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PROJECT WORK -2013Name: Aishah Nadia Bt Badrul Hisham Class : 5 Gemilang

1

it is hoped that students will gain valuable experiences and able to: Apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems. Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing. Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics.OBJECTIVES Every student taking Additional Mathematics is required to carry out a project work while they are in Form 5. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work. Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problemsolving in ways that increases interest and confidence. Experience classroom environments that are challenging. interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills. Students are to choose and complete only ONE task based on their area of interest. Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking. Ministry of Education has prepared two tasks. Train them to not only be independent learners but also to collaborate. Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. This year. Prepare students’ for the demands of their future undertakings and in workplace. and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment. and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely. Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively. the Curriculum Development Division. Train them to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative. Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems. reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected. 2 . to cooperate.

PART 1 3 .

Before pocket calculators — only three decades ago. using logarithms. It can’t be said too often: a logarithm is nothing more than an exponent. By cutting the time they spent doing arithmetic. this is not necessary anymore but it still serves as a useful way to introduce logarithms. logarithms effectively gave them a longer productive life. The invention of the common system of logarithms is due to the combined effort of Napier and Henry Biggs in 1624. You needed logs to compute most powers and roots with fair accuracy. once almost a cartoon trademark of a scientist. This approach originally arose out of a desire to simplify multiplication and division to the level of addition and subtraction. 4 . The logarithm of 100 to the base 10 is 2. called the base. Natural logarithms first arose as more or less accidental variations of Napier's original logarithms. This is written: log10 (100) = 2. but in ―student years‖ that’s the age of dinosaurs — the answer been simple. used to spend huge amounts of time crunching numbers on paper. Of course. Napier's approach was algebraic and Burgi's approach was geometric. a Swiss.HISTORY Logarithms were invented independently by John Napier. The objective of both men was to simplify mathematical calculations. The invention of logs in the early 1600s fueled the scientific revolution. even multiplying and dividing most numbers were easier with logs. a Scotsman. is raised to yield a specific number. and by Joost Burgi. Napier's logarithms were published in 1614. was nothing more than a device built for doing various computations quickly. The present definition of the logarithm is the exponent or power to which a stated number. The slide rule. astronomers especially. The earliest natural logarithms occur in 1618. Every decent algebra books had pages and pages of log tables at the back. Back then scientists. Burgi's logarithms were published in 1620. in this era of the cheap hand calculator. Their real significance was not recognized until later. The basic concept of logarithms can be expressed as a shortcut: Multiplication is a shortcut for Addition: 3 x 5 means 5 + 5 + 5 Exponents are a shortcut for Multiplication: 4^3 means 4 x 4 x 4 Logarithms are a shortcut for Exponents: 10^2 = 100.

2. For example. of the individual tones. 5 . the note A has a frequency of 440 Hz and B-flat has a frequency of 466 Hz. For example. as is the one between B-flat and B (frequency 493 Hz). and join the solutions of the sub problems. use this term for an exponential function. where N is the list's length. hundredths of a semitone. In other words. In equal temperament. A constant factor. Music Logarithms are related to musical tones and intervals. is usually disregarded in the analysis of algorithms under the standard uniform cost model. because the result only changes by a constant factor when another base is used. the frequency ratio depends only on the interval between two tones. the amount of memory needed to store N grows logarithmically with N. Logarithms are valuable for describing algorithms that divide a problem into smaller ones. A function f(x) is said to grow logarithmically if f(x) is (exactly or approximately) proportional to the logarithm of x. Accordingly. or pitch. The base of the logarithm is not specified here. Merge sort algorithms typically require a time approximately proportional to N · log(N). logarithms can be used to describe the intervals: an interval is measured in semitones by taking the base-21/12 logarithm of the frequency ratio. The latter is used for finer encoding. the merge sort algorithm sorts an unsorted list by dividing the list into halves and sorting these first before merging the results. Computational Complexity Analysis of algorithms is a branch of computer science that studies the performance of algorithms (computer programs solving a certain problem). however. as it is needed for non-equal temperaments. the binary search algorithm checks the middle entry and proceeds with the half before or after the middle entry if the number is still not found. the frequency ratios agree: Therefore. The interval between A and B-flat is a semitone. log2(N) comparisons.APPLICATIONS 1. while the base-21/1200 logarithm of the frequency ratio expresses the interval in cents.Similarly. on average. any natural number N can be represented in binary form in no more than log2(N) + 1 bits. (Biological descriptions of organism growth.) For example. not on the specific frequency. to find a number in a sorted list. This algorithm requires.

PART 2 6 .

D.51 65.45 113. a) i) Choose six different spheres with diameters between 1 cm to 8 cm. You can find the value of m and of n by conducting the activities below. in cm3. V. V/cm3 4.0 3. are related by the equation V = mDn. V.14 33. and its corresponding volume. Measure the diameters of the six spheres using a pair of vernier calipers. of a solid sphere and its diameter. D.60 7 .19 14. in cm3. ii) iii) Answer Diameter. Find the volume of each sphere.The volume. (You can use the apparatus in the science lab to help you) Tabulate the values of the diameter.0 4. where m and n are constants. in cm.0 Volume.0 7.0 6.0 5. in cm.10 179. D/cm 2.

.14 = n (log 3 ) 4.2 Substitute 1 into 2 log 14..19 23 m = 4.19 – n log 2 .19 – (3) log 2 log m = log 4.19 2 n=3 From 1 log m = log 4.14 = (log 4.1 log 14.19 8 m = 0.19 2 log 14..14 ÷ log 3 = n 4...b) Find the value of m and of n using logarithms with any two sets of values obtained in the table above..19 = log m + n log 2 log m = log 4..19 – n log 2) + n log 3 log 14.14 = log m + n log 3 . Answer: V=mDn log V = log m + n log D log 4.524 8 ..

PART 3 9 .

V. Plot V against D using suitable scales.(A) In our daily life. V/cm3 10 . For example. D/cm 6 7 8 Volume of solid sphere. Relationship Between V and D 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Diameter. and the diameter. the relation between the volume. the relation between two variables is not always in a linear form. D. in Part 2 above.

(B) When the graph V against D is drawn. a) Reduce the equation V = mDn to a linear form. V = mDn log10 V = log10 m + log10 Dn log10 V = n log10 D + log10 m in which the reduced equation is a linear form of y = Mx + C where. y = log10 V . the value of m and of n are not easily determined from the graph. If the non-linear relation is changed to a linear form. x = log10 D . M = n . a line of best fit can be drawn and the values of the constants and other information can be obtained easily. and C = log10 m 11 .

of a solid sphere can be expressed in terms of D as.5 log (V) 1 0.9 log (D) c) From the graph.5 0.9 – 0 n=3 Thus.524 n = Gradient n = 2.28 m = 0.8 0. log10 m = y-intercept log10 m = -0.4 0.2 0.b) Using the data from Part 2.524(D3) 12 .5 0.5 0 0 -0. V = 0.0. plot the graph and draw the line of best fit.43 – (.28) 0. find i) the value of m and of n.6 0.5 2 1. Linear Relationship Between log (V) and log (D) 2. the volume.28 m = 10 -0.7 0.3 0.1 0. V. thus express V in terms of D.

ii) the volume of the sphere when the diameter is 5 cm.255 log10 D = 0.5 cm 2 13 .845 D = 100.699 log10 V = 1.819 V = 101. log10 V = log10 180 = 2.845 D = 7 cm r = 7 = 3. and log10 D = log10 5 = 0.46 cm3 iii) the radius of the sphere when the volume is 180 cm3.819 V = 65.

FURTHER EXPLORATION 14 .

524(D3) 3 2 4 π( D3 )= 0.a) Compare the equation obtained in Part 3 (B) c (i) with the formula of volume of sphere. of a circle with diameter D. Then the diameter of the casted shadow can be scaled linearly according to the actual diameter of the solid sphere. b) 15 .524 x 6 π = 3. The circumference of a circle is the length around it and the associate formula is given by. One simple method is by determining the circumference C. C = πD To measure the circumference C. The formula for volume of sphere is.524 6 π = 0. 4 π( D )3 = 0.524(D3) 3 2 1 π = 0. the shadow of a solid sphere can be projected on a screen using a bright light source. we have. Vsphere = 4 πr3 3 Comparing the formula and equation (6).524(D3) 3 8 1 π( D3 )= 0. because the formula shows the linear relationship. of a circle with diameter D effectively. find the value of π. Hence.142 Suggest another method to find the value of π.

REFLECTION 16 .

Tuesday. This project had taught me to be responsible on the works that are given for me to complete. Always makes me wonder how and why. Throughout the day and night. Additional Mathematics. Thursday and Friday. I had also learn to be more discipline.While conducting this project. From Monday. I also learned some moral values that I practice. And even during my precious weekends. Wednesday. I also enjoyed doing this project during my school holiday as I spent my time with friends to complete this project and it had helps to strengthen our friendship. I have found a lot of information about logarithms and also learnt how to use them in daily life. Try to solve all of it. because I was only given about two weeks to complete these project and I pass up this project to my teacher just in time. 17 . This project also had made me more confident on Additional Mathematics and to not give up easily when I could not find the solution for the question.

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