate tables which simplify the operation very consider·ahly .05000 0 .0 . L . L 11 Bendi ng momen(s M I). +6 I . 250 0.ordinate will represent the minimum bending momtlnt possible under the given loading conditions. 08118 (1.025 .3537 0.t) ll. 525 . 7 f t. 4 0.9 0. 75 0 10.ing the computation of the M and Q ordinates due ho~h to dead and Jive loads.0·125 .OU27 0.575 0.10) for a twospan .2624 0 .01250 0 . for instance.4369 0 . T hus.03125 0. 001~ (1.03000 0 .1491 0 .09375 OJJ8250 0 .375 0.0287 0.0 .0..07361 O.2794 0.3.275 +0. 95 0 .0()375 0.0323 +0.)75 (1.09500 0.3)+( .0675 .1359 0 . the M max and 211min ordinates for section 1 ov~r the fi rst support will ho . 375 {t. 225 0.0064 O./ I I 0.0450 1(1 . 6250 Support react ion A1 = 11. Shearing rorecs f.1182 0.475 0.425 0.0200 .beam simply supported at its end!!. will form the two t'nvelope cu rvt~s desired (Fig. L .0.5277 0.2 tooru ~trt•s Mmtn = 4 + ( .0 1523 0.0874 0. 00138 0 0. 02:~4 0.00750 0 .5757 (1. 075 I L.625 1.2500 1 0 .1 0.2 t onmet ros Hcpeating tho ::~arne operation for a suffiCient number of scr.0007 0 0.3437 0.0703 +0.2 0. Table 1.4. 12500 0 . Here under we present such a tablo ITablc 1.0625 0 .85 0. 48• 14 O.()544 0.3913 0.10 " T 0.'1fmrn re~ulting Mmox =L0+( .0193 0 .0 (1 . T he shea t'ing forctl~ t•nvelope curve~ can be obta ined in exactly the sam~.0675 +0.8 (1.0 .0.04688 0.\'5 which.2)=2.(13875 0.10).
loadjugs may lead to greater (or smalle.4l from tho leftend support and of the rea~tion A 1 at t.s also the determination of the s upport reactions <. The formula to be used is the MUle as for Q.r) values of bending moments. n~~~ 1 ' 1111! ffi 1'11!1.e than those constructed as explained ahove. 1 Fig. 14 .3. This insulation may be applied to nny part of the ct>iling (Fig. 14. This exprP.10 contained in hand books usually take caro of partial loadings of.Mq +Mp 308[)3 .oJumn.10 c.l'ah h~s sueh as Tablo 1.10\.6 column. different !!Pans when such partial . For this reason the envelope curves obLain~d with tho use of such tables arc even more accurat.h. In exactly the same way it i t is desired tc> find the maximum she~tr.10).ai nod in (.ssion may he rewritten as follows M r. !'pan lengths. l • 10'" . 1 ~ q=fiOOI<g/m P•ZOOkg/m t• 1om ~ 1 .ulua lly l11adod with a layer of Insulating matorial at lho rato jin~1 ~I u11. A l'einforoed ccmcreto doublosjlan ceiling beam carries the wei~ht of t·ho ceiling itself amounting to GOO kg per motre of beam longt. Jlequired thomos~ un[avourable values of the hendin .6 coh1mn. S olution. loads.iue to the applicatiou of hotb dt>ad and live. The sarne table permit. tho coefficient 0 shou ld be sclcctl·d in tho .:aql2+ ~pl2 =. 10) Q =(vq+<'>p) t where q = < luad load per unit length p = li ve load per uniL length o. + l'roble111.[ :WO kg per metre or tho btam. and if it is t he minimum valw of the shca1· that is needed this sa me coc£liciont shall be takon from the . '. p. sh ~at'S and support reactions as compa. v and 6 = coefficients whoso values are drawn f1 ·om the aforesaid taLios.red to t hose due t.g wonwnt and of the shear at a section sit ullted a distance z = 0.he intennodiato support. lJmdtng Moment En~·elope Curws T he bending moments a nd the shearing forc~s arc calcula ted using tho following r()Jations M = (aq ~P) t2 } (14.he + f} column.o tho loading or completr. minimum bending moments using those in the~ c. Maximum hl\Oding moments are obtained using the values of coeffit:. DPtermino the bending moment u~ing the first of ilic expressions (·t 4 . ThQ ceiling may hy uv<.ient ~ cont..fu.10.
CIl1 ) 1 = {1Y))1ll.j ~"cti on If W<) us11 the va hm of M1) mlrt lh•> l'O$ulting lu: ml iug moment 11t t.· z 3 1 ·~ + (1 .icnt ~ r.50 t271 =12·1 kg nncl Q. Thercfum .10.ql20.ho val u1!.(·l 1)) 'l'}ln.1'1 of th~ bt• ..'10 )'icld!' Qm.200+1. tho use or tile S(:C0011 C)Jl{l of t.ccl upon by a moving unit liHld P travelling along the spa11 L 11 (Fig..1 1'1" """' "'~pl2:aO. gi~"l!n Mmln .200500~ 3 .. J n ol'rlcr to tlpd t..100 kg ·m cro~.ON1'1NUOUS llEAMS Consider a cunLimulus bt~am ad.~ 1\f.•·ction OA I from tho lt•fton..cnn Mp = ~ttl2 rt~pr()sonls tho hen•ling moment induct'tl l1y the ln11u p whoso situnLion alHng the hoaul is such t hat it will provide eithor .crtnNliau: SUJI}l\lrt will bt• givl!n l>y A1 = tt.wnt ensc for lht> section un•ler con~illl'r:J lion t he value or cucflic..02:'>00 .YJ)'lli.J\Cg LINES POll (. a.250<1+L250p) l= (1.10b)... As fot• the ~h<!ar..CY)O kg = 11) L•) t\S 4.0700 antl thorl'l ort• M 9 . equuls +0.L sllpp<~rt amouuls to Jfma:....0700 X liOO X 1011 = 4.0~5 X.250X600 +i.02500 X 200 X iO== .466 Continuous Beams Tioro <:£qlt rt•prcsl!nl~ the bend ing momont inducod by tht>OI!IIU load of 600 k~/ m ai<IJll'.) i~ given by . In tho prt>.ant H~·nct• . tho lirst onl' nlcllct' will he r~>tninNI [or fllrthpr cornputlcLilln~. tho supports lt1t us l'trst dctot'lll irw tlw imagiunr·y rcac... fi01)+ 0.5~) kg·m tlw most un favnurahl~· vnlul' of thll bending moment nt a :. IO.OH500 X 200 X J02 = 1..f11r .4 l t•quub 0.1!)09X200)X lO= 15i.lu' esprc~'<lOIIS <llo .\32t= 471 kg The !(rl111ll'st vu[U(' o f lhll reaction rol thu int."1) 1 2  2 Ln + 3 ' t.09500 and to Mmtn 0.."= (0...·tOa) and as:~urnc that lite di :~ l:anc·c of th is load to support (1i .: = 4.900=6. · Z...1 x ·"' \ . 15.. 2 :.900 kg·rn nnd di~t.\fp ml" """ ~pl!. and Mnt at. maximwn or for a minunum v~tlue or lhe moment..250 X200) 10.orrespond ing to M. (Fig.nding moment.= (l +TJ . J:::J:o'LUF. 0.(t. (1 . 4.lJ) l J in·IJin..t:iom.200 kgm Tho t.. From Tablt• 1.025 X 6000..135!J X 200) X iO = 1.llc' will l10 considornbl)• smaller tltcs·t~fM~• .1()) togclh ur with 1'ablc 1. nl Lht•Sf\ ::. • 1 YJlnln:rA..r = · •1 t.1. = ( l YJ 1 ) I I (1 .r u ll.70(J kg·m s im·o the two values <>htlcinod arc <>f thl' same s ign. 15.am l\ sup ports 1 An= t ( 1.2 1)1n ) ·.10 t ho coefficient " conospondiug to x=0.
r ri1.t) . . 27i!K. ~iS8A".  I f(Z Tt) }(.. 1 . !l c ~ t.. may tJa~iJy ohtain tho moments nl al l lhe oLh<. ... .11YJl.. rt .i ll. 7 11. ll!fltwncr L int·• for Conlirluous JJrnm s lt61 l sing expressions {1 :·t10) we obtain then 1\tf.. ) I n (K u }(' 1) 1~   (1 _ .K ·· · r1(1 1.K.lJ)I ··· t(KK ll /1 .. K..'l.) ·· II 1]) Y)l.l ond J<.ll\l~l J II Kuowing tho values of thr bonding nwments a t the snpporls (sec Tablo 2. O. 171 ) IJ r (il. ·1.l.(2. :{7c>i{' n..10) and the valuos or tht\ focal factor::.:~:~r. (..288) .) ~ c cll. t'U\7r. . ·(!1 2K' n1"1.c riJ. + TJ)I = 1 J = c (1.l..f.ir. . ( ~1!1/\'n . (' (f1 . K fj K'. t l.o.l H!lK... (11.ion uf tho influcnco linr. 1 92) .rru. :~H~l .·· (t.lor cxpre1>siem lei.(l. .s).:mn c (ll ... (·I ~K.t'· 171) ..il3tiK.*'l7K ' Tt. 'l"" = c (i . • _ ' ) _.~81oK11• t.rJ) Ii. for diffl'I'Cnl positio nS of the IIIO VIII~ Iond P (at 0.111.TJ)I {I !l. ~73K' 11. il I! I 11... li I I.h t.1! :l$11) . i utToment. . l:l:!) ._. _ ..38t. . '!.c t iJ.. Thi ~ bt1ing dono.(1 + ll)] Af.4 . 2 lUi II .u. 1) ·· . 1:1 n .. I •11 li ll II .n.11\l\iK ·.( ( 11.11) K.10. 3.tJ) TJ[(1 + q) K ".r. . (l tli[. may prtH:. w~.lre LtHIHl for any position of ~he moving load aloug any of tlw spans. 0..288K '.l(~..a?:o) . 't f> c t11. 171K •n .c (11 . =  r.375K. 1 71K".(' (l!.~ed wil. (ll .s eit..:~:~IJK'..rJ) '11( 2.( 1 .'lO) With tho aid of tlw lat.l l ..K •...her Jor tho bending moment~> or· ror· Llro shollJ'in ~ ill)* ..1 (r'I .il:i7) (il.1 (r. .u.I I lSf>7) ll. :i5iKu o.. r supports or t.}1h (11 .r (0... .lw cunst.'1. 27:·S) .W. w. us prupaJ'l> a Iaiiie l(ivi rtg thl' Va]ll(!~ uf }1111 1 aud ll. .
_l·. ._J=_l_.g. Thtts._l. as well as of the influenc.10 and let us construct the influence lines for the bending momm1ts at all the supports as well as t he influcnc. any section of span Z. tho nrst giving the number of the support and the second the number of the span along which the mobile load is travelling.__..:.tance.468 Col!liwuJuS Rean•s forc.es acting al.. for im. M 22 will mean tho bonding moment at support 2 due to a load travelling along the second span.!:~. the continuous beam appearing in Fig. for instance.lJ. Let us talw up.. in the same way M 12 will indicate the bending moment produced by tho same load travelling a long the same span but acting over support 1. ~ Fi...he second span aucl for the reaction D 0 • At first we shall calculate all the focal distances wl1ereaftcr we shall construct the influenc...JO bending moment and shear at section I = I of t. .L~.J. .. 16.e line!s for any of the support reactions.c iines for the bending moments at the k ... Hi...upport by M with two indices.. HerN~ fror we shall denote the bending moDlents at the !.10 I ' = _L_. supports of the span under consideration on the assumption thnt the unit load '? travels along this span.e lines for the Fi~..
K 3 =.~ 469 T able .111)2/. X=(t.10) are given in Table 3.0. Table 4.10 contains the values of 111'11 . The oxpressions for the bending n1oment!> at the inner supports of t.08:!5012 .: !41lz O. •1C.0900C ll t 0.he end spans (in the case under consideration ilfu and M 34) contain both in the numerator and in the denominator focal values which bec.5ti 3 733 15= ' The values of a ll focal factor!:! obtained with the aid of expressions (11.733 K~=3.tM • uppurls Load point .tJ81J3til2 O.o.1028(ilt . In order to overcome this difficulty both the numerator and the denominator should be divided by the said foc. .026521. 0387'lle . M 33 and il123 appe11ring in the same tablo require no c. .3/11 .0.u. .10.0.~ln x=O.0. For a symmetrical bea m tho values of 11134.UO Lettband toea! factors Rightband focal factors Kt= CO K2 =ft Ki=3.ome infi nitely great when the end supports are hinged.OiiH2l 2 .10 ru1d 3... 0 .2J 11 0 IJ 0 (t. 01J5(iftl t . J.11.100401.0514/tf.Q73f21 1 .. Tablo 4.llt18:i81 2 IJ.06858! 2 O.10. 75 15 3 . 7r.1Sln :c =0.10.0 .OKt72/2 ll.t:oJ!iul':s/ 2 .t . 7l..4. 0.0..SII/2 o.r=0.7 ~":.akulations.10 BMOing moments at..0308t. Thus.ll4762/2 0..0. influence ~incs for Conttnr:ous Beam. .0.r= t.0. (1:{<\2~12 r=0. 0.al factor.O.41.1) .M 12 and il122 cDmputed using data given in Tables 2.:\112 x=O X= ll.i~ .r =O.5t.0143012 0 0 .01580l.'<fu .!l!.10) and (12.=0. (1788tll2 .12acu2 ll.077141.•Jio l781 2 .073flii/2 .0. 0.l'=0. 0.': a " 4 •• .
02652l Tho 111agnitudc o[ M 11 Ior any olhcr position of Lhu load poiuL wil.OOOCI(J/4 0.t'l..1021!(il • 0 0 .O. Eoc. T he va lues or thl\ hc nding rnomenl:.Ii188ti/3 . o .750.4 x:~o~51 X X (0.02052L 4 () .. 211 1 ~ and M 22 l'vr a load p()iut R itualod at :x :.OG:!i!6l3 0. fOJ' 1l f 22 .r=fl.r = l) .0!19) = 0.1 °. 17. ' ' = 4 X :l. 0 0...ltin tho limits of the ftrsL span will ho obtained iu OXllt' l.I)J4::lf)l3 .10 (cunl imml) 1 1ontllng lflllments at the snpports J.1t 2 wi ll bo uh ta ined using t h ll fo ).O.07366/J .O. .r=l'.~(.073121" 0. (1308613 0.J\2K12l (0. Maa anti M'23 obtained with t ho aid of Table 4.(J . 4/.H 11 (o.10) M 12  l2 (fJ 1~ 1 L·' ' ('I Q<)t)) K 2K. The gl'aphicu l iuLerpretatiou of Jl.10 is given i n Fig.(llli0813 (I t. ..0~9.0342813 .0.10. ()IS03IIIa z = O.1l1 "' O.0514414 .OR57U3 . lowi ug O..11.tl.ly tho .d alonf. those fo r 11111 anrl M 12 . J/" x = tl. Ms.O!I5!l41 1 0. M'12 . ..03871l M~: = .s ~ .:ll.uud !'<li n t Ms1 I l133 I Mt.1}fo71i2l.099 X 4 .S 0 0.: 0.li. 1 '~ 2 . 71 11 J: .o!l9 ~) K' t 1.10£1461.171 X 3.Oti8:i!ll~ .0.S!llnt• way.73:1 =  0 .178tJ o.(H'cssiu ns (st~e Tallll' 2.'I.f11 . O.h pa it· nl' eo n ti gu ou~ e.'171) = .08!:!5\1 13 O.ho bontliug mo men t M u for load poinl giveu hy :t: IJoco n~t).nrves..071 11213 0.K:  0.' same way. .!JI11 :r = l.cmfiiiiiO!U /Jeams Table 4.OtiS.li/.0<15801.0.r ~ 0 °5/n L ...171 ) = . u.0 .077 J4l.r = O.'i&/ 3 .06342/a 0.0Hi08l The mngnitudc of t hese tMmenls for other positions of tho loa. 0... M 22 .0.75l X /2 X (0.470 C.0°8/u O.()3!!7413 I) O..(V.O:i2!lVI~ 0. .1 u .! the 11nme s pan will be computed in th<.r. = (lol~~ 11 =  3.
J7. In the event the unit load travels along Fig. ln(luettct ~lt~s for Continuous lJeam s 471 and lV/ 23 . the ordinates to the influenc.e li ne for the bending moment ov<.it Load travelling along the first two spans of the beam. Lbis table contains Lhe ordinates to tbe influence .10. the two curve~ for 2~{11 and 1~12 consti tute the influence line for the IJending moment induced at tho cross section over sup]lOrt J by a un.10. T hus. for M 83 nnd JV/ 34 l:Onsti tute the influence Uno for bending moments induc.ated ovor span 3 will bo ~Jasily ol>tained using the following expression M.4. T hus.od at the support so~arating the lwo spans by a urJil Load siluutcd along one of theso two s pans.10 more distant spaus tho ordi nates to the influe nce line ro r the samo beuding moment~ at tho supports rnay be obtained using lhe focal point method.lr support due to a uTlit load Loc. for instance.3= 21123 K2 = _ 11!23 4 The magnitude o£ the bending moment acting at tho same sup]lort when the moving load h as passed Lo s patl 4 will bo given by JrJu u· M24 = /?2 but since wo obtain fin ally Mu = + K3K2 =a.'l5 x 4=15 M34 M34 M34 '!'he ordinates to the influence lines for M 13 and Mu are given in Table 5.
6ln z = U. 18 .0171<151 +0.0194!JIJ! +0.1 = ~~5 3 34 M u= x.9.02(i789l +0. These influence lines may bo used Tablt 5. 94.10a).r=0.0240001 +0.3'f!i :~r u I M u: .4l+M 1 = M0 +0.0017681 0 0 + 0.0070/.002112!.10 Bending moments at the supports Load point ~~1~ J'dt3 .01(1445! +0.lrf. Let us consider now tho influence lines for the bending moments and shearing forces at a cross section of the st~cond ~pa n located a distance x = 0. .02(15711 + V. l•f T he influence Unos for the bending moment.0.0. 51n .0 17145! + t).4M2 + 0.'J:"'f& Ma• . For this purpose we sha ll use expressions (5.0051431 ..10.:Un :r ~ 0.ooli6mz . Influence lines for bencling moments at the s upports of the continuous bL'am with unevt•n spans and any arbitrary number of supports can be obtained in exactly t he same way.0048751 0.3.027<\291 +0.(H94!lGl + 0.ends.0.021)5711 +0. 024!}(Kj[ 1 0.llf 1 M = Mo + M·r. =. These .0040201 l) x=OAI.4l to the right of support l (Fig.u equal to the second lu<lex allotted to . \)2()(\25! + 0.r =O.008.0200ll01 +0.013717/ +0. ()(J70721 +0.013125! + 0.be tlllu. 001)0001 0. 021!o30l +0. 0 .10) and (H. deduced from M~s= i\~.0.'ij04l + 0. 10) Q=~ + 1112 .r = O.Ot22t31 +0.0. 7ln :r=0.012213l 0 () +O. z =O .00637fil 0.75 111 .6Mt where Qo and Mo reprosent the ordinates to the corresponding influence lines for an endsupp orted bea m of the same span.0030531 .81.M.0255041 + 0. I M. OO\i857l z=0.11 .0137171 +0.02671!9/ + /). ~ M34 "1"6 I Mu ~.l.3!11 (l + 0.'>70! +0.(12. z = ln o.02742!11 + 0.s M~t M 2 and M 8 are represented in Fig. for the design of continuous beams consisting of four spans of equal length with free ly supported .Continuo"s Btam1 lintJs for M 2 1 a nd M 2 . 1. 0.IIn z=O.U 0 Note: Too value o r ln<lex n appearlnl! In the llrst column nmst .
t1 {' 5ti'IOIJ ~1 Qil&'!."o'!!li''J ~· S&J[!.li) ..:i::t1 :J '" .'1 'i'?: Lf£1 r "i?."'O.':.r" f.O '&' · '!'17ii iO a /290ZQ V Ot9:ZV:J ['('(Ji.fi!llll.l .\'9((1[) ~ • •Y!J . .G.'t. l.:.i?(j .
.' ..' • · 'I ~I l i I ~e l ln(luen./ ' .. 1 I I ~ <::s <::...c lines at 0..t . ~=0::1'l.... ... a '" ~ l:~i ~ ~ <':l ~ ~ ~ ':'J < . 19....J + ··.10 T he sa me table con tains ~he values of+ (M 2  M 1).Y! ltne for.~ ~ " ~ ".../. 1:5 <> <::.. : '• I •o c:.1 .g "' "" ~ ~~ ~~ .. 10..!....·. N ~ __L_ i I ....2l incromcnU! a ppear in Lhc a ppropriate columns of Table 6.l ~ :~~ ~I <:::sl ~~s~~~t·"" ' "'' .4l1 ) (d) <:s !. ' I I . <:::) 1 I . ./X•IJ. : : .Conttm101~s /)~(mls 1\ ll rl influouco lines are of tria ngular shapo as indkaled iu Fig.o the Q and M inOuence .) n <::.! .~ rx•OiftzJ ~~J• .$ "' <·• ~ N ~ .. 1 (0'.iJ <'J :!!: "" :.._ .. ~ ~ i ~ ""(tl "" ~ ~ <::1 mr ~ )<> C:. . 19. ' (/]. ~ (±) ""'"' Fig.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . j I co::.:.. OJuli/ 2 and 0. C::S "' ~ ' <::s  I 10 ~ ~: I .... The va lues of the ordi nates to t hese influcnc.. "" "" Influence linn for O.I ·· . 10b c.....6M1 as woll as the co mput ed ord inates l.
0:\2850 (l .(118.0380521 .4.01542~ 0.t)473!1il 0.O:H2&~Z 0. 1] " 0.02286 0.2 0 0 0 0 + 0.1): 82361 1·0.0 ~ 'l] = OA j.0507441 0. 055157 j0. 0096001 l0. 1)=0.10 JfO 0 4 Mz 0.l).8 1]=1.·(l.010!lnt +O..3r 1 } 11\a lnCin~o<'• I lone for Q (X = 0.0 I 0 0 (I (I () .24! 1.0444001 0..01028 +0. J652.0171451 0.085725 10 .0271t321 .Hi228 l) n (I 0 0 l) 0 .121 + 0. 0 I 028i I +0 .<HM28 1 0 .J.6 C/) T} =0. 11274321 .4 ~ 1] .161 1 0.0. 0." ~ 1)=0..001!\:iil (I 0.0 .020572 +O.) g_ 1} ~ 0.0. 00.107150 0 1·0.2 1] = 0..085725 .085725 0..Ji' 1] =0.2 '"' 1')=0. Hi!J2521 .f1308Ml 0 0. (l3')8fi/ 0 .O:l7432l O.0377161 0.1:{0280 + 0.6 Jh •nllu cnc~ line for JI (>: ~ O.6 .0. 0137121 () 0.· 0.085725 .08! I 0 +O.8 1]=1.38972 + 0. 0051421 .034052[ . 0(1~4871 1 0..~2850 +0.0().·1 .0541Jfl0l 0 O.0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.J7()l)\) . 0 12&581 f0 . 0078581 i.0.()l(l9i2l  I) 0  0 0 1 0.Load POint QO  I 1)=0 .(lfYt1 14l 0.6\028 1 0.0 0 (I I 0rdlna1e LC•I Plz .0. (l(l822Sl !il.4 +0.')21 + 0.().00360U/ 0..O.0 .~3tu + () 1]:::0.6 +0.01028 0.020572 1 0 .097711 0 .2 'l'J = 0.8 l'j = 1.Q.0 I)  I O.0102871 +O. 03it288Z 0..0. 107'1.0462841 (I .5:1.6 ~ ll'='0.0!)7711 0 +0. 0096()01 +0.8 1]=1..02i432l 0.(H8000 +0.011288 (l ~ (l (l (l 10.6 <1: 1]•: 0. 0.0 24l +0.0879661 0 . 4 /2) I Ttlble 6.2 c TJ '" 0. L l1371 2Z .0 1] = 0.03i72 0 0.')() .025377l 0. 130289 f· 0.. 37714 +O..()11288 .'r0301 ~ 0  0 0 6 . 02·H:I(•l 0Jl1i'145l 0. o..11'tt)00 70.0380561 0 +0.0.0274321 () I 0 0617161 .O.0093701 0 (} 0 _ ().0 :r> 0.0054871 0. . 0551.02!114 ·1 0.O't731GZ .61 0 j0.0·18000 +0.0.)7 +OH 4000 +0. (l()IIOOOl +0.0...Uz) Ord !nate lo the 0 +O. I>O!l2281 0 (l.4 I 0.
T hus. ~ <:$ ~ :i' . 19.. for instanc.o.'~ : r"t' x..10d and e.r moments due to tho combined ac.. The influence lines for all tho other support reactions of a continuous beam can be obtl\iued using exactly the same procedure.) ~ "' •s <::> ~ e :s: ~ ~ o::.10b. 20.10a.tion of the left·end support."<. 4 § <::1 ·. the value of reaction Domax will be given by . +~ 1 where Q~t represents the leftend reaction of a simply supported beam corresponding to the lhl't span.". reaction D 0 wi ll attain i ts design value when in addition to tho dead Loads of q 1<g per metre the beam will be acted upon by mobile loads of p kg per metre d istri bu ted along the w_ h ole length of the ftrst and third spans. .nr. Jn{lur. T hl\ inflw~ n cc li ne for ~1 A 0 trn. The completed infl uence line for D 0 is given in Fig.:' . Influoncc lines pormit easy and rapid dctet·ruination of maximum and minimum valuol' of :support reactions..10 appears in Fig. ~ ~ ~ "" Fig. A graphical representation of lhcse two influence lines appears in Fig.. 'l'he magttitude of this reaction may be determined using expression Do=<lo.~ .. shcat·s a nd bcndin:. "" (b) ~ ~ .he ordinatell to the inlluonce line for D 0 are tabulated hereunder.476 Continuou~ Beams lines desired. Let us examine next the construction of the influence line for the reac. ' I I I • ' /•• flu~.lead loadB (it is frequently assumed that mo·ving loads are uniformly distributed over whole span Jongths).. .r . All the calculations necesl!ary to obtain t.$ ~ I <:s ~e~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ·~ <t) . ( OJ I I. The ordinates to the corresponding inOuence line ovor these spans being positive.c l tlll! f or 00 ~ <." ::. 20. 20.tion of moving Joads and t.
8 lT} = l 0 (I () 0 (I +0 .0.12286 (I lt)=~ 1 f1]=0 . 0.030&1 ll 0 ( 1') = 0.(13081) (I (I.6 1) = 0.4 Span 4 1)= 0 .O . by the influence line for DG over the corresponding spans.05144 .Mt ~ I Otdlontcs to t ho I nfluence L i n ~ f< .2!'171/i + 0.00514 0.0(1(18() 0.02143 +0. 51000 + 0. 2 0 0 0 0 (I .!) '1]=0.oonoo (I 0. 7485('.Oflt'IOO 0.07714 (l + 1.8 l1)=1 (1.r JJa J1]=0.e Lines for ConlilluouB /Jet11a~ 477 Jn the latter expression 00 1 . 2 jlj =0 .0.10 Load point I . (\ + 0.01714 + 0.00243 ordinates given in Fig.H ·1 0 .8 +0.07886 0.OiiH +0. w3 and w" r~pro&Jnt tho area. l\ 1J= 0.001i86 .2 Span ! . O i88H I I .06286 0.00600 .01714 + O. Tho minimum value of reaction Do will be given by the following expression . 06312 .' 0 0.10286 0. (j '% + 1.00243 I) o.n 1'1')= 0 .8 Yf = U.4 S pall 3~Yf=O.0 +0 .OH 342 O .2 1'1] = 0 .10.2 lT}=0. 20.4 + 0.n2l43 +fi.8 lY)=1 0 0 I) 0 0 0.1.00857 (I ( Y )=0.005·14. rlJ = O l t}=(l. TheRe areas ma:y be easily cakulated using the numerical values or the Table 7. These areas will be reckoned positive or negative depending on the sign of the ordinates. 1 n{luenc.00857 0 +(1 .0'1714 +0. w2 .10b and assuming that the segrncnts of the curve between two neighbouring ordinates can ho replaced by straight lines. +t1. 01)281 ) 0.4 Span 2 '1] = 0.0 . bounclcd.
l .d) .ngPles. twoh i~tgt•d ~ (C) Fig.ric. OEFI NITI OX::i.11.udure IJCcomcs t. 11 .~ ns di ~ linb'l.11 . 1. tho mor<' frequently •H.onstruc Lion.. Clnss if•t•rl w ith r~fcreuc. o r lt:r. r~dl into tho followi ug C» Lcgori.l blwd from simply s upported sy!ltc ms are t hr·u!'t dt\\''(:. archc•~: of one hi1~ge (Fig.lw~: (Fi~.Lly idout.. All tlte arches with Lhc o.lo!>ing stnu: LIIl'l\:5 who~l' genera l ronn if' that of a l~\Jrve.J.ed com'rcte arc. espn<~ia l ly in railroad hridg~:~~.l nrc. ln all c..INE Arch1 .hus replaced by a scrit's oE paralltJl ar<: ho::. 'l'hu wholu ~t. In bridg6 c.e to t.~: lhrcc·hinged arcllt•l< (Fig. '1. 2.ed end a rches (FiJ!. REDUNDANT ARC HES l.11t~).ed ar·<'luJs am l.hin~od ones nro s ta tic11l1y incleter·minatc.11.h remain s l.lw numhor of hiugcs arehe .ll b).alcul ations i n solid masonrv o r re inforc.icnl as long . T.he t wohiugod and tho frxcd end ones.l•o!' i t is customary lo ennsider s~rips of ~~nit width scparaLcd in imaginalion rrom th1) rest by t wo parallel plnnes us shown in Fig. 1. CHOJCI:: OF THE NEUTR:\ T.. 1..'l:t'Cption u[ the Lhrcc. the dcflcctionR of whic.11 c) nnd hi.!..
ions of arc. Upon correcLion of Lhe arch neutral line a new pro~~ur() polygo n is constructed (or t he corroded arch. the centre line of the arch ma y. A.1J depend on the doforrrui L. As previous ly stated. m a~o rH·y being uncapable of resist.1.rmined.hes.ing fi rst !:>ornE. alone al'l:.. for bending moments in s uc h nr. However.es5ary to obtain a satis[actMy coi nddence o[ tho t·wo 1i oes. follow t. as i n the caso of trusses orj plato girders supporting floor beams. in tho first approximation. When designing an arch great care should be taken to roach as close coincide nce as possible between the Otltline of Lh~ axis (also called the neutral nr the centre line) of the arch and lne pre!'. Dr.hieved o nl y in t he case of threebingerl arc. Arch ribs arc frequently loaded at certain points only.ing tensile .2..gectiona l dimension~.he pressu rc line of a t hroehi ngcd arch of t he sa rno span and rise.an be obtained only if all the redundant I'Oactions a1·o a lready doh>.ltoruati voly.h a coincidence would provide an arc. Choice Qj the N l!rttrul Lin~ 4 7!\ as each one of them canies the sarne load.an be ac. For arches < :arrying moving loads lho choice of t he neutral line bocomes oven m fH'C co mplicatt>d .11.ide nco of the arch axis with t he preRsure lino.finit tons. .ross. J n actual pra(~ tice this ehoi ce is most frequently ba~od on the simple comparison of sovcral arch!l!S differing both in outline anrl in e. it i!'i i mpossible to obtain full coinc. Therefore the most economical design of an arch will be t ho one pro viding for minimum f1bre streS<~es in t he arch .UGcessive approximations.l. complete coincidence c.h and for this reason it he<~ornes cxtr•cmcly di£fJcult to find tho most ccononricaJ eonliguration of an a l'ch of: t his typo even whcu tload loath. ThH opcratior1 is rcpt\ated as many times as nec. A'> for the staticall y i11dote rminate a1·chcs..liguratiou of maso nry arehcs Jllus t be solectcd with t he view of maintaining t he pressure li ne for all possihle load com binat ions as close M! possible to the central core boundaries.treMos of any appre(. these reac tions Fig. suc.'he problem can be solv()d only by a series o( !.~ involved. '.suro line (< . The con. The pre~surc line for s ta ti cally indot erminate arches c..iablo magn itude. E :l:owe vcr .h or maximum economy.: equilibrium polygon) . I n this way thB stress analysis remains exactly the same for all the arched Stl·uctures o r the same type irrespective of thcil· de pth.chcs are absolutely unavoidable. Thi$ may he uone by solocl.\ arbit:rary curve (usually a parabola) for the arch neutral line which is then conedert on tho grounds of eomparison with t he pressure line obtained fot t hat partic ular nrc.h.
AB.n) ~] coscp.. The following equation has been found very useful in prac.11. the thickness of twohinged ardtes de<:reases usually from itho crown t o the abutments rollowing tho bending moment diagram.ients to tl1e unknowns and or tho free terms of the simultaneous equations requires the integration of expressions containing the values of Jl and J and therefore it becomes necessary to expres~ matherna~ically the variation of the:3o quantities along the arch. On the other hand. Thus. Frequently n is taken equal to unity in which case the expression for J" becomes J _ __!_s_ X COS CJl:r .ic.t. in fixed end arches the height of the section and consequently its moment of inertia increafle very frequently from crown to abutments because the bending moments are as a rule much smaller at midsplln than in the immediate neighbourho()d of the supports.[1(1.onsLant through the whole length of the arch. Modifying the value of n we modify at the same time the law governing the variation of crosssectional dimensions along the arch. its value is given by n= Jo cos <f'o J~ J 0 and q>0 correspond to the section at. CROSS$ECTIONAL DIMENSIONS The coefficients to the unknowns and the free terms of the simultaneous equations used for purposes of stress analysis of redundant arc.al design J  lc x . Direct computation of the coefftc. the support.Redunr!anl Arches 2. neither of these two remain c. where x = = Jc Jx = fPx = l1 = As for n abscissa of the neutral line referred to a coordinate origin coinciding with the centroid of the crown section moment or inertia of the same section moment of inertia of a section situated a distance x from the origin of coordinates angle the tangent forms with the neutral line of the arch and the horizontal one half of the arc.h span. for instance.ttts depend on the crosssectional dimensions and the moments of inertia of the structure.CHES WlTH VAR IABLE. As a rule.
When the rise of an arch i~ less than 118 of its span (11at at'<ches) the vahw of cos Q)x for a ll the eross sections wilt remain vm·y close to unity.11a) conslitutes always a dosed contour nnd is therefore redundant in the third d~grec.YSJS OF FIXED END AHCHES A fixed oud arch (Fig. J x rnay Le replaced by ~b und I c by If .md therefore Px =Fe= const p _ _!_s. y segment ds is aLso usually replaced by the ltmgt.: lt follows that wh ercfr·om F Fe · " .liminnt. 3.gate S ln. for a rectangular arch of (. 3. t. When n = 1 d~b d~b d~ .q. aud Fc=bd. Coni u..o str.cos Cf'x It has LH. It follows that tho simple statically de.hus permitting us to adopt a constant thickue.ss ol' tho arch thr·oughout . d3 d' · ".Onst.. For :>imJllicity this expression is very frflquently rL!placcd'' hy " .\(~n pt·ovcd that this simplification entails an error in the bending moment and thrust values which docs uot cxceud 1 per cent.lerminat. The crosssectional aroa..!J .h at the crowll aud at an arbitrary section a distance x from the {~oordinate origin.ucture can ho obtained by e.tically Determi.ion of three redundant constraints whkh must bo replaced :11 8~3 .11. CONJUGATE S'l'ATICALLY DETERMINAT E STRUCTUHES USED FOH STRJ~SS ANAr.ant width b.s Fe and F x becorno in this ease Fx=bd.tuns 481..t1.._ In Lhe design of nat arches tho length of the clementa .h of its horiwntal ptojcction cL1:.Vcos<p. where dx and d" represent the Lh1ckness of tha 12 arc.co:. 12= 12costp.~tale S tmc.
In Art.11e and f.11) X. 3. In this t~ase the simultaneous equations mentioned above become + + X 1<'>u Xsfia3 + r~ap = 0 X 2 15!lz+~ 2 p =0 + D" P = 0 } (2.al axis the elastic centro of the structure will always lie in this vertical. 'rhe statically determinate structure of Fig. 8 . .ovidcd that in these computations resort is made to one of th·~ simple structures appearing in Fig.11c consisting of two curved hal'S ftxed at one of lhoir ends has heen obtained by cutting the arch in lwo.= r. lixod end arch will Lake the following shape X. (3.Hb.'he simple statically determinate struc~ures will be obtained in thnt case by the addition to the free ends of the curved builtin bars of one or two infinitely stiff brackets as indicated in Fig.l.rlztndant Arches by three 1. 3. The structure of Fig.9 it has been shown that all lhe secondary eocfficients o{ t he simultaneous equations may be reduced to r. 3.11b. these ends coinciding with the elastic centre of tho structure.11 b is formed by a cmved har built in at its left end. tho unknowns will repros<Hlt the bending mornents at the crown and at Lhtl abutments.63 . The directions of these actions will coincide with those of the principal axos of inertia of the elastic loads \Vben a fixed end arch is symmolt·ical about a vortic. Vl1 redundant A 1p ' Xz= T"'"' . d.\ap = 0 pr.:V 3~ Aa .11) '.1nkoown actions X 1 . X 2 and X 3 • Several of such statically determinate structures are shown in F ig.6 11 + X26 12 +X3(\ 3 + ~ 1 p=0} X 1621 +X2622 + Xa62s + o2p = 0 (1. the shear and the normal stress acting across the cut. . e. 3. Xz6~z +X86a3 . one of the principal axes of inertia being horizonLal and the other vertical. T n that ease d. The si multaneous equations used for stress computation of p. and f. If the simple Rtructure is constituted by a threehinged arch. c. c or d.482 R r.<!ro by an appropl'iatc e.:. Tn this case Lho unknowns will represent t he bending mo•uent.11) Utt> lc<tding immediately to the following values of reactioJIS X. Tho three unknowns represent in this case the reactive forces developed by the righthand abutmont. . a . The unknown actions will be applied to the free eoclf:l of t he said brackets.V22 <\zp X3 = 1 .hoice of tho simple structure.
9.Il 3l* ..q_zJ.11 Pig.11 Fig. !i. :1. Coniugate Statically Determinate Structures 483 {a)~ ¥ ')f= ~ Fig.
3. cnch bracket becoming iudinod to the vertical at <\n angle equal to ~ 6 33 • The tot.wo of whieh will be described hereunder.. 3 . for otht•rwil'(' 6 23 v.1 2 would h~ different from zero). it becomes very easy to dolt~r rnine the natur~ of the displact' munL:. 6.)[ the brac.annot bu expressed by a11alytkal ('qualions {it for prac.os X 1 hut the amount of this dctlcction will he exactly the same for both brackets since o t.ulus. 4. 5.h o c~:x.Rrtlundant Archos tho C011jngate structures of Fig.he co njugate simple s~ructure boc. T Jet us examine first tho si mple strueture of Fig. 'Jn such cases t. Their cleflcction in the vertical direc. A. their dimensions being equal t o those of the g iven arch as mens\•rcd over tho centre of that pllrtieular side. To addition it is ass\lmod that cro~scctional areas remain constant.os X 1 = ·1.11).kets produced by these unknown aetions. R eso •·t musL be then made to approximate methods.ill di£for from zoro. API?JIOXI.MA1'E ME1'HODS OF DESIGN AND Al\ALYSIS O. In the first of these methods lho neutral line of the arch is replaced by a polygon of from 8 to 20 sides (Fig.11a and b.act a na lysis of the del1ections of t. along ttnch of these sides. 5. 6 13 buing nil. (.o. J n lhr horizontal direction t.11b) the two brackets will rotate together remninin~ parallel to ono anotlwr (for otherwise the displaccrncnt ll . together along the h ori:tontnl and sust~in a mutual vertical d is plncomcnt equal to ll 22 • T he unit couples X~ shown in Fig.al mutual displacement of t he two brackets will equal 8.1. bo~h brackets will rt•main vertical and parallel to one nnothtw.omtts impossible for this analysis is based on integral cnlc.hc mutual displaccmonL of two brackets will equal 6 11 • When thtl sa me system is suhjcctt>d to two vertical unit forces X~ (Fi~. The free ends of those brackets will romnin at the same dislnnce from one another.tical usll.lled upon to den I with ar~hes whose neutral Jinc aud law of cross~uctional variation c. They mny shift vertically upwards or downwards depending on the dirocli<HI of the unit couples but both must shift tbo :same amount.ll thll loads appliccl to the arch ate t eplaced by concentrated loads acting at .t' FIXED END /11\t:HF.11a ~ub:joctcd to two u11it horizontal furc. will ~hift. 4.tion will depend on the direction o( the unit forc.hl'rwise 621 would be different fl'Oro ZCI'O.1 1. Since all the secondary displllcemenls due to tho unknown fort~t>s acting nt the clastic centra nr(' nil. .11e and f will be replaced by those appnnrin~ in Fig. t. Sinec 6 31 = 0..S 'fhc dl'sigru~r is flequcn tly c.11c will entail a mutu:1l rollltion of the two brnckots.
~ and free terms or the !>imultancous equation:.atically determinate :system (~ould be equally used if that W()re round expedient.11 and 4.IJM2. any of the structures sl10wn in Figs. for instance. The stresses obtained by this procedure are practically equal to tllosc induced in the curved arch. 6.ho displa~. Thus. Hereunder in Problem 1 of tl1e present article..ement 6 12 will bD taken equal Lo s __ = ~ M1 M2 d .. Having chosen thereafter an appropriato simple struCture eithl\. we shall give an example of !!tress analysis by the method just described.. For the analysis. is laken equal to the combined support renctiOJl of two contiguous simple beams canying the same loads and having the same length as the corresponding portion of t}Je arc. All the deflections and rolalions c:.an be Fi~r. Any other s l. The magnitude of these load~.. 3. are carried ou t assuming that within the limits of each segment the expressions under the integral sign vat·y linearly.11.r from tbo::. one shou ld proceed with the construction of tho stress diagrams due Lo the actual and to the unit loads..imate Methods of Design and Aualusi.11 may be adopted to bo conjugate with or withont transfer of the rcdu ndant constraints to lhc elastic centre.4 . This being done. 3.11 easily calculated using Vereshchagin's method of graph mnltiplit~ation .11 or any other deemed better fit for this purpose..b.11 and 4.. it + LJ 2 EJi1 .e appearing in Figs.. the calculations of the coefficient. Consequently. the corresponding integral will be equ al to tho length oi the segment multiplied by half: the sum of the values of the expression under the integral sign calculated for Lhe sections limiting ihis particular segment..9. v~ 2 J EJ s. 3.imate methods consists in the subdivision nf the arch into a number of segments generally comprised between 8 and 20. Tho polygon of structure ohtained in this way can be llhalyzod by one of the methods described in Art. t..~ of Archrs 485 the apiees of the polygon. The second of the appro:r. 0 J: i=n l=t _ _ ~ ~ (Mt.. Appro:~..
f ) M 1 . Hecourse to this method is strongly advised when it is desired to obtain the influence lines for internal stresses indun>d in the nrch..h of the va·lues obtainud in this way by half tM sum of tho contiguous segment lengths. anrl Mz..tion situated at the boundarieiS of the segments forming t he arch. Calculate the 81lffi of all the values obtained as explained above.l11. construc. etc.) will he exactl y the &~me ns fo1· any othor statir~lly indeterminn le structure .Problem 2 presented at the end of Lhis article wi ll give an example of streljs o. Multiply eac.8.s 8 and ~ may he obta ined usiug the method of elastic loads descl'ibcd in Art.11) i~U where s. = moment of inertia of the samo section n = numbel' of segments into which the arch has been subdivided . . is half the sum of the segment lengths contiguous to section i St = .J ~ ·. Ftg.11) i limited by sections (i . 11. Hogaruless of L he method of analysi!! selected the displac. 1 = bending moments induced at section i by the un knowns XI and J .t whole deflection graphs and noL only to determine the defl ection of par .t ISJ i _ (4. computAtion ~> (soluLion of simul taneous equations. T he abovo expression can also be written as follows x2 i= n 6u = £. 3.e$Sary to coustru(. 2.7.cmenl. for iu this cnse it becomes nor."' J.2 S£+St+l Thus. 7.lion of stress di agrams.U All sub~quent.Ri!dundant Ard1u wlll~l'e s1 =length of tho segment n11d i (Fig.tM:.nuly~is of a ft xen (md arch using the latter method . Compute tho values o( Lhe expressions under the integra l sign corresponding to each se(·. in order to determine one of tht1 d i~placcmcnts {) or fl pro ceed as follow!!: 1.
11.!1.Hn.h of Fig. 'rho neutral lio o of this orch fullnw~ n couic p:Jmboln.. T he construction of influence lines Ior redundant is shown in detail in Problem 3 of the present aL"Liclc. the other displace ments duo both to the unit actions and to the applied loads may bo again calculaled ncglu<:ti ng normal stresses anti sht>ars. This does not.st. tho calcu lation of the deflections and nng1tlar rowtions may be arcl1~s q ttm / _______L~:~Z~4~m~ (0) Fig. For these unit displacemen l. and tfu1 cro!lS~ect. and normal stresses.smaller than~ of the spun.1 1 carried out neglecting the infiuenca of shean. Wl1en the rise of the arch is greater than one f1 fth of Hs span. Prnblem 1. However.iooal momonts of inc1tla vary Jn Ll~cordnncc . U~:~ing the first of the m ethods do. 8. apply to flat arches whu!'ft1 ri~e i.s . 8.ocribod nhovc compute the Rtt·t·~SI'S inducQil in tho nrc.~ 611 along the dirt1 etion of the thrust must be carried out taking duo aceount of the corresponding u11known X 1 = 1 as well as the normal stresses resulting from tho thru. A pprozimale Method• of Dt$tgn and Analyrir of Arcltc• 487 licuJar points.
siliou Sinco J 1 is ussumod coustant (•>r for y8 b(!Co mes side o£ thl' fl(>lygorta l arch tho u.entn•.o)uls th o length of sido i and /1!.s s=2i". i== t where s 1 repre.= 1n ~ !!.Uill.ry o ( lbe arch f=tt / 2 c Lt (111 ..:1~ = ~1a_ _ __ lc n or with duo r{1gartl to tho symmot.:l.. Subdivide the arch span into 8 equal part. lU t b. 1'he equation of a conic parabola in the coordinate system TjO~ whoSe origin coincide" ' with the centroid or the ~ction at the leftha.upporl lwcomc:'s 4/ (I • t 4 X 6 (V. Com)JUl(l tho ordinate y 8 of this clastic centre in the coordinate ~. "). tran~>fer of the redundant constraints to tho elastic c.TheM.rueLcd nssuming that tho lcfl somlarch carries a uniformly distributotl Iond q = 2 tons p!!l' metro.i ng tho nrrh at the crown as indi cated in Fig. Tht• vlllucs of 11 at the boundaries of all the different t<egmonLs arc indicated in lhe same figuro. Jnreribe int.""' !~ t~n (Yit + Yt) i=l .ide i / 1 =:'~where •Pt cosq>i is tho incli of tho polygon to tho ltori2ontal and thoreforo s1 s1 cosq:.~ion J. Soluti!Jn...pol :..= Je l~n ?Ja ~ !Is _. tllus 11doptiug 11 = 8 Mul a = 3 moLres. a Ti=J. 24~ • 1} = ~ sh= 24 x 24 •.) l. As. In the case under e<lnsiderntion wo have u:1Uon of :.:..ystcm zy l: !Is= " uds S J t }. J 7 (!liCit \' ds oxpr<~. 2:n.t+Yt) !Is = _. 8 .at()tl in Fig..<. = ~. £.i +!I.e that tho conjugate ~implt• stmct.. _..t:}:Yt is th o ot·tlinato to the cen· tr1! of this siolo.o the given arch n polygonal one a~ uuite.lll'l) is obtaiuod by cuu.) 2n (!lt...Hc witb...Rtdumlant Arches with the cxprc1.....=~l. 0 COS (j)x • and N diagram s williJe C ·VII:>(.) ~ (Yii+lt.
. (Fig.25 em. 10.IC~idal strc~M ./. Thus.. . tiH.4. 27 X 2 +:rx :~ .:J to rndfflS Tlo" I!Xact va lue or y 3 for a parabolic nrch whose moments of inrrtia vary in accordance with t'ho J .o· ti<..8).f wlli~h in the prc~out ('ase> tlu:!r t•(ldu. and at tho intcrroclli:tlc points (points l..I 1) the~ loads are T = a ton".!.lf1 graph.1 t by th11~u of Fig. lib and c) 2 622=()EJ: ((2 X 12 X 12+2 X 9x 9 +2 X 12 X 9)+ +(2 X 9 X 9 + 2 X 6 X G+ 2 X 9 X 6J+ f(2 X GX6+2X3 X 3+2X GX 3)f2 X 3 X 3J ~ raisin~[ iE~:z 6:n=ET X 8 = EJ $ . ·. = CO!I<j>.!iagrnm~ Thll values or 62Z and _£p wil~bc obtnlnl'd in the same w11y.$ 48!~ whore from 1 !Js =¥ ( \ilif . Tl1o l'( 'adion of 1 he unknown conslra•nls will he t:ivcn by (3. Approximflle Methods of Dl!.nal .<i& of Archr.L_ is cq'\Htl is smnllrr Llum thr value olltaiuccl t~hov<> l>y 6.11} Di... It should bo reml'mhercd that... i. c:: a 2lt .reasinp: the numhor of sides of the in!:<:rilled polygc.11 using Vereshchagin's mclhocl .ing t<> th(• llt·cbntl pow•' r th(! .cmcentrat.:m:h. 9..cd at t.1.. !>. t o tho second power the M2 ancl 1113 graphs (Fig.lruc•ture by 1111it actions appliucl at tlw clastic Cllntre. 10... diffcrcllca e:•11 be fur ~ 3. 2 and 3i the!:IO loads amou nt to qa ~ = 6 tous.11 thoso due (() the actuulload$ c. !J:I1 l'oprcscmts the bending moment lliagrams induc:ed in Lho siTnplo arch. Thi. ~.placemcmls l> and 6 will bo obtained mult iplying the grat>hs of Fig.ign and Analy. 9.> obtain tra). '' t both cmd~ o[ this arch (pQints 0 OJH. c.'tormined using lormulas peculiar t" (see Art 8. .hc apices of the left half of the polygonal Fi g.. 3 2 I "' L r1j'< o) .' ratio hi)LWeen the lengtl1 of each sid1: of tho polygon nnd th e tnoment of ine1·tin of th e corresponding cross :section remains constant nJHl oqnal to '1'hc unit di!iplaccmonts will lx! cll. and Fig.11a) w<.~~d inc.x . rail.
1 .vr'"7:~ ® Fig. 11 Fig..·.490 Redundant Arches (Q) x1=t IX 1 =T ~~~~ ' ·+·. 9. 10.1.
12 X 81 + 9 X 144) 1+(2 X HX 81 +2 X 6 X 313+9 X 36+6 X '!1\+ (2 X ti X 3G+ t..~· trlbuL<'d ov()r l.r....o.12 ton~ and X 2 = .'1 2 X~ Q:~ ....3h+ D I '>..75 tonnwtr(ls Tlu:> M. The following [urmull\s mny be used provid ud tht• onlinate)l pass Utrc•ugh apices of th o polygcmal urrh: · (n) fot• the left somiarch ( Fig.i..24.11 ) \W o ht.5.u.~2} X2 = .15Z X~= .11.+ X2 siu q:o.) +X~x + X 3 . 11....1.= ''"• "~3 j.2 X 3 X 9+6 X 9 + 3 X 36)+2 X !i X 9[:: SR~'Jc"l Ll~'I=Elc " ( 11i4 :r+ 81.gr sin <p (b) for thu right somia rch (l•'ig. ) .594 tOnS and 8 COII Jil u X3 = 24 . Q mul N tliagrams may now he ol1taine<l apply10g to tho l>la~.4.U a) .ho uniform Joncls <li..X3 = X1 sin q•+X2 cog q: N = X1Cllll lf' + Xz.11b) . li.} + X zz .= i._ Eic 59/£ Intr oducing t ho:vnluos o( Lhoso d isplaconton~s in t t~quntious (3.Iethods of ' Design tllld Analysts of Archu 491 ll'Uz a = BEi c [t2 X 12 X 144+2 X !l X 81.!.ttc coulru of tho.tT=X 1 (y y.~in <p .. A pprozimale JI. 1!.X 1 ~ iu !J'+X2 co~ <r .75 tonmetres togcth11r with t.457 ·= 12 61q 7.nin X 1 = ..q. 594 ' .eos <v N = X 1 cos q..he l eft l!Cmiarch .. conj\1gate ~tructure two forces X 1 ..292 b22.f=X 1 <v .611 = BX 2.:\9" tons) .371 X 32 ODS ____.
ho d istributed Jonds q. . * Jllonn:d stresses will he rc.his angle am pos itivo for tltn left half of ~ht> nn· lt und negative for tht~ right nne.:J • .oordioates of the nuutral lin& of tl11: at·c.~~~ion ol' t.& _J. 1.l tl"' lwnmulal. O . wltilll (j) i. 11. ~· JO ?Ji • :E ]II.'iJI.' J. . diagrams must be constructed for tire real arr.ltc: art.11 for cxpr~s.h. Fot· tho bt~nlling momen ts a!lll ~ho~rrinl( forces the usunl sign c<•nVt•nLINI giv'cn in Ar't. oquution of t.h . 1 t~. ll is ea.l Arches In tho aiJon~ oxpr·~ssions x and y nr·e the c.'>ions lor the strcs~s induced in th o left baH of ihe arch differ fr<rm tltoso i~s right lwlf <•nly hy the pn>sto nce c•f tcm1s due to t.h and not for th o imaginary (lolygonal one adopted S.!itldnnd<lll.2 will Lo maintained. Tltt• values of t.~ ~l't(• an~le ht>tweon the t..angc:nt to tl1is nt~utrnl lint' unt.'!ily ~tlen that aU th~' (0) Y.rnl line 1)= lZ 4/ (IsH whordr(>m "' 'fl1e slrCS!. E f..•ckoncd positive wiH>n they cause ~ compr~. The d~cluced vahws of the angll' IJl will b<' from the.hu n()ut.11 !•) .LL+30 II J.1: lwcomlng nt'gutive to thl) loft f•f Ute axis of symmetry (S()e Fig 8. • .lloly with tiro view of simplifying Llle computations.
N diag1·ams t.fiG . 1 I Ordinates lo ~e tlu~ .<2 liOO N O.. 2..O. 11 llncl lJl in TalJ]. 00 .6. Lt>t ns chock t.00 0 27 .71i 0 13 .00 li. co•·re~poncling to diff<lrcnt c:ro!.:ml 1. '!· 1 co·~ 0... 00 !t .fo/•7 1 2 0.1.1. 'HI  0 !1.2. Q ancl .3 0 3 i\ !) 1 0.21) .ing cornpulalions ar() entered into '!'abies 2.4.hc M diagram of Fig. ~!i I(J.707 :um.4' § J' 2' 1' ()' N 3. XJ 1111$ lx•w v$> X: I X X2x x.M75 .1 '14.3.OO tl.O .~.1.S scc.'i 15 .:n~ 1 ·~ 0 02' 1' 0' 26°34. :.~: (h'fl11l/IV•S for semlarctt th~ l ~ fl to ll•~ .lysls o/ Arches t\93 The 'IJlpe~r valuc~s o[ :r.11 .:1125 15 . .75 t . 75 ':' . .75 1. 85 ~1 . 25 0.5 2G"34' O.21. 78 .1 o• 0. 970 . The ordinn tes to thll M. 5(i \.tcocy of denc~t: tirm s c~ec> A•·t.375 u o. 2!i I c.0.970 0..0(1 .11 hnvc ht>en con.71 Section No.<\( .0..75 C) .'i6~5 . 75 . tou . '·' .9371) t1i.00 .H auc\ 4 . !1375 ~ 12.75 .55. Approximate l'ffethod~ of Design and A nn.27 . 28  _.. Ci.fi 0 .. 28 l> 3. ..2425 0 .11875 . 1. 707 O.56 l:i.11.20.25 0. ~. This con be cl l>ne mu1tirlying tlw !!aid . m r l rtt~ <J 1 2 . 1' !) 14"02' 3' 2' l:t If> 18 21 0 0.25 .!>t.:.00 .!l 8 4.56~.25 3. 3.11.12 .11.81 ..00 5.tiOO O.·H .:'l:i .6.() 0 .&00 0.24.707 O . 12.Il7 The diagrnms given in Fig.OO 12.447 0.11 HSiog lh~ lll('lhocl lutsccl on lho coosi.!>g/1 (1.25 I .75 O.<tructeil u"ing the tlela contained in thL• ahove tut.· 'l ]Jnl () 0 3 (\ • J 45° 36~fl2' o. 12.894 0.'.9..35 ..2G 1 . li I.0625 .00 .les. 3.o11 ci h l )trft flt .!l(M) 1 .600 .'j.(JO 11Ul7 (1.' 36°52' 45~ 24 0.707 0. L"> .7.3 4.313.ogo~hcr with all th(• corn\Spoucl Tabt.'If f>lugra m q.. • 13 Ia t.6. 312. :'I 12 .tions c>[ Lhll nrch 1'nbl~ 1.
21.2!. Ll1o unit m <mll'IIL diagram M 2 (Fig. 73 cliagrtun hy.56) 2 X S X..<llagra m.114 2.. 1(1 I 1). 9(18 S"cNo. suy.4.0 2. 000 18.728 5.\"1 sin rp •J.qxcos ~ Or<lhMt•s tor tt.M . 248 2.r.!. 1'>.  I  5 24 1'«/ilc •1 .4. 2'a25 1 ) .457 4.85 +2.lt:Y.Q·'< s i n II' x~ M in <.85 + !l x 11l.~17 .364 O.48i 3.3.~ .1 .0 tll.6.000 ()  0  1.. ..000 11 .707 1 ).Hl'J . 55 1 .\170 8.24 . \)I. 9. 707 0 .364 22.1.S20 :\. ooo 0 J .484 !1.4.f>3 0' 7117 8.2/t 3 . 1i75 S.\!..4' § N 8' 2' ]' 8.44'i e'> "' .85 t2.707   3. 9'10 .7fa7 ll 1SOil ll .457 4 . 0 .53 1. ~1.1 ).!i rduntfant A ulttt • Table 3.'l 0 1.707 7.111a I) .85}.25 0 0.87J I•n Jc ? (2X !l X (1.!lG8 t8.675 ·..e to tloe Q lett sc.12 . ~ 3.76 12 .. tl<><l Xo x.(! 12.400 10.28 +3 X 9.(1(1() 14. 7 .r•.5G + 9. 28} = Rjc (550..70 12.800 .21. 9.Xt +~· 0.s (i: ens X1 'll .000 .28 +6 X !'1. r>~oo 44..12. 5(1. 70i O. t OM 0 1 2 iJ sPnJhtrcl• 1).87 2x 9 xo..i:tB !J..970 .11 Ordinata~ lA> the Q Diagram . 60(1 0.970 0 .756 .lJ$ '.1ib).'.756 0 .I«)) 7. I ' 3' 2' I' 0' ~ N ·  l . .5U + 2 X 3 X 9.0f>4 :!.800 (). 61.Gl•O 1).8 JJ.!rurn. :wo O.1'11) 12.484 0. 0(~) 5.(2 X() X !J.81V.'C lo1· the IO(l Ord lnMI!S l <> \h~ N d Jn.894 5.21..J . .2 1 J7 .728 tJ..fllo f . !.:! . 0 .. (1(11) 10. m ia r<)h tons Hi..0 . fl8 12. 8!'14 g 0. ~ ((2 x 12x lli ..970 0.'(()9 ..000 1 11i.05 ~ 10.21\ 3. 1. 31)4 (). lt Oil XJ AI R < p sin <P .1.557.200 0. !iOO 8 .:£5 2. V.>< 6X9. x {1. .7 5.LS5 .:::: 0 .2 .59 . 30 It.5G X 9+6 X 0..26 . 0 0 .H7 l) ..600 .. ~!l'o I) . #.GOO 0. .25 .600 (1.910 I 0. 707 Xt cos 'II q:r: 0 1 2 !J 1. 248 .
11 . R grapn.J2.ll).te .hcs 4f.Method$ of Design rmd Analysl$ of Arr.11 .4.t 4 4' Fig. Appr<>:r:ima.
· · z 2 ·· ·· . 11 .om I .:Js.···" ·.. l!i..·~·.41}() Rednnrlan. q i · z . Fig.( I ~·xJ\... f . .. 71.11 Fig.m~. ~·.t A rclws x.? Xz ~ X z I .·...
d to the rla:.r·c~d sol~ly in order to arquaint the render wit.meuts ·1. The willth of tim arch (in the <hrectiou ncll'lna.:\~>7' subclivicle t lw rtrch iulo t. 'l'lw conjng<lt•' Eiroplo strnr.unl h•lrizonlal projL·c.·l r. S<>lvtf. At int.tecl. 6~~· ~~>/' t.t• Llu.<)ll.51 ·  I :c I wiHl i'P. At the c.0 m..t:ur<• with all Llw rNlun<lunt rl'IH'l iHn ~ t. (I and iY rliagrams ft>r tho par3bolic ar<:h <:(Hrylng 2 ton. 1~>.11j whence In nrdc•r t.. '!$Umed e<rual t.e<l for *.left scmi:rrclt they are negative. H.11..h have bcon c:~lcnlated usi ug • * fn f ~Jwuld n8~3 . X 362 18 x2.0 arc~ m Th11 orcli1wtos to tho neut.onsidc..h ~hu col'responding computation lochniques.H).2 q and . botwccm t.=I8 All fbc data uecessarv for further c.j ).lt~ tang•mt to tho neutral lino ·of tho arch and the horir. (n this problem they will be c. z :·m 4=n=r2=3.(lrmediate scc.'lquontl~· direct stres.~ rm) positive a1id for the:.kne's of tho arch j!..IJ~ rlx """ dc+ tla .ments 15 11 • 622 .oul.1 f).11) . t = 0.8 m lhid:.tl. its ri~tl f = ill m.. f > l) and consf. in Fig.o 1.tic: contrc nppeur.on'Lal has belln compnt!!d using expression tan c1' = d~ =TS=g For tlitl ri~ht semiarch ton <r nncl consequently the angles q:• thems(llv(). d11 2x x lengths contiguous to soction sulldividing the arc. Pr()blem 2..{lvt•n by n II<Jrizont:alload of q .:it> m..l t. Uou~ (Fig.Jvo ~l'gffi(~nts having eq.2 m thick and at the ahttl.:. H<~qu ired t.5l (i.h" c lr. Tht> angle q.rown U te arch i ~ 1.M.>u to the crown (Jo'ig. I :r.hp.ll. o. ard1 wi lJ bo acco1mt.. 0. U.<l dcHorminc the displac~. Tlw n•m•~Jl•lucl iug C'IHtC< nical cquati•ms l>t!CC•mc t2. I is tltt> hoJl'i.1\ving) will be l\.s pl'r 1'1(( metre tFig..pa n of the arch l .wt.ral liM of computed ·using c)xprN.~cs be neglec. plum• <lf t. 1. 'l'ho ..ti<mS the tlur. Compl'C~$J VO ::M~ssos arising in t. Tho mcnn valuos of scgml•nl this case .'ntl!d in Fig. <listnnce of ~he cross ~tion nrtrllll' c:o11sidl'r'1 1U1.rau ~rOI'l'r. 15.sion th(~ arch reprcs!.:rlcmlations ar·e given in Table:> 5.5.11 x2 f1='7Zx2= 4f I.
1.5547 (1.80(11) 1. m rn J m4 T • • VJ s~ruJarctJ 0 1 0 0 3 6 0 0 0.!J.GG67 1. 2 Tota l I I 9 1.j0 '1.3 i5.7 .0.1.60 0.9187 1).) 0. r ight HenlhU'C ·ll d. '.20 '1.409 U.183 to .144 I) .7.an ~:· Sl'ct icm N c:.0000 0. 3941 5.5 . !J 116.50 1.7 0. m stn cp t. 1 0 8.8 (i. 24 5.0.7071 O.j) 5 (} 13 1 }. 5145 0. ·IS 0.ii667 0.3162 0 1).5 8 ·J2 .01JI)0 124. 70il . 6 67 .4472 .1ti 2 8 4 O. 3:133 '1. i7 .&G 'llt7..1 11 .6 11.miarch ltft semi arch roglit .40 0. 11 x..3333 1 0 .~ . 7 31.(15 ·1.8 15 . 281 9 12 15 9 12 1.OO O 1.t.t\J 1 .70 3.8!H4 0. 0 l 106.229 (\..3162 1.1)3 ·1. Z. TtJ SPmta 1 ·clc l' igh t cos 1j) l~ft .3'.8321 3 .81)1)1) 0 .18 IS 2. 7071 3.55.30 0.8[.Tnble 5.30 1.CI!) 0.0 .5 2 0.85iG t) . st.3 3 6 0.
801.9 ""7 'i. this expression redutx'S to Ef>22 =2Z..4 + 9.1xos (se~ Fig... rn the above l'Xpression M1 =t (yy..=.). Displac.==5. 3 = 2 X O.ement 6 11 will he. J rn tbe l11tt('r l'Xpression the term in brack~ ts is mult. N1 = and thl'rdort• L coscp: F= id fillu=2 [ ~(YY6) 2 ~ + ~cos2 (p = .Uer & l'prossion have been taken from Table 5 .S('quently E~:r.tlll72 = 3 3'··· O> ro bl·~n 'l'hu arch tlticknc. Si nco A/2 = lz.y Tho values of tho numerator and the den'lminator of the< lo. 20.8 Tho di~plnccm11nt 622 will be co mput~<l nl'glocting the infinoncl' of tho n or ma I t~tr(•Sst>s.s of in('rtia are ~ivt'n by J = ~ .akos d u() care of the normal s tresses. cofl.. and Analysis of Arches 499 the :o pproximatu rela tions..H ..11.r~7 s Tho corresponding cnlcul:ltions nre cn!A)rod into Tnblo 7.40 m . • 30 whil o th" n1omcnt.11 . Let ns now compute the unit dtspwuments. The coorJinatt'~ of thr dastic centre with roforencc t•J the adopted ..oht. ds s 91.! = 2l:Mi .7 Ys=.11.ign.ss at diffc r11nt crOS.'I secW:m s has relation s pecified above calculated usi ng l=L d =i . A ppro:rtmat c ilfcthod& o f Dt'. All c. • 18 201 :r l= 1 •2t).. 15 H) wilJ be zs = D and '5' ds :E s Y J yT 496.i{llil•d by 2 fo1· th o summation is carried along hnlf the nrch only.ainod using tl1e relation EB 11 =2 ( l:M~ ~  +ENi : ) wh ich t.L1..02) 5422.4.15m 2 co:s (ro nntl So= 2 cos tf•6 th~  II. Using tho data thu s obtained wo find E~J 1 =2 (2702. = for 1\bic lt  4  C<ISIJ!t 11 with Lhe exception of SCt' tions 0 and 6 s0 = .!.a\culutionM flllali vl' t OJ RB 11 aro entered into Table 6.
'> 1 H .71 I tlon No.60 1~. ~) .~l(l ri 18 158. 3 1 1 I.3.. ..)~ 3 4 . :10 1 '. 51.l5 .o 1 ..5H 0.1 J8l .lltl L. zt.. I• :JW II ~2 0. 9.· ·· 0 0 5. i\1 15 .5 IU6 11. 1 1. 3 3tl3 . 0.8(1 3 Ll. 21)11 I Total I 2i1.4 '17 .40 _ /.{1. 7'11 /.4~j (t.10 12. ill 2 .5 4 15.3 t 25 1 0 . 9(1 2!1. li (l. 335 1 86 I I .8 J5.I  I li.1 ..!.5 2 1.)[ 3 II\ UiO :us ! l.1~ 1 2 f>:1 I 1• II !:! 12.V• iu ''•'~ $ J ··11 ·"' U.'t) I.2 '·'· 'j'{i7 u .r.61} 7.s). (\!t2 lU\1 I 4U :! .7 IJ. ill 1. 1). 1 . 2t i'o 5.) 2 '. . m~ T • I I I I ' C•~' 'I. St:<'~' 1D IJ. 16 24. ~. i m i I I r. Iif)O 3.2.1 I I I   I .0· 1 10.112 .··  ·······...!1{. :.l:\ tUI !iHU:i 0. ! I fOS If ('u$!! .\ f).90 2.Ji I l . 12 5 511.83 1.40 1J. 7li 1~V.:  J .12 i~i 1.it)t) I US')II ..6 9!1.
i r l~ I.l /i3..lint•tl us ing t.. 114~ = 1 ..ls Ct~33 =2 X !'J U = li3i>.t.2.sl. co l umn C!lW Ctly lh(• S!l llli: wo o J. 17 .r LI JQ l it.t:uu WilY F l\2.'1'12 2=·z·= ·uz.)l J'he cli.. .Si olJJ.411= 11 !ls : M2=r.!H55 22.~ Will ••t Lhl\ fouL .~pl:lCI.2 ·· 2 'X 8. • .ocl lo N..Itl fl[ T il uh· 5.IIli~:JJ...tl 1'1.'lti (!~iug th" t. .~1. ~:ry· :r . 17...::1 15 .882 bl' ohtainl•U i n Eb~3 = 2l:M~ .Table 7. wlH'rr· }v/3 = 1.Y :. l '.!< 15tl 2 s 569 1:t:t3 ~tO<! !! !1 ·ti J[) 1~ 5 (j 22:'i 3:!'t '1 5. . J " ~ E'\ 21) =. ru J • (1 f) 0 :J 3!i 81 1fl.11 [. .:r. r.~ lvill \\ IWJ'o'  (JIIt 'lltly. .. l ~h · >wn Jli.1 ·   '2r12 . lo•ailing to Ell 33 =· 2 ~ :)...ota.l t4. i H)\ X<. k G .·11) . 11 \Vl\ guL ~r pp/.ho fol lowing E~X]ltt~:..i 1 3 li ·tu .~plarmntmls ol lhf· siml'le Ntructnre du£' t o tht> be o )bl.•.H1:1 ... JL\1 '1· ~ :S l·. () ..~ ing the vn l ll<' of ti ll! ~o)J.!.
pllo!l at tho clll!>tic centre of the statically dot<Uminnte conJugate structure.\bular fol'm (sec TnTab!~ 8. 10 18 18 tl.25 32i Tv tal 1 f>387..2. 1)0 ..{3. 15!!.. Further cokulotion<:.4 !S.60 1!J6.5 10. tltey c. VH ~\tq ·~S . (j 4.OO 2.lllu te lho complete system of loads purmittmg the compuLation ol: all tho sLn.~:x :XIII ~ :xu=7 0 ·13 37!J 2752 1J213 271157 /a0241 1 82255 0 1 2 iJ 4 6 (. 11' ·:::: ~. ni l.> l~ft ~cmiarcb r•eroainiog In ull lht> three of ~llos..3 21 .255..40 .60 7.11 Sec!I nn No X II 7 • 11 .1'1). 178.8 934 . 1 t(. X 2 sin <FIJY cos <p .1 = 43. i4.y8>+X2z + XsT qy2 Q=X 1 sinq~+ X2 cos c:pqy sin <r N x 1 cos q. .. 0 3 6 9 12 15 0 0.3·t 'fh~s.ious Xt = . the bending mol\lcnt~ •n th~.: Iorc&s are ar.an> cauriod out in t.>ro cakulatioJt~ we ~et E.t expre.Red1~11dllnt Archu <:~'ll~tantJy l i1C: right semiat·ch oul~·.3178 L"'> iug tlu> l•.l:!q 82. 3 15 .~ ·5.882 = 4.!Is u':t.ii22 . 1 ~ :i387.8 15.o ~r tons ~ 2 ~~. 2.0.:sultlf l'r tlu.)5 17.11J. ll~ j I (u _.$ions the summation will Lt> •:nrricd over l•h> 8.on<.uin tltt' magnitudes of lhe uulmuwn n:duudanL rt'~ct.S 2235(. = 82. Q :md N graphs will bo obtained using the foHo·wing cquutuon ~: (11) for the left serniarch (h) M = X 1 (yy$)+X2x+X3 Q=X 1 ~in rp+XzCOSlf' N = X 1 cos 'l'X2 sin <I' [or t.ti8 oJ'l .5 8 12 .o l <:xpro:BSlOD~ (3 11) w•: (lbt.2 305.4U 17.S 11 9 ·12. 1 ltt~YtJduring t!Jes<> "ulucs wt.2•. . /!!11.i 1.=o.5 2 4.3.'~::~ ~3::J_'81 = 20.'~'!l'!< and reactions ( Fig.215 275 2ft2Sl 13091 2816!:1 63.25 4 20 25 l>'o 0 0 4.00 tons touwelres X$ . Tho orilinates to theM.he right somiarch 111 = X 1 (y . 9(1 0 0. 1 1 4. 'logcther with tht' uniform loads applied t o tho arch.
7(1 9 12 15 :~ 2. 4tUH "' 0 0.5. M2 = and z nnd Ms = 1.entries in the last thrco co lumns of 'l'a.· u8 ) x2 " 0 3 ./. !J U . T able 9. B~miarch) ton . .Meth4ds oj De~i!(n a nd Allalysis of Archl.20 l\0.\ll the caln1laLions rt>lati vo to Llw ordinates to the M . N nntl Q diagrums are c.25 .lloat~s (!or the r i~ht t o tbe 3f d!ngt'. .'s 503 [\ will ho notc.and the righthand 7 semiarches.60 :. ·}'1 Hi .H differ very little from zero. 16.00 ·82.':S tj ~) 0 13. It '~ill be observed that the totals of tht>.tll) .l 11 .1 1. ·f(l 12..11 l1ave. 'l'o dlcck the accura.! . .. Hequired the influeonc. 8.13.11. fo!) 1). 6 7.49 ·25. wo shall obtain the values s s s of Y.ua) M y8 .69.60 41... 52 100.4.J '" 2 $ 4 .30 4 U~i 1..::: :.~ = ~ 0 "' "" q.2.t that wo neglected the normal s tresses whon chocking this diagram whereas in computing 1511 thoso stresses were taken into consideration. ·=~ .  s 'i::rMJ s l:M J The necessa1·y calculati on~ are ente1·ed into Table 12.lated i n tho ubove labltlS.It 13. 40 55.25 . 0 13.11 and 11..l ~~J'~ grfrphs. acting at section/( of tho arcli ./oit .7. which confirms the accuracy of tho d1agram. 611 56.80 27.cr of the M diagram let us multiply th is diagram by tllf) M 1 .5 .&ti .tO 4.61) . !10 .:lC Diagram ... hel•ll plotted uswg t.3.11.1 . Appro:cimrtte . which remain below 1 per cont.. ::!0 .tSO 41 .~hilf J . ln o~hor w ords.i 0 5.3!1..: .. 52 11}0.19. these s y. 1 '"' Ei .21.. 25 .~.11 Ordinates to tbe . 7(1 27.0. The slight discrepancies.be ~:~xprt•ssion s for· the left semiarch differ £rom t'hnse fur the right one solely by the ab:>N1cu of tho t orro accounting for tho uni!Cormly distrihuted lo:ul q .. Homembering that Jlr!1 = y exrrl'~~·ions ~implif~· and become ::& (Y .:. ~2.155 .35 .!s Xt i v.80 20.:.25 Hs .(Vt 25..00 .16 2(1. 06 . 5(l Tho diagrams shown iu Pig.l m.42 1:)(\ .3 . ~J1 2 !vl 7 and '2M 3M both for the leoft.....~2 ]l ::=: li I 2.e lines for the reduntant reactions X 1o X 2 and X3 M well as for the stresst>s M~t.18 () .. IJ J..nrri•~d out in 'I'ah)e.i. N..() 51).2i. x. !)1) 1. " 4 [> 1 2 · . and Q. mctr~s "' ~S .8() .00 lj2.LII. Problem 3.67 23.37 ..· 39. i)l) 7.qus = .ble 12..:.11.yz sec~iOII No . 67 :l.30 12 15 lZ>ti.. .. ~'!!2 an .98 eo 4 .6 Xzx }(~ 2 Ort. Hl.324 .\. are due to the fac. 00 .d that t. 40 55. 9. H\ 20.8tl .!Jc ol'dinutos calcu.10 1 .
12.8\l·'.~·14 lo .0.:!. .21.800 0. (jr ~) :Uti z. :~11 .6!.555 .316 0 '1 .liOO 0. ~ . 9 .51!.'.25 3.7(17 (l. 4.I 16 ..LI. sin <p .7(17 ·IU :i(IO (1. . l. Xt oos q._ ~  (1. sin IP =..801. 1~ 1.s .l~!) ri J n~: n un.!lf)~ 2.2ij :~tj .!15 tl..33 Q.:.11:\ g.22 . (t.tJIIO 0.'211 .37 :~ ~{)! .Jrwdnnl Arrh!'S Trlble 1(). ~)4\l 2.fl7 (I t~ (I 0. Xt Co« q.N I ~~7 ··.· tl.')8 ..lil2 l).~ 0. ~~4~1 CU!3~ 3 51) 7.. 2[> ~ 13~ :\.. G O 4. i!l(i (l. ~18 3 (1.us <P . O :J i:!. 9fo 0 .:Ls'1 1J.7 (1.fll)(l :{..! ... 01i 5.3'i :us:~ :~.1 't (J 0. O. './'C+f tiH' r ll(ht <lJ:\1!'rnul.I.:Jii 2 .Inn X••· x~l r . 9 1 0. fi:l 0.:.\f) .im • (i.1.) t\7 ~ tt. ...11 (l o.1 r'it't 'l.7 2 3 :5 . ()(I tj .83 7.8 IJ.9ti 7 .~. J5 r).. 7() .lo r.Jbl~t 11. !Slll.i!HI . 7•.7tl7 4 . tihl . 0.03 r. :i6 0.. 5!) 1 ) 7 ..'j 2.fll <' .. :i7 ().5(1 ~ 5... ~ IJ 7 ..I U. 21\ .. 1 ) iG .7(17 5 .\!1. 7.5·[1.~ .~ql!14 (I 7 .5fl .117 1) .tiU 4... .fl04 /( .Hi ~5 .83 7. 7117 O.X.l . 7tl7 4.1g :§.H5 .1 ...hi (1.3 tUl7 f>7 2 J.!.::: &: :::: .8::1:0 ll.~3.\1 Sin q. I 4.J .5H 0 .(J 1 .. ..\ ·1 t.1\4 . x2 co~ fP ~Yt (. t1 '..1/o!) 7.417 .0H ll.. .0() . toJI\~ IJ. .45 · 2.. 0Li To. /t~ ~l. 3ti ~l .X04 1 :.89·~ ::1 .·15 :~2.:'·:.! Ll . 55 :1 .0 (j 0.lil.555 0. 211 "q}t :.. .l.11 . .85B 1).: (t3 ·::::: ::=..4t.8':12 11 .~f.. ('.1{ OJ•tlinaLes tu the (t Ding J'IIlll l':ioc~ I. Ordlu\t h·~ .11 0 .:~::: !.71 16.!'I 5. 45 2.l ~) ..•tf! stu q.·BO 1f:i. t •) n~ to lhr~ .f>5 I}. ~. tl.~.(1 4 = ~ ___.m1= o]{.:~.f)2 ·1 .!'.: (It) ( ll•t• s· i~ ll t If• til(• Sfnli nrch) .•. :~n p ~ll n.:. ""' .:s ~ !7 2 3 .2 . Cf•S q:: Orili nat•s 1. !)!.1~ 0 i.1)8 3. () (I 0 .J_ " f> l) .i .11 Ordinat es to lhe !\' Diagram SPt:: t iuu J\(1.l (1 .tj'·' .18 .4 11 .::: " /j O.: ·~ 4.'17 ll . 25 2.0. 5:J5 . 0 . () ~ ··0...5: 0 1 2 .) 3.63 4..\1 SOilJiarch) . '. X?. !15 8.(11) •.25 0 ·.. .31f.12.:> • ) ' •) _ .l.S.l u.i .4{7 ..
'T'h<' c•JIIl>tl'ltcliun . JIU 1 linN: wi ll he cauh·d out \t sin~t the molltod of o]a..r mnucut" Pig. tu I) w.llflllt :uul in a1ldi t i<l11 tl w i11fiU<mco li11o for the unlwown X:: will be dct.. T hl' lir~t 1•f the appruximnlll mothods fl c.licm will hl• ~~~ k"n l'{Jllal L•• tlw qmtt Ll·r sp.crminNI usi11g llw ~econd of t he appro:timu te methods. 11 o! 'P1·t1hlcm i. t\ .r!'prl>l'l'lltl•d io Fi~ . 'l'llll ith$d.>I'Cribed iu the present nrtidl• will !Jr. 1.(\(. II!K'd throu~.tll o[ the arcl1.c . .~a ul th b 1.~t ic lll~ds.
'tfn+Mn+t ) (5.81.J .3 :.. and tlwrefore. These coordinatQs aro gtv{>n •n Figs. 12. 2 177.'1f~) 6 1 (7..61) 7. tan ~ •.40 4 tK) 3.>06 U.11) At th() crown nnd at the abutmonts Sn=O and s. .1~3 <..S 25. 1.6 37. "' I rwl.2 111 59 11.9 'T'·' 83..2245 I ~.3 84. 77 6 15.11 "" c z "' 0 tl .· 0. 15 118 s:u?:S .. E: .8 18 6.Mn)+ .40 0.78 8fi.3 17.2 .2!:170 581ii.00 18 6.i }. 0 ~ .!\9 .177.. this L lxpr. elastic t\ontrn of tht" arch were ~alculaLod in Problem 1.5ii.1 13.9 1t} .0 L42 124.. c simplified and Wn= 0:lc (Mnt+4.0 12. . 11.3.so 25. 9(l (l 13..2 !>. /!:J (2M0 + l•f1) c (6.77 "' I .+1)e.1 0 51.59 :l7.!:: ~ ...12 14....4.11) . 90 2.94 .11) W..J e 2 ~ 0 3 :1 5 5. whirh repr£>"'(>nt £>qually the snnple ~tructure used in tl1is problem and the honding moment djagrams induced 1'abl!: 12.l9'i 1410 4070 2616 ()()\) 401) 4(•1 2:11 .t~o G 15 8 ...!'1<) 9 15.!)6 175.5 (i t:::: l[.. :) 19. = : c (M3+ 2..23003 .!l 43..2 i3f!5l! 17 770 Total 1121\)5 + 22903 .= 'E~In t) 11 (Mn. 5....72 !H. 8.130 104 ·56 1ii 3 17..21 5884 7 220 2~1 4118 G54 ('o(i2 .:::: ~ tJ 53. . I< :j.. .4 ..ssiou is further .85 7G8 .8 ~ w·.1of! . 72 9 15.+.g3 7...8 53.C7 51.2 .23 ..8t (I 768 991.58!! 1 5fi4 14~ (!7 94..li7 .12422 .+ 1 ~~o...!+2..10 12.~ Solrttion.• ....90 ..9 \!80.:!27 I I 1.124 .:! "" .94 i 75.327 13ti!J .11. l< I J "" '"' 1<1'11.35 13.:u n+t (2Mn+M.. the clastic load~ will equal W0 = 6 a . 1 362 j i~2 1 219 241)3 2(.59 135 .100 by unit ilctions X 1 .11 and 9 ..1 .8 135.. ..!! 813 . C..[. 1 n+l s \i. .l..<=. •'<h "'· 1 76 1. that N~glecting tho r ' t he longitudinal strains of tho arch and bectlm~s rememhl'rin~ t'atios rl?main constant and equal to .~li "' .. "' I .60 .. 2:. +en+ t tan vc. The simplifwd cxpresswn for the clastic loads wag given in Art... "' = . t2 253 .. The coordinaoo~ of the inscribed polygon apieeR us well as the ordinl\te y$ of the.. 0 2(M I 2 4!>1 1 2 .30 ··~1.~1 ·t. 1 U1 1":a .40 0 10. ..dundrwt Arche..~ a. 2.Hl . X 2 and X3 applied aloug Lhe rudundant constraints.10 ..g .
g. of y s obtained in this way coincides exactly \lith the one.<l2p=O Xa6aa+b3p=0 .c. <:tx 1+ J= 2BJc a.. The imaginary bending moment at lhe ftxtd ends of theso scmiarc. 17 .Ea!c [<usGl+2 (u.0625 Im>tres Tho value.'J.onsist of two semiarches held fast ut the elastic centro as indicated in Fig..Jc (1 +2X 1)= 2 .ponding t<l the bending momont diagram induced in the c.·2 (!Is .'3 "'. U!'ing exprfossiouR (5. :J.d. The simultaneous equations pennitting the det·ermlnation of tho redundant reactions dm1 to a moving load unity P become Xt6u+<'~tp=0.ture will c. ..11) through (7.. methods. thus permitting thl' llelermination of Ys 2 H'o (Ys6) + W.ll .d in Ps·oblt>m 1 though the t wo were calculat.) ·i. 1.11 required displacement: o.¥) +2 (Ys. For this purpose let us determine the claf!tic loads corre::.11. ( Ys.11) we fu1d () 13 = Wo=sE. !ls}=o wh!:'refrom and !Js 33 = 16 = 2.lysis of Arr.vs ~ O 'I.1c). The now imaginai'Y struc.) +W2 or ( l!si) + H ' 3 ( y8 .mPJttione. . 13 11nd ac Lh1g at points 0. o\. i.onjugate simple structure by a unit couple X 3 = 1 (Fig. X2622 l. a W 1 = ~1'2 =1.!~.G:lc (1 + 4Xl+1) = E~(' W 4 = G. 17. must ht> ml. 9J.~) . Approximate Methods of Design and Alla.hes loaded by a syatem of l'lnmic ll'ads paralllll lo L11e ~I P.ed by ontirely different.~) + Wt.I•P~ ftf )7 Let us computl> the ordinate y 8 of the elastic centro using the cqu:ttion 0.
. .. UEJc (.Tcl1•1 3 .T c on• giv(·n in Table 13 . lilt) i~ gi\'t. l"t'lWiotJ ' IY wQ I n\"~ 1. y P n •u... by the (.:.h crcnflC~r Lll<' C(ll'l'll~pondiTtg rla~ l it· l(•iHi ii wit. H t 3 2(\ ~ 2 16·75 . u22 b.IH· ddh:ctl')II graph!:' of Lhc SiJH )li <) strD cturo <lt.~ llH~thocl.alc.~ X 6 t•3 a=  t>33 Til() t{ru[l!t.mt Arches :l~ z 6z. •n•c• ~>hO\tlrl Tr. •l•'"ll'!. 21 T 1 ~ s c) ~ vi <\li. ami X 3 c.Hl. b?:! and . X 2 · 1 and x3 = 1. x.ot.hod.h e> jij'" J:1~ an il 1 W3 ~t•·~ph~..lt o ••i•l .• l i(Jn g ttt j •h s c. 1111• <:la·•Lt r..13.3 ..ou hl ho al~o ohto intul t. of r. = 1 .tlll~Lr uction or til(\ dt•11N·t iC•II graph ~ imlucctl hy unit loa< ]. fo t' nnc\ x~ .y t. x. ~ 1 5'.Jl' t.YI 4 = OE'!r..·.< ·' " " t.ct t'lw ap}llicllt i•IH •.:lt by • n.llb ami l~t..' t'HI k irtf.5 T .1'1. !). 1 · 421'12 · l .. 9.11) ~~ ill amot.t.. 71 V:tluP» uf glnst.) .~ N~ Fig.l. .r expre~sion. . +.....tur(' ( St~! ~·lg H .it• Load« (multipl i<'d hy z...l~~ti£!c 'll..he app li cation o f forc.~ /' {)JJ 1 2= ..~ (5..es X 2 = 1 t(l Ll11: :> i•up I•· s!r uc.h t.. < •f lip.6 s:1 the ord inu to~ t o tlwso graph::.:. h·ud~< X 1• X .1(:t'N)d t. TIJ<' ~"" ' '• flc·fl. .} l.. ' .'1f3.:) . ic lfl<lll~ multiplic(l hy E .. 'J 2 J:::Jc a .2 2 > 1"6 T ..ht• elusLk Joacl. a.l::'lc a (:u 21 ) nnd lua..h i~ lll<'t.euL t • J ..a+ 2 X CJ ~.. 7..11) t ht'(>ugh (7.Y:z a::~ x~ 7.•o·c F'tt.r (.4X16 . 5·1 T 3 1  () '"T . · . 11!. &p 3 iHitl bp 3 J'ot various }'CtSiLion~ of the h •tHl •m it.!blt. <)22 X :..sent the onlinal·!. 2"' ) 3 ( "t.nerllwd... . · <I I' 6."' tr• thetn ll lll:nce l ine~.. x.td t•tol nt. H lltnl. l'l'SJI()C·Livdy. T it•• Y<tl•ws <•f ll11: 0 c t~l a. ~tnl't hy con:'!trnd iltg t. Jl~•int.·Hi '=.6 11 .u.11\ (. w.il.l lr 4 (.1 113 y. !I 21 Hz .. l(lnrl W2 !at jl<liul: ::) whon til l' ~irnplo ~lructuru i~ h •a<lt·•l by X 1 l.t. Di vi<I NI by . will l'"prr./.ulnthtg t.mrlllc mrthod.·· I) Xo J. Tl ttt".tl..I) duCl lo t..i .. ·= nE.o mt il.he l't•tltwcl<w~ l'<:'!lclivnl.o call t.1\l.ul<• t.~ t.
ttl'l' ( l" ig .he algolwtic sum of all the elnst.l'hi:< rdation will hn utilized for a check on Ul() accuracy of the compul<:<l loads.. t8..owards the moro c )xt. t.f>X3 _ 220.5 x G+G9 x 3 16EJ0 64~ HiEJ<' .1.ic loads uppliecl tu lhe !'·:.isplacements llp 1 of tho simple structure <hlE' t<l t l1'' un it act.11.1"1a m ust.'4<'"' of Fig.5 1)9 :. liuu~.q>rl t.ro!lS s1x·.f Ari"li.tun' muy not lie rotatl)d t:hc> uni t load X.al d. .n = Vpl 121 73. Al'}Jro:cimtlf(' Jfet/t. m_73.tn1cture by thE' ~>lnstic loads. :Ell ~ 16EJ. will Nlllal t.5 HiE lc .. l)I]U:Il :tero h~· < llld m11st bo •lit·l·~ t.octions.i<•n X. l oad ~ c.ructttre thl) !'lastic.lw itna~·inary ~t. <lf t.lw ordinates to the diagrnm of bcncling moments indnc<Hl in llw imagiuno·y .orJ'Nil••nHiing t.he~e ordina\e.> at diffel'ent eros~ ::.!1 7i'J ~.<is o.es r.5 X !l+69x621 X 3 ·16/iJ c 1012..ho uppet' index in pal'enthe~~. the position of the~' c. bdr1g inc licatE\11 hy t. b.152 6w_73 111 i6Elc ·16Elc .\. 5 X 12+69x92i x 675 x :~ _ 1. J8.1iiEJ..h~· ldtharod purl <•f t.thw~.d t..5 ll.1. Let us detel'mino tho v._laJ_73.•.1l<l't.. 73..!Jt.lw rigid bracket fi..iliEfc 16F:lc. rlly."lliElc =O {>la~tir.<~llll'ttl iu <fll!'~ti o n Sincl• t. + HiEJc..o~ < H'kil)ll X . parall~l Lo tho •li spl!u:.i mtol(• «tl'llr.o th~ >tnil 1.o the ~imple struc. 1'he vertic.1• Tl!ese ela8tic loail:: rnu~t In order· Lo obtain the doflt>ction cliagram bp 1 we most apply l<l l..lUi '. .mls II/ Drstgn Mid A n.6Elc .ndccl hlol'c$1 of tho <.
Hb are multiplied hy 16TU c· • .l1 b has bt>en obtained ~Otting off calculated as ju~'t described on the side of tho moro extended flhres of the simple ~tructure (Fig.11 This diagram shows th:~t forces X 1 = 1 move the neutral line ol the arch upwards.>l ·' ( C) I /)r (l<?Ct~t•lf (d} Ftg.11a) •. This movomont will be reckon~ negative. the positive 1lirection " The ordinatos nppenring in Fig. tho The ordinat~:~s o.Redund4nt Arclu:& diagram 1\{lJlOOring in Fig. 19. 19. 1!J. 18.
'r.•n t will bo determined.5 X 16.() .5) +~ (E__HI.2Elr. Dividing all the oriltnnws to tloo llp 1 graph hy (ou) we obUiin the ordinates to tho influence line for X 1• This influence line will show the v11riation of X 1 when the unit load P trav els along the arch (Fig. 20._ztx4. In this case the extellCI<•rf fibres of tho s imple structure ac.gative. Approx imate.onsideration &<O "2 11 1>2 <2> 1>2 ss x s 99 = 2EJ 0 =zEJ c 33 x 6·(54x3 300 2EJ.s of the brac.S) + u 16Elc 8 B 16Elc 8 S ~ (1. . Tho values of the bending moments induced by these loarll! in the imaginnry stru~turo will fuc·nish the values of the ordinates to the dc.mutual translation of the fr~ l'nds of tho hrac.flect.5 _E. • Tho di~placement &22 mpresc:mting t11o.._)+~ (16.Hb) and therefore the elastic loads must h€1 diroc.rndos (see r'ig.11l'. that menns dowuwards. 19. Consequently.. The clisplacomont 6 11 will be ohtnined rotating the imaginary loadJ3 through an angle of 90° until they become hori?. for theo displacement <'lu reprosonts the total changeo in thn distrmco h<'tween the lower ond.5 ' 16EJ 0 X x tr~· 5 ]= 8 xi~EJc (73.i•m graph foe· the simple structure undor c. this displacemcmt mus\ he tho donhlo of 6~~ • • All the ordinates indicated in Fig.• oxt.5 +75 X 1:U +46.8.5.11b..11b).L 46.ompute.kets al ong the direction of X 2 . Retting off these ordinate!..2f!J.5) = +~~j: Tht> value of 6 11 obtainerl above coincides EC~xactly with the one l'.ontal as inolic.5x3L5+(l9X10.wiU ho oLsorv<:d t hat the dtagram thus obtalllad ts nntJsvmmctrical. calculate the moment of the. Following the samE> procodure.a\ed in Fig.ted upwarols (Fig. 19.11c have been multiplied by 2EJ0 • . on the side of the extended f1hres of tho simplt• struc. 18. Metho1ls of Design and Analysis of Arch.s along the llirection of the horizont al un it' lonlls X 1 b _ 2 [ 73..11..5 +16Elc 8 8 16Elc 8 _2_) 8 .d in Problem 1. we shall find tho d isplacemcmt 1)1'2 • The olastic loads wiJJ be applied oncll more to tho imaginary structure and tho cos~ responding bending momo.entrc and dou hleo its value. 1. Thi.ture w~ obtain the dingr_am r(lyreset~\ocl in Fig.152 2E J c = 2EJ. the wholo nroa of the diagram will also be reckoned nto.ted upon by the for~e X 2 will be situated at tho. 33 x1 2+54X9+36xv +18 Xil ·· 1.P. 9.5 (~16. It.s 511 coinciding as convEined with the direction of Hle unit load P .~ loads about the olnstic r.ket. b()ing o lone.4 . using an eutjrelY different procedure.Hc). o<BJ 33x9+ MxG+3G x 3 = &<~> P2 729 2EJ" .
lhat menns clownwarcl:<. 20. •• .11 In order to fiml the displacement graph 6pa lho elastic loads must be applied onc. The rom·"·"JI'.(luer:ce lwe for .< t again to the imngin:u·y stmcture (Fig..o.·11c.~cting at the .. l1u~SIJ loads b<ting cli r<~eted M usnnl towards the extoncled fthrcs.1 rill' _r. 20.' to tloo 6p 2 gt'll l' " hy ( .R etlundtml A rd11·~ Tl1is v:Ji uC> t'oinciclcs again \\ith liHJt o l•tninctl.'ittling inl1•u:n<!l' liuc appBai'S hl Pig. The del.! ohtnilll:<l cliv icli ng lho~l. 18.o Jin1. in l'roblorn L m u htpl ~·ing th o ht'nll ing •m•m1~n(.X3 trf} Fig.'i ro~ di:. /r. Hd).. rli1tgrnms.. mav wo w · 1. •. ThCI orrliunti'S to the innuenc..placements will be furnished by tho values of the bt'nding moment$ .. J.
The ordinatPS t() th e influence lines for Mh.h.G m()trl.tion 211°34'.X2ti + X3 16 Q.447 ~Xz0 .* Thll disp!nccmont 6 33 repre~euting the mutual angu lar rotation of the bt•at·kot!' tin nth1•r wnl'cls.X 10.2EJ c it.h referonco to 1><1c~ion K t•qnals ot2)= 3 x t1 + 6x3 r• :J.t:s to the 6p 1 grapll by (6 3a). 3J .rnl line of the an~h und thtl l1oriwntal oqn. sin IJ'·~ = 0..a) wh~n ~he tmH load I' is between tho ls:[tlland abutment and S<!ctiun [{ ur wht>n it hns shifted to tbo) righthans! sem iarch 9 .lat'l l):lotendnd f•b1·e:.onvention being maiutainc :<l for boucling momonw IIT)d shl•ttrs.h(' t>lasti e loads. 513 corre:.eo T Able 1 . !.'. x2 x3 und the le\'t>r :~m1 o[ fMcc X~ with l'eferencl' to the same section equal!.EJ c P~ 'l.vk will bo cnkulated using llw folluw1ng cxprt!Ss. 'l'he ordinates to the influpnce line for Xl! (Fig. 8.als fell' t. 2 :.0. it.894 + Xz0.!. we may proceed wHh the c.X1 siniJ·'2+X2 cos trz = X .ho s imp)•) st..~t vs cunstruct these three illfltumce lines for stc/lon K situated 6 llll!l.'..~+X2 sin 1J12= X.lon.0.i~sn axis [or t.'Ycr arm or the: force X 1 wit. HJ .S9'o (.!.3 x 3 _ _ r•a  .= .447 Xi 1hl wbon the unit load P is botwoen soction K nnd the crown Jlf~t = whl. Normn l stresses will lW r<.3 •* Nr. value will I''' cquul to tht> ~ltm nr t.twn of t. Th<• unglc 'l':l betw~.ockoulld positivo when they cnn~ cumprc. ilf•pro:riow/P M elhods of Du111n a11d Analysis of Arch~._ 36 2EJc 6(4)=3 X 12'fo X !l+llxO+CIX3 or ( sx ox s) = x..l'CS to tile right. H (l( Pwh!Hm n.447 + X 20.onstruc. is ropru:<ontcd iu Fig.!!o 033 = 2 2EJc ' 2EJc EJ.u obtllint>d pt·eviously by the method o£ graph multiplicllt. The same nlue has be.sive strosl!os i n the arc.8!M Nk =X 1 cos q.447 .~.his ~c.'r . 20. [rom tho lefthand nlmt.894 + 1 X 0.BJc .es Lo Lhis graph l taV!' heun once again multiplil'd hy 2EJ c· .tion of the infiut'nc!' l ines for benol i·ng moments. The di11pi11cllment.47 + i X 0.tld) were uht ainl.. = X10._.l! .EJc bt3)_3 x 9+il X G+ GX 3 _ 81 2EJ.'l Jet..ious: ** (.447 and c. Qh and . !_.ment (section 2 of 1'ig.11 b). The li. i.'d dividing the ordinat.894 T hl' orrlinnt. graph for bp 3 thu s (1l1Lainctl.>en the tangnnt to the neut. shearing forces and normal stresses at any cro~s Rec. thut of ftH::t•=" 4 und !I' the semiarcnlls).p<'n ding sect ions of the imoginary strucLUre ben.g 'i. = · .ll ..os op 2 = ll...l'llctun> Ill'(\ at th o extrados.J .894+ X20.hs: ~rch.'. of t.'~ mu~t be ~>t>t (Iff a bove tho :thsr. 'the usual sign c.~r. 0!1<'(' the influcncl' lines for rill tht'l redundant reactions nn<l Ira\'() hecn ronnd.EJ c 2EJ o Tloesc C'•rtliua~l.4.'r~ J\·i~t=  9 X 1 {6X26 + X31r r is tho h •Ycr arm of ~he unit 1011<1 P about section K and Qh. .
! 1000 ll 0 .O!lli O.:iHI 0..8!.215 I .140 .mln o.)n1in :JLf•s Lnad pvhll Xt X1 O.390 (1.3 li H' 2' I' 0._. !137 0.000 . .IJ. 1() 3' 2' 0.!)275 0.028 (1. 'l5ti2 {•. 461! .4HI .0 .II. 0.!) (1.0.3tl\l.1562 .1377 0.Yz Y 2 O.8242 0 .15()2 3.17~15 o.5:!75 .043() 0 0. t•ight (lj' .04::10 .172 (I tQ t he (! N l nllucnco Li ne (.0.528 0.187 ( 1.7 0.0 .ORO 0.U. on·J f llat.124 ll.0.5:m (1.. 17!)5 1. t.8!\'1 (.52~ LS!i?:S 3 .2&i o.u:m 0.t A 1 ·clL1< S Tobie 11.258 (J (1.0:l(l  (I 0. 2~!.:ctior1 2 :1 4 :1' o.15132 (1 .V41 () . 25tl 0.41.Mh.11 . 368 0.(l .2311 0.5000 .11.\ 0.30 0 .297 .l.0. 1)87 0.1795 0 0.<i. 5000 0.528 0.!.101 .207 .3 0. in t'l uour.0.23() (I .!f.'ly tl> Lhl' ldt (l !) (I 0.'.:.750 ().~(I 0 .:'uct~ 0 I J.O.CV.0 .8242 0.080 0 0.~37 (I 0. .0.a1M O.r I .H .89 .(Jll:J 1' 0' 0 .tli . fl% 0.0.\V.3UR ~0.0(1(1 :. i\75 .9377 0.101 () ().17% 0. t•J tlJe line (~h iuCIU I.3Hi4 .•~s ~t) tl11~ . t\87 .mrm·<liatf.1\tl·'o lt.5000 0.'.8242 0.0. LI .0.47 0.(1.(10() 'l.030 0  . rnelres 0 1 2 J :1 4' lo o.~U 84 0' '0 Ordh\atcs O.c lfnt.0.(128 II.187 (I ::1.1.. 5~75 .0. 3164 0.41\4 (I .i28 0.894 0. ·Jj(i2 . 11 ~  .2Hi:l li.uoo 1.HU  (1. 750 o.376 of ~c:cti•>u 2 Immediately to tho:.:H1 0 1.Redulldan.8242 0 .
!'•4'1 O.V1. 838 0.ion~ tho values of X 1 .447 O.737 0 .ahl~>s have heen used for the const l'uction ol influonco lines uppeariug t.Jl On linntes to f. 'l'he entries itt tho last r.1L It i~ nrlviS<HI to Cflfl' Y out all ~he cnlculnliun$ in tahular form ns indicatl)d in Tables t4.070 O.160 0 . 4<\7 1.11. 9377 0.821o2 0.e the uniformly di~triLuled loads by concentrated (\Ill'S acting at point~ a.'151)2 0.71 0.141 4' 3' 2' 0. 1.t562 0 0.8242 0 . sc.3113'1 .t'i£1 ll H will be observt>d that the o.y of this loadi ng being eqr1al to Z tons fJer· metre (see Fig.h .he .t\17 0 0.s94 X~ X::.c>lnmn of cad1 o[ th().0. l nlluenl'C JAne to tbe Nk Influence Hue Ordinat~s I.H7 0 1 lmm<'dhltoly to tho loft of section 2 Immcdiatdy () I) 0 n.X3=li tnns 33"' . 0.73i 0.5275 0.xpt't>ssiun~ obtai11ed for caso (b) diff<:r from for caso (a) only by the presence of a t.5275 0. 8.223 0.52i5 ll.0{it 1.1t.838 0.\Jh.hesc influonc~ lines let us find thl! magrHtrules of .el'm accounting for the un iformly clistribUL!ld load.1795 0.070 O.=3 tons 2 =2 P 1 =P2 =P3 =qlt =2. intenstt.a 1. the.o~tso 0..!1377 0. 1.878. 1<'01' th is )ntrpose we Hhall •·Qp)ac.l.&i8 0. '!'he Ol'llinate$ to the influenc. (lk arul N k induct!d by uniformly distributed loads acting or:er the whole of th~< left semitH'<·h.OHI t}  0.11 .471 0. 0.5000 0. 0.11.0.141. Usiug t. X 2 and X. 01\30 I) 0.~o thr<J {' t. Thewcouc~~ntratetl load!! will auwunt to P0 =1\ = g a 2 X3 . !i nuJ ~l of the polygonal arr.019 .olld point Xt x1 o.4H 0.070 to right o£ soction 2 3 4 th<~ 0..~tlell llff tlw corresponding inlluenra liul!<.e line~ for Mho o~ mld Nk will he obtninecl int•·orlucing in t.16•) 0 1' 0' 0 . 1'1 and 10.2:!3 0. Approximall! Methods of 0 1!sign and AnalJJSi. 2.lto~<) in }'ig.17!l.11.~ givon in Fig.4.061 0.·1 0. 20..401 O.447 0.5000 0 316ft t.~').·1562 0 0 .1'J. 2'1.s of Arches 515 Tablt! J(J. 1!:l.ll!.he above oqnat.i I) 0.
oncentrated loads by the corri. _ 3 X ·l .() tlw conjug:1t•! l>implo ~Lructur1) both actual loads and redundant rcact. X 2 and X 3 correspond·ing to each o£ t ho conconlratod loads will h•• o.<101 + z 0. <". will be obtnin()d multiplying the Dlngnitudcs <Jf the!.= !l·f.. and N 1.ling ordinal·l. EJn s.564 toumctre:.() c.848 + ('•X 1 . The values of S1 may be approximately taken ~qual to 4 .ions._...0.ng f. Q~. which are thl.11 and 4. cos <'P2 • a s ' 2 cos cp4 " The same meth od was used in Pl'obl~m 2.f~t=3 X 0 +6 X 0..· I .•sily Ioun1l11Sing the said infinonce lin<Jo.+ t is t'he mean of the segment lengths contiguous to ~ection n.l where Sn = Snl.His. The diagrams of the str·esse.390+6 X x fl.h£« Tho desired values of i'rf1.Sn.: <:::.516 RPdundant Arr.~ induced in the differetit sections of tho arch will t. <.12't.11 and in Fig.4.vn~truct.X 0. 0 .11 article.llf. + G X .'n summ<:'d up as indicated holow . .'1J of Problem 1.'l.. 12.3 X 0.$ <:::. 'fhe inlha•nco line~ f~~r the r(l<l undant constraint~ X 1 . Qh =3 X 0G X 0. The magnitu<lel! of X.ion ol' stress •liAgrn rns in!lnced in Lilli nrd1 b~· vor tical lo.. W..3i6 X 2 ' . 528= 9.tically the same as tho5e given in Table~ 2 :11 .r~ted load~ a~ting ilt the apices of the polygonal a•·ch.034 tons values are prac. 5t8 1{j 0 0 2'3 I 3 f) O?!S ~ . l>'or that lnrJlOSC the actual loading will be replaer:d ·~· 11 systt•m of llquivalent conct>nt. "' NeglreLing comprea~ion s trains... struction of the influence line for X 2 using <::i : . 3... O!.'S)Iont.. X z an () X 3 permit Ntunlly thl' r. a so· 2cns<p0 '  S 1 =cos q: l S2=". ~ ~ ~ Let us consider :m cxmnplo of tho con~ <:::> .·119 + 6 X l. I T X . 21. 111. 3X0 1'bC!~e = 1. ~ l{h = + 6 X 0.hen h() obtained in thl) usuul way appl:.. 254 tons ~ = 1. the exprt>llSion for the elastic loads will hecomo in this case l "" .'' . X . 344+ f) X 1.'~ to the influenc.e line!!. the second of the approximato Dl(lthods •lescr ihed in tho fir·st par~ of the present Pig.
41?= 6 · . ~.EJ< Sv 3 18 IT1=M~~. < 51.·oo \ by tseo Fig.EJc i• H... we shall ohtain the dcRcctitln grnJ'h for 6 ~1 . EJr.EJ.= 1'8 X 6. .. Setting o[ the bending moment vtdut•~> thu~ obtainod nn the ~ide u! the ostendNl Jihr~..Jc ti< 31 __ t8 x 9+27x6+t8 x3_ 378 P2 EJ . S1 J'2 S3 tt a To~ J" =2J "=u"·~= ~=~s= Tc=Tc The clustic lono ls corr~svotJ<Iiog to tltc a pplication of unit forces X 3 lo t.. = O· 'l.EJc a =0 'J'hu (l(lfl ecLions 6 2a will be obtt\ilwd nl'!)lying thc~1 loads to tho ltnngiJHlr y slrucLnrt> of Fig. coust...12'UU c = .. .. 22.co __ 1s xa_ P 2 .. nJlfll'll!'ing in Fig. \ Y..EJ. \ BI. 23. EJ 3 =3·= EJe . :~ 189 =EJ r l:.llo simplo structure will he ssi .. tz 3 . 0.____:!s__..~11'1. A pJJro:cimat.RJ .no l ~inco J . ~ o= M o Elo = .. 9.11 nud computing tho IJenJing moments induced ~ 18 0 Flg.U . . tib) S'0 s..11..= ~ EJ~ EJ.11 F ig. 18 Elc • S3 3 9 l·•a=4£a~ .>quently COS!j•.!. 9 X 3 _ 5!H EJc .11 hy th esc loads .9·=E"'El c J 0 3 ?7 s2 a W2=.. E/1 s .= • J.MethQd• of Detlgu and Analysis of Arci~R 517 a.1.· t8 X 12 ..~s of the imaginary structure._ 27  X 0+ 1 8 X 6 . 27 X 6112 ! 4) . 2:!. 22.:. ...
Tht) influence line £o1' X 2 will he obt.518 Rcdut!dant Arches 6v 2 graph by (622) hce.1 t.t 2) by !H and half tbe sum of these temperatures by t. We shall abo adroit 'Lhat within the thickness of the arch the tcmperaturll varies linearly and therefore the increase in temperature at the neutral line (provided the latter t~oinddes with the centm line of the r. 24.: .sent 1 'l'he llispl:lcoJOL'llt 6 22 is Lhe double of bp~. For tho simplicity let liS denote the difference (t 1 . Every temperature change leads to the appearance of stresses i. 2<1. The simultaneous ..auoe X 2 = .11 by l\ while that at the int. Influence ll11P.\ obtained by UH>.ratlos by (Fig. 25.ally tbe same as the onf. 25.::. for .21' 2• This infhwnc.o line apJlcars in V02 Fig.ross section) will equal t.11. Let us establish the expressions permitti ng to 'predh~ t these stresses. 20.11c. ~ ~ Fig.11 Ftg.rz o..ainod divitling all Lite ordinatl's to tho article and !'()presented in Fig. 20 .11 5.11). t. EFFECT OF SHIUNKACE AND TnrPERATURE CHANGI!:S ON FIXED END REINFORCED CONCRETE ARCHES Temperature changes.>quais 2~~: or . Jt is practic. for this purpose Jet us assume that t he tempe~·aturc at the extrados has been increased Fig. firs~ of the methods dl'SCribed in tho pr~>.. 6 2 2 ~.n ft xed end arches. Thus. ttz .
11) become in t his case XJt611 +~II = 0 } (H.11.ct6t ~ ~~ Tn these cxpressious h represents the thick ness of t he arch .y.r uduciug t he values of .131.}~ .ctt ~cos ff!x ds • .:\lit . all and 633 in equations (9.hermal expansion .~ Jut.8 we may determine the dPfioc tioHs due to a Xzt6~~ temperature change which are given by .os2 !px s t whilo the value of 633 is provided by the expression ~33 = ~ .1st =.63a + 631 = 0 Since a ll the displacements of the arch caused by the said tempet·atu re change are syrnmelricul. 26. the displacement L\ 12 must a lso equal zero and consequently X 21 is equally nil. and a is the coeffidcnt or l. The value of~~~ (with due rcgnrd to the infl uence of normal stresses) is given by • 811 = ~ (y.ds t1+"zs.~ s + ~ c. 611 =C£ (tl .tz} \ J' . Using the oxpre::ssions devoloped in Ar t.N t ds • s ilat =ct(tl .11) Wl' obtain . Effect of Shrinkage and Temperature Changes 51!\ cqunUons expressing lhnt the displacements a long the reduudant constraints transferred to the elastic centre of the arch arc nil (l•'ig.5.y$) ~: s .MIT + ct2.tz) or ~M3 ~ s ~ 1 1 = . 11) + ~21 = 0 x3.aM~ (y .. 7.
• ~ the assumption that h l. ~(YYs)2 • 7 The first of the expressions (10.l fix <. a rectuc.t.L 8 = :::.~ · COS<J>x ' h=~ COS<p~"t of inerl.> contr(tdict.ft and with the reduction of its rise. fort~S Xu aud X 31 will be given in that case by the follow ing expressions** Tn thl'se expressions lc and he reJ. + • For a rec.reta eau he calculated in t.ia and the thickness of the arch at the crown sectioJl. at would repreSQnt tho strain pe. Shrinkage.11) ~ cn:.c ~ w IWtll J.ion in the cl·osssectional dimensions and the use of the materials with a lower mocllJlus of elasticity will reduce tho stresses caused by tomperaturo changes. Strcssos set up in a roinforc.Rednudallt Arches Thl. due to a temperature change.Sions an.•· unit lougt. of mnr.em]lCraturc oqual to t°C.<rti<t and thickness vary in accordance with • J.uused by a ~.<p.<.oncrete arch IJy tfw shrinkage.y$) Let us examine a parabolic arch whost1 nl"ulral line follo1vs a curve given by y= ~t x 2 and ·whose crosss~ctional momeu!s or inf:.'quals c•. ~.is negligible.~d hy c:1 £C of fiat lii'Chi)S.>spcr.\1 = X3t 1.tangular arch of r. *" Il willl>o t·ememht>red that for this typt> of a1·ches Ys= ~ .ially in the OS h cos <f!x <!'x he • Nt>Vl!J't. On the coutrary.ho same way as thosE>.h these two oxprt>!.onstant dept. tho lit·st leading to h= 3 .ed c.hole.fl ange in t.h 1 .. th(l ()J'ror introduc.Xtt (! .>d end moment due to a temperature change can ])e computed using the exprogsion Jlrf.ol'y.1j) indicates that the thrust dtle to a temperature change increases together with the l'igidity of the a1·c.2. .<.resent respe0tively the moment (10. Indeed if a were Lhe coefficiont or t hermn l expansion of concrete.
11.tionnl moment~ of inertia vary in nc. 1f we admit Lhat the coeffi cient of thot•mnl expansion of concrete is equal to 0. 27.h may be computed in exactly the sarne wny a~ thf' i..ral line of an arch follows a conic parabola and its eros.sse(.6.C. Thus.11a.rcsses due to a d rop in temperature from 10 tu 15. DIRECT CO~IPUTATl ON OF PARABOLIC FIXED END ARCHES \<\. all cos')::.__!s_. for in r~:~a li ty the arches aro cast section by section 1md therefore only a certain fraction of the total shrinkage must ~ tnkon into consideration. t ho stresses sot up by shrinkage in a llx£'d end arc. 6.ct U!'l lind these relations assuming that a vertieal load unity fJ acts a distance a from the lefthand abutment (Fig.'S possible to obtain maLiwmalica l relations between the redundant reactions acting at the ela:stic cen tre of the a rch and tho applied loads. .00001. lL is worth mentioning that the•·e oxist moans and ways of co rnponsating at toast part.. 11€\u the nout.ially the shl'inkago effect tltrough a rtiti da l variation of inLcmnl stresses. =. Direct CoiiiJmlation of Parabolic Flud End Arcltu 52! T ho !!hrinkage of concreto leads w a shortening of all linoar dinumsions by appr<>ximately 0.actica this is usually reduced to 10 or 15.025 per cent.C. J.cord o n ct~ with J . fo r this particular case it becomE. the sltdnkage may be regarded as equivalent to a drop in tornpe1·ature of nbou t 25"C. H ('IlCt'. ln actunt dosign pr.).11 .. wh~ro J 0 is the moment of inertia at the crown.: the cocftieients to tb"' unknowns aJld all the free terms of the sinwltancous t~q11ations can be determined by direct computa ti()ll.[..
'YJt('r(~2'11 + 1) .uro by t he load unity P M 1 = bending moment due to the unit reaction X 1 .llcs the elastic centre ordinate Ys CQILals we obtain ¥ a cStp= ~ MsMp E~x 0 Q = ~ ( ~ f .ituting tl1e values of Jltl'p.522 R edundant Arches The canonical equations relating to the conjugate simple structure of Fig.c5. = ~ (2~ . M 1 . 27.. Subsl.x)x] IL' l.Hb become Xs4'5u J6sp=0 Xz~u +02p=O Y.11) T he displacements 01 p. Denoting by '11 the ratio 4/ T we obtain fi nally <'isp= 3~~. u!'ling the expr essiou l>tp = ~M. that means.a) [ ~ 1.Mp E~x 0 a where Mp = bending moment induced in the simple struct.7£ {l.y) 0 a 1 X 1 (ax) c:::~j: = = ~ 0 (x .3EJc l since Y= v(lx)x. ) l1 : . ds a nd EJ x in t:he expression for 6 1p and remembering that for this particulllt type o f nrc. 3+ 6a~ = 0 wherefrom (11. 6211 and ow will be calculated Jlcglecti ng tho effect of nonnal str~:sses.1.
The ordinates to the same !inc for 0.~c J\s for 633 it equals va3 = . For t. 622 = 2 ~ Mi .c X 2 = 62 ~22 P = .~: ~ ~ L ds =J 0 ~ I 1 Elc dx l EJ < . Ncxl let us det..._!_) 6 4 where T J r epresents as previously the Tho value of 6 22 is obtained fr.12T)2 U sing the latter ex pression we may construct the influence liue for X 2 varying again 11 from 0 to 0.ct Com. = ~ I ~ 0 l 1 (ax) :.5 .~: ~ 0 l>'Jl ds EJx = J ( ~ f.5..c (_}_~) 6 4 (13.= ~ 0 M2Mp .x) () a (ax) . The ord inates to this line for the left semiarc..= ~ M 3 Mp ..1}..c ) = .putf!tion of Paraboli c F ixed E11d Arches 523 'fbe value of t) 11 is given lJy ! l u2 vu= j . ~ow determine & 3p 631.11) Introducing O jp and Ou in expref. = = ~ .aiu immed i a.5 ..Sion (11.11) for X 1 w e oht.11) llenc.ermine the value of displawment 0 2 p o 0 2 p.6.12 EJe (...1. = 2 ~ ( ~ 0 0 2 2 x r .al to those already found...Y) (' 0 2 ( Ea..c = = 2. T>i rr.r..5< 'YJ< 1 wi ll be equal in value but opposite in sign for the righthand part of the influence line for X 2 is antisymmetrical with reference to its lefthand part.tely X1= 61p .h will he obtained varyi ng 11 from 0 to 0.x = + ~ (+.. .c == 12~.= UU + 7I x 1 15 l 'l'J~ ( l'J2 2'11+1) Tllis exprassion can be conveniently used for the construction of the int1uence line for X 1 .) Ms E!x 0 ..om ! I T ratio. ~~0 (t2.ht1 right scrniarch they will be symmetric.
hand semiarch.11 repl'osents the influence lines ror tbc thrust JJ.11) T his ~~quation pormits t he construction of tho X 3 infl uence li no for tho tuft.mmce to the vertical pass ing through t he crown. it becomog possible to find by direct com .524 whkh leads to lle. This influence line will he symmctrkal with reft.dlmdrwt Arch~s ('1 4.11 ptttat. 28.ion the stresses acting at any eross section of the ardt or t o construct the intl uencc lines fo1· these snmo stresses provided the applied loads remain vertical. Fig. X 2 ancl X 3 being known. fol' Lhe vo1·tic. Fig. 28.al reaction Va and for the fixed end moment l't! a acting at the lefLhand abutment as well as the influence li ne for the bending The equations giv ing the values of the redundant roactious X 1.
. their intensity will he multiplied by the areas bound~<l by Lhe .11..a) is act<!d upon by two ver\icalloails 1' 1 = 10 tons and Pz = 20 tons as well as by a unifonn toad of two tons per metre distributed over the quarter span situatod immcdiatoly to the left of tbe c.atically determinate curved beam built in at its right end and acted upon both by the applied loads and by the redundant reactions determined as explained previously and applied to 1 . For uniformly distributed loads.11.h is a st. 29.1~s acting at the crown section. 1'hese influence lines (Fig. ~['be following procedure should be adopted for these computations. of inertia vary in accordance wi tb tho relation specified at the beginning of this article. H and 111. and tne t'Jxcd <mil moment M 0 . A parabolic arch (Fig. if the fixed end arch were acted upon by LW() <~o ncontrated loads P 1 and P 2 (Fig..ion will be easily c. 30.. These infh. Re<Juircd: (1) the thrust H.Jitfc acting at the c. Hand . Thereafter tho stresses at any seet.+Mo.xkHy.P 1 (x" a 1) Problem.he left end .omputed assuming that tlie are. the snear and the n01mnl str<. (2) tl1e hending. the vertical reaction 1'. Direct Computatton of Parabolic Fi:red 8ruJ. 29.seetion <>f the arch as long as the loads remain vertical.2(10x) X .'11n will bo then applied to the left end of tbe arc.6.11 l ines permit the determination of stresse~ acttng at any cro55 ..segments of the influence line:>. 28. for instance. Thus.rown section.11) the bend ing mornont in any arbitrary section K will be given by M"= Vo.moment. Arches 525 ntome.~onco Fig. ~fhe values of Va.r<)Wn.nt . for the given system ()f loads multiplying each of the latter by the corresponding ordinate to the appropriate influence line. The ordinates to these infh1enc.e lines have been found using the above equations for the rodundant reactions applied at the elastic centre. The neutral line of the arch follows the equntion V= ~ {lz) X=0.11} may be used for the design of all fixed end arches whose centre line follows a conic pat•abola and whose crosssectional moment!. First determine the values of Va.b libera ted previously frorn all the existing constraints.
!l<. :10. 30. ll< vulue will be equal to the ..ratio \\hich in lbis particular 1 case equals 2 for l = 1(} metres and j = 5 m~tres..1ltt. TI Wt\4ln \wo neighbouring ordina tes b~· !!traight lines..4320+0..1020 4. Tho completecl inflnencl' line is !'l1own in Fig .swn of tho product of responding influcoco liuc !JI'dinnt~ with thu produ ct of the lm:n honn!lcd hv the inflnonr. If the dist. 28. Tho inl1uE!nc.3310+0. in t.h e event or a parabolic arch nr<• indl•I•cmd~nt of the 1 (b) !(1{luf!f1ce line {or thrust H I " The ordinat. Tl1c inOucnc~ lino for the thrust 11 obtained as j ust oxplainl'td is shown in Fig.e line for 111..11b..11c. LI hy the "~pan length l.sc orrlinatcs remains constant.t dnt' to the ln:ul.H + l•..3880+ +0.. q• Zt/m . :. line f!Jr V. For this Pl•rpo. 28.) +h.590+ 0 ·~188 ) 0.52(i R edunda11t A rclus and the crosssectional moments of inertia aro giwn by lx =..horcforo Ll• o influence (C) liu o givm1 in Fig. Let us determine l!OW tho thru~.z+ · .Fl~ 30.!8.tw .11 may he used without any allerati11ns.1 tons . The area mentiunc<l may be calculated aJlpro~imutely r~phtci ug c ur\•il iucar S<!gtnents o[ tht• inflttence line het. S t~wt by roustructing t.P20.!...• multiply ull the ordinates to the influence line of Fig. :~U.anco '' "O t•a.ra I ing t.::13().11 by tho fa) I'T"'!'"''ri+.1220 + q ( · 6t.us to the influl'tlJCO T ratio and t..O +0.bc:.. 1 h mi+z 0 2 2 llunce the thrnsl U will C'<JURI fof = f> 10.4. will be obtained }Jy multipl yi u~t all tho m·dinatcs t.o the nppropl'iaLO influence linl't of Fig..he inOucuco line for the tllrust lf. llll tl hm will ho given by (d) each concentrated load by tho cor~ (wi~' = a { 1~ h.e liM over that jJOrtion of th e omh can·ying the dislributod load by the iui<Jn· s i ty !1£ the Ia U.5 = 6.s_ COS!po: Solution . tho lu·ea bo11nded by two onlit•at~~" h.\1 in dicated in Fig.
174... etc. Such ta hles have been propar. The use of such tables reduces very c...896+1·'20.061 +q ( 0 ·~ 4 + O.3364 X 5. f>33 tortmettes = (i.23 tous 4 In actual prac.2 X = . (compre$.i ..ed for widt>.6. 1!l4 + 0 + U.onsiderably the time rcq11ired for computation work and thereby eliminates in a large measure tile risk of errors always present when calculations are long and laborious..000 + 0. M.(' geometl'ical parameters of arches such as their ratio. Tho shear wiU bo givon by tbo vertical projection of t.lw IQ(t ond of ttL' nrch from :~II con$trai n l·l! and _ roplacc thH lat tc e· lly t ho rt>actiw forccil just found (l' ' ig.5 =. PI0.O. 0 oV't 500 ..tico the design of redundant arches for bridge cons tl'11Ct. lihornto t. Direct Contputation of Parabolic: Ftxed E11d Archl's 527 'l'be magnitude of the verticA l reaction Vu will be obtained in exactl y the same way Va .6.ress nct ing across the satntl section will be obtaiue< l proj•:cting all thf:j forces lo tho left ot ~his cro~s S<lCL ion on tho horLwn tal: /'lk = II = t. . .51710.215 + q ( '~ 528  0.3680.f>40) + P1/..he same forces 10 Q~t=VaPt q+=13.. 586 tonmetros 'l'his ho iug dou<~.q2'·a= ""'2..57i X 5 .~ion).ion and elsewhere is frequently carried out with the nid of spucial t<~bles. 784 +O.IO X:S 2 ~~(II} = 2 .) 0 .. = Pt ( . T .11. the law governing the variatio n of their crosssectional dimensions.+ ·! 12 ) 0. '"8+0 ••fi" 3 57·7 1<>r (!.ly varyinJ.<lJl!. it will nmotmt to Jf.= 1.!.HtP 1 ( l 2) 2 2 l l . 718+ .r.) I t ons AS for tho bt•ndi ng moment.Va 1 va l ..2. The JJOndlllg tuomt>nt acting at tin• c rowu st>ction will then equal il111 = .33M The nnrmal s t.586+13. 3L·l1 ).
~. H ). TWOHINGED ARCHES In the case of twohinged al'chos the stress anr~l ysis is usua lly carri ed out adopting for simple l'tati<:ally determina Le s tructure the curved bar shown in Fig.Tbe equation expressing that tho hot'i1100tal displacCJnl~nt along the direction Of X1 is nil becomeS x. i . Fig.ation of these expressions becomes too complicatt!d resort should be made to numerical method~ or to the 111cthod of elastic. loads. 11 Crosssectional moments of inertia in twohinged arches remain constnnt or vary in accordance with J"' = J 0 COS <rx whore J 0 is the moment of inertia at the cr own section (Fig.11. 33.t.. 11 Fig. 0 s • [ n r.<.Me direct int. 32.528 R eaunda11 t A rchu 7.Np . 33.11.au + L\1p = o for flat arches lhe valut~s of 611 and ll 1p will be calcu In t ed with due consideration to the eff£>et of normal stresses . us ing the oxp•·ossions L\ 1 p= ~ M1Mv :~ 0 s s + 1: N.ogr. 32. Alternatively the crosssect ional areas of twohinged arches may vary following the expression F" = F 0 COSCJ>x where Pc is again the crosssectional area at the crown .
+Xs6t5+XG6te+ . ANALYSIS OF HIGHLY REDUNDANT STRUCTURES 1.l<'ig.. it would be ne(~s~ary to form and to solve a system of six simultaneous equations with six unknowns each X1&11 +Xz&tz+XaOts+X~&. each of the~ equations containing l~he same number of unknowns. USE OF SYMMETRY W hen analyzing the stresses ansmg in slructuro8 wilh a large numbc. H should be remembered t hat in a symmetrical structure not only the a.12) ono could adopt for simple structure the one appearing in .rs but also their crosssectional rigiditic~~~ arc symmetrical a.12. the frame appearing in l''ig. Let us investigate. In this 34s~ a .bout a certain a.tremcly laborious and would require a lot of time. 3. for instance. 1 The solution of such a system of equations would btl ex.ltp = 0 X 10z1 + X !162:~ + Xs6u + X. The simplif1cation is based on the possibi lity of finding a conjugate statieally detorminato structure for which the 1fft diagram for cac. 2. 1.X 2662 + Xao6:1 +X 4~6~ + XsOes + X666o r ~e" = 0 X t6o.is.654 +Xsllss + X66sG~~f>P = 0 (1.12 which consists of two closed r..12.ompotations pertaining to th i!l frame were can·ied out. 1.12. for t hu frame under consideration (see Fig.12) .p =O } ~1651 +X1hz+Xl>5s +X.ontours and consequently is redundant to the sixth degrtle. If all the c.e+L'l:fp= 0 X1ou +Xz~4~ + X3~43jX4&44 + Xs645 + Xe64e + ~.. adopting as con jugate statically determinate stt·ucture the one given in l"ig. The work can be simplified very considerably due to tho symmetry of the structure.12a.r of redundant constraints one is usually called upon to solve a number of simul taneous equations equal to the structtll'c's d~gree of redundancy.J.626 + X~62 5 + Xec5ze + ~2P = 0 X16a1 + Xz<'~a2 +Xa6a3+X46a4 +X56as + Xo6.h redundant reaction Xi = 1 will be either symmetrical or antisymmetricaL T hus.rrangemmt of its memb.
13p = 0 X 16. if ot1e were to muJtiply the M 1 graph (Fig. 6ts• OtG• 6a. For the same reason all the other secondary displacements whose values are obtained mult ip lyi ng symmetrical graphs by antisymmetrical ones will also red. X 5 and X 8 would be themselves sym metrical (Fig.2.frame under consideration s nch will be the case .t!~J x / "1h tx.half + frame would amount to .uco to zero. & 211 02 ~· 631• 034.o.em of simultancons eqw1tions would become 2k l o Xt6u + X46t4 + l1p = 0 X1622 + X3023 + X66t5 + XecSw + tl2r• = 0 X 28:12 + X~o33 + X s035 +Xelise+ . Ostt 654 .h 2l .me would equal 2 h ~ = + 2h 2 h~l while that pertaining t o tho righth and ' .12b and e). It follows that syst. Consequently.12b) by the M 2 graph (l<'ig.12c) Simple structure I/edt.12 tho product pertaining to the lefthand half f.12 Ftg.ra. d. M 3 . f and g) whilo the M 1 and tho 1114 diagrams induced by antisymmetrical unit force.6u + fl 411 =0 . For the .530 Annlytts of ll ighlv Redu11da11t S trU<"turcs case the M 2 .1+X. 2. 5. the displacement «5 12 equal to t he algebraic l'Um of these two amounts will be nil. 3.a. &.s X 1 and X 4 would be also antisymmetrical (Fig .~ r Ftg.for displacements «512.vmmelry '.rtruclure ibts of s. X 3 .2h 22 = . 6 01 and 84 . Thus. 3. 1t is well known that the product of a symmetrical graph by antisymme trical one is always nil. ndanl . for i nstance. 3. 3. M 5 and Jltf 8 diagrams due to symmetrical uuit forces X 2 . 045• &. 1.12c.
p = 0 + + (2.::~::::~~:~:::~:~::~:::::~ X2<'~s2 + Xa6s3 + Xsbss + XaOs6 + ~5P = 0 I I (3. ( d) ( (~ I Fig.l. the first comprising two equations wtth two unknowns and tlte second jour equa34* ./>t>2+Xa663 + Xs6s5+Xo<'~~s+ ~5P = 0 X 2062 X36o3 + Xs<'l6s + Xo6os\.X~6es +Xa6aa i.12) ~:~:. Use of Syn~mctry 531 X. the choice of an adequate simple structure of symmetrlcal pattern has resulted in the replacement of a system of six simultaneous equation. 3.rical unkilowns and Lhe sewnd four equations with four symmctt·ical unknowns .lw = 0 } X t041 T Xl'J44 .1.Xal5a3\.12 Thus.ll into two independt\nt systems Xt6u :x~<Sa + .f containing six anlcnoums each by two independent systems.tap = 0 The first of th~se systems l~Ontains two equations with two antisymmet.~&J> = 0 aud would COJtsequrmtly fa.12) Xz&G: I.12.
4.12 z . This structure is not symmetrical for the lower ends of the extreme columns have different supports. AnoiJu~r example of a symmetrical frame is afforded by the frame shown in . the displacedue to the redundant antisymmetrical reactions can be compnlNl multiplying at first the diagrams relative to one half of the fr:1me (without tho centralcoltunn) .A XJ fx... l t x. 'l'his simplifies enormously the computations. 4. An additional reduction of computation wo1•k has been obtained due to the fact that all the displacements can he calculated for one half of the conj ugate simple structure only. Fig. p ( aJ r <:: ! I (b) I '.. enhancing at the same time very considerably the precision of the results obtained.:..' structures which coulrl be adopted in the present Cllse.12a. ·"""1 . 1t follows that the redundant reactions xi> x~ and X 3 themselves will be also nonsymmetrical.12b represents one of the conjugate simpl!.Fig 4.532 Analysis of Highly Redundant Structures tions wtth jour unknowns.. .=J If th!l symmetrical frame contains a central column. It is oasily seen that this frame is redundant to the third degree. whereafter the product obtained should· be doubled and increased by the product of gl'aph multiplication pertaining to tho central column. 2 IV XJ=J Fig. fi (C ) / dJ ® ((> ) ® .J. The total displacement will be the double of that ror the halffratne. Nevertheless the diagrams of the bending moments induced in this simple structure ment~ .4 .
lla.p = 0 I X 11l 21 +X2622 ~Xs8u+ X..12. a+ Xs£>4:. +X5<'lss+X60se+~sp= 0 X. the six times redundant frame appearing in Fig.12. Should we adopt for conjugate simple structure tho one appearing in Fig. if the groups of unknown forces z. On tho other hand. Groupin g of th e llnkr~owlt$ 533 by uni.2.6s.t reactions X 1 ancl X 2 (Fig.=0 jnf"t ns though all the unknowns were symmetric. Z 2 . Z 5 and Z0 shown in Fig. Z 5 two couples equal in amount and opposite in direction. GROUL11NG Of' THE UNKNOWNS Jf the slructure which is boing analyzed consists of several spans it becomes impossible to transfer the points of application of a ll the redundant reactions to the axis of symmetry (Fig. 5. Z 3 two vertical forces of equal amount.12) would reduce to zero.12c and d) will be symmetrical while the diagram of the bending moment due to X 3 = 1 (Fig. +X2Ils2+ Xs6e3+X.12e) will be antisymmctrical. + 2. both directed upwards. 5 .3p = 0 } X1ou +X :~oil.two horizontal forces equal both in value and iu sign.2p = O and Xa83a+~31.12a. +X26s2 +X38ss+ X. and Z 6 two couples of the same magnitude and ac. X 2 . z. 5. However.. symmetrical and antisymmetrical bending moment diagrams may !!till be obtained if the unknowns representing a single force or couple are replaced by unknowns representing whole groups oj forces.12c were adopted as the unknowns. a very large number of secondary displacements in the simultaneou:.ting in the same di . allsarX36sa + X(<os.two vertical forces equal in amount and opposite in direction. X:J.lls. the unknown Z 2 . 6 + u~p = 0 X1 os. for example.62~ +Xsl'lzs +~'6626 + Uap = 0 X/l:Jt +X .12a).llu + Xs6. +X51las + Xelles+ ~ap =0 + I J (4. TXz<'>22+6. X 5 and X 6 given below Xl'H + X2612 + Xallta + X4614 Xsllw+ Xo&t6 + u. + X.al or antisymmetrical.12b we would have to solve six simultaneous equations with six nonsymmotrical unknowns X 1 . Z 3 . Z. for these displacements (coefficients) would result from the multiplication of symmetrical graphs by antisymmotrical ones. for the given simple structures the simultaneous equations will again full into two different independent groups X liS II+ X26l2 ~li' = 0 X182.12) Jr\ these l~ quati ons none of the coeffficients o would normally equal zero.~ + Xeo. Let us examine. X 4 . equations (4. 4. 1~. Here the unknown Z 1 reprosonts two horizontal forces X 1 and X 4 equal in value and opposite in sign. +Xs63s + Xe&ae + 6. 5. Consequently.
ly•i• of Highly R~druulane Structures (c. 6.12 2l t 23=1 Fig.534 Ana. 5. JSifFlple structure fa) Rcdtmdcmt structure (b)Slmple structure Ftg.12 .
Z3 ~· z.M 2 .fter we shall denote by the sign X al..) + Zs (Oss) + Zs ( Oss) (~sp) = 0 Zt ( 051) + Za (&s3) + Zs (oss) +(Asp) = 0 (b) The second systern Z 1 (0u) + Za(o. It is readily observed that the Mh 1113 and 1115 diagrams are symmetrical while the .p) represent the displacements induced by and along the aforesaid groups of unknown forces.Xa • 2 Grouping the unknowns as indicated above permits the replacement of a single system formed by six simultaneous equations (4. Comparing the two simple structures appearing in Fig. The work required to solve the latter systems will be less important than that needed for the solution of the original one. _X2+Xs . 6. We have thus succeeded in reducing a system of six equations with six unknowns to two independent systems of three equations with three wlknowns.J + Z6 (o6a) (~ap) = 0 It is c lear that in the above expressions the coefficients (tl 1k) and the free terms (~. ·2 ' _XtX4.12) and (6. · X2Xfi z2. Grouping of the Unknowns 535 rection. The bending moment diagrams due to the above groups of unit forces are given in Fig. =Xa1Xa . 5. X4=ZtZz X2=Za + Z.12.12b and c we realize that the following relations exist between the unknowns X and Z* X .12) Z2 (622) + Z4 (o24) + Ze(l'lu)+(~2p) {6. the first containing only symmetrical unknowns and the second the antisymmetrical ones.2. Xa=Zs+Za.12) z~ (o 42)+ Z4 (tlu) Ze (o4o) (~4p) = 0 Z 2 (86Z) Z4 (os. M 4 and lrf 8 diagrams aro antisymmetrical. 2 z6=2X3 .12) by two independent ones (5.=Z. Z Z z. (a) The first system Z1 (~a.1 Zz. Herell. + .12.L the unknowns + + + + =0 } • The construction of stres5 diagrams does not require the determination o( the unknowns hclonging to the X group.12). Xa=ZsZa The above relations may be rewritten as follows _X1+X4.J) + Zs(01G)+(~to)=O } + (5. Xs=ZsZ.
7.onstraints at t.1ip =0 X1o21 + Xzo2t +X3&2a+ X. 3.rical.and of the ri!{hthand colu mn reactions will be replaced by two groups of forces X • and The bending moment diagrams for the conjugate structure due boLh to the unit~ actions following the direction of the unl<nowus and to tho actual loads are shown in Fig. multiplying diagrams pertaining to one half of the structure and doubling tho result obtained . and tho result so obtained will he added to the product of graphs for tho central column . tho simultaneous equations will form two independent systems given hereunder x5. Let u~ oxnwine t ho frame of Fig. e. X3 and X.roo c. If the frame contains a central column.12) and (6. This fram e is redundant to the sixth degree and is acttld upon by a system of symmctric. The determination of displacements arising in a statically determinate structure under tho action of groups of forces is no more comp licated than that of t he displacements producod by single actions. As a result. the product will then be doubled.oments will be computed as usual. such as tho horizontal components of the left. X 2 . The redundant reactions.12b.12a. d. A symmetrkal statically determinate simple structure with symmetrical an<l antisyrrunetrical unknowns may he obtained cutting in two the upper crossbar and eliminating th. These displac.l>t4 + Azp = 0 .) or antisymrnetrical (X 5 and X 6). Xt6u +Xz6n+Xa&ta+X.12.od into equations (5. a number of free terms of the simultaneous equations together \\ith some coeffi. g. All tho unknowns being either symmetrical (X 1 .sis of Htghly Redundan.he supports as indicated in Fig. 7.&" + . h and t. 12c. 7. f.12) in order to distinguish the displaeemenl~ due to groups of forces from those due to a single action. graphs pertaining to one hallframe (excluding the central column) will be ftrst multiplied one by tho other.al loads.t Structures regard less of whethor they represent single forces or whole groups of forces. SYMMln'RICAJ~ AND ANTrSYMMETlliCAL LOt\DING If tho sysLem of loads acting on a structure is either symmetrical or nntisymmetrical all tho computations am fmtbor simplified. because in this case it becomes possible to lind a conjugate simple structure for which the bending moment diagrams due both to the unit actions and to the actual l oading become either symmetrical or antisymmct. which cannot be transfencd to the axis of symmetry. We shall equally omit the parentheses introdnc.536 Anau.cients to th~ unknowns will reduce to zero.
Consequently.9. 7. these two equations become Xs66s+Xfllse = 0 XsOes + Xe6eo = 0 . 7.6 41 + X2«Su + XaO•a+X40u + . Symmt<lrical arul Antisymmttr!cal loading 537 X16a1 +Xao82 + XsOss + X.p=0 X~«Sss +X&6s6 +.16p = 0 (7.1.12.12} ln the last of the two systoms tho displacemants .Mp due to the applied loads (li'ig.12i).1sp = 0 } X s685 + X o86ll + .l~p and 6 6 r are bolh nil.6a4 + 6ap= 0 X.12 trical graphs Ms and M 6 by the symmetrical graph . t heir value being obtainad multiplying a ntisyrnmo (f) Fig.
. It is c learly seen that the superposition {)[ thl'. 9.A nalvsll of Highl!l R tdundant Structw'eR which indicates that.12a and b. 7. both the antisymmotrical unknowns X 5 and Xa nre al1'o nil. 8.12 acted upon by one concentrated load P and the uniformly distributed load of q kg per unit length.12a acted upon by a sy. 8. W o have seen in the preceding nrticle that when a symmetrical .$ystem of loads. When a symmetrical structure is acted upon by an antisymmetrical . while all the unknowns representing symmetrical unknowns becomo nil. · "·" Ftg. Genera1i~ing the aLovo we may formulate the two following rules: 1. 4. 2. the first of those groups being symmetrical aud the ~cond antisyrnmotrical. LOAD TRANSFORMA'flON The two rules formulated ahove are applicable to any symme trical :structure regardless of the actual dis tribution of loading. VVero the frame of Fig.' i  ~ 0 ]. one of which is symmetrical and the other anti:symmetrical. for the sirn pie reason that any system of l oads can be easily replaced by an p q 1!:.. When a symmetrical structure ts acted upon by a symmetrical system of loads only those of th~ unknowns which represent the symmetrical redundant reactions remain different fro m zero. 7.12 ~qnivalent J~ . let us consider the symmetrical structure of Fig.symm f!trical redundant reactions remain different from zero.rncturc is acted upon by symmetrical loads alone the symmetrical \mlmowns remain di£forent from zero. ConscquenLly. only those of the unknowns which represent the anti. The two loads may be replaced by two groups of components appearing 'in Fig.so two syste m ~ of loads leads to a loading absolutely identical t o the original one shown in Fig.12.. for tho simple . wbil~ all the unknowns representing antisymmetrical react ions become nil. 8. Indeed.s tom of antisymmctricalloads it would be the symmetrical unknowns thaL would become nil. both are nonsymmetrical. combination of two separate systems.st.12 .
8 44 +X~84 ~ +Xe<':l4 a+6•p= 0 X465& +Xs665 +Xa8ss+65p = 0 X. 9:12b applied to the $imple structur() of Fig. Tho corresponding equations bt~come X. 10. x. + X66as + Xa&ee + {).ap = 0 It should be observed. Xz XI (C) XJ x.p = 0 X.. 10.12a only t he symmetrical unknowns .12 antisymmetrical unknowns X 4 ... however.Bs.~p = 0 X tBat +X3Baa + X:lJss + 63p = 0 For the same reason the system o£ loads appearing in Fig. these equa Lions become X.12. that in certain cases the replace~ ment of loads by t heir symme trical and aotisymmetrical components may complicate the computations instead of simplifying them and consequently t he application of this procedure cannot be recl)mmandeu unconditionally. ·· ··~·. X 2 and X 3 must be calculated.4. x~ and X 6 . q / 'l c . l F •g. 9 .821 +X~B~: + Xa<':la3 + t.·' kc .:.12b will provide three p ! !.1~ x. 10.~ + Xa<':ll3 + t. . .<':lu + X2<':l. Consequently. l . (01 F tg. 9..12 X 1 .r~ x.1 2a) acted upon by the loads appearing in Fig. \ . all tho other unknowns being nil. Load Transjormatton 53\) statically deteL·minate structure {Fig.
12. The same will apply of course to the antisymmctrical unknowns. 11. On the other hand. 12. The degree of redundancy of this fl'ame is equal to six. 12. * For the latter system of loads we may adopt the simple statically doteJ·minate structure represented in Fig. •Strllins duo to direct stres.12e} components. which would be unnecessary wore the original loading retained.ture by the symmetrical components of load P will remain nil throughout and thet·cfore tho displacements Ll produced by these components as well as all the symmetrical unknowns ntust be equally nil. It follows t hat all tho frame members will be acted upoo sololy by bending moments induced by tho antisymTitetrical components of load P sit own in Fig. i t is much easier to construct one diagram of thl:l h•HH1ing moments due to the single load P (Fig.<. 11. Hence tho structure given in the latter figure can be adopted as conjugate simple structure for the cal6c under consideration.12d. the Mp and the M~ diagl'ams are somewhat complicated in outline and for rnultiplicntion purposes they must bo subdivided into two portions. 11. 12.12e with unknowns x2 x3.12b and c shows the same struct11re loaded by the symmetrit~al and the antisymmotrical components of force p . 11. in this particular case the replacement of tht• load P by its symmetrical and antisymmetrical components will mol\e the calculations rather more complicated instead of simplifying them. Tho bending moments induced in this stn1c. Fig. in the first case the displacements Ll 2p and Ll 3p will be compuLcd multiplying the bending moment graphs pertaining to both columns while tho use of diagrams of the symmetrical and antisymmotrical components will permit tho multiplication of bending moment graphs for one of the columns only.12a loaded by one horizontal force P.12c) then two llending moment diagrams due to its symmetrical (Fig. onE! rectangular and the other parabolic. If we a. • . Let us now investigate the framo represented in Fig 12.dopt for simple statically determinate structure the one shown in F ig.12a represents a symmetrical portal frame loaded by one nonsyrnmetrical forco P. the simultaneous equations will fall into two independent systems. HowcvtJr.es are neglected as usual.12c. The symmetrical components will cause no displacement of tho top point o[ the central column and consequently we may admit that this point is held fast as shown in Fig.12b. 11. one containing a single antisymmetrical unknown X 1 and the other two symmetricnl unknowns and Nevertheless.12d) ancl antisymmetrical (Fig. On the whole.540 A nalyris of Htt:hlv Redundant Structures Fig.
11. ruelure Pig. T " p ~.4.2  T Simple x ).12. Load TransjormatlM ML p structure CN ven tb> x. x~t) {_!.12 .
The resulting simplill~ation of all the c. 12.542 Analysis of llighly Redundant Structures formed by the groups of forces X 1 .12 tho transformation of the applied loads into their p (a) ( b) (/ ) Ftg. ACCUBACY CONTROL OF ALL THE TERMS ENTElUNG THE SIMULTANEOUS EQUA'l'fONS It will be remembered that the coefficients to the unknowns and tho free tel'lliS of the simultanouos equations ropl·osent displacements induced in tho simple statically dotenninaLe s Lruciurc by .12. 3.12 symmetrical and antisymmctrical components leads to the reduction of the number of the unknowns from six to three. 12.omputations is therefore quite considerable. for the frame of Fig. X 2 and X 3 • Thus.
12} Hence the valn~s of all the unit displacements forming the r." 61. +li2n=6zs It follws that the algebraic sum of all tho coefficients to th"· ur1knowns contained in equation i must he equal to 6i 6 where (8.M8 ~ (': EJ . ilfj. . . well as those due to the actual loads. 1'hesc displacements arc usually obtained through the multiplication of the corresponding bending moment diagrams. . .LlJ jl:J.cessively the M.~ .'5. ••• . M. Let us apply to t he simple stat ically determinate structure all the unit fot•t:es corresponding to these reactions and let us com1kuct the diagrarn of the resulting bonding moment. • •• . Errors in the displacement values can be usually detected using· the procedure described hereunder.. as.12. If we multiply suc. ••• .+ ~ ~ MtM. X 2 . Suppose that for the analysis of a str ucture redundant t o the nth. X. tls For the same reason we may write 6~1 + 622+623 + ..icnts to the unknowns of the first of the simultnneous equntions can be chec....12) ... . dogrec reactions or groups of reactions X 1 ..oeffic. M 2 ...nding moment diagrams M" M2 . graph area by the unit br...1111 .ked comparing their surn with the value of t\.. X 1.LJ ~ (' J Mt(Mt+Mz+ . Ac<'uracy Comrol of Equattons 543· uni t forces acting along the direction of the unknown reactions... have been adopted as the· unknowns. (9..us obtained will be equal to the algebraic sum of aU the coefflc. Errors which occur while carrying out these operations influence further calculations and therefore render erroneous the values of the redundant reactions iinally obtalllCd. etc.. tb..ause + ~ ~ MlM2 :y + .. + Mn)    EJ = ds .. Wo shall call this diagram the summary unit bending moment diagram designating its ordinates by Jlfs· In any cross sec~io n the ordinate 1Vl8 will thus equal the algebraic sumo£ all the ordinates . each of the product~.ionts to the unknowns of the corresponding equation b&c.
.. .Mt+ Ccmscqut'utly s. urll.. +O. _ .o the unknowns of each equation separately .~ = = ~ ~ M.54.4 Analysu of Rtghly Redundant Stmctures The algebraic sums of the coefficients to tho unknowns of all the other simultaneous equations may be checked in exactly Lhe same way. · ·... on secondary diagonals}.e... + ~ ~ MsM. .. 7fT ~ .12) and (11.. llna denoting thi:s surn by l:6.. :~ = ll•• ( 10.(l\·f d. Lol us now sum up all tho values of 6 1. + .. .t. The above procedure pt)rmiLs us to verify the coerftcionts t.M.8 = 2: J M . f62n+6~. those :situated on lho rnain diagoual and tho other term all the secondary dis placemonts s ituated on both sidM of this diagonal (i.M. i.e.0:~8 +6a. . we find that \ EJ ds ~6=2: ~ M.J 1YJ ..r + .. + M") . In that case 2:0 = 0u l. . • • • .il 1a T..12) Tho last oxpression punniLs a simultaneous check on the ae...c..ipal dis plac.~ +~ ~ NlsM2 :~ + ..omonts...s1. This cheek will bo carl'icd out as follows : (a) Find the algebraic sum of all Lhc coefftcicnts t o the unkrtowns (unit displacements) contained in all the equations of the given system 16 = (15. + 6 22 1 ll. + 6t.. the oqualions of tho given system.l + <'l2s16u+ .<~ Y of a ll the cuofllcicnts to the unknowus contained in a ll.. ·... .. . 623 . + o.~ = ~ ~ M ..rt) + 2 (Ou 1. IOns But since 6.~ f ~"~ ds v.ion the iirst in parentheses coutaius all tho princ.n) lu tho above expres..
~ (c) C<>mpnrt> the two values obtained as described above.s to the unknowns symmotdcal about tho main diagonal are equal to one another as stipulated by the theorem of reciprocal displacements.The first of these four equations will be designated by a Roman figure. it is recommended to verify ~hese coefficients equation by equation as describnd at t he beginning o[ the present article.. 12) In geueral it is quite su£iicient to verify simultaneously the coefficicnls to the unknowns of t he whole system of equations.s.* Let us conside r four canonical equations (1). Abridgr.C. ** It will bo remembered that each pair of cocffi.d SoluUot~ of Canon ical Equations 545 (b) Using the method of diagram multiplir. All the operations are carried out in tabular form and checked constantly.. . ABR I DGED SOLUTION OF CANONICAL EQUATIONS Hereunder we shall describe very brieOy the abridged method of solving simultaneous canonical equations which wa~ propoood by Gauss. 36853 + . The froo terms have been transferred to the righthand part or tlle equations and are donoted by K 1 . I n 11 number or c.~ (12.12. (3) and (4} with fou r unknowm. In this method the unknowns are eliminated one by on!! using a set of certain coeffici~nt.ascs tho following iuequality may help in finding t..ompute the value of ~~v = ~ ~ M 4 Mp .lse enoncou1< coefficients to the unknowns s l>u X {)M :? 6111 The control of the free t erms of the canonical equations will he carried out in a similar way: (a) First c. (2). = ~ Mi ..12. the latter being seldomly used in stress analysis of redundant structures. (h) Check whether (13..12) whore MI' r epresents the bending moments induced in t he conjugal o simple structure by the act ual loads. If this check reveals an error.ation fmd the values of 6.cient. T he solution of this system • In this book we shall D OL consider tho ""unabridged" method of solving canonical eq:uatioos. K 2 • etc. 6.
Gradually the whol e of the table will be filled in that way. (I) ·0. using the expressions indica tecl in the corresponding lines under the heading ''multipliors a 1h''. etc. (4). multipliers a 1ki S. enter the coefficients and the values or K taken directly from the simultaneous equations into lines (I). +6tn s2 = 621 + 622 + 6za + . and K. X 3 . . using expressions contained in the column "multipliers o.11/'.i ned live equations instead of foUl· we should J1ave nine columns in::~tead o( tlie eight conlai ned in Table 1. a nd a 14 .12 we would have 19. (l>) Fill line (I) ·au with tho values of the products obtained by the multiplication of all tho entries of line (I) by a 12• (c) Calculate the values of l)' . for instance. . (III). (III) · etasi (IV)·a. 6.H. These nine columns would be under the following headings: Equation No.. 4 i (III)·a. + 6tn• etc."~.5. (IV). X 1 . (II) ·a23 . Similarly instead of 13 lines of Table 1.546 Analysis of /ligltlv Redundant Strudurcs or canonical equations will be carried out&$ indicated in Table 1. No entries are made at this stage i n the column for the multipliers a. Whenever it is known beforehand that the value of an entry equals ~ero. (IJ) ·0. (V). this entry is replaced by a dot.12.he values of s" s 2 . etc. sn which represent Ss=6u+6t~+6t3+ . All the entries in column 1 can be made off hand. Ilaving prepared the table. (T) ·au. {3) and (4} . Thus.(3). (l)·a15 .12. The number of columns and lines of the table is directly dependent on tho number of simultaneous equations. (I) ·ct13 . a 24 . Such is the case of numerous entries . X 4 . Further operations are carried out in the following sequence: (a) Compute the values of a 12 . if our system couto. a 13 .12.2.k· Column S will be filled in with t. {d) Proceeding in the same way determine the values a 23 . (2). these lines being designated by (I). (Il)·a 25 .t12 • No operations are carriod out in columns X 1 and "mult ipliers a. s3 . (5). X 2 . . X~. given in Jioo (II) adding two by two tho entries contained in fine (2) with those of line (I) ·c. (II).. • • • ... . (2).
6t2 6. I  I I    ."  I  . •Cl2J U34 s. ·x~ ·a" 6u Mult!pllftt 'Xtk s K Ct tz = .~·a:u a.' 833 6" 6. .a.4 K.Table 1.. . (IV) a.2 r· . x. 631 a.. (II )· a..a12 <IJ4 · Ctt2 s2 s. ..<X23 =  Kz K 1a12 . ~" 6u s.3 B u /ll4 .a24 s. 6wal3 I az~=~ (l) ·au s .a.12 EQnRtlon No.H= ~ au a. 3 "" K3' I K.3 a...2 all Ctl3=Cf. + { ~I)·CXtz ( II ) ~21 (122 6z. ·at• I)~"  s. a. K.. fK.6. Xt x.a. ·a3~ s. s~ K! K3 K 1a 13 Kia23 + r3) 633 I)J3 'Cl f 3 a . K. .4 s. (ll4 ( l)·au.1 ~13 '(% 12 a .! llaz I)• ~3 ~. s. S~"  I . + ~ r 6.a23 1%3~= ..3 (fl)·Cl23 {III) ~'>Is · 1%23 ll!. (I) 611 a.a24 K3'a3.u (JJI )·as.2...1 "" 6..a.
X 1 . The fina l results are checked by the introduction of a ll the unknowns thu8 found inlo the original system of simultaneous equations.12. Thus.21 3X1 2X2 5X8 +4X. proceed as indicaterl ahove with the solution of tho equations contained in Jines (I. Thus.2Xa5X.). X 2 =2 2X1 =5 + 23x3 +4: X. (II). _ 10 2. lirle (HJ) represents the equation X311. for im.o.er to the solution of equations (II) and (!) thus providing the val uos nf the unknowns X 3 .=1 To verify all the operations en ter the values of t he unknowns into the original equations.0 ' 3 2.n only one unknown yielding the value of X 4 • :Equat ion (TTI) ('Ontaiuing two unknowns X a and X.300 .3X 2 . (III) and (I V)..5x3 + 5. Eac. The last. The ahbrevialed solution of this system of simuJtaneou!3 equations is contained in Table 2.1+325= 5 (3) 8 3 =3 .5+0... for instance. of the oquations {in our case equation (IV) I will t<)llt. (fi1) and (IV) starting wit._ = K3 When all the operations arc carried out correctly the sum of all the coefficients to the unknowns of each equation will equaL the entry in t:he same line in c:. X 2 and X 1 in succession. X 3 =112+Hfi 1 10 ' 1..t each time the corresponding line has been completely filled in.+o. for equation ([l I) it mu~t be found that s..1+31 =3 (2) 82= . = 15+4+1=1 All the coofflcients lo t he unknown8 o[ these cqtlalions satisfy the pl'inciple of reciprocal uispJacements.ai.5X 2 = 18.=0 .. =s.X 1 . = .3 + X.= _'112 . 'J'o illustrate the above let us usc the method just described for the solution of the following equations 2X 1 X2 +3X 3 X4 =5 .548 Anal!fsis of lligltllf Redrwdant S tructure$ in lines (II).tauce.h of tho lines marked with a Roman fi gure represents one of the equations to bo solved.25+4=0 (4) S .h the last ono _ 575 X __ 60 .5 X 4. This control should be carried ou. will be easily ~wived leading thoreaft.olumn S. Having filled in this table.:1Xz+4Xa+X4 =5 (1) 8 1 =2 . 60 • X _ ·4 9B ~X 3 +~xt. .
2 I 5 4  1 It a2•= 5 1+ 1¥ :r 7 .k s 3 =~ K ('I) 2 .i I 2 l 5 3 2 3 5 2 z H a:z~ ""'5 1 .. T (2) 1 5 (1)·aa2 I I . H3 (j() 77 w  407 154 31) l (ll l)·a3..5 .1 3 I t a.I ro a34 = 24 u .r.ble 2.z .5 3 . Xt Xt X~ x~ MIIIUpllf'~ O.ro 0 l:l .a 23 z ·I :w ro 96 $) 3 2 w 44 1 1 11 (llf) .Tc.quauon No.300 {>0 .12 P.. +J 1 ( l ) ·a 1._~= .1()  (fl a a 3 (II). m 1 52 3 10 5 5 1i2 .t a. :r 2 2 (ll)·au w 121 ·J21 v. (lV) w :J7o 60 _ a75 no 1 _ 2..2 37 (II ) + r ( (4) 2 3 2 1+ I .4 .21 5 7 2 0 15 .z~ T 1 a.
1 [ 62P=. that would involve the simultaneous solution of \hree equa\lons with t hrco unknowns. .. 12 shows that an alternation in the values of tha fl'ee IA:>t·ms wi ll be reflected only in the outries of the last column K.2.A n. 2 a._10Els . In the latter case the canonieal equations bocome . a ( 3 a s·2"2""'3'4' 2G 2 '8Pa4+ 4 1 a 3 tt 1 a ) 1 + 2 TPa2+g Pa2+4PaT +TP 2 .. ( a 2 1 ..12.alvsis of 11 ighlv Redundant Structures Table 1. The framo is three times static~tlly indeterminate. 15. 1():l2a. 2 ' 2EJ =126 /s 1 .s analysis of redundant structures when t heStl arc called upon to carry clil'fcrent loads.iii. Solution. Q and N diagrams for the ilou blespnu syiUmetr·icaJ frame shown In Fig. Mtllliplying the npproprioto graphs one by the other we shall obtain the values both of the coefficientS to tho unknowns und of Lhe (me terms oE the above equations. However. 17 . 8 4 Pa 2 ·z4 Pa2 a a Pa3 2lU 1 .12.12 sltows one of the simple structures which c11Uld be adoptod for the solution of the problem.!.'IES Problem 1. b and c while tho dingntnt due to tile appliod load is prescuted iu Fig.= s.. M2 and Ms corresponding_ to tho c.12.·. 14..aso und~r· considoration are given in Flg.sp.. It should not ho forgotten that the moments of inertia o£ the columns are only half as great as thoso o( the crossbcam!: a 2 1 1 ) Sa~ ll11=2 ( a. Construct and chock the M.12. The problem will bo considerl\bly simplified if tho unknowns are grouped as indicntod in Fig.\' tbu+X26 tz+6tp=O X1621!X262.. 1 ) a 2 1 a. SEVEHAL PROBLBMS IN STRESS ANALYSIS OF RE DUNDANT FRAI..he method just doscri bed becomes particularly wo1l lit for the stre:.3'T 1 a) a 2 a J HPuS =192Elt t:.3 63s=2 a2'3a Bit T·a · a·a 21Ut +2a2·3·2a Elt =3 lilt 6 s. 13. l<'ig. 1 aa 622= 2 2'2'3'.· aPa 2a a 3PaS 2fU 1 = t6EJ.2El 1 3Pa a 1 2 a . 7.2+6z11 =0 Xaba3+As 11 = 0 The unit bending moment diagrams .( 8Pay ·2+ 3 a t ~Pa ..3a E J t +a·a·a ·2EJt = 31!/s a 612 = 2 2a 'T' a a3 2£::1 1 = 41?1 1 a u. For th i!S reason t.
12 p Pig.12. 19.· 1 of symmetry ·..7. 12 . 1:! (a) Fig. 16. Several Problems in Strest A11alysts of Rtdundant Framu 551 p f) ~. f )' I? F Fit.Axu • . U.·' Jz: v.
t9zEJ I 11J2Blt +16E J 1 35Pa3 35PaS oc ./~a Ftg. 18....!.tJ1 ~ or 2ta3 2t a3 4Elt = 4Elt It follows that all t. 17._!_ Pa• .. 18.12) .12) by tho M P one (Pig. ~+. diagram: .n 2 'J._· ~ = 41::/t 21.et us det~. is ob\ained raising to the st.cond powor t. L. j M! 7fT= T "T 'T' 2 + 11 2 'T 4 '2a + 3 5 1 ·l2·2a·2a +2· ~ a·2a)J. diagram Pa· T'T"T'T + a t 2 a 2·tS (2·_!.hc .>rmino now tho value or Asp multiplying the (Fig.192.Analgsts of Highly Redundant StructurtS Tho di:.12) ~ds ..HJ2Elt = 16EJ 1 Aap =l. 18.~ ds [ a a 2 a a ( !i ~.+" ·2a·~· ..r< Check whether e<>ndltion (13. = l.12) is also satisftod 3:if'a3 3Pa3 .1U2Elt 'rhis indicates ili11t the displ11cements due to the applied loads are also corn>et.12 Tho value of f>. 17.. Multiplying the first . )] 35Pa3 • = .placemont:J thus computed will be checked using the ''suru.12) is satisfied we find ~~ 5~ 4/5/1 _. A 11Pa:l Pa3 f a (2 5 1.!.he unit displacements are.12 Fig.o1ary'' unit bending momout diagram M & due to th~: simultaneous application of all lho unit forcos acting along th e wtkrwwns (Fig.1 [ 3 L\•p = ~ JM "MJJ J::l = 21£1 1 T ·r ' _a_ M. Pa · ~ ~z.\1.E'lt 2 3 /!/1 Checking that condition (11.+. 3EJ1 + 12E/1 t ~ 3~ £/1 +Z· 4J. p .Pu· ra ) + 8 4 4 2 R 2 4 4 I 2" + 4 Pa·2 a·Ta+.3. Wo may now introduce tho values of the cooffteionts t o the unknowns and of the froo tonns into our systllm of canonical equations.l_ pq.h:/J = .correct.
X 3= ~ thr~'c Tllo construction of Lho resulting bending momm1t ili:~grnm f<w til<~ given redundant structure will be carriotl out in the following Sliquencc.0= 264 .176 .< A nulysts of R edundant Frames 553 .hoso or tho ends of tlie columns which nro considered as being Lbo illfLhnnd ones for tho c<mStfuction of bending momont diagrams. P Xs= 176 . 20. S c·vrrat Problems itt Stres. The ordinate. M2 and !.'r1JJA 3Pa Pa SPa =Mile=.) Iff co= cl>=. (In Fig.T+r= Po.12 and 21.12 rt>.12. Pa H + Pa = 4 Pa ·~ H i7Pa 2()11 M zoMz 1 3Pa . 20. Pa Pa .12 7P Fig. 19.lsteri:. 19.·="'1'it! + O·r4if'l. i!l2EJ f6Elt two of thcso oquatums by .3. The lhrt>o diagrams thus oblaincd nro represented in Figs.actions X 11 X 2 and X 3 obtained above.grnms with thoge to the ltfp diagram given previously in Fig.r48 M 3Pa 1Pa Pa + :~Pa s =~ 41Pa .k t.t.7.1 and lhc last one by ciS we obtain 4 320X 1 +48X23GP=O 48X1 +16X 2 11P =0 4BX~+ P=0 The solu t ion of theso nquations leads to 3P 7P . i 3.132 = _ 3Pa _ ?Pa _ M 00 1W 3Pa M Dz=176 Moa ~ O + O + w. For iliis purpose multiply all th& ordinates to the unit bending moment graphs M1 .17{) f04if'+O=.12 we have rnnl'ked by an .:r.t2. X2=u.'! to tho resulting bending moment diagram can now be obtained summing up the ordinates to thcso thn!o Jin.73 by the ros1 1ecti"e magnitudes of thcso reactions.12. 17. 24 Pa +O~ 24 Pa ~ 1Pa . Fir:.12. llotormino the bending mvments ·inducod in tho H imple structure by the rodUt1d11nt i'iti JP 17 Ftg.
!:. transforming thereby the right half of the str·ucturo into a statically determinate polygonal honm shown in Fig. The diagram of the resulting bending ltl<llllonts plott~ as <'Xplained above is ropresonted in Fig. ~lultiplying this dingram by tho diagnun or tho resuWng bonding moments given in Fig. ~ . [n order to cht.P 24 1 264 P Pa 1 QDo ~ Qao= 24 ·ao:o . 22. = . · ·+ rt will be rewombered that the product of the resulting bending moment graph of Fig.12 must be also nil.!) x 1 1 x. 23. 22.2).12. QRF=Qps=.c all three constraint. 16._ 17Pa ) 1 '204 4=44 3P Pn.32 aj2 =i32' Qcl>=QDc= . Lel us procC<!d now with the determination of the shearing forces Mru.!Z__. wo obtain Ayo=a· ~ · :S~ E\ +a·a( i~~a :~..12 Fig..ired disphu:ement.a .o.554 A naly1is of II ighly R l!dundan t S tmctures ln all tho above expr!lssions M DA denotes tho ht'lliling moment at cross section B of morn her n A. 6 F 21.12.1.( 6(f'~' "264 QDH=QEo= ( 2H4 1Pa ._. 22.po o£ points F and G (see Fig..AB 4 QAli=QnA 132 a ~0 fiP 132 57P 75p 47Pa 5Pa ) 1. n ord&r to llnd the said dlsplnct~ment wo shall eliminat..~.!__. 1 Pa . ~ (J:_.13:1...12 by the UDit diagrams given in Fig. M no denotes the moment at cr·oss secti<Jn B of member .) ~o 2Elt 2 3 24 E1 . The bending moment diagram duo to these forces 1s shown in this figure.~wJElt 3 ' ~ 4 3 1 ·..12. 22. This displa<:oment must be necessarily nil for boL11 point~ are held fast hy the Sllpforts of the frame.ing along the directions Mgroph A Pi~t.12 of the de.264 ·a= .u:k the accuracy of this diagram lf.M ... . Qnc=QcD = ( 264 + 1. Let us now apply two unit forces act. 47f>a } afl. 13.s at the lower end of the righlhancl column.!!.BC nnd so forth.'t us compute the mutual displacomont t.
25.~ IJ.ho bending moment diagram at the section undor considl'rntion.12 v.12b) . 25. The values of t he normal forces wtll be derived from tho cquilibrillill of joint.12 ZOif The magnitudes of tho shearing forc11s Q obtained above hnve lod to the eonstruction of the diagl'aJU shown in Fi~.tions become: Joint B {Fig. The equilibrjum oquA.72.1 2. 23. b nnd c)..12a. e SP 'ME 132 $ p e p IJZ Fig. 25. D and E isolated in succession (Fig. 12 computations unknown normal stresses will be always re. ) 132 SP therefore NBD=(comprcssion) 132 J oint D (Fig. Severat Problems in Stre$S Analu•lr of Redundant Prauu:1 555 The signs of the ~hearing forces can be checked remembering that the shear 1s reckoned positive whon the nxis of the element must bt> rotatod clockwise t hrougl• an angle smaller than 90° in order to come in coincidunco with the t angent to t.ckoned positive. 25. 24. Fig. The values or shearing forces are taken directly from the ~hear diagram of Fig. 24.o. 24.7. i. causing the extension of the corresponding member.12.12a) w horott•om NBA = EX= 5P +NBD = 0 132 57P ( compreSSiOD . I n these Fig.
..12 p "" Ftg..12c) 3P ~Y=/.12 Lot us check tho nccuracy of t.1)=11 528 li1>nce all the (~quilibrium requirements aro satisfied.<ses will be scaled otr tho corr~ spond ing diagr:uns (soo Figs...0 Pa _ Pa = 48 528 u= . Flg. 26.12).. Since NED = N oe the latter rosult muy be regarded as confirming the accuracy of previous coUlputations.ho M. 27. 24.. i.O =264" P (extensiOn) .132 +57t84~) . The values of thoso stre. at mldb eight of tho columns (Fig.12.1::s2 { fop .4Ng.. Q nnol N diagram 8 using lhe mllthud based on equilibl'iun1 considerations..tT (comprussion) 2':X = Nv 8 +Nvzwe finally have ~ SP 132 =0 but si nce N08 =Nno P N DB= 24 Joint E (Fig. Indeed '9. The diagram of t·be normal s tresses giv~ in Fig. .. P tK  264 P ) a + p a 2 T _E_ U a + 3P 44 2a _ SPa 2()4 + . /f :}!!. 26.2 aud 26.556 Analg$is of Highly R~dundant Structures whvro£rom 1P Nvo=. '£M 1 :t ( .e fmd that 5P l:X.1.. 132 24r P • I' P 264.e.12 has been constructed using tho data just obtained. 25.12). 27. 26/t (1011+1)=0 ~Y= 1'+ ~1~ + ~~ . Isolating the upper half of tho frame wo must find that tho actual loads applied to that part of the st'ructurc are bulnnced exactly by tho stre~cs acting nt thl' cuts.. 2:!.~~ . Pa (tO+Hl + 26fa336+72t0+11.
hl' hon ding moments..t it~ Strtss A nalysi~< of R edundant Frnmes 557 The M .12b).cs~cs obtained in that way for t11o simple statically dotcrmiualc structm·<• wou ld coincide exactly with the corresponding re~ulting slr•oss diagrnms for the givr~n rodnndant stn1ctt1re. Problem 2. 29. '<:i ~ . p p p t. 28.f l.8 IJ7 JP ~ . 72 f\ros~boams Solution.12 TT 7P ' '/ 'l.GI. Q a nd N tlingrams r. Tho honding moment diagrnms duo .tiuns and togethor with tbe actualloHds as shown in Fig.J 'If 4 J.. (b) Ftg.7. p Th o dingrams o.. sh•Jnring forC('S and nnrmal ~t.8  . Rcquirud lllt' complete s!. 29.ould be obtain11d using a somewhat different procedure. Therca[lur wc could (:1\lculato tile values o f thn •·cnctious devcl opO<l at the supports of th o I:1Uer structure undor tho simultant•ous action o( all the forc. Th e diffcrtlOL rcgidiLics of all tho frame mcmLcrs are indic ated in Fig. Jndl'ed we could H(lp]y to tho conjugate statically de tormlnot{l sll·uclure tho rodnntl nu t rclu:. 29. J 2J Redundant structure <::.es mentioned 11 bovo. 28.12. 6 J§ I "" c::.12. Tho conjugate simple structure will he obtained snctioning both at midspan (Fig. " fbi Fig. Several (>robltm.1211 and b. {O ) 7P JP p " 17$ 7.rcss rlnn)y!'iS for th e twosiory frame of a fanlory lm ilding lo:tdl•d unsymmetrirally along the top crosshcam.
6 and 6~& Pig. 31. The diagram tli the bendin~ IIIO tneuls inducod in tho same :!imple structure by the actual loading is given..12 in Fig. 30. 30..o .12 F lg.12. the first containing four unknowns out of tho six and th e sceond two I n this case the systom of simultane(HJS equations will foil into two sepnrat. 62s• 62~· 620• 6J~• 6. Owing to the proper choico of the simple structu re all the following secondary displacements rcduco to zoro &12• &u.. 32.12 J.:i58 A11alysts of Highly R eduudant Strtutur~s to uuknown unit forces are given in Fig.12..!roups._fr I XJ•l XJ• I I ~~ :: 1  {C) (e) (f) Fig.• l Xz•T ... 31. t.J:'f'>) Xz•' _.
4 4 + 10 2 . llte=:r. Sr.+Xellse= llsp (b) the second group X2622"f· Xs62s= X~11sz+Xs11ss= .x 3 x 4XT+G(2X4 \2X102 + 2X4X10) 2 =3!1.5 4X'•X9 2x1 6(10I4)X9 2x2 ZSi 199.7.x9x3 .~ = .ou+Xe6 4e= A..flap X.2 4\gXG z=14.11 X tOot +Xa6sa+ X46a.5 3x3 2 1 x 2 3 xax 2 x2+4x3x3x2+6x3 xax 1=135 62~=3X6X3XzX2=54 1 6ss= .vcral Problem. 2 ~ 2 Ou = .12 2 '1 1 iltv =  9x3 3 6X9X3 a2p= .e=XyX2=18 O(l6=6 X 1X1 XT+6X1 X1X 622= X2 =7.1..asp All the displnC(liD<'DtS will be calculated assuming that El=1 ton sq m.641 +X3& 4dX.t>2p .X 1 X T + 6XzX i.\tp X 16s1 \Xa()3:J+X4634+Xo6ao= .axz x 2 4 x3lt.1 2 'o X <i 2 4+10 2 6 13 = .2 x sx 21 x sx 6 2 2 2 X "3 X 6 X 2 = 72 ~ 6X6 1 il.< in Stress Analysis of Redundant Frames 559> unknowns only: (n) thtl first group X1 11 11 +X~6 1 ~+X 4 6a+Xeote= t.=.· x 13X31 2 3 xax 4 x2+6x3x3x 2 x2=58.12.4xtx ·l x2 + 6x1x1 x1='l7 6s~=. X "2=58 2 6x6 ( 2 ) 2 614.x 6 36 ~ 1 6x6 2 2 x2=18 2=6 1 o.xvx '1 Xz=42 ll33 =6 x 1 xtx ~ \. 4x4 2 2 B .
' the val ue of A 1 p multirlying the M.58.7Xt+58Xa+i44X 4 I42X8 = +261 58X1 17X3 +f8X4 +6Xe+ =67.5+2 (58+ 144142+ +181.6.+199..0 ..4 X 2X2) +_2_(2 X 22+ 2 x 222X2 X 2) + IIX4 6X 1 6X12X2 12 = 1321 7 2 X2XS X J.rlu:t~trt>~ 67.7 + 1. Tho value of 6n will bo obtained raising to the second power tho ftf 8 diagram whill.12.S.5 f44X 1 +18X3 +72X 4 +t8X 8 =8LO 42X1 +6Xa+ i 8X 4 + 7.t no error has been committl. we may be ~>1lfe tbu.54) or 1320=1324.x2)+ 6 .0 135X2 + MX6 ..58181...27 = 71.62= 261199.IIX9Xi 27 2 In order to check tho valu~s of those dlapJac"ments construct Lhe summnry unit bending moment dingrnm M. t2x42+2 x 82+4x8 x 2)+ ! 2 (2xt22+ 2 x242112xV. • 1324.5X6 c:o + 81.5X6 .6 + 18 1.... 127.MP 7J7 .CJrnonts in the two groups of simultaneous eqUD\ ions..5 6x9x 3 . 32. 7 =354.12) requires t hat <'lu=~. we obtain 354. •!ingram by tho Mp one 6.12) r equires t hat Asp= :ZL\.(1•+8) 2 s)  ~~~ (12+24>=716.67.62 Bo~h of these condHions being satlstlcd.62 lndeed Cond ition (11. _ 2 81 • uap= .'!l in calculating tho unlt displacements.12 . d uo to the simultaneous ltction of all the unit reactions shown in Fig.12 + + 54X21. Substituting the values of !helle displ:tr.7 Condition (13.fl+ 135+58.=1: ~ M! ~~ = 6!2 (2XI•~+2·224X2X2)+ 6 + r. + {' ds 3x9 ( 4x9 6£p 1: JMt.(2 X 42 + 2 X 22.~ 1 1.7 + 72+ 7.S60 Analysis of Hiahly Rtdundant St.. l ndl'ed 7 16._ SX 2 11T X S .
607 ton K~:: .607 x 4Lio60 x 3 + 2.460X3+2.753= + IUlCl tonmetre Fig.l).037 X 30.t AGO X 3+2.O X 3+ 2. St'l'trnl Problems ttl Strt!SS Analy.607 X 1+1.:o= +0..753H.037 x 3.037 ton X 3 >a +2.~0= 0.12.36 tonmmo 1 H 13= +0.7530.9 = 1.56 tonmctr() M 4c = !.lw ~imple stat..12 hy tho correspond ing values 368fl3 .C.+ 0.12.~ting tbl! (lnc! th~ actunl Applying all t.ht• forces lo t.0.= +0.0.ll<l7 X4l.692 X 6+ +0.:+ 1. 2 +0.7530.7.87 t OII•IDt>tms M 65 = 1 .0.037 X 3 .3~ t.'. 30.45 tonmetre M:~.] 11/31 = +0.{ T l1E> solution of t.460 ton~ Xs= + 0.0.. 4GO X 3+2.60 X 3+2.3400..i ~ ll y dol"nninalc structure ~nd bowli ng moments inducr.692 X (i .63 ton motres M 34 = +0.753 l{)omntl'('s X6 = 0.lwso equations (omitted hero) )('ads to the followi ng ' 'ulncs o£ thl' redunchm t tL•actions X 1 = +0.16 tonmetro = + The samo bonding moment~ coulcl he obtained as follows: firs t multi ply the unit bending moment graphs of Fig.753 .'''" 7 0.metre 111u.d both h y tlto r!lactions ju.1\!l2 ton X2 .340 .753+ 0.~is of R rdand11nt Frames Sf.607 X 4+ l.753 0.18 ton.23 tonmotrc M.0.310""' 0.9= 0.('>07 X 10.037 x 3 0.onmetre M.460 X 3 + 2. +1 .3409= 0.1. 3 = . 33.037 x 30.t ohtaint•d Loads we lind 11·156 .a.607 X 10+1. 753= 1.ti60 X 3 +2.340 tonrn('tre c~tku l.03i x 30.
23 tonmetre .al unit forc.. 34.07 + 4. b.1.he othor anti. 3tU2o and b.M 13 = +6.87 tonmetres . d. one symmetrical and t..12a.es X 1 (Fig.n is not advisable to change the scales of the unit diagrams insteac\ e of frequent ()rJ'orR. add up the ordinates to aH of these diagrams together wHh thoso to the diagram due to the actual Loads (see Fig.75+0.tu.0.38+ 2.'l.12a) by the graph of Fig. 36. It is obvious that both secondary displacements <'l 12 and <'l 13 will red ur.38+2.syn1metrical as indicated in Fig. The frame under consideration is redundant in tho third degree. 34.33 tonmetre . and so forth . Solution. e an<l 1 • . this procedure constituting a sourc• [t + . Tho bonding mornont diagrams induced by unit reactions will bo C. Problem a.ho symmcLrical unknowns Xz = t and X~ = 1 on one hand. X 2 consisting of ono vertical roaction at tho C(lntral support.12b) by +1.hcr.. The resulting ordinates will represent the ordinates to the bonding moment diugrarn cor·responding to tho givm1 redundant structure.38+2.. 35.Ottslructed for· tho following gt·oups of unknowns: X 1 consisting of two horizontal untisymmotrical forces. 35.43+4.34 = 0.i2a).11 .18 tonmetre and so forth. 30.562 Analysts of Highly Redwtdant__:.12!1 due to the anti~1'Tilmetrical component of iho actual Loacl. 12 The displacements ~ induced by the actua l loads wiiJ he obtained multiplying tho bonding moment graph due to nnt..S_tr _u~c.9 = . Let us rcsolvo tho force acting on tho frame also in two groups of r. 33.t/34 = +0.2). 31 .110.43 + 4. X 3 consisting of two symmetrical horizontal forces. on tht) ot.omponent$. c.110.1 2a.0. Thus.349= + 0. of constructing new one.38+2. The tiimplo ~taticaUydeterminate stl'ucture adopted is rt"presented in Fig .M35 = +2. 30.754. the ordinates ttl tho graph induced by X 2 = 1 (Fig. 36.12a) should be multipl ied by 0.isymmetric. i!3: 12g.34 . This will give the bending moment diagrams shown in Fig.15+0.759= +0.759= 1 . It will be readily observed that the he111ding mcmu:nts at Lho joiuts are the same as determined previously M~a= 4. The same operation will be repeated with the graph:> due to t.12..56 tonmetro M 31 = + 2. The resulting 1Hmding moment c1iagrrun for the framo undo1 ' cunsidel'aLion is givon in Fig.r~es_ _ _ _ _ __ of the unknowns. ~nil tl](\ graph due to the ~ymmetricnl components of force P givep in Fig. This being done. 34. The bending moment diagrams duo to these components are al!io given in the same figure.12 b.4ti0.607. + { Oi (b) Pig. Hequired tha complete analysis of a clou!Jlcspan symmetrical frame loaded with one horizontal for~ (Fig. all tho ordinates to the diagram indu•:od !Jy X l = 1 (see Fig. Tho corrosponding unit bending moment diagram~ are 8hown in Fig.
12. ·15. 12 3G* . 12 llig.•~0. SeL'eral Problems in Stress Analysis of Redundant Frames 5(\3 Pig.7 .
5 = z x :~ +148_77 Substitut ing these values into the :tbove system of <>quations wu oblnin 22.5+10.5 X 7.5 f.6X3 = .1.5 x 5 X 2X2 + 709.1.'1 tonnwtr<'S .5 15.S._ 62:~~=2X i0/•4.. x 15.259 X 10.5= !J.l1 .1X 1 = 2835.9 X 54.9 58X2 + 165.~ = + + '1.1.5x9.5 2x3 +2 7.i7 The solut. +165./o!t X 4.5 X 5 f.4/~x7. • .259 X 10.5x9 + 10.J.5 x i.0. Con!'equently.')3.t.259 X 21 + iH .<'l4 tonmotnJS 1.75 = Tho same b!mding ml)ments tlould be obtained using the proctldlll'l' adopted in the wovious problem.3 ·f52.X 3633 + b 3p =0 Let us calc.25!) X 7.5 +Z 2X 611 3 2X3 X 7.44 tonmetres . 1.5x9 3 +Z X 10Jt4x3x9.5 + 0. the th ret> simultaneous cquationg become X16 11 f6tp=O Xzbz2+Xa~2J + ~zl'= 0 X2632f./ ~2 = 1.259) and those to the M2 diagram by (0.t.2 6.9).06 tonmetros M.!1.0.53 ton me l res Mes= 1.5 x3L5 xH tw. :1.75x9.44 x sx <'~2z = 2 X 033 2 2X3 3 xs !58 =zx Hi.5 X 9. X3 =0 Till) l><•nrling momMts at ciHferont cross sections of tho struc Lill'~ will be M 45 ~ .9 X541.ulato all the displncernonts assuming that EJ = · 1 ton !iq m = 2 X t0.5.5 7 15. 3P= zX 10.3X3 = 52.3X2 +709.900=0.2 165.i5= + 2. that is multiplying th() or(linate~ to the unit graphs by the magnitudes of tho appropriate unknowns • aml then summing up all * Thi!i !Mans that tl1e ordinates to the M1 diagram will he multiplied by (.25() X7.51\4 Anal!!sis of Highly Redltndant Stnutztres to zero.6 f). x3 10.1t.~o = .fo/~ x3x 9.ion of these equatior1s yields X 1 = L259: X2=0.5 .5 = + 5.2.!.53 2X1  ' i • 10.loft x 7.2 X 2x 3 2 X 'l .5 = 0.5 X 21 X ·14 _ X 2X2 .2..
which means that X 3 = 0.ulation~.5 tonmt'tres. It follmvs that the llori?.12a is lllltcd upon by two sy rnrnotl'ical horizontal forces !IS :\hovm in Jo' ig.12.h in Ya luo and in dit'l'Ctit)n.ion tlue to a unit load fo!Jowiog \he d ire. Several PruiJlem. 35.ontul reac~ions at the suppor·ts of tho bWt'> F ig • • 97.hat th1~ ht>n ding morncnts in t. Cet•tain simplilicutions could ho introduc.5 tonm t>tres ( Fig.12<1).5 whercfrou1 + .!nts.\3c) t ions f\L t.ection uniler con~iilor11t. '"'hen the given s tructur<! 11f l!' ig. 31. we have found proviously t. all tho Ircu tCl1llS of the canonical equlltions become nil.mainiiJg id le.!! ton 5 In tl\() above cqua l ion tlw coefficient (5) to the unknown X 2 <E>Jlro~nt!l tl1e value of tho hnndii1g mom ont at the cro~s :. l'rovious\y we lanve arri ved at the same conclusion at the outcome of ral. at joint 2. Of thl'se only X 2 and X 3 can giv t• ri~e to l>ending in the inclinl!d rocmll(~rs immcdiuldy to tho lt•rt aml to tho l'iglot of joint S.ion .ions of the inc. Con~C<IfUently .ross section~ just mentioned must equal 4. 3{U2a 11lon" tile iuc.ation of tbe ~ymmetrica l comwments will produCA:! no bending in any mombe1· of the latter structure. Th1~ n>sulting honding mom ont ilingraru is giVl'n in Fig.cd in the above C {!utpulalions on the followiug grounds.ho o•·dtnutos to the diagram due to tho ac.< l memhors will work iu diroct cumpross..12.he horizonl. And 1!i11c1• X 3 = fJ we may write that 5X 2 ~ 4. out of tht·co proved by the in troduction of imaginary hinges at joints 4 and 6 a u<l bv the elimination o[ t. tho bending moments induce!l hy lwt.12 outsid<! columns ntu11t lit\ eqtlal bot. wh ic h requires that all the reac.12b). * For t.ions of the redundan t '·5 * This is easily . .ss A•uJly~i$ Qj R edundant Frame. Tile symmetrical c.• 565 Lbeso ordinates together with t.~ i11 Stre.Jw adjacent c roRs !'ect.1.nl constraint. 3!>.Lual loading. The>refore.h of these l'l. constraints should he equally nil. These UlOIMUts must be balanced hy the momt\nt:~ ill<hiC(>ol by the redundant reaction~.lim>. all other nH•mht•rs r.7. However.cti(lll of X 2 (see Fig. 37 .'2 = ·= .t.omJ>ononts uqu11l 4.her l:thol'iou!< cnlc. '!'be appl ic.h c c.umpouent~ or forcu p will pi'OVOko DIJ }>ending at j oint :i.lincd memhurs duo to thl' antisymmctrical c..0. Thus.his reason the bending moment iliagram due to tho sing}(> loacl wiU be exuclly tho samo us tho uno produced by tho applicntion of its autisymmctrical componf.
12 .12 (e! Fig . 38. • 19.ndant St1·ucture$ Fig.566 Analysis of Highly Redu.
38.12. 38.6ts=0 .12 given in Fig. The abovo example shows that In certain case. Tho simple statically determinate structure to be adopted is Indicated in Fig.12a carrying on tho first two spans a umformly distributed load of throe t on:! por motra. Solu tion.3=6u = ~Z3 = 6u""' 634. Pr oblem '' · Hequirod tho stress diagrams for both vertical nod horizontal mombor:> of a thrcospan highway brid~e schematloally represented in Fig. Tho bQnding moment diagrams duo to unit reactions &I'll J t/m 1 BHlJIB 1JUUIUlllUIUDuumuu 1 l. Several Pro/1lem1 in Stress Analysl1 of Redundant Framts 567 unknowns two may oe determined off hand leaving only one unknown X 1 • This will requiro ~lHl co~putation of two displacements 611 and ~.12. $t/m / J5tfm Ftg. 40. • a.' quite complicated problems can bt> t!Olved very simply.'1.12 *. 40.12b. An examinnllon of tho abovementioned bending moment diagrams loads immediately to the <:onclul'ion that • Tho replacement of the actual loading by its symmetrical and antisymmutrlcal components will entail lu the prosent caso hardly any simplification at ull. 39.P and the solution of one cquatton w1th ono unknown. 'l'ho diagrams duo to the symmetrical and antisymmetric11l components of the actualluads nre represented in Fig.
l 3p = +Z sxtO!l x 2.Ii~~= 6 4 p 1111d tho second on ly lht' an t isymmotrieal ones X3liarl.3 =+ 14.l!.lias = .3p Xaliaa+X~IIss= .~.r ic..X. X 2X1 3 J L\ _ _ 2 4P  x 12X tu8x fl /. uno contain in~ two E~quations and lho oth<!r t.i.ll1p X 1&21+X2622+X. ' . l·ho five simultaneous equation~ will subclivicle into two X1liu + X26tz + X4. .+ t6 x !lx1 6'12 "2X1.. T ho fi 1 'St systl'm will COll L Ain unly unknown~ with symrnol.drmdant Structures systoms.5 + 16 X40 X~ = _ 432 r I .:. 2X 2/3X12 X 27 X G 2xa (1tiX10ll2/3 X H>X90)12 = _ 4 •7nr. +1. 2 X 92X X 1.· ·t.Z X ·t2X10llX8 2X3 +2 X 2/3 X 'l2 X 27 X li 8 X 108 X 8 3 .hrne...al diagrnms Cun~equtmtly.5 4 014 +90 = _1sx ~x 1 2 1122 =+ 2 X 9 x \ x ·t 1 + 16 X~l X 1 .6 "'2Jr  ·' ..\sp Lot U$ proceod wi t h the calculation of all the displacemcuts ussuming that E J 1 = 1 t•m sq m + 9X6 6 H = .+ (Hlx1082/3 X 16 X fl6)l . G4S + 2 X ~nx1.5!i8 iml~>pendenl Analysis of Highly Re. (I a5 P = .+·J"l' 4 I> .624= llzp Xlllu X2o~2 + X. 3''r..2X 2X 4 = .14= ..
145 tons X2= 6. This resulting bonding moment dingrum is ropn>Sl> ntod in Fi~ .41t8 too~ Jn (Jrdor t.701.09 tons 60.132X1 . of the fo11rth by 8/3 and vf lht~ fifth lby 1ti. of the bending moment uingl'nm due to the actual lORding. ohtain 569 B48X I+ 90X2 .435 tonmetre~ X 3 = i.862 tonmetres X4= +5.12.8. of th<> llli.:'iSI. Several Pr fJblems in Stress Analysis of Redundant Frames lnLroduc.o fmd tho ordinates to tuo diagram of the resulting honrliug moments actiJ1g along the members of the te1h111•lant structure we may now add the or·dinatcs to thl• unit graphs multiplicq by the valuo of the corresponding unknowr• Fig. 13.~l hy 1. nox. +16X2 48X4= 17H . 12 to those.432X.12. = l. we lind 36Xt+:JX22!J. 3Xi2 2 1 2=12.7. As for the slwal'ing forces.320 Dividing all the terms o[ tl1e first eq uation lly 18.88 45Xt+8X224X4= 81:1 OX1 X2+20x.X4= .543 tons X5 = 7.iug tht>so valuos ill the equnlions givon abovo we. 4 · 1 .333X3 1GXs= 144 J6XJ+576X5 = + 4. immediatoly to the right of tho lc£t almtmcnt we havo Q34 = .= +98 5X3 6X5 = 54 X3 +36X 5 =270 Tho solution of theso oquatioos yields X 1 = +2. 41. of tho second hy 2.i1 .!t8X 2 +$1GOX 4 = 14.
~= 1.33.12a) .3= .10 X 8. ~2 .Ox ·ioz = 42. i1 tons. This diagram Pig.70 S.S9 t Q~iS = 2610 .y wo shall obtain all the data necessary for the ('.81 tons A3 = + 12.O X .12 t. ~2.= 28.!!3 me 8.) 8 M. 42. 42.10 = 3:0 = = .91 t ons . ODS 2 Continuing in the same wa.41 tonmetres Tho reactions at tho supports ar o as follows A 1 = +49.·. The bending moments at those cross sections will amount to for the span 3~: 43.70 metres (Fig.S..570 In th~ Analysis of Highly Redundant Structuru dook member to the left of joint 4 wo find Q1.onstruc tion of the shonr diagram rep r&Sentod in Fig.3 ~ 12 .. A2 = + 23. In order to fincl the position of tho maximum bonding mmnc:nt8 let us deter·mino tho points whore shearing forces reduce to zero: X 1 t rosand X 2 211.·1 2a. .1 2 M ma x=12.~J9 1 = 4.01 tons tlnd to tho right of the s:uno joint _3X16+71.!Jll X 4.99 tons.a:c= 7L12+26.6 ~. 1 ==23.12 .onmct rus 2 f or tht> span 4. 12 will Jll:'rmit the construetion oE tho diagram for normal strosse~ given in Fig.37..12b.
43.7. 43:12.12). JJenc.acting on the frame is antisymmetrical itself only the antisymm(ltrioal unknowns will differ from zero (soo Art.12. It follows that the given problem can ho solved using one system ofthreo simultaneous equations witu three utlkMWllS only X1&1t +X26tz+Xi> ta+ Atp =0 X1621 + Xzii22+X 3623+ t.191) 4x5 X 3 X 4 X 218 X 8 X 8 = 565.x 2 3 + 65 (2X 52 1 2x82+2x 5 x8) 2+ . X 5 and X 6 • Since tho syst!lUI of loads .J)(3 Fig.e 5x5 2x5 &11 = 2 . all tile bending moment uiugrams being bounded by straight linos..12 ('.x2 Xs .3 2 .12 and let us subdivide all the unknowns in two groups. 45.) . 114. 3.\21 .t t. X 2 and X 3 .t ual loads applied to the conjnglltn simple structure (Fig. The multiplic.543+7. This framo is redundanL to tho si:l:th degree and tho flelCural rigidity of all its members is the same. t Xs Fig.91 tous Problem 5.1.12 JXG . We shall ulso assume that EJ = 1 ton sq m. Solutton..448= +12.99 tons + 5.ho first x.448= . 44.X 5 = Aa=X4+X 5 = +5. + 622=2 1Gx8x2 2 x3 x 16=1. =0 X1ll31 + X2II32+X36a3+ l\3p =0 In order to obtain the values of all the free terms and tile coefficients to th(l unknowns we must construct the bending moment diagrams due both to the antisymmetrical unknowns and to the ac. Lot us adopt the simple statk.ation of the graphs will bo carriNI out using Veresh chagin 's motho!l. Several Problems in Stress Analysis of Redundant Frames 571 The that value~ of reactions A 3 and A 6 may be easily checked remcmbcriug Ae = X~ .ontaining only the anti~ymmetrical ones X 1 .ally determinate structure i!hown in Fig.M37. t. and tho :recond containing all the symmetrical ones X 4 .12. Required tho bending moment diagrams Cor all tho m~mbers of tho frame given in Fig..
X 8= 652 2 6ta = 1.324 Tho eb<IVC vnllll!S may be checked using the summary b~ndiug mom(1nt diugram duo to tho siumltaneous application of all the unit reactions giv(1D p Fig. u3p =r.a+623) 2 ( 652+ 2'18148) =649.572 .196+5!1:i. (>23= .12.~ (2X 4 X 8 +5 X 4). 612= .3+ 52 + l:/1 = 611 +o:a +(> 33 +2 (6jz+ 6. Let us see whether condi\ioa (11.3 .= 2 X 51 6 (2 X 8 X 12+ 5 X 12) ·t8/6 (2 X 16X 2416 X 72)= 92 12 X 5 2 (72 24) ~2p=rXTX4X2+8X8X 1. x2+1x5x6..12) is fulfilled ~0= 1.tnalysis of Highly Redundant StrU&tures 633 =1 x 5x 1 x4+2x8x2=52 2X 5 i6 X 8 .12 in r'ig.376 2 12X 5 .X 1 X 22 X8 X 24= . 45. 46.x 1 x28X8X2= 148 2 The displacements i nducc1l in the simple structure by the actual lollds "iII h<' obtsiu!'d in a similar way ~ 1 1.:>x.5x2+ 8 ~ =218 16 4X5 .
1.!+ t.196Xt652X2 +218X 3 = 92 . ScLwol Prob'Unu in StrBss Analysil of Redunda n' Framl!s r.37G 218 X 1 .pl': J M~Mp EJ = .3X2 1. X 3 = t4.EJ= . Ch~k i n t he same way t h<• displuwmt>nts due to the npplied loads 1t!liug . 1X 3 = 61 . w<1 may introduc() the vnlncs of the displaceme nts into the syslum of (our s imultaneous equations 1..3.48X2 52X 3 = .<:X 1 X G) l·· j Z~fi (:!XIJ2+:1 >< 52J2 X6X!'i)+8i6(2 X 10~ T +2X 62 .arriod out in tnbular fnrm using th o nbbr~v in tcd method as indicated hereundt•r .X 6"'" ~ 1. Having made sure that all the op(!rations cnrricd out thus far oro correct..2XG X 1 0) ~ 1l'o!l. all tho coefficients t o tho unknowns arc correct..<II$ xS? u 88 =~J ~rl.4.i.!l7 lonmolrcs Therea[tcr from eq uation { J I) + + Xz= 4..37G324=960 ~ ds 2X5 t..12.!6XsI283Xz74X3 ·=688 109Xt 71J2+26X3 "" 162 Thllir solution will be c.326X2 + 109X3 =46 . 46..quati ons become 598X 1 .231 tun~ .(2X5x12+6X12)+ 6 +BIG(2 X lO X 24+2 X 6X 7210 X 726 X 21o)9t10=~ll.~6 Consrquen\ly.t .2) !A ==ll.1.{24 Upon simp\ificntiou \h llso r.12 sion (13. Sol vi ng E>q\tatiou (HI) wu ohtain 4. ~.3:.(.48X3 .ll52X 1 565.7.rpros Fig.sp + A2p+ll.3p= 9'.X 2 6 I"+? • .73 At the same tim<' .
961 X 109+4.t lly f rmn equation (l) 598X1 32H X 4. .961 tcms In ord(1r to nutkll sure that the roots of tho tJquations are correct let us introduc1~ thr. 47.12 Eq11ation No.97 X 26.4 12. Xa 5!)8 8 K (I) 32G 100 Ctj2=0.12).4 (Ill) 4.12 in Fig. h zs?''" ··4 ZJ7t Fig.182 381 46 (2) {I)· al2 (II) 283 177 10() 7!i 59 117 208 'X23 .8 • 2.1 I 4. 47.7 113 61.14.Hi2 = 0."ach of the unit bend'ing momont hy tlw magnitude of the corresponding J'edundant reaction as shown.. say.23i X 74+ 14. The ordinates.97 = 46: x1 = 4. 15.1 91 l6li3 i(i2 (:~) (I) ·Ctj3 (I J)· a:~.21 :nul fuu.~ I I I I ()1 6~1.m int() one of the simultuncous equations. 11ll of tho simultaneous.. ()88 25 115 1 2li I 19.1....1 I o.2.5 8. • (~ee Fig. the third ono • + + graph~ It r~:>nH• in!' now to multiply 4.•. anfl to add all of these ordhuttos togothcrwiLh those to tho bend ing moment diagram due to the applied loads * H is moro advisable to substitute thesQ roots into oqualions.237 109 X 14.009 ~ 0 the ordinates to l.574 Analysis of Ilighly Redundant Structures Table 3.546 C(l3= 0. .
23 ftf S4 = 29. 48.40 =0 (2) Check whether t.835 x.Eid outside or tho contour 14.94+33. Statically /ndctermirtatc 1'ruw~& Si~ situated to tho right and below the corrcsrJonding members will be rcckone<l positive 14.234. 49.8.97+24.80 =9. This is carriE<d out bearing in mind that lhe rigidity of all olements of contour 1it/J4 l'omains constant and l'eclroniug positive the parts of tlw are.o tho resulting bending moment diagram will bo plotted on the side of ~he more cxtondetltlhres (Fig.9072.12) EMs= 4.14.k t he equilibrium of joint 9 ( Fig. STATfCALLY INDETERMINA'l'E TRUSSES By statically indeterminate trusses we mean suc. "+ 8.46.12 llpon com ple tion of this di~gram it is nccl'!lsM y t. 12.38 24.12) .00 = 't.83 M 82 = 14.ph areas along a clowd contuur equals 1.8.97{6. Each statica lly indeterminate lruss (as well as any other redundant st~:ncture) may be transformed into a simple statically determinate ono by tho elimination of tho redundant constraint!'l pro . 11.12 P ig 19..u checl< tltc accuracy tbcrcu!: (1) Chec.83!'i + 4.1u4 X 8 = 0.ero. 00 .94+33.1(i M12 = + Thl' ordinate~ t.12.6912.:.ally stable hlngoconnecl.as sitnat. ~ 0 X5 2 2 2 8.00= .od framed structures for which neither t bo stresses.23 + 8.he algebraic sum o[ gr11.239.979.8. ft{j M43 =29.79.h goometric.90.8.95+ 36.!>7 M21 = . ~ . Fig. nor tho reactions can be found without the knowledge or the deflections sustained.00 =8.
onstruint.nt constraint is t>Onstitutod by one of the lower Ghord mem hers. while in tho second c.he contrary it were a~~umod that this l'e<luntla.12 .r :urs will become interna lly redundant.12 represents a lrus~ redundant in the first degree for whk h only the reae.s undet· cousidemtion.icn lly indoter minato. which makes them less de .s _ _ _ _ vidcd S\ICh constraints are not.ical supporting bars is rcgnrdod as forming the roduntlant c. 51. t he stress distribution becomes also a function of the modu'li of elasticiLy of these materials. tho v .. Jn l:he f1rst case the constrai nts al. tcmperalure sl. 1.12 represents anothOt' statically indeterminate trl. 50.turos with rigid joints stnclied i n provious articles. the t.ions a t the supports are stat.aro in !:IUch a numb~tr that their roat:tioos may not be dNluced fr·om statical conF. indispt•nsablo from the viewpoint of the slabili ty of that structure..t. In addition. This truss may be c.57G _ _ _ _A_n_aly. etc.LSS which is externally stn ~ically dotorminato but internally redundant to the eighth dogrf'e.<.idcrations :alone .. Whon different material~ arc u!'Cd.lly and externally just as the framed strw.9. 50.cl! may be sLatically ind. Hodundllnt tru~i.rnins. Fig. l~ig. redundant structures are subjected to secondary stresses duo to erection defect~. one o£ the most essential pectlliarities u £ redunda nt structures resides in that the stresses devoloped in their members depend on the crosssectional <limen~ions and ll•ngths of the~e members. Lhc snppo rts Fig.a~ thcrod undn.onsidored as oxternally redundant if 0111~ Fig. If on t. The n umber of eliminate!l constraints will al ways reprosent the degree o f redundancy of the trtL<. 51.~ rt.12 of. etcrmitulLO both inU>rna. As already stated in Art. movement of supports.nt <~onstra in ts are inherent to the truss itself.~is ~I lflghly Redrmdant Struct_w_ ·e_ .
8.onverting it into a statica lly determinate :syst. while those of the rc. the crosssec.he trn~s is subjected to moving loads.a r·y constraints cnn a lways be determined on the basis of equilibrium considerat ion.ses provide better rolliug condit. Cont.ks or bumps.P. influenc. Acco rdir1 gl y. the stresses in these me ru hers baing independent ot their rigidity.dundant conslraints con be computed only if the deflections of the structure are Jwown.Lional areas must be corrected accordingly and the structure should be recalcnlnted ~gain . :1r. 1.ancc all tho redundant mornbers of t he truss c. lu Art. On t.rl. If the unil stresses thus obtained differ substantially from the allov. at this result tho following proc.hereaft. The crosssect ional dimensions of the necessary members hav ing been found.rossseclional dimenf:ions of all the redundant members of the truss and the n r()(·nlcnlate all the stresses using any oi the methods po.rus~. I n ad dHion .inuous tt'U$SCS are a lso simpler to build than the statj (:a ll y de t~rminato ones. a continuous truss will always rpqniro Je:::s rnntoria l for its construction than a seJ'ies of st. The crosssectional dimen~ i ons for alt tho nwmhers of th~ latter structure will thon be computed in the usual way.ions !'or t rains passing over railway hrirlgt>s for their elasUc l i111:1 will present no peaks at the supports such as exist necessarily in Lhe elastic lines of a series of staticnlly dotcnninnto tru!:!se::~. recommended: c li rninat~ in the first inst.follows that crosssectio nal areas of the necessary members of ro<lundant trusses may be ~ lcctcd in exactly the same way as for the statically determinate ones.~uliar to redundant structures.9 it was showu that the stresses or rcaction~J devolopcd by the not~Cs!. Stati£'ally I r&dtlerminalt TruMes 577 sirablo than stoLit:nlly determinote ones. The ~tress analysis of redundant str uctures becomes more and more complicated with the incrMse in the number of redundant l:onstraints..edure may be. statjcally indewrminate t. It .other hand. traius passing over these support.t'• simple str ucturo. As for the redundant members. their cross sections must be chosen in su ch a way t hat the unit strnssef: developed therein should be as clo~ as possible to the permissible nncs for that particular material.·ablo ones.s .o arrive.s arc endowed equally with C 6rtaiu advantages. If t. Thus . will fool no shoc:. continuous trus.overing the same span. chuose more or less arbitrarily the c.nLically doterminale trusses c.ht.em whi<:h will be t.c linas will ht• u~c rl.ar.<.or regarded os constituti ng tbe conjuga.12. [or the e limination of redu ndan t cons traint~ requires Lhc introduction of spocial hinges which ar~ usually ra ther complicat. as the latter are ahsolutoly unaffcctt'd hv all Lhe above mentioned factors. lu ordcn l.
62. A similar procedure can be used for estimating stresses developod in rotluudnnt tn•sscd arches. The accurac. otc. the co. T hus.y of stresses acting in members or redundant trussos is controlled in the same way as in the case of redundant structun·s with rigid joints such as portal and building frames.12.12 dividing the corresponding ordinates to the bending moment diagram by the lever arm of tho stress under conside>rllt. One •nust: make sure that all tho joints and portions oftbe truss are 'in equilibrium anti l.c values of strosscs devclopecl in members of statically indeterminaU) trusses may be obtained comparing these trusses with solid w0b beams covering the same numbct• of span~ and supporting the same loads. all thu dcflec. Thus. Thereafter t he stresses developed in both chords could be obtained Fig.tions nt the suppor ts must be found nil.nt. l'roblem.ed londs of len ton~ oach. 52. .bat the deflections of the system are co usis!Rnt with the stipu lations of the problem. 53.12 could be replaced in the lirst inslanr. All tho members of Ib is truss are of the same cross section.iou about the appropriate joint.59. The truss carries fiv1~ eoncell Fig•. 12 trat.inuous truss shown i n Fig. for instance.~ Approximat.578 An11lysi3 of Highly Redundant Stmctnre. Dclcrminc tho stresses in oll the members of a one timo stnLk11lly indctE>rrninntu lruss represented in Fig. Tho stresses existing in 'the vertica ls and diagona ls will he ohtainod in a si milar way using t he ~>hear diagram.e by a solid web continuous beam res ting on four supports for which the bending moment and shear diagrams conld be easily obtaitwd using one of the methods descriOud in Chap tor 10.
sent the strc.ivcly). and A1p will ho determined using t.:1:. All the computations v.ents the length of each member. If we ~sume that the vert \cui nt midspan con!'til ut cs tho rodurulant membur.:'r... we may adopt as conjugate ~imp lo ::.'i6.0u ~lp (loth tlcflec...ss developed in the In thi~ caS<> the canonical equation becomes X...t2).letor'fnincd easily using tho . .: rm:::.. M' ohtaln EFo 11 = 240<J.. f.t.:7 !) Solution .t.12 The unkuown X 1 will rt'pre..5. I F ig.tlous 6.6.0 +15696 2404 .: ...'FI:itp= .:s_ _ _ _ __ _. 54.12.:.wo Maxwe"!ICrf. wherefrom X 1 = .53 tons 1 in a ll lbll ot hur members cnn be '<.O It follows that Xt = Strt'SS~S cxpr~s~ivn .l> 11 +~ 1 p=0 nfc1re~"<~id nrlieal.12 Flg.ructure th e one shown in Fig 54. Statically I ndtt::e:.... 5!:i.8.. rospeet..n~t::.12.:lfl...:" ::':.JI be carriod out in tabular form as lnllicatl!d herounder (~~ THlllt' 4.he unil load X 1 = 1 ( Figs. one of which will he constructed for Lhc actual loads all<l thu othor Ftg ..5:. Summing up all the entries of columns 5 and ti.:te:. Tho values of theso deflections are given by and wlwn• S reprt'~. • 5. 12 =.12 and 56.:.12 for t..12.'mona diagn1ms.12..l56!JG.
00 ~U~3 de ef 0 0 3.5 .(1 1()1) .US 3. 7 34 .\J 8.4 .{1 58.2 0 0 (l .53.00 8.1 6.\tons •·"' .0 i.7 .5.:1 fiii. 21.33 5 .21.5 3.8 3 .. 1 ) 11 ..5 ().·t tl.4 :i.t ck d1 t'n 5.7 0 (I 37.6 1tt.0 .3 .83 ()lf g1 1 lh kJ 5.1.OO 278. I I s.30. :~3 ..444 861.S 9.2 .0 41.~ 2:JJ.33 6. .f I 60.7 2.v~N .3.O 8.21.0 8 .Otl UXt 1.2 .33 (i.4.2 ()·p a b be cd 3.2 0 .Ll 1L 6 51..5 8111 .00 !o.:~ · 8. qs .1 37.33 3..O .7 50..oo 't.0 .8 10.2 81Ltl 34 . .9 19.5 lL5 }'.O 3t. u IJ (l 1 II J ·(' 1r.5 '1.5 li. (M) 4.8H .IJI1.0 1.8 6..5 ()._c_tu_r_ es_ _ __ _ Tab/~ 1.3 14. .00 l.5 .8 1.8.110 500 53.3 41. ·1 lm nIl 5.055 4 .5 LO 1.8 1).4 8.(1 .l.05 . 9 6. 21 !) . () 114. 5 li .83 2.5 .::.9 .Ull 3.(1.'1.8 5~ .(J 15 .3 5~'.0lJ i5.0 .00 5. S 13.33 0 160..5 1.(I(J t1 kt 111·11 2. 5 11!. .00 UXJ 3.7 1'.7 pJl gIl Zi .4 8!l .(1() 1fl h.12 K.5 18 .0 324..'l 8.i i8.fi 3 .7 11.5.9 1t ag b.4 t.9 21.1)!)5 [.li 25.33 1..:1 53 .27.0 6. 3'1~. tl .00 /i .5 .0 .S 18.33 . l a.25.r.15 2.4 .6i .tl .1.3.&"1 .t I t• 4.'17 4 .!.0.33 278.3:1 ().4 ·'.5 31.05 a1o.v• Strrss l QOS tons N.33 ..OO 5.5 312.2782 .1!1.580 _ _ _ A~?lysis of Highly R cd11ndlllll Stru.+J\~txt.207 4.67.oo 3 .JJN tS . .1.3.00 5 .16.3 25 .3 ti.l. 5 11. 47 0 (l (I 3.25.5 .21.3 4.5 31..444 .17ll2 .33 3.0 1.33 . 33.. .7 187 .0 1.l:J. tl 2.:l::s 3.5 0 0 0 0 0 :.~r No.00 5.3.ll r.UO /1.H/. .8 .) .11 t ·lf m.1 . .5 tl. 7 tt. .0 ltL3 9. O 3.5 . Total st.1 34.:lS. l I Unr Str~~s lengLb m .    i""' 12115696   .5 . :1 33.2 8.2 51).0.!! 25..ress"s 1lOllS I 5 2(17 4.·'t . 11 8.H . . 0\1 3 !.l l:i.:) 0 (J G.:U:i 3.0 0 ·' 18.t 140 5.5 187.() 321t.M..1140 .25.5 33.21GO 2100 .fl 5.
In tlti':' cas11 l. 1a whorl· Nr is llte titrcss induced ill lho same verLical mn by n unit .9.ric.t.o one analy7.al equalling a = a t8.1) times statically indcterminare conjugate structure along the d i rcetion of the addil.tion X 1 and by the applied loads.al systQIUS as de~c.ion for a one time statically t.t} simple structure itself possesses (n.gl'(!O will r(~du ce lo lho solution of a single equation with ono unknown if lhe eonjugal.al and antisyllluletric.al st. StmctltrN 581 The values of. 9.hc grouping of unknowns aml to the rephH~ernent of the applied loads by equivalm1t symm<'t.'Il OF STATICALLY 1:. At.arrled out in oxactly tho same wa y.s X 1ljH+~u=0 Att =alJ1 tS =N.h(> valnes ot llwso sl. In the above expression 6u and the (n.12.. represcut t. This single equation Xtl>u 7.ion or contrnc. 1'bo Stft'SS C.tio n of this vertic.l'uchtre will become X 16u + ~ 1 t =0 when~ ~tt=o.ltling Uw magnitude of thest• stro:. while the values of thermal e::xpansion <lr contraction for· ull othor· t.1) redundant c1. 12 .hu uctunlloarb (t.t~d in cnlumn 8. These stres. obL<\ined in this w11y slwu ltl he entered into coluutu 7 of 'fah](l 4 . redundancy than th. 9.~s an. ln the case of stressc.ruases of a higl1er degrco of redundancy can he c.ressr:s dcvolnpod in all t.>S induced in all tl10 mcmhors of the smno t.'\DI!:TElll\ill'iATE . Let II:> st. i ndt~lm·rui u nte An example of influoncc line construct.udv nlso the streS!<E.~·ucturc used is one degree lower in.n given in Art.\Il'lJTA'rtO. Hesort can he made to t. qstraiuts. As~uuw tlJat tho vortica l mn has been madt> a units longer (or shorter·) than r(>quired.£0)'(!() X 1 • ~Hrcss analysis for t..russ by an oroct.¥.he mmnhers (>[tho r·Nlundnnt tros~.uro hy r.russ.1) times statically indeterminate struc. CO.9.'$ due to tolllpcnrLure c. respec.~es at·c l'Cprcst>ul.ture along the j.ion defec.hangt>s the canonical equation for· a one tim<· statically ind()Lcnnimoll) st.~\ll> ~ o will show that the displacement of the (n .EN 1 tS whcrr. 11.ed in the simple struc.12.russ has bec.ed. ex = codi\c. Computation of Statically lntktcrminatr. which is cquivnlcn~ to a thennal (>Xpan:.he defiQctions of di~ rection of t his < :onstraint (~aused by the unit rcac.STn UCTUR ES \VITH THE AID 01>' SI::'IfPLER STRUCTURES REDUNDA NT TO A LOWJ~n ogGnt~l~ Simultaneous ~olntion of several cquati1>ns with several unknowns may he avoided if t.he conjugate st.giv111n in column 3) we shall obtain llw lot.ional constraint who&~ reaction equals X 1 is nil.t.tively.so:s L(l Lhosl\ induc.ribed in tbt> p1·eccding at·ticll~ .russ memhcl'S rnmrtin nil.i(>nt o[ Uwrmal oxpausiou t· = temporaturt~ ehange in degrees.ho above equation b~come.Omputation of a Sll'llCI:lll'O tedundnnt ill t h e nth de. .
.
12 Fig. It follows that the said j1>int witl be acted upun Ftg.12 dufJ to tho application or a unit. Compllt!. 58.9.12. T he amount of di!iplacement 6 11 is equal to the second power or this diagram.12 by a c. 60. d X.12.tructure may therefore be obtained multiplying aU the ordinates to the r.1'!b by l.HorL of Statical!y lndeterminate_8_fruC'Wres 583 produced therein by the load xj is triangular in shape with u maximum oruinul:ll equal t<J l aL joint c. 58. 1<1ad X 1 to tho staticnl ly dctcrmmatc structure shown in the sam1 • figure ll 2 l Hl3 6u = 2 >: 3 l t. Using Vereshdwgin's method we obtain The same rt>sult could bo arrived at by the multiplication of the M'1 graph (Fig.(l /21!4) x l= V. 60. 60.ouplc 9R = l and the !lending moment dil!gram relative to portion acb of Lhe :.12) by the graph of Fi~J· 61. 59. b Fig. Such a diagram is given in Fig.I?J 2 .12 diagrams shown in Fig.
7.nda11t Sl. :)8.6.EJ or Figs. 6.1.12 and 62.t2 (sl'e Art .T Pl l t 1 P/3 XzX "2 (l/8 X t /3.12 and 61.9) 6 1p =.l be rlchicvcd using tho diagrams o[ Fig:. 62 .9.tp= ( or tllsc th<Jse 16+32 PI Pl ) l l pza 2'EJ = G4.r_u.l/4 X 2/3) EJ = liftEJ ..:_c_tu_r_<!S _ __ __ __ l)isplacuLOCIIl by the d iagt'llm ~l p giv~u will bl• found multiplying tbc diagram of F ig.12 Th(l samo rcl)tdt CtJul. 60.12 Ftf!. 1la iu Pig...12 . 60. 6..72 Fig.1:/a Ftg. 58..•l11alysts of Highly Rcd1.
f<'LUENCE LINE MODELS Jo'OR CONTINUOUS BEAMS If the influonco line for a continuous beam red\Jndant to the nlh degree werB constructed using as conjuga to stt·ucture another.nr·(" will be ohtainod as usually multii>Iying ull tho ordinates to the Iii1 1liugram Mgraph Fig. Thn final diagram is shown in Fig. 5l:l.Jil3 The resulting hcmding moment diugi·am for the given redundant st>·ud. ht{luence Li1•e i'vfodcls for Co11ttnuous Beams The introduction o f the values of 6 11 o. the reactiou of nth constraint due to tb~ load unity P could be derived frorn t:hc equation Xioil+otp=O whence X 1=~ Replac.10.hl• magni~ude ..12.12. (i4 .(If 10.ion giv<.12~ nnd thoret~ftor a1lding Lheso <lrdinatt's to thc.nd above yil\lds 585 u111 8B into th o cquat. 64. continuous beam (n1) times statically indeterminate.·n X = ~lp =.12a.iag 61 p by 6p1 we may write 1 ~p uu 6tr Xt=  It will be remembered that 6r 1 given in the above equation represents the ordinate to the deflection line for a (n . IN.il() unknown xj just found equal to 88 p (Fig.24EJ =~P 1 ~u li4EJ.~t\ of U1e lr!p dingrnm of Fig. 63.12 3 t.Pl3.!2.1) times statically indeterminate continuous beam due to the application of . hy t.
6. It f\lrnishe~ an easy means ({)) {d) (eJ (() (g} Fig..•t~ ::.. this shapo being exactly the same as that of the deflection line 6p 1 which can be obtained at very little cost..5 _8 _6_ _ _ __ . while 6u mny be rogarded as the scale factor permiLting tile conversion of the rlefiection line to Lhe influence line. 'flUs method of i11fluence line construction we have named the kinematic method.::ll. Fig.al..:.:.12 shows tbe shape of the influence lines for support reactions.. for bonding moments and shearing stresses pertain ing to a continuous beam resting on five supports.A:. 65. 12 of determining tho shape of the influence lines for continuous beams..5.. of Highly Rt<dundant Structure.. The shape of these .~ a load unity acting nloug the direction of X.:n..:.
. the influence lino for the loftend support reaction will be exactly of the same shapo a~ the deflection line o( the contin uous beam redundant in the second degree {Fig. Thus.12..s /Jeams lines has been determ ined practically without nny computn tions using the deflection lines Jue to unit forces applied along the eliminated redundant reactions. 1 n fluence Ltne Model$ .. 65.10. 'l'his k inematic metltod providt!s ver y rapidly the shape of the influence lines which may be used as models when determining those portions of continuous beams which shou ld be loaded in order to obtain the extreme values of the stresses under consid~~rat ion. 12b) acted upon by a load unity X .iuOu~ucc for Conttnuor.
nd proc<!rding tlu•reaft. in the above method we started with the cornpu.he displaecmcnls of a member which must be known in order Lo flnrl the s tre&Scs acting at one of its cross section:>.t.s~ section of any member of the structure could he easily cnlculatc<l whereafter t.hat the difference in length between the original member and the chord of its elastic. Tho same problem could be tackled in the inverse order. SLOPE AND DEFLECTIONS.tation of stress1< s and reactions proct.ompntation of rigid joint sy~. CHOICE OF UNKNOWNS In Lhe meU10d for·ce~ previously described the unknowns represented tho reactions (forc. 1. The movement of Lhe bar AB to its new posit