Dr Wan Hazmy Che Hon was born in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan and received his earlier education
at Dato Klana Putra Primary School, Lenggeng and MARA Junior Science College, Seremban. He received his medical degree from the St University of Ghent, ate Belgium in 1991. A fter completing the 3 years compulsory service he pursued a 4 years residency training in Orthopaedic Surgery at the National University of Malaysia and received his Master degree in Orthopaedic Surgery in 1998. In 1999 he completed his Trauma Fellowship at the Augsburg Trauma Hospital, Germany. He did his sub-speciality training in Arthroscopy,Arthroplasty and Sp r o ts Surgery at the Wakefield Orthopaedic Clinic and the Royal Adelaide Hospita, l Adelaide, Australia in 2002 under the Australian Orthopaedic Association (AOA) accredited fellowship programme. He is actively involved with professional bodies, being a member of International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee and Orthopaedic Sp r Medicine(ISAKOS), European Society of Sp r o ts o ts , Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy (ESSKA), Asia Pacific Orthopaedic Association (APOA), Malaysian Orthopaedic Association (MOA), Malaysian Medical Relief Society(MERCY), Magellan Society and the Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia. Throughout his career he had been granted several awards including Prof N.Subramaniam Award for Outs tanding Performance in Master of Surgery (Orthopaedic) Residential Programme from the Malaysian Orthopaedic Association (1999), ESSKA-APOA Tr v l i g aeln Fellowship Award for Sp r Traumatology, Knee Surgery & Arthroscopy from the European o ts Society for Sp r Traumatology, Knee Surgery & Arthroscopy (ESSKA) (2004). He was o ts also awarded the prestigious J.W Fulbright Scholarship for the year 2004-2005 and spent three months in Temple University, Philadelphia, USA as a visiting scholar. Academically, he was the member of the Malaysian Academy of Medicine and has been the adjunct lecturer to the International Medical University Clinical School since 1998, visiting lecturer and examiner to the National University of Malaysia and the International Islamic University. He was instrumental in disseminating the art of arthroscopic surgery to the younger surgeons, being visiting surgeon to various hospitals in Malaysia and becoming the founding member of the committee for arthroscopic and sports surgery internal fellowship training for the Ministry of Health. He had various scientific papers presented and published at the international and regional level. His tenure in the Ministry of Heath has brought him to Ipoh, Kuala Pilah, Kuala Lumpur and Seremban Hospital where he contributed most of his expertise. He was the Consulta t n Orthopa d c Trauma and Sp r Surgeon, Seremban Hospital till 2005 before setting up ei, o ts his own practice at Wan Orthopa d c Trauma and Sport Injury Centre (WOTSIC), ei, Seremban Specialist Hospital (SSH), Seremban. His areas of interest include general orthopaedic, orthopaedic trauma and fracture treatment, sports injuries, arthroscopic reconstructive surgery (knee, ankle, shoulder & elbow) and adult replacement surgery (hip, knee). He has a special interest in medico-religious aspect of science and was the co-editor and contributor of 5 books related to the subject . T i i h s l t s b o t t e ’The Leadership hs s i aet ok ild role of Muslim Scientists a pa t o h s F l r g t Award research project. ’, r f i ubih He is married to Dr Zainab Yahaya, a gynaecologist and was blessed with five children.
THE LEADERSHIP ROLE OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS
SIGN OF SCIENTIFIC REEMERGENCE
Dr Wan Hazmy Che Hon
"The light of conscience is religious sciences. The light of mind is modern sciences. Reconciliation of both manifests the truth. The student's skills develop further with these two (sciences). When they are separated, from the former superstition and from the latter corruption and scepticism is born." (Turkish Scholar Bediuzzaman Said Nursi)
THE LEADERSHIP ROLE OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS:
SIGN OF SCIENTIFIC REEMERGENCE
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THE LEADERSHIP ROLE OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS:
SIGN OF SCIENTIFIC REEMERGENCE
RESEARCHER: DR WAN HAZMY BIN CHE HON Fulbright Visiting Scholar at Temple University & Consultant Orthopaedic, Trauma & Sports Surgeon Seremban Hospital, 70300 Seremban Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
SUPERVISOR: PROF DR KHALID AY BLANKINSHIP Professor in Religion, Religion Department, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, W. Berks Street, Philadelphia 19122, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________
The author acknowledges with deep gratitude the assistance and encouragement extended to him by the following persons and bodies: 1. The W. Fulbright Foundation, USA 2. MACEE - Malaysian-American Council for Educational Exchange 3. Sister Ayesha Begum and the occupants of Makkah Masjid, Philadelphia 4. Datin Dr Hjh Zailan, Director, Seremban Hospital 5. Ministry of Health, Malaysia Equally, the author acknowledges his enormous appreciation to his beloved wife, Zainab and children (Dalila, Hasif, Syafiq, Aqilah and Ihsan) for their patient and prayer throughout the preparation of this book. May Allah reward them all.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientists: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ i
0. Preface 1. The Glorious Era of Islamic Scientific Civilization 1.1 1.2 The early period of Islamic scientific involvement The essential factors of success 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.2.4. 1.2.5. 1.2.6. 1.3 Al-Qur'an and the completeness of its message The importance of nature in Islam The unity in faith The expansion of the Islamic empire end the Arabic conquest The superiority of the Arabic language as a language of science The attitude of the Churches toward scientists in Europe
The significant contributions and prominent figures during the glorious era 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.3.3. 1.3.4. 1.3.5. 1.3.6. 1.3.7. 1.3.8. 1.3.9. 1.3.10. Astronomy Mathematics Optics Physics and Mechanics Geography Medicine Chemistry and Pharmacology Establishment of Libraries Establishment of Hospitals Establishment of Observatories
The 'Golden Era' of knowledge and civilization
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientists: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ i
The Stagnation Period of Muslim Scientific Achievements 2.1 2.2 The end of the glorious era Factors contributing to the stagnation 2.2.1. 2.2.2. Break-up of the Muslim Empires Partisanship, political differences and power politics 2.2.3. Religious and theological differences 2.2.4. The intoxicants of pleasures and enjoyment 2.2.5. Governmental ruling by the non Arabs 2.2.6. Neglect of practical knowledge and world realities 2.2.7. Internal conflicts among scholars 2.2.8. High esteem and unduly proud rulers 2.2.9. The rise of European economic,political and cultural imperialism 2.2.10. Deception of Western achievements and values 2.3 The critical era of Islamic science
The Current State of Muslim Scientists 3.1 Science in Muslim world during the recent centuries 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3. 3.1.4. 3.1.5. 3.1.6. The scientific development in the Muslim world post-Renaissance Development in Arabic-African continent Development under the Turkish Ottomans Caliphate Development in Indian subcontinent Progression after 1945 Why does the Muslim still lag behind in science?
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientists: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ i
The Noble prize and its implication to the Muslim world 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. Life and philosophy of Alfred Noble Alfred Noble's life and philosophy from the Islamic perspective Muslim Noble Prize winner 18.104.22.168. Prof Dr Abdus Salam 22.214.171.124. Prof Dr Ahmed Zewail Noble Prize: Is there a selection bias?
Prominent Muslim scientific figures in the 20th century 3.3.1. Muslim scientists 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11. Prof Dr Farouk El-Baz Dr Fazlur Rahman Khan Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan Dr Avul Pakir Jainul Abdeen Abdul Kalam 18.104.22.168. General Kerim Kerimov 22.214.171.124. Prof Dr Seyyed Mahmoud Hessaby 126.96.36.199. Prof Dr Zakaria Erzin Clioglu 188.8.131.52. Prof Dr Samira Ibrahim Islam 184.108.40.206. Prof Dr Haroon Ahmed 220.127.116.11. Prof Dr Ahmed Shammin Siddiqui 18.104.22.168. Prof Dr Ali Javan 22.214.171.124. Prof Dr Karimat El-Sayed 126.96.36.199. Prof Dr Ayse Erzan 188.8.131.52. Prof Dr Salim Al-Hassani 3.3.2. Muslim astronauts and cosmonauts
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientists: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ i
184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 3.3.3.
Sultan Salman Abdul Aziz Al Saud Abdul Ahad Mohmand Toktar Ongarbaevich Aubakirov Talgat Amangeldyevich Musabayev Musa Manarov Saliszan Shakirovich Sharipov Mohammed Faris
Muslim scientists cum political leaders 220.127.116.11. Prof Dr Necmettin Erbakan 18.104.22.168. Prof Dr Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie 22.214.171.124. Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad
Muslim scientist and philosopher 126.96.36.199 Prof Dr Seyyed Hossein Nasr
The Scientific Re-emergence and its Future Direction 4.1 Prerequisites for Muslims scientific re-emergence 4.1.1. The correct diagnosis: What really happened to Islamic science? 4.1.2. The proven treatment: Al-Qur'an 4.1.3. The expert doctors: the Muslim scientists and religious scholars 4.1.4. The Islamic Unity 4.1.5. Review of educational approach 4.1.6. Mastering the language of technology 4.1.7. Effective scientific learning 4.1.8. Recognition and awards 4.1.9. Building up the 'scientific family, scientific community' 4.1.10. Credibility of Muslim countries
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientists: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ i
The assets 4.2.1. 4.2.2. 4.2.3. The spiritual assets The historical assets The material and physical assets
The future direction 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. 4.3.4. 4.3.5. 4.3.6. Centrally based scientific leadership Identification of the expertise (Muslim Who's who in science) Reorganization of material and human resources Selection and establishment of the regional scientific centres Preservation of scientific heritage Awards and scholarships
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 2 BACKGROUND: The Muslims were the global leaders and innovators of intellectual, scientific and cultural development for many centuries. Islam had patronized and fostered the Greek scientific heritage in the field of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry and philosophy. Islam continued to add new scientific achievements which bear witness that Muslim were deeply and seriously interested in the scientific research. It was on the cream of the Islamic scientific achievement of Andalusia that the European Renaissance and its modern scientific inventions were based. However, things started to go awry in the early thirteenth century, when the Muslim started to stagnate and the Europeans surged ahead. Several factors had been attributed to this including the Mongol and other Central Asian invasions, political instability and spread of religious intolerance. For almost seven centuries the Muslim scientists were not at the forefront of scientific achievement. Despite the facts that many of the Muslim scientists have been accepted to work in the world class established laboratory or institution throughout the world, none except a few has make it to win the Noble prize. On the other hand, there is an increasing numbers of Muslim scientists elected to leadership role in their respective countries or abroad either in established scientific institutions or whether as the ruling political leaders, the opposition leaders or as leaders of the non-governmental organizations. This might be an important sign of scientific re-emergence already present in the Muslim world but yet to be recognized by the Western communities. OBJECTIVES: 1. To identify the reasons why the Muslim scientists are not making a significant impact in the current scientific achievement. What is the limitation, restriction or hindrance towards this achievement? Is there possible bias in selection of Nobel Prize winner for science as far as the Muslim scientists is concern?
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 3 2. To determine whether the increasing number of Muslim scientists taking the leadership role in their respective countries and abroad is a sign of recognition of their scientific merit besides their leadership capabilities. Are there any similarities amongst these scientists became leaders in their thinking, dedication and principles.
METHODOLOGY: 1. Library and archival research on articles related to the title. This include the study on the achievement of Muslim scientist during the last decade, the detail biography of scientist cum leader and commentary by the non Muslim prominent writer on the status of Muslim scientists Interviews with prominent Muslim scientists in the selected institutions on the past, present and future of the Muslim scientist and to identify their weaknesses and strength. Comparative study on the Muslim scientist cum leader including their principle, their motivating factors and their visions.
SIGNIFICANCE: This research will be determine the current position of the Muslim scientists and their direction in the future This will help them to reorganized their expertise and resources to achieve the field that once were dominated by them. This study will act as catalyses for the individual and institutions throughout the world irrespective of their religious or political background to contribute to the re-emergence of Muslim scientists which will not only benefit the Muslim community but the whole world in general.
Glorious Era of Islamic Scientific Civilization
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 5 THE GLORIOUS ERA OF ISLAMIC SCIENTIFIC CIVILIZATION 1.1 The early period of Islamic scientific involvement
The concept of 'ilm ("science") has been an important one in the history of Islamic civilization and has gone a long way to giving this civilization, and all those who participated in it regardless of their ethnic or religious application, a distinctive shape. Again the concept of science in Islam is a vast subject. Historically Arabs and Persians who were interested in exploring the natural world around them first introduced Greek scientific treatises to the Arab-speaking world during the eight century. From the ninth century on, scholars travelled from one end of the empire to the other, carrying books and ideas, thereby ensuring what some have called the cultural and intellectual unity of the Islamic world. Since this time, countless Muslims from all over the world throughout the course of many centuries have been involved in scientific development. A momentous impetus was given to the development of science in the Islamic world with the accession of the Abbasid Caliphate to power and the subsequent foundation of Baghdad as its capital in 762. This resulted in a translation movement that saw, by the end of tenth century virtually all of the scientific and philosophical secular Greeks works that were available in the Late Antique Period (fourth to seventh century CE) translated into Arabic. These works included many diverse topics such as astrology, alchemy, physics, mathematics, medicine and various branches of philosophy. The great majority of these texts were translated from Greek to Arabic by way of Syriac. The earliest translators include Christians, many of whom were employed in the renowned bayt al hikma (House of Wisdom). This functions as the official institute and library for translation and research. The Caliph Al Ma'mun (d 833) sent emissaries throughout the Mediterranean world to seek out and purchase books on "ancient learning" which were subsequently brought back to Baghdad and translated into Arabic by panel of scholars. The result was an
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 6 impressive official library that included many of the most scientific and philosophical works produced in the ancient world. These works would form the foundation for medieval science, not only in the Islamic world but also subsequently in the Christian world. The earliest Greek works translated into Arabic were often made for purely pragmatic reasons. This is why treatises devoted to astrology, mathematics and alchemy represent some of the earliest scientific works in Arabic. A useful list of the treatises translated into Arabic and when and by whom can be found in the account given by the biographer of Islamic writings, Ibn al-Nadim (d 995). A common ,though incorrect, assumption has it that the Greeks invented the sciences, the Arabs rescued them from disappearing in the 'Dark Ages', and subsequently passed them untouched and uncommented upon to the Renaissance period. This ignores the fact that many people living in the Islamic world wrote commentaries to the works of important individuals such as Aristotle, Galen and Ptolemy. The genre of the commentary was not a slavish recapitulation of a text, but often a creative way of writing about science and philosophy in the medieval period. Rather than regard the commentaries as uncreative, they often allowed scholars to think about scientific matters in such a way that they would validate their claims by putting them in the mouth of the ancient sages. In fact, many commentators often used ancient authors to argue the very opposite of what these ancient authors had intended in the first place. So although the Arabs worked within the parameters of science as established by the Greeks, they made many important developments in the Western scientific tradition. Another argument which worth of discussing is the following: This golden age was definitely Muslim in that it took place in predominantly Muslim societies, but was it Islamic, that is, connected to the religion of Islam? States were officially Islamic, and intellectual life took place within a self-consciously Islamic environment. Ahmad al-Hassan and Donald R. Hill, two historians of technology, see Islam as "the driving force behind the Muslim scientific revolution when the Muslim state reached its peak." But some western author argued that non-Muslims had a major role in this effort, and much of the era's scientific achievements took place in a tolerant and cosmopolitan intellectual
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 7 atmosphere quite independent of the religious authorities. Al-Faruqi in explaining this matter had came to the following conclusion: the same achievement may well be term Muslim or Islamic despite the fact that some were the achievements of Sabaeans, Jews, and Christians. He explicitly gave two reasons for this: First, the works of non Muslims constitute a very small portion of the whole and belong either to the preparatory period or that of collection and systematization, bur not to that of creative flowering. Second, the non Muslims contributors were in the service of Muslims as their employees, directed to produce what Muslims desired to see produced. Their non-Islamic religions had nothing to do with their works, which were being totally determined by the Islamic categories and values their employers, colleagues, and the milieu in which they lived. Their works were part of an Islamic culture, determined by an Islamic worldview, ordered by Islamic categories. Hence the two appellations- Arab and Islamic- are justified; and the latter is preferable because it is more general and more inclusive and has the prior connotation of the first principles and values, the culture as a whole, rather than merely its linguistic medium. The Muslims had a tendency to consider every potential discipline as a science, and as result tried to articulate first, principles for them. Important in this regard is the science of law or fiqh. In its developed form, the science of Islamic legal theory recognised a variety of sources and methods (usul al fiqh) by which to derive the law. The first principle was the Qur'an, followed by the Sunna which, though second in importance, provided the overwhelming majority of material from which the law was derived. The third principle is consensus (ijma') of the legal scholars in the name of the entire community. The fourth principle is known as human reasoning (qiyas). These four principles became the means whereby the legal scholars could, in their opinion, scientifically determine the legal effects of the textual sources of Islam. It is important to note that this principles still strongly being applied till today. However its application is no longer limited to the Islamic jurisprudence but, also expanded to other branches of science such as in the field of biotechnology (cloning) and medicine (in vitro fertilization, brain death, euthanasia).
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 8 During this era, many of the medieval philosophers compiled various "list of science" and "classification of sciences" (maratib al-'ulum).One of the famous examples of this is the Enumeration of the Sciences (Ihsa' al 'Ulum) by al-Farabi (870-950). In the preface of this work, al-Farabi states that his intention is to give an enumeration of all the sciences of his day and provide descriptions of their themes and subject matter. He divides the sciences into those dealing with (1) linguistic (2) logic (3) mathematics (4) physics (5) Metaphysics (6) political science (7) jurisprudence and (8) dialectical theology. Other lists were compiled by the "Brethren of Purity" (Ikhwan al-Safa'), Ibn al-Nadim in his Fihrist, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), al Ghazali and Ibn Khaldun in his famous 'Prolegomena'. Ghazali's list is interesting in that he divides all of the sciences into those that are either praiseworthy (mahmuda) or blameworthy (madhmuma). Such lists, however, are by no means a medieval phenomenon. In 1980 at the Second World Conference on Muslim Education, sponsored by the King 'Abd al Aziz University, Jeddah and the Quaid-I Azam University in Islamabad, delegate adopted a similar list. The main difference between their enumeration and that of someone like al-Farabi was that theirs begin with the memorization of the Qur'an and ends with the practical sciences. The importance of this 'Muslim' or 'Arab' science to the general progress of culture is beyond question, and much evidence of it can be adduced. In the first place, numerous Arabic words have passed into some of the Western languages, especially terms used in chemistry, navigation and astronomy. 'Arabic' figures, which came from India, were transmitted to Europe by the Muslims. An even more significant fact is that in his monumental Introduction to the history of science Sarton has given the name of a Muslim scientist to seven chapters of the second volume, deeming that the period under consideration can be designated by him. Finally, the visitor entering the chapel of Princeton University may be somewhat surprised to find there a window representing an outlandish personage: clad in a long eastern robe and a majestic turban, he holds in his hand an unrolled parchment on which can be read in Arabic Kitab alhawi. That those who inspired or endowed this chapel should have deemed al-Razi (Rhazes), the author of the book, worthy to be presented in a place of Christian worship among the great figures of mankind, is sufficient indication of the position occupied by Muslim science in the history of culture.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 9 1.2 The essential factors of success
1.2.1 Al-Qur'an and the completeness of its message This glorious generation who just succeeded the generation of companions and salafus-sholeh, had a very important element instilled in the hearts and minds, that is Islam was born complete- complete in the vision of its Prophet, complete in the Qur'anic revelations he received, and complete in the sunnah he exemplified. This claim is not that of any human or humans; it is Qur'anic (3:19, 5: 4, 2:132) and thus God given. It is the ideal to which all the Muslims strive and by which they would and should be defined. And the earlier generations knew and withhold this in their heart, minds and practicality. Hence, the vision of Islam as stated in the Qur'an demands that the Muslims to take the history, as it were and to direct it so as to produce culture and civilization. Its association with the Muslim history is hence crucial, for Islamic culture and civilization were indeed its offspring, nourished and perpetually sustained by it in every realm of human endeavour. It may be maintained, without paradox, that, with the possible exception of poetry and its proverbs all Muslim intellectual activity in the widest sense had its starting point in the Qur'an: Grammar was created by non-Arabs so that they might be able to read the sacred text correctly, rhetoric for the emphasizing of its beauties. The tradition was assembled in order to explain it and supply its omissions. Jurisprudence was drawn up as a system of principles for moral and social life and finally theology to defend against the sceptics, or even to demonstrate, the truths taught by the Book. It would have been surprising if this taste of knowledge had not been extended to the 'profane sciences' when the Muslims came into contact with these peoples who had inherited them. Even if there were, here and there and at certain periods, theologians of a narrow and defensive orthodoxy who forbade them, it must be said that Muslims in general, led by their Caliphs and princes, showed great thirst for instruction and were eager to assimilate the treasures of ancient science when it came within their reach.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 10 The original religious flavour still remained, for the Muslim scientists, whether astronomers, mathematicians or physicians, were not seeking any less to work for than the Glory of God and the service of religion when they devoted themselves to the sciences derived from Greece, Persian or India. 1.2.2 The importance of nature in Islam Islam takes nature seriously. A large portion of the Qur'an deals with nature, whether directly or indirectly. The nature is determined by five principles: profanity, createdness, orderliness, purposiveness and subservience Profanity Islam, so as Judaism and Christianity see nature as profane (not scared) and ephemeral (in itself, it is good but with reference to what man makes of it, it can become either good or evil). Generally, this is the substance of the agreement among the transcendentalist religions in the matter of nature. Certainly, differences among them qualify their transcendentalist position, diluting and compromising, or strengthening and emphasizing it. Islam stands at the extreme end of the spectrum where profanity of nature is complete and absolute. Nothing is sacred but God, and everything else is profane, totally profane in all its aspects. This is the meaning of the Islamic profession of faith, La ilaha illa Allah (3:18) Createdness Nature in Islam is a creature of God, created ex nihilo, by the sheer commandment of God for it to be. It is absolutely different and other than God, who is defined as "the totally other" or laysa ka mithlihi shay (42:11). The otherness of God, meaning that reality is dual, one realm being occupied exclusively by God, the transcendent Creator and the ojther by all else, the creation, is the most emphatic lesson Islam had taught. "If there were more than one unique creator, heaven and earth, Creator and creature would have fallen to the ground and dissolved (21:22)
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 11 Orderliness Islam holds nature to be an orderly realm: an event occurs as a result of its cause; in turn, its occurrence is the cause of another event. The same events point to the same causes, and the same causes point to the same consequences (65:3, 36:12). The causal efficiency of each creature is measured, and so are its effect and time. Nature is thus a complete and integral system of causes and effects without flaw, without gap, perfectly patterned by its Creator. "Look into His creation for any discrepancy. And look again! Your sight, having found none, will return to you humbled" (67:3-4) Purposiveness Each of the objects that constitute nature has been assigned a purpose which it must, and will, fulfil. "God created everything and assigned to it, its qadar or measure, destiny, role and purpose" (25:2, 87:3) Such purpose is built into the object as its nature, towards which it moves with exorable necessity. It may be obvious and well known or hidden and almost unknowable. But it is certainly there, a "qadaran maqdura" specific and precise (33:38). As object in nature, man is, in the Islamic view, equally purposive for he is an integral part of the finalistic system, the creation. Indeed, Islam declares him to be the purpose of all the finalistic chains of nature. This constitutes his ecological interdependence with all that is in nature. Subservience Islam further affirms that the purposiveness is not only an attribute of every object in nature but it also a predicate of the totality of nature. The subservience of nature to man means that the purpose that God assigned to each object is ultimately to lead to man's good, that man can use it to achieve felicity. It also means that God has made nature malleable, capable of receiving the causal efficacy of man, of keeping its causal threads open to further determination by him, and to make his input successful in bringing about the desired objective of human action. This is what the Qur'an has expressed by the idea of Taskhir. Sun, stars and moon, heaven and earth, animals, plants and things, clouds, air and all the elements are all subservient to man (13:2, 31:20).
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 12 Furthermore taskhir of nature is not only for survival but also for the pleasure (zinah) as well (37:6) Implications of these principles to the Islamic scientific civilization All the foregoing qualities of nature, therefore, are necessary for science. On the one hand, the necessity of profanity and regularity are obvious. Without them, there may be myth, but no science. On the other, purposiveness and subservience are necessitated by morality. The processes of nature were so interrelated as to provide for nature's continuity and regularity. With this, Islam strongly affirms that a continuing and regular nature such as we find creation to be, is indeed possible as object of human knowledge. Nature, since it functions according to the laws or patterns, is observable and measurable. This was repeatedly affirms in the Qur'an that the patterns of God are immutable (30:30,33:62). Human knowledge of these external patterns may be immediate through revelation, or painstakingly slow, tentative, and always incomplete, through rational examination. Islam also maintains that the will of God is legible in either of the two books: First, the Qur'an revealed by God to His Prophet in clear Arabic, and second, the book called 'nature' for anyone to 'read' through observation, measurement, nazar or intellection and consideration, and testing in experience. Nature will not fail to yield its secrets - the eternal divine patterns - to anyone seriously applying himself to the task and allowing nature to speak for itself through experience. The law of nature are hypothesis reached through observation and experimentation. This involves isolation of factors or causes and effects operating in a phenomenon, their observation and measurement, and the amendment or confirmation of the hypotheses in experience. 1.2.3 The unity in faith One of the important aspects taught by Islam is the concept of Muslim
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 13 brotherhood (ukhuwah Islamiyyah) which deterred in totality the discrimination based on races, social status, skin colour or nationality. Faith in Islam has bonded them far stronger than the blood relation itself. This concept was applied to every aspect of life, more so ever when it comes to dissemination of knowledge. This era had witnessed the emergence of Muslims knowledge seekers and scientists in Baghdad, Cairo, Cordova and Samarkand, so as of the Persian and the Arab, the Turk and the Andalusian, the Berber and the Sabaean. They travelled from the one end of the empire to the other end without any objection. The gained their knowledge from their teacher without any reservation. They were not restricted by geographic or racial boundaries. This unity in faith did not only expand the Islamic empire geographically but more importantly had expanded the horizon of knowledge. 1.2.4 The expansion of the Islamic empire and the Arabic conquest The actual course of Arab conquests was from the beginning a conducive factor. Leaving a 'canton isolated from the world', to use Pascal's phrase, the Arabs at once found themselves in contact with Syria and its Byzantine culture; with Egypt, the heir to the ancient world of the Pharaohs; with Persia of the Sasanids; with India and before long with North Africa and Spain. Various peoples (Persians, Turks, Berbers, Andalusians, Egyptians etc) embraced Islam. Other elements, 'the People of the Book' (Christians, Jews and Sabaeans) remained in the midst of the Muslim community, second -class citizens but protected by the law and taking active part in the cultural life. All contributed to the development of sciences in Islam, and all or nearly all of them wrote their works in Arabic, so that for the Medieval Western Europe 'Arab' was synonymous with 'Muslim' and not surprisingly both terms are used indiscriminately in dealing with Islamic scientific civilization. 1.2.5 The superiority of the Arabic language as a language of science The Muslim welcomed the great work of Greece, Persian and some from India, with avidity, with love and with infinite respect, and,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 14 instigated by powerful patrons, a succession of translator rendered into Arabic the works of Plato and Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen, Ptolemy, Euclid and Archimedes, Apollonius and Theon, Menelaus and Aristharcus, Hero of Alexandria, Philo of Byzantium and many others. The admirable flexibility of the Arabic language made it possible for them to coin an exact philosophical and scientific vocabulary, capable of expressing the most complicated scientific and technical terms. On this subject, Louis Massignon explicitly confirmed how helpful the Arabic language is to the internal exploration of thought, and for this reason it is 'particularly suitable for the expression of the exact sciences and for their development along the lines of the historical progress of mathematics: the transition from an arithmetic and a geometry which were intuitive and almost contemplative…to a science of algebraic constructions in which arithmetic and geometry were ultimately united' 1.2.6 The attitude of the Churches toward scientists in Europe The persecution imposed by the Church to the European scientists had make them ran away and found refuge in the buffer states between Persia and Byzantium. It was reported number of Christian and Sabaean doctors settled down in centers such as Ruha, al-Hirah, Jundishapur and Harran. The Muslims employed them, sat at their feet to learn from them, and commissioned them to translate their books and records into Arabic. Jurji bin Bakhtishu (died 830) was employed by al Mansur as court physician. Taught by their father, Bakhtishu's sons continued in the same employment. Yuhanna ibn Masawayh (died 857), a physician was asked to teach his profession to Muslims. Hunayn ibn Ishaq (died 873) was appointed by al-Ma'mun as head of Dar al Hikmah, and was commissioned with his colleagues and pupils to procure and translate the whole legacy of medical and scientific knowledge into Arabic language. 1.3 The significant contributions and prominent figures during the glorious era
From being enthusiastic and industrious disciples, the Muslim
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 15 proceeded to the second stage of becoming masters, enamoured of research and experienced, exploring not only the book of the ancients, but nurtured also nature itself. Islam was soon to produce original scientists in various branches of study such as astronomy, mathematics and medicine, and made many important innovations in a great majority of the sciences. Besides that, they were three major institutions that were significantly developed during this era and became the reference even until today. These were the establishment of the libraries and translation centres, the hospitals and the instruments for observation, especially the astronomical observatories. 1.3.1 ASTRONOMY Perhaps the most distinguish characteristic of the Muslims' contribution to the exact science was their vision of correspondence between mathematics, geometry and astronomy. This vision was imparted to them by the Qur'an, which affirmed "the heavens and the earth were ordered rightly, and were made subservient to man, including the sun, the moo, the stars, and day and night. Every heavenly body moves in an orbit assigned to it by God and never digresses, making the universe an orderly cosmos whose life and existence, diminution and expansion, are totally determined by the Creator (30:22) A Greek book on astronomy attributed to Hermes Trismegistus was the first to be translated into Arabic in 742. Al Mansur, the second Abbasid caliph, had developed deep interest in this field that he asked the Persian astronomer Nawbakht to be his constant companion. When the latter died, he appointed the son in his place along with Ibrahim al Farazi, his so Muhammad, 'Ali ibn Isa al Astrolabi and others. In 772, the caliph commissioned Abu Yahya al Batriq to translate into Arabic the work of Ptolemy and other Greek sources which he had requested from the Byzantine emperor. He also appointed Muhammad al-Fazari to translate the Sind-Hind book which contained the knowledge of India in the same field. These translations were used by al Khawarizmi to produce his famous zij or Table of Calculations Indexing the Position of the Heavenly Bodies.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 16 Muslims thinkers made important advancements following on the heels of Ptolemy, in discussing the laws governing the periodic motions of the celestial bodies. One of the famous Islamic astronomers was al-Battani (Al Batequius). He compiled a catalogue of the stars for the year 880, in which he determined the various astronomical coefficients with renowned accuracy. He was also responsible for discovering the motion of solar apside. In additions, he also wrote an important introductory treatise that was used in the European universities until the sixteenth century. One of the most significance achievement was reached by Fakhr al Din al Razi (died 1209) who questioned Aristotle's claim that the star was immobile and equidistant from the earth, as well as the claim that the movements of other heavenly bodies were all like and similar. In his commentary of the Qur'anic passage 2:258, al Razi affirmed that there is no evidence that the contrary may not be the case, that the real movement of the heavenly bodies may be different from what is observable by the unaided senses. The classical statement, however, belongs to al Biruni who said "In these and similar matters (of astronomy) one must resort to experimentation, and rely only on close examination of the data or results". In the thirteenth century, at the observatory in Maraghah, Muslim scientists explained the motions of the heavenly spheres as the combination of uniform circular motions. This is the model that was eventually adopted by European astronomers, such as Copernicus. Islam also brought a drastic change to pre Islamic astronomy in which mythology was pervasive. This field of pseudo-science- called astrology- which regarded man as the mere instrument of cosmic forces emphasized the role of the stars, the signs of zodiac, the effect of horizon and meridian in determining what has, can and will happen in the future. Islam had to purge it clean of myth and established astronomy as an empirical science. 1.3.2 MATHEMATICS Muslims had contributed extensively in the mathematical sciences, mainly in arithmetic, geometry, algebra and trigonometry.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 17 Arithmetic (al-hisab) was, as Ibn Khaldun observed in his 'Prolegomena', the first of the mathematical sciences to be used by the Muslims, being indeed a means of solving such material problems which present themselves in daily life as assessment of taxes, reckoning of legal compensation, and division of inheritances according to Qur'anic law. Thabit bin Qurrah departed from the Euclidean legacy by proposing a theory of infinite numbers being part of another infinite numbers. 'Umar Khayyam (died 1130) and Nasir al Din al Tusi (died 1247) succeeded in constructing formulation in which magnitudes were expressed by numbers. Muslims acquired from the Indian a number of forms for expressing numbers. They combined some, and reorganized them into two series, naming one series 'Indian' and the other 'Ghubari'. They used both but the latter were adopted by the West on account of its wide usage in Spain and North Africa and were called by the Westerners 'Arabic numerals'. More important was the Muslims' invention of a symbol for zero (the Indians used to leave the place blank!), and gave it name sifr (cipher, zero). They then organized the number into decimals system where digital location acquired a numerical value inside the intrinsic value of its own. This development was crucial importance to the progress of all sciences of nature. Before it, numbers were expressed in words with recourse to the fingers to complete an operation. Muhammad ibn Musa al Khawarizmi (died 850) was the mathematician who introduced the system of symbols representing the nine numbers and the inventor of sifr or zero to represent the absence of any. He was also the first to express numerical value by digital position. The two systems, the one expressing number by symbol rather than a word and the other expressing value by digital position, wee continued in the work of Ibrahim al Uqlidisi, and were popularized by Ghiyath al Din Jamshid al Kashi. It then spread to Europe. Algebra, as the form of the name indicates, is an Arabic word: al-jabr, which signifies the restoration of something broken, the amplifying of something incomplete. Khawarizmi, the latinized distortion of whose name has produced the name 'algorithm', was chiefly responsible for laying the foundations of Islamic algebra. He called the new discipline al Jabr wal Muqabalah ('linkage and juxtaposition') to describe what happens in an algebraic. He began his treatise on the subject with a clear
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 18 if long-winded exposition of equations of the second degree, after which he discussed algebraic multiplication and division, then the numerical measurement of surfaces, the division of estates and other legal questions. Such problems were always presented in the form of numerical examples. Muslims also invented the symbol to express any unknown quantity, namely x (or s, standing for the Arabic shay'), which was adopted by Europe from the Spanish who had simply transliterated it from the Arabic. Arabic geometry was founded on the deep knowledge of prior Greek works, particularly those of Euclid, Archimedes and Appolonius, and it was also influenced by the Indian Siddhanta. The Arabic has shown great interest in construction of interrelated figures (especially Banu Musa) and using geometry in making calculation. Abu'l-Layth used the meet of a hyperbola and a parabola to construct a regular nine sided polygon. Also to be noted are the works of Ibrahim b Sinan on the quadrature of the parabola, of Abu'l-Wafa (died 997) on the construction of regular polygons which led to the equations of the third degree, of Abu Kamil (ninth century) on the construction of the pentagon and decagon, also by the means of equations. The commentary of 'Umar Khayyam (died 1131) on Euclid is an important precursor of nonEuclidean geometry, which may also have been inspired by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. The applications of geometry during the period were numerous: problems of surveying, studies of mechanical tools in 'Iraq and in Persia in the tenth century, the construction of improved mills, of norias (from Arabic, na'ura, wheels with scoops for continuous drawing of water from a watercourse), mangonels (stone-throwing machines) and others. As for trigometry, the Arabs were, according to Carra de Vaux unquestionably the inventors of plane and spherical trigonometry. With the Arabs, the trigonometrical function of sine, tangent, cosine and cotangent became explicit. They adopted for 'sine' the name jayb which signifies an opening, bay, curve of a garment, specifically the opening of an angle. The Latin term 'sinus' is a mere translation of the Arabic jayb. It appears in the twelfth century in the translation of De motu stellarum
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 19 of al-Battani (died 929), the Albategnius of the Latins. Al-Battani also presented an important formula in spherical trigonometry (uniting the three sides and one angle of a spherical triangle) which has no equivalent in Ptolemy: cos a = cos b cos c - sin b sin c cos A . A further advance was made with Abu'l-Wafa, and he was probably the first to demonstrate the sine theorem for the general spherical triangle. Indeed, Carra de Vaux has demonstrated, following Moritz Cantor, that it was Abu'l-Wafa and not Copernicus who invented the secant: he called it the 'diameter of the shadow' and set out explicitly the ratio (in modern form) tan a / sec a = sin a / 1 1.3.3 OPTICS The application of the principles of geometry to light made possible the construction of mirror and lens. The most remarkable practitioner of this science is Hasan b al-Haytham (died 1039), well known to the West under the name of Alhazen. A native of Basra, he came to Cairo, and entered the service of the Caliph al-Hakim, the Fatimid caliph known for his eccentricities, who set him to find a means of regulating the annual inundation of the Nile. His failure, despite his brilliant yet unimaginable proposal of building a mountain at Aswan which would dam the waters and raise their level to increase the area under irrigation, nearly cost him his life. It however, cast no doubt on al Haytham's scientific ability in the field of optics, and his book Kitab almanazir (The Visual World) exercised an important influence in the Middle ages, prompting the studies of Roger Bacon and of Witello. He laid down a new theory of visual perception, based on the eye's absorption of light rays issuing from the object, passing through the pupil, and reaching the brain through vision or eye nerves. Ibn al Haytham laid down the basis of explanation of the rainbow and of the camera obscura, elaborated later by Kamaluddin al Farisi, by observing the behaviour of light passing through spheres of glass, of the light of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 20 an eclipsed sun and of a crescent, and light through a small aperture of a dark room. Explanation through observation and experimentation and the crystallization of results through mathematical formulae made his work the best prototype of the Islamic scientific method. 1.3.4 PHYSICS AND MECHANICS The first textbook of mechanics dates from 860 and is the Book of Artifices of the Banu Musa, the mathematicians Muhammad, Ahmad and Hasan, sons of Musa b. Shakir, who were all scientists and enlightened patrons of learning. It contains about a hundred technical constructions, some twenty of which are of practical value such as the apparatus for hot and cold water, wells of a fixed depth, the lifting of weights by machinery, a whole series of the scientific and automatic toys so much beloved by the courts of princes in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century al-Jazari , a native of 'Iraq, wrote a Kitab fi ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya, 'a great book on mechanics and clocks', the best extant in the Islamic world, as decribed by Meyerhof. An engineer, Qaysar, who dies in Damascus in 1251, constructed irrigation wheels on the Orontes, as well as fortification, for the prince of Hamah. It was he who set uo the celestial globe which is today in the National Museum at Naples. With regard to measuring devices, al-Khazini, making use the works of the ancient scientists, expounded a detailed theory of balance in his book 'Mizan al-hikma' (The balance of wisdom) in which he defined the centre of gravity of a body and conditions for various types of equilibrium. Al-Biruni (died 1050), ascertained experimentally a certain number of specific gravities, by means of a 'conical instrument' which may be regarded as the earliest pycnometer.al-Khazini, in dealing with liquids, used a hydrometer similar to those used by the Alexandrians. The results obtained by these two scientists constituted one of the finest achievements attained by the Arabs in the realm of experimental physics, as mentioned by Mielli in his book La science arabe. 1.3.5 GEOGRAPHY
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 21
The geographical knowledge was popularized during this period partly because of the rituals which necessitated its use in determining the direction of Qiblah, the obligations of performing hajj in Mecca, and partly because the facts that the Muslim was avid traders and travellers, undaunted by the usual perils and risks of long trips. They were even commanded by God to explore the earth and to ascertain the geographical realities for the benefits of the mankind. Al-Kawarizmi was the first to produce a global geography, and Abu al Qasim 'Abdullah Ibn Khurdadhbih (died 912) gave a full map and description of the main trade routes of the Muslim world in his Al Masalik was Mamalik. Later, the Muslims began to produce atlases of their countries for popular and professional use such were the works of Ishaq al Istarfi (died 934), Ahmad al Balkhi (died 934), Muhammad Ibn Hawqal, and Muhammad al Maqdisi (died 1101). Al Maqdisi was the first to produce maps in natural colours in order to bring geographical knowledge closer to human understanding. One of the most outstanding work was of al Sharif al Idrisi (died 1166) who was invited by Roger II, the Norman king in Sicily, to produce an up-to-date world map. Al Idrisi asked for a ball of silver 400 rotols in weight (approximately 400 kilograms) and drew on it the seven continents, their lakes and rivers, cities, routes, mountain and plains, and trade routes, and noted in each the distance, height, or length as measured. Al Idrisi wrote a book, Nuzhat al Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Afaq, to accompany the first globe ever built. The same period witnessed a surge of great travellers who left a rich legacy of geographical contributions. Among them were Ibn Jubayr (died 1217), Yaqut al Hamawi (died 1229),'Abdul Latif al Baghdadi (died 1283), al Qazwini (died 1283), Abu al Fida (died 1331) and Ibn Bathutah (died 1377). 1.3.6 MEDICINE Medicine is one of the most famous and best-known facets of Islamic civilization, and in which the Muslims most excelled. The Muslims
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 22 were the great torchbearers of this art for centuries, even after the cessation of the Islamic territorial dominancy. Some of the best and most eloquent praises of science ever written came from the pens of Muslim scientists who considered their work to be acts of worship. They hit the source ball of knowledge over the fence to Europe. In the words of Campbell "The European medical system is Arabian not only in origin but also in its structure. The Arabs are the intellectual fore-bearers of the Europeans. " As for historical interest, medicine, long practised by Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides and the doctors of the school of Alexandria, finally became concentrated during the sixth century in the city of Gondeshapur. This city of south-western Persia had in fact been accepting a succession of refugees-the Netorians of Edessa when their school was closed in 489, followed by the NeoPlatonic philosophers of the school of Athens, when in turn this latter school was closed by Justinian in 529. In 638 the city was taken by the Arabs. In view of its nearness to the Arab city of Hira it is probable that Arabic was spoken there even before the conquest. At all events doctors must have been speaking the language very soon afterwards, since Ibn Abi Usaybi'a, the famous historian of Arab medicine, recounts that on occasion of the visit of the physician Jurjis b. Jibril of Gondeshapur to the caliph al Mansur, Jurjis addressed the caliph in Arabic. In this city there were actual dynasties of medical families, who handed down their scientific knowledge, enriched by personal experience, from father to son. And it was the physicians of Gondeshapur who became the teachers of the soon to emerge Muslim medical geniuses. One of the most eminent physicians, perhaps the greatest clinical doctor of Islam, was without question Abu Bakr Muhammad al Razi (died 932), the Rhazes of the medieval Latins. He began his career as a musician (a lutanist), then switch to study philosophy under Abu Zayd al Balkhi and finally to medicine at the Baghdad hospital. There, he wrote his book Al Mujarrabat. In 902, at the call of Mansur ibn Ishaq, he moved to Al Rayy to head its hospital. There, he wrote most of his medical books and dedicated them to his patroon, entitling one of them Al Tibb al Mansuri in his honor. He also wrote a book on psychiatry,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 23 which he entitled Al Tibb al Ruhani. He was the first to insist that his students to continue with postgraduate studies in medicine in order to enrich the discipline. His crowning work was Al Hawi fi al Tibb, an encyclopedia of all the medical knowledge of his age. It was translated into Latin by Faraj ibn Salim and known as the Continens. It was printed in 1486, the first medical book ever printed in Europe. He was the first to make use of music to heal his patients. He arranged his students in concentric circles around patients so all could participate and to enable the newer students (outer circle) to learn from the older (inner circle). His most famous medical observations was his ability to distinguish between small pox and measles, works which was known in the medieval Latin translations as De variolis et morbilis or sometimes Liber de pestilential. This book is not simply an outline of Hippocrates or of Galen, but truly original, based on detail elicitation of symptoms and signs. He also enjoined precautions for protecting the eyes, face and mouth and for avoidance of pork-marks. In fact, it is the first treatise in existence on infectious diseases. The leading representative of Arab surgery was Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al Zahrawi (died 1013). He was born, raised and educated in Qurtubah (Cordova). He was called to al Zahra', the new royal city built by Al Nasir, grandson of 'Abdul Rahman, founder of Umawi dynasty in Spain. There, al Zahrawi lived and worked till he died. It is unfortunate that only one of his works had survived, yet it has made a significant impact to the surgical world. His work Al Tasrif Liman 'Ajiza 'An al Ta'lif had the same authority in surgery as the Canon of Ibn Sina had in medicine. The thirtieth dissertation of this work was devoted to surgery and he included in it more than 200 drawings of surgical instruments and of surgical operations he has conducted. It was the first medical work to contain diagrams of surgical instrumentation.The first part of the work concerned with cauterization and its indications, used generously in the Arab medicine since being recommended by the Prophet. The second part contained descriptions of surgical procedures and its armamentarium, and the third part dealt mainly with fractures and dislocations, even mentioning paralysis resulting from fracture of the spine. It is not surprising that al Zahrawi was extensively quoted by
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 24 European surgeons down to the end of the sixteenth century. The Muslim medicine reached its peak of achievement with Abu 'Ali Husayn Ibn Sina (died 1037), who was famed both as a physician and as philosopher. He left behind him a lively autobiography, from which it emerged that he had been a precocious genius, who at the age of sixteen had already mastered the medical science of his time. His great philosophical work, al-Shifa', has had a resounding effect on Christian thinkers of the Middle age. As for medicine, his great medical works, alQanun fi'l-tibb (The Canon of Medicine), was the Arabic replica in the Middle Ages of the great works of Hippocrates and Galen. It consisted of five books which represented complete medical knowledge of his time covering from the basic anatomy and description of diseases to general treatment and pharmacotherapy. Wherever he travelled, Ibn Sina conducted experiments and examined medical records and live cases to confirm his older finding. He diagnosed cancer and urged an early treatment through surgical removal. He discovered that stomach ulcers may be formed by either of two causes: a physic cause such as worry or depression, and a material or organic cause acting on the stomach itself. The Canon of Ibn Sina remained the ultimate reference in medicine for centuries and did not cede its place of superiority until the nineteenth century, being the standard textbook of medicine the world over for over 700 years. It was also studied enthusiastically and lavishly annotated over the centuries by Muslim physicians, who also made summaries of it. One of the most celebrated, al-Mujaz, as that of the thirteenth-century physician Ibn al-Nafis, a native of Damascus who practised in Cairo. He was appointed as leading physician in Egypt and died there in 1288. In 1924, Dr Tatawi, a young Egyptian doctor at the University of Freiburg, who was working on the unpublished text of the commentary of Ibn al-Nafis on the anatomy of Ibn Sina, demonstrated in his medical thesis that Ibn al-Nafis took the opposite standpoint to that of Galen and Ibn Sina, and that he had given an almost exact description of the small or pulmonary circulation nearly three centuries before its discovery by Michael Servetus (1556) and Rinaldo Colombo (1559).
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 25 1.3.7 CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY Closely related with the medical sciences, pharmacology and chemistry became very fashionable and later became a speciality of its own among Muslim authors. Muslim pharmacists began with the Materia Medica of Dioscoriades, followed by knowledge absorbed from India, Persia, and Mediterranean world. Al Biruni (died 1050) produced a book, Kitab al saydala fi'l tibb (The science of drugs). The Muslim pharmacists gave Arabic names to those plants or medicines which they came to know for the first time, and many are still known by their Arabic names. The work of Dioscoriades remained unchallenged in its authority until Ibn al Baytar of Malaga, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. After completing his own researches, which included visits to Byzantium, Greece, Italy and other European regions, Ibn al Baytar produced his Al Mughni fi al Adwiyah, which he presented to King Salih al Ayyubi in Cairo. He followed this book with two other works- Jami' Mufradat al Adwiyah wal Aghdiyah and Mizan al Tabib. Another great pharmacologist, who was a contemporary of Ibn al Baytar, was Rashid al Din Ibn al Suri (died 1241), who lived in the eastern provinces. He was so meticulous in his research that he took with him an experienced painter and went to the fields and mountains recording every important species of medicinal plants. The interest in chemistry was first aroused, according to the Fihrist of Ibn al Nadim by the Umayyad prince, Khalid b Yazid, who died in 704. He learned and adopted the medicinal preparations of the Greek School of Alexandria. Ja'far al Sadiq (died 757) learned this Greek tradition from Khalid. It was Jabir Ibn Hayyan (died 808) who put the ground firmer for this field. Born in about 721 at Tus in Persia (whence his by-name of al-Tusi), he led the life of an ascetic Sufi and spent most of his time at his home in Damascus, where he also had his laboratory. He contributed so much to chemistry that the discipline was itself nicknamed 'the craft of Jabir'. Among his written testimonies were Al Khawass al Kabir (The Great Book of Chemical Properties), Al Ahjar (The Mineral), Al Sirr Al Maknun (The Secret of the Elements), Al Mawzazin (Weights and Measures) and Al Mizaj (Chemical Combination). Jabir built a precise weighing scale which was capable of weighing
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 26 items 6,480 smaller than the ratl (which is approximately one kilogram). He defined chemical combination as union of the elements together in small particles too small for the naked eye to see without loss of their character, as John Dalton was to discover ten centuries before. In response to Ja'far al Sadiq's wishes, he invented a kind of paper that resisted fire, and an ink that could be read at night. He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhibited rust and when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent. He was concerned with the production of steel and even counselled that chemical laboratories should be located far away from populated places. It was 'Izz al Din al Jaldaki (died 1360) who first noted the potential dangerous gases arising out of chemical reactions and proposed the application of protective masks. He also able to proof that silver can be separated from gold by dissolving it in nitric acid without affecting the gold. He emphasized the important role of puryfing suspected water with means of evaporation and condensation, and not mere filtration. Among his numerous books were two volumes of over 1,000 pages each, entitled Nihayah al Talab and Al Taqrib fi Asrar al Tarkib. With al-Razi, alchemy became more scientific with a more precise desciptions of apparatus and experiments. The interest of al-Razi however lies particularly in the practical chemistry. His Sirr al-asrar (Secretum secretorum) gave for the first time a lucid classification of the chemical substances and his great merit was that he rejected magical and astrological practices, while adhering to what could be proved by experiments. Al Razi's insistence on promoting research work in the laboratory did not fail to bear fruit in pharmacology, and Abu'l-Mansur Muwaffaq, a Persian of the tenth century, mentions chemical details about certain medicaments which show real progress in this field. Facts, observe with so much care demonstrate, as Holmyard says: 'that a byproduct of alchemy was a steadily increasing body of reliable chemical knowledge, a trend which Razi did most to establish and for which he deserves the gratitude of succeeding generations' 1.3.8 ESTABLISHMENT OF LIBRARIES During this era, the mosques were put at the disposal of scholars. They
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 27 were able to teach not only religious sciences but also related discipline, and even the profane sciences of the ancients. Gradually the libraries bequeathed by scholars came to be housed in buildings specially intended for the purpose, and soon the scholars themselves were lodged in dwellings reserved for their use. In 833 al-Ma'mun founded the famous 'House of Wisdom' (Bayt al Hikma), which was bound to have an important influence on the transmission of ancient learning to the Islamic world, and to stimulate a burst of intellectual activity. This academy was reminiscent of the one which had existed at Gondeshapur. It contained an important library and was soon enriched with numerous translations. A later 'Abbasid caliph, al Mu'tadid (died 902) installed in his new palace lodgings and rooms for all branches of science, and professors were paid salaries for teaching there. Private individuals followed the example of the caliphs, among them 'Ali b Yahya known as alMunajjim (died 888) who possessed a palace and a library called Khizanat al-hikma which he placed at the disposal of scholars. The study of astronomy was being especially favoured there. In Mosul there exited a Dar al-'ilm with a library, where students were not only able to work without payment, but were even supplied with paper. At Shiraz a great Khizanat al-kutub was administered by a director and his assistant. Yaqut recounts in his Mu'jam al-udaba that at Rayy a Bayt al-kutb contained more than four hundred camel-loads of books, catalogued in a Fihrist of ten volumes. However, it was in Cairo, under the Fatimids that the richest libraries of Islam were established. Al-Maqrizi describes in his Khitat that a Khizanat al-kutub was directed by the minister of Caliph al-Mu'izz. It consisted of forty store-rooms containing books on all branches of science, 18,000 of which dealt with the 'sciences of the ancients'. But the library which surpassed all others was the Dar al-hikma founded by the Caliph al-Hakim in 1005, which contained a reading room and halls of courses of study. Efficient service was secured by means of paid librarians, and scholars were given pensions to enable them to pursue their studies. All the sciences were represented there. Other similar institutions were founded at Fustat. In the year 1043 a traveller saw a
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 28 library in Cairo containing 6,500 books on astronomy, geometry and philosophy. 1.3.9 ESTABLISHMENT OF HOSPITALS Hospitals in Islam initially were institutions inspired by charity for pious purposes, but they made it possible for medical science to develop experimentally. These hospitals, called by the Persian name bimaristan, were designed both to care for the sick and to provide theoretical and practical medical training. Special buildings were erected, and considerable funds were assigned to them in waqf. The first hospital was built by Walid ibn 'Abdul Malik, the Umawi Caliph, in 706, according to al Maqrizi. One of the famous hospitals was built by Ahmad ibn Tulun in Cairo in 872. It opened its doors to all patients whatever the ailments inflicting them. The patients were divested of clothing, jewellery, and any other personal possessions carried on the body, and these were kept for him in the hospital safe until departure from the hospital. Dar al Shifa' Hospital, built in Cairo in 1284 by Sultan Qalawun, remained in operation up to the Napoleon invasion of Egypt in 1798, when it was turned into a psychiatric hospital exclusively. It is still in existence today. Al Muqtadir built a new hospital in Baghdad in 915 which became famous because of the medical expertise of its director, Sinan ibn Thabit. Later in the same century, Baghdad saw the construction of another great hospital, Al 'Adudi, which had twenty-four resident physicians, a huge medical library, lecture halls, and hundreds of students from all corners of the Muslim world. Other important and large hospitals during this era were al-Kabir al-Nuri in Damascus (which bear the names of its founder) and al-'Atiq founded by Saladin in Cairo. Each hospital contained one section for men and another for women. Initially, each section contained several wards: one for internal diseases, a second for surgery, a third for ophthalmology and finally a fourth for orthopaedics. Later, Muslims hospital were divided into those dealing with either mental or physical diseases, the latter being divided between contagious and non contagious diseases. In every hospital there was a
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 29 pharmacy under the direction of a head-pharmacist which made up the prescriptions of the doctors. The director of the hospital was assisted by the heads of sections, each a specialist in his own branch. Servants of both sexes watch over the sick, under the supervision of nurses and administrative staff who received fixed salaries paid out of endowments. The physician had complete freedom for his experiments there, and was able to advocate new treatments. He wrote up the results of his experiment in special reports, which could be consulted by members of the public. Physicians gave courses of instruction to their pupils, and, on the completion of teaching and practical work confirmed by an examination, granted them ijaza which allowed them to practise medicine. Several hospitals had libraries, and students used to travel in pursuit of instruction from celebrated teachers. Spanish sources mention that a physician of Cadiz established a botanical garden in the park of the governor, where he cultivated the rare medical plants which he had brought back from his travels. Even Baghdad counted 869 physicians who presented themselves to the licensing examinations set up by the government of Caliph al Muqtadir in 931. The Muslim also invented the ambulant hospital: a hospital carried on camelback in caravan style complete with beds, food, water, medicines, operating and isolation rooms, and a crew of doctors, nurses, attendants, officers and servants. The ambulant hospital travelled from city to city or village to village, to attend to epidemics and victims of natural catastrophes. Hospitals were built, maintained, and operated either at the expense of government or of perpetual endowments (waqf) by individual donors. Their services were always free. The resident physicians and their students were regarded, like all other college professors and students, as public servants dedicating their time and energy to the pursuit of knowledge in fulfilment of a major commandment of God. Ultimately the Muslim scientists surpassed their masters in powers of observation and care in verification. When studying the Materia Medica of Dioscorides, for example, they succeeded in identifying, from observation of nature, the botanical terms which the original translation
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 30 had left obscure. The faith that every disease has its antidote, as affirmed by the Prophet Mohammad: "Do take medicines for your ills, God created no ailment but established for it an antidote except old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will recover with God's permission", urged the Muslims to scan the world of minerals, plants and animals in search of an antidote, which led to the development of a sophisticated science of pharmacology. 1.3.10 ESTABLISHMENT OF OBSERVATORIES
Observatories were another outstanding contribution of Islam to the world. Some of the observatories took place under the Umawis. Al Ma'mun completed one on Mount Qaysun near Damascus, and another at al Shammasiyyah in Baghdad. Later, Muslim observatories proliferated throughout the provinces and were responsible for a number of significant discoveries and measurements. The greatest observatories during that era was built at Maraghah in 1258, under the direction of Nasir al Din al Tusi, Most of the observatories founded by caliphs and princes were provided with important collections of instruments. Al Battani in Damascus, for example, made use of astrolabes, tubes, a gnomon divided into twelve parts, a celestial sphere with five rings (of which he was perhaps the inventor), parallactic rules, a mural quadrant, horizontal and vertical solar quadrants. These instruments were of considerable size-in fact the Arabs enlarged their instrument as much as possible in order to reduce margin of error. Other prominent observatories based on their discoveries and precision of their calculations were those of Ibn al Shatir in Damascus, al Dinawari in Isfahan, al Biruni at Ghaznah, and Ulug Beg at Samarqand. 1.4 The 'Golden Era' of knowledge and civilization
In summary, after Prophet Muhammad's death in 632, the Muslims swept out of the Arabian Peninsula and expanded the borders of Islam east and west. By 711, the Muslims had reached Spain, and they ended
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 31 up dominating the region. They absorbed not just land, but also scientific knowledge from India and Greek learning, planted centuries earlier by the armies of Alexander the Great. Muslims translated into Arabic the treasures of Hippocrates, Aristotle, Archimedes and other great physicians, philosophers and scientists. By 711, the Muslims had reached Spain, and they ended up dominating the region until Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella drove out the last of them in 1492. The impact of Islam's discoveries during this period went far beyond individual innovations like algebra or the establishment of models for modern hospitals and universities. The spread of Islamic knowledge to Europe sparked, or at least helped to spark, the Renaissance and scientific revolution of the 17th century as explicitly written by Sir Thomas Arnold and Alfred Guillaume in their 1997 classic, 'The Legacy of Islam.' mentioning "It is highly probable that, but for the Arabs, modern European civilization would never have arisen at all,". This was further emphasized by Robert Briffault who wrote in the 'Making of Humanity' in 1938 that "Spain, not Italy, was the cradle of the rebirth of Europe. After steadily sinking lower and lower into barbarism, it had reached the darkest depths of ignorance and degradation when cities of the Saracenic world, Baghdad, Cairo, Cordoba, and Toledo, were growing centers of civilization and intellectual activity. It was there that the new life arose which was to grow into a new phase of human evolution." History has bear witnessed the truth of these events and it is very important for the Muslims and non-Muslims to know and appreciate those chronological achievements, not just as an academic references to the future events to come but to understand the positive implications the Muslim's scientific re-emergence would be to the humanity.
agnation 2 The St Period of Muslim Scientific Achievements
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 33 THE STAGNATION PERIOD OF MUSLIM SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS 2.1 The end of the glorious era
Things started to go awry in the early thirteenth century, when the Muslim world began to stagnate and Europeans surged ahead. Even revisionist historians who challenge this date as the time that decline set in do accept that decline eventually took place. Thus, Marshall Hodgson -- who argues that the eastern Muslim world flourished until the sixteenth century, when "the Muslim people, taken collectively, were at the peak of their power" -- acknowledges that by the end of the eighteenth century, Muslims "were prostrate." Whatever its timing, the decline in science has been attributed to many factors, including the erosion of large-scale agriculture and irrigation systems, the Mongol and other Central Asian invasions, political instability, and the rise of religious intolerance. 2.2 Factors contributing to the stagnation
2.2.1 Break-up of the Muslims empires Political stability had played an important factor in assuring the continuity of the Muslim scientific dominancy. History bear witnesses that the caliphate had never been really free from continuous assault, where its political stability was strongly challenged. The Crusaders has been in continuous confrontation with the Muslims from the start. As the Muslims began to feel comfortable with their worldly achievements and great empire, Christianity woke up in Europe. It gathers its troop and pushed on the Muslims eastern state of Africa and Asia. Nine crusades, one after the other was instigated and these consisted of the best riders and kings and were fully armed. At last these invasions and powers gained such preponderance that they successfully established a Christian government in Jerusalem and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 34 began to threaten the Islamic nations. They began to invade the most powerful Islamic country at that time, Egypt. The Caliphate had their first bitter taste of their negligent of their faith. Fortunately for the Muslims, under the leadership of Sultan Salahuddin al-Ayubi (1137/1138-1193), Egypt succeeds in her efforts collecting and uniting the small defeated states and offered their sacrifices. Salah alDin Yusuf b Ayyub who became known in the West as Saladin was a Khurdish warrior reknown for his victories over the Crusades and as a founder of the Ayyubid dynasty in Eqypt, Syria and northern Iraq. Salahuddin defeated the Crusader at the Horns of Hattin/Hutain (4th July 1187) in Northern Palestine and this led to Muslim re-conquest of Jerusalem and the near elimination of the Franks in Levant. Salahuddin's career began in the armies of Nur al Din b Zangi, ruler of Aleppo and Damascus, and himself a famous counter Crusader. Salahuddin went to Egypt in early 1169 in a contingent of Nur al Din's army sent to assist the Fatimid Caliphate, which in late 1168 had been attacked by Crusader forces. Salahuddin subsequently removed the Fatimids from power, and made himself ruler in Egypt, subservient to Nur al Din. Upon the latter's death in 1174, Salahuddin moved against Nur al Din heirs and began to bring the Muslim cities of Syria under his command. He then used the combined resources of Egypt and Syria to attack the Crusaders. By forcibly uniting Muslim territories prior to assaulting the Franks, he followed the pattern of Nur al Din and Zangi. In the 13th century, The Tartars under Genghis Khan and his successors start to establish the most extensive continuous land empire known to history. They invaded the Khwarazm-Shah's empire in 1216-1223 and sacked the great cities of Khurasan, Harat and Nishapur. The effect of the Mongolian invasion on Persian agriculture which was heavily dependent on irrigation by means of underground water was disastrous. They proceeded forward like a violent flood and descended on the Islamic state like lightning. They uprooted it and massacred the Muslims and reached Baghdad in 1258, the Abbasid capital and overran it. In this way, the Islamic government was broken up and for the first time the string of Caliphate was snapped and the nation got distributed in to
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 35 small states. As a result, the 'Abbasid Caliphate had to move their capital to Cairo. It was again a bitter lesson for the Muslims that make them woke up to face the reality. Under the leadership of Zahir Babrus, the Muslims faced the Tartars and threw them back very gracefully. The victory of the Muslims at 'Ayn Jalut (Spring of Goliath, a village near Nazareth in Israel) in 1260 was a memorable one. The Mongols of the Hulegu, led by the Christian Turk Kitbuga Noyon were defeated by the Mamluks of Sultan Qutuz, led by the future Mamluk Sultan, Barbars I. The Arabic chronicles regard the battle as a decisive victory, which save the Syro-Eqyptian Empire and indeed Islam itself from the Mongol menace. Once again the Caliphate is re-established and a vast, strong and powerful Islamic state comes into being, which unites all the Muslims, and gather them under its flag. The next period was the era of the Ottoman Empire. Interestingly, only one family reigned over the Ottoman Empire for seven centuries, and, unlike most dynasties, they ruled in an unbroken line, thirty-six of them altogether, from the 13th century until the 20th century. Yes there were abdications and depositions but never a hiatus. They were never overthrown by a foreign power and no usurper ever gained the throne. The Western world called them Ottoman, but their Turkish name is Osmanli, taken from the first ruler of the Ottoman state, Osman. Then with a very great courage, it waged war against Crusaders, in the latter's home and conquered the Byzantine capital, Constantinople in 1453. Its authority further extends to Vienna city in the Central Europe. Under Mehmed the Conqueror, the Ottomans rebuilt the devastated city of Constantinople into the fabulously wealthy capital they renamed Istanbul, with large warehouses, the Covered Bazaar, Topkapi Palace, and several mosque complexes. Unfortunately, again the Islamic state under the flag of the Usmanis got contented with its authority. Such was the intoxication of tranquillity and contentment that it did not care as to what happening around it. The European, which in the west was connected to Spain and in the east was contiguous to the Islamic realm by the means of the crusades, did not allow the opportunity to slip. In the land of Gaule, it began to rally under the English flag and gathered strength. It was successful in
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 36 checking the flood of Western Islamic wars. It spread the net of its conspiracies in the files of the Spanish Muslims and was successful in mutually rousing them against one another, which in the end under the Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella , in 1492 the last of them was threw across the sea on the shores of Africa. A strong Spanish government was established there. In this way, Europe continued to unite and strengthened itself. Despite the defeat in Spain, the Ottoman is yet to reach it ultimatum. It was Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent however, who brought the Ottoman Empire to its zenith. The fourth Ottoman sultan to reign, from 1520 until 1566, he presided over the most powerful state in the world. A remarkable military strategist, he more than doubled the Ottoman land holdings he inherited from his father. He also brought a profusion of elegant mosques, baths, schools, fountains, and gardens to Istanbul. A virtual renaissance occurred in literature, the arts, the sciences, and he set a new standard of jurisprudence. Upon Süleyman's demise, the gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire began. The scientific revolution in Europe in the 16th century led to mass discoveries and 'invasion' of new lands. The Spain succeeded to get hold of America while India's sea route came to light through the efforts of Portugal. These materials and ideological invasion, in the name of reformation and industrialization successfully penetrated the countries under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Caliphate. One after the other went out of hand into the clutches of Europe. The last decision of this tussle was made clear by the First World War (1914-1918) which ended with the defeat of Turkey and her allies.Britain, France and under their protection Italy, got full opportunity to capture this great and precious heritage of the Muslim nation under the name of various excuses called 'mandate', 'subjugation', 'colonialism' or 'guardianship'. Muslims lands were divided amongst themselves: Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Syria became the colonies of France; Tripoli and Barqa were the colony of Italy; Egypt, Sudan, Iraq and India were directly under British; Turkistan and its neighbouring states were Russian colonies, which were badly taken into task by the Bolsheviks. The remaining parts of Arabia, comprising of small states and whose rulers remained under the supervision of British embassies came into solemn
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 37 agreements with the Emperor of the Peninsular that they would help in getting Arabia free and for the consolidation of Arabian Caliphate. Finally, in 1924, Mustapha Kemal Ataturk abolished the Muslim caliphate and founded the Republic of Turkey. In this way, Europe was fully victorious in its political design. It succeeded in its resolve to shatter the Muslim Empire to pieces, to uproot the Muslim Commonwealth and to have its name removed from the list of influential governments. 2.2.2 Partisanship, political differences and power politics Islam had clearly prohibited such a tendency from the start. It had forewarned that partisanship, desire of power and political agitation eat up a nation, as termite eats up wood and shatters the chandelier of nations and governments: "And do not quarrel amongst yourselves in order that you may not become timid and forfeit your prestige. And be patient. No doubt Allah is with those who are patient" (8: 46). One of the important milestones in Islamic history is the Battle of Siffin. While some of the religious scholars regard the decisions taken by both parties were a form of ijtihad, undoubtedly, lot of subsequent political events has aroused from that particular incident. There were two major factors leading to partisanship and power politics during this era. The weaknesses of the Muslim themselves was the first contributing factor. As the empire expanded, the administration load increased. The appointment of the administrators became less stringent to accommodate the demand. Some of them had their own materialistic agenda, abusing power and public funds. The level of faith and respect to the Caliph deteriorated, sometimes initiated by the conduct of the caliph themselves. The essence of amana (trust) of God assigned for the Caliphate was not fulfilled and as consequence, the nations of the conquered lands were not given the true picture of Islam as it should be and of no support value for the stability of the empire. This enhanced the second factor to come in, the intelligent enemy of the Muslim empire. They penetrated them gracefully and spread the net of its conspiracies in the files of the Spanish Muslims and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 38 were successful in mutually rousing them against one another. They brought into the Muslim nations the narrow-minded concept of tribalism, patriotism and nationalism which divide the nation into different groups and parties. This further led to mutual conflict, mutual enmity and envy, abuses and disparagement, rumours, hearsay and conspiracies ending with civil wars. They take advantage of the selfishness, self interest, temptations and personal consideration which has became the prime motivating factor in the weak Muslims to fan the flames of hatred, enmity and unites people for the sake their patriotic grouping. Islam had never put an end to the sentiments of racial, tribal or national patriotism. The Prophet eyes were filled with tears, when he heard the praise of Mecca from Aseel, due to eagerness and love and he said to Aseel 'Let the hearts gain peace'. Islam has always seen patriotism in its elevated and noble sense. As long the objective of the respective patriotisms is to produce the generation who are proud of the faithfulness and courage of their ancestors and want to determine the continuity of this honoured and blessed traits in their predecessor, and as long they understand that this patriotism will not lead to the usurpation of the right of others, oppression on them, burning desire to gulp down all others, it is doubtlessly commendable and well encouraged in Islam. There were some arguments on the non-effectiveness of the Caliphate system itself. Without doubt the Muslims had observed the ups and downs of the Caliphate and it was directly related to the individual held responsible and the nation or community involved. The caliphate system itself is of great benefit for the humanity, provided that it is practice in the real Islamic understanding and this has been proven by its credibility to stand strong for at least 700 years after the prophet hood of Mohammad. The persons and community involved is a major determinant of the success of the caliphate system. 2.2.3 Religious and theological differences Islam had always encouraged healthy discussion on the matter of daily
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 39 living. The Muslims were asked to use the most precious faculty given, the ability to think to optimize the resources and to solve approaching problems in their life. However these discussions should be well guided and in case of indifferences, they should go back to the ultimate source of consultation, the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. We know that difference in small matters and minor commandments of the religion is unavoidable. Sagacity differs, the power of individual perceptions differs and there is lot of difference in the grasp of arguments. This is even the temperament of Islam which desires that it should be always live firmly and eternally. It should never recede back, but always continue along with the times. This is why the religion of Islam is very soft, elastic and easy. There is not a little frigidity or harshness in it. Despite that, this was not the case during that era. The differences crept up and there were a leaning toward dead and lifeless words and spiritless term. The books of Allah and the Traditions of the Holy Prophet were neglected. One's own views and opinions were insisted on unduly leading to argumentations and debates. As the Prophet Mohammad had said: "No nation went astray after following guidance, unless it got entangled in the calamity of misguided argumentation" 2.2.4 The intoxicants of pleasures and enjoyment. The Muslims drowned themselves in the intoxicants of pleasures and enjoyments. Sensual gratification and delicacies of mouth and taste became their aim of life. Many of the Muslim rulers went into extreme in search of pleasure. They have left behind such examples or profligacy, as do not find and equal amongst the others. They were not unaware of the following injunction of Allah: "And when we intend to destroy a locality,We order its rich and wealthy people. They make transgressions in it. Thus the decision of punishment is justified and We make it topsy turvy" (17: 16) 2.2.5 The governmental ruling by the non Arabs
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 40 It has been argued that the transition of the leaderships either at the local administrative level or even at the governmental level to the nonArabic speaking Muslims contribute to the weakening of the Islamic empire and subsequent downfall of science. This includes the political ruling by the Iranians or the Turks. Even though this is debatable, some authors strongly concern on their inability to master the Arabic language, which obviously a disadvantage in understanding the Holy Qur'an. 2.2.6 Negligence of practical knowledge and world realities. The Muslims intellectual started to leave aside practical knowledge and world realities. They began to waste their lives and valuable energies on profound speculative philosophies and unwieldy abstract arts, although Islam kept persuading them to think over this world, to find out the secrets of life and to study the Nature and the Kingdom of Allah. There were continuous occasions where the theologian exhausted their time and effort to even arguing in non practical thing and some even beyond their given faculty such as whether the Qur'an is a creature or not. On the other hand some of them used the tools of the philosophers to undermine philosophical and scientific inquiry. This had not only brought a conflict between the philosophers and the scientists but had initiated the extremist in both groups which only hampered the scientific progression. 2.2.7 Internal Conflict among scholars In 700 CE a movement of Muslim scientists and scholars, known as Mutazillites, who believed that both the mysteries of nature and the religious belief could be explained and expressed in terms of human reason, provoked the emergence of a counter-movement called the Asharites who emerged in 900 CE. They contested the over-zealous use of reason and condemned bidah or innovation in religious belief. In the end the Asharites won but gave rise to taqlid - the tyrannical attitude to passive acceptance. When taqlid was accepted as the dominant paradigm, Islamic science and technology truly became a matter of history and the practice of Islamic science and technology disappeared.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 41 2.2.8 High esteem and unduly proud rulers At the peak of the glorious era, the Muslims especially their rulers had too high an esteem of their power and achievements. They became unduly proud of their authority, and became negligent of the resentment, heart-burning and grudge of the defeated nations, while the Qur'an had insisted on their ever remaining wide-awake, and always avoid carelessness. The Muslims failed to learn the social and physical development happening around them especially in Europe. In Bernard Lewis's phrasing, "The Renaissance, Reformation, even the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, passed unnoticed in the Muslim World." Instead, Muslims keep on relying on religious minorities (Armenians, Greeks and Jews) as intermediaries; they served as court physicians, translators, and in other key posts. Once known as a knowledge-thirst nations, the Muslim world seem contented with their accomplishment and start to become lazy and equally satisfied with just a limited transfer of science and technology from their neighbourhood. 2.2.9 The rise of European economic, political and cultural imperialism. The European nations which during the crusades in the East and in Spain in the west were closed to the Muslims, due to their contacts with Muslim neighbours, Muslim nations and Islam itself, did not only take the lesson of political unity and national sense from the contact, but also acquired the benefit of mental awakening and tremendous wisdom. They learnt many arts and gained a very vast knowledge, and made enormous literary progress, which is a natural reaction for any nations who felt inferior or threatened of conquest over them. The Church fought out this new tendency with its full might, and began to trouble the standard bearers of progress that is the literates and the learned ones. The investigation departments belaboured them severely and instigated the governments and organizations against them. But all these efforts proved abortive. The oppression by the church could not subdue the realities of knowledge and discoveries and the progress of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 42 knowledge emerged victorious from this fight. The governments too received an incentive from it and it stood up against the church and ultimately defeated it. In this way Europe was free from the over lordship of the Church and the clerical staff took refuge in the monasteries and churches. Pope was confined to a small state known as Vatican and the activities of the religious people got confined to a very narrow circle, to think beyond which was a crime for them. Thus, there was an open and vast atmosphere of knowledge and wisdom before the people of Europe and a broad field of research and discovery. The establishment of a strong Spanish government further strengthened the European dominancy. They became very competitive in searching new knowledge throughout the world and kept discovering countries. Thus the discovery of America was the achievement of Spain and India's sea route came to light through the effort of Portugal. Thus, progress and reform continued to go ahead and many reformers were born. Their attention remained concentrated on temporal arts and useful inventions. The industrial and mechanical progress further accelerated the speed of discoveries. Many countries were in its circle of control and the entire world started to lean towards the western nation. Simultaneously, the resources began to move towards them. It was the flood of wealth and riches which was moving from all sides. However, this civilization opened its eyes, in the lap of materialism, which nurtured it and in whose cradle it was reared. The logical result of this was that religion was thrown overboard from most walks of collective life, specially the government offices and schools. The materialistic mind and materialistic point of view got to the forefront and it became a measure and standard for everything. Although the new culture, opened the gateways of knowledge and wisdom, brought tremendous wealth and grandeur and raised the standards of its power and authority on earth, it seems lack the element of tranquillity and virtue. 2.2.10 Deception of Western achievements and values
The Muslim nations were later deceived by the flattering and fawning advancement and achievement of the Western counterpart. They
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 43 became enamoured of their outward appearance and their activities, and starts to imitate them without evaluating the profit or loss resulting from this blind imitation. Scientific development was based and referred to the westernized value, which in majority of the cases weighing towards materialism. 2.3 The critical era of Islamic science
Strolling back the historical lane of this era, one must come back to the important question. What really happened to the Islamic or the Arabic science during this period of political turmoil and socio-economic depreciation? Is the grand heritage of scientific knowledge had totally diminished from the hand of the Muslim nation or it is still hidden somewhere in the cloud of ignorance and demoralised nature of the Muslim nation? It is quite unfair to totally agree with the connotation that the scientific civilization in the Muslim world were at the downfall. The following facts might justify this ambitious statement. The tremendous amount of new material science inventions and the expansion of western empire if not colonization, had introduced important consequence to the Arabic science. First, the Muslim scientists, with their socio-politic and economic disadvantage situation could not keep in pace with the rapid progression of western scientific development. As a result any achievement in the Muslim world is relatively insignificant globally. It has become diluted in the ocean of scientific discoveries and directly masks the Muslim scientific contribution. Furthermore, it had been proven that in some cases the integrity and credibility of Muslim scientist either their inventions or their books, still hold the test of time. They were still being used as major references even after the scientific revolution in the Western world. Unfortunately, they were not given the appropriate recognition in the modern historical education for obvious reasons, in particular to undermine the Muslim great ancestral reputation if not to wash it out from the mind of the future generation. In order to do full justice to the importance of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 44 their work, contemporary Western scientists must put into their historical context those who were, in former times, the teachers of their ancestors. Lastly, but not the least important, the future of the current scientific invention and civilization is still uncertain. As mentioned earlier, science is only a tool in explaining, answering and improving the phenomenal of life, and it is up to the carpenter to manoeuvre its destiny. Here is where the issue of virtue and morality are of essential in producing the beneficial outcome of science. Materialistic scientific civilization neglecting the essence of humanity not only will tarnish the image of science itself but disastrously will lead to the downfall of the civilization itself. Industrial revolution has produce the capitalist ideology which in the begin seems attractive enough for the developing nations with its investment capitalism However, as time past and its materialistic attitude become more obvious, the practice of plundering capitalism became the name of the game.
The Current St of ate Muslim Scientist
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 46 THE CURRENT STATE OF MUSLIM SCIENTIST 3.1 Science in Muslim world during the recent centuries
3.1.1 The scientific development in the Muslim world postRenaissance The massive scientific revolution in the 16th century Europe has transformed the world both intellectually and materially. Traditional belief systems were challenged by the paradigm of the new culture based on experimentation, prediction, quantification, and control. Power relations between countries became increasingly defined by their mastery of technology, ultimately leading to the colonization by European nations of much Islamic world. The combination of the Enlightenment and French Revolution had made European science accessible to the Muslims, hence the revival of science in the Muslim world. The former detached science from Christianity, thereby making it palatable to Muslims. The latter, and especially Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798, with its entourage of scholars and supplementary mission of knowledge, imposed European power on and brought European science to a Muslim people. Within years, some rulers led by Muhammad `Ali of Egypt, recruited European technicians and sent students to Europe. An extraordinarily rapid diffusion of Western technologies throughout most of the Middle East took place in the period 1850-1914. With the approval of local elites, European colonial authorities imposed publichealth measures to contain cholera, malaria, and other contagious diseases. The Suez Canal opened in 1869, reduced shipping time and distance and generated new trade. Railways, telegraphs, steamships and steam engines, automobiles, and telephones all appeared. Much of this technology transfer took the form of Middle Eastern governments' granting monopoly concessions to European firms. Muslim rulers had little concern about developing indigenous capabilities in technology adaptation, design, or maintenance.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 47 Science was an afterthought, at best embedded in scientific technologies but not transferred explicitly as knowledge or method. Instead, members of minority communities continued to intermediate by providing clerical and skilled labour. Minorities also helped to establish the first Western education institutions in the region, such as the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut (founded in 1866) and the Jesuits' St. Joseph's College (founded in 1875). These schools and others in Istanbul, Tunis, Tehran, Algiers, and elsewhere primarily served minority communities and Europeans, though some elite Muslims also attended. Middle Eastern medical schools quickly accepted and taught the medical discoveries of Pasteur, Koch, and others concerning microbes and bacteria. The schools contributed to the translation and publication in Arabic of major scientific works and to the organization of the first scientific societies in the region. Such societies were founded in Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, and Istanbul in the late nineteenth century, often sponsoring journals that featured translations. Thus, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published in 1859, was translated in Arabic journals by 1876, though not in book form until 1918. Throughout this period, Muslim intellectuals presented minimal resistance to the diffusion of Western scientific ideas. For example, the major opposition to Darwinian ideas of evolution came not from Muslim scholars but from Eastern-rite Christians. Between the year 1914-1945, Muslims slowly showed, even often in frustration, attempt to strengthen indigenous science against the imported variety. New universities with an emphasis on engineering and medicine sprang up in Egypt, Turkey, Syria, and the Sudan. During the depression years, however, reduced employment for graduates and increased discontent over the dominant role of expatriates and minorities constrained science and technology. The nationalist politicians who arose after World War I mainly concentrated on gaining political independence; science and technology hardly concerned them. The one exception was Turkey, which under Kemal Mustafa Atatürk after 1922 launched an ambitious program of industrialization and an expansion of engineering education. Elsewhere -in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and Iran- politicians made only faltering attempts at industrialization to serve small local markets. Turnkey, off-the-shelf projects prevailed, especially in engineering. This
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 48 meant that few scientific inputs existed, most technologies were imported, maintenance was a persistent problem, and limited shopfloor learning took place. Only in the petroleum industry, which after 1914 took on major proportions in Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia, did the pattern differ, for multinational firms subcontracted locally such tasks as maintenance engineering and geological surveying. Colonization, internal cultural beliefs, combined with global inequities in the distribution of power and wealth, may be an important factor in explaining the disproportionately small representation in science and technology of Muslims, who constitutes about 20 percent of the world's population. Despite the period of 'hibernation', history has witnessed enormous attempts by the Muslims to re-instil the spirit of scientific development in the community. The following are worth of mentioning, despite the ultimate aim in some of the scientific and industrial movement in the Muslim countries is still questionable and in some instances even challenged the fundamental Islamic norms. 3.1.2 Development in Arabic-African continent In Egypt, following the Napoleonic occupation, Muhammad 'Ali (17691849) seized state power and rule from 1805 through 1848. An Albanian officer in the Ottoman army, he made Egypt virtually independent of Istanbul and who attempted a major modernisation of the country. Pasha Muhammad Ali who came to power in 1805 almost singlehandedly dragged the backward province into the modern world. But the brutality of his method showed how difficult it was to modernise at such breakneck speed. He massacred the political opposition thousands of peasants are said to have died in the conscripted labour bands that improved Egypt's irrigation and water-communications. To secularise the country, Muhammad Ali simply confiscated much religiously endowed property, systematically marginalised the ulama, and divested them of any shred of power. As a result, the ulama, of who had experienced modernity as a shocking assault, became even more insular, and closed their minds against the new world that was coming
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 49 into being in Egypt. The history of Egypt for the first half of the 19th century is virtually the history of Pasha Muhammad Ali who was also known as the founder of modern Egypt. He founded the first school of engineering in 1816, the first school of medicine 1821 and also the first Arabic newspaper in 1828.During this period he made bold attempts to transfer French and British technology into the country, relying principally on European expatriates. He introduced the first printing press - a device initially condemned by some of the ulama for having a belt of pigskin. This resistance was overcome, and the Bulaq press in Cairo published eighty-one Arabic books on science between 1821 and 1850. Technology for irrigation, textile manufacturing, surveying, prospecting and mining for coal and iron, and military hardware received high priority. Major earthmoving and civil engineering projects were begun. Even more significantly, technical schools with foreign teachers were established with the aim of generating manpower. More than four thousand students were sent to Europe to study various branches of science, including military tactics. However, the success of Muhammad 'Ali's industrialization policies was mixed. The quality of domestic products such as textiles was poor. Technical schools provided insufficient exposure to the theoretical science and failed to create a base technicians or engineers of sufficiently higher calibre. After Muhammad 'Ali's death in 1849 these schools were closed down under the rule of Kjedive 'Abbas and Khedive Sa'id, and scientific momentum ground to a halt. In Oman, Sultan Sa'id ibn Sultan (1806-1856) was notable for his interest in acquiring European technology. He made numerous attempts to have sugar refineries installed in Zanzibar, an Omani possession, as well as unsuccessful attempts at shipbuilding. Similarly in Algeria, Amir 'Abd al-Qadir, the ruler between1832-1847, engaged various experts to build small ordnance factories and appears to have understood the importance of technology for progress. In perhaps the most influential modernist effort vis-à-vis science, the Egyptian Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) developed a belief system based on reason. He argued that "religion must be accounted as a friend to
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 50 science, pushing man to investigate the secrets of existence, summoning him to respect the established truths and to depend on them in his moral life and conduct." A loyal disciple of Jamal al-Din al Afghani, he was born in a village in Gharbiyya province, Egypt and educated at the Ahmadi mosque in Tanta and at Al Azhar University. Despite his interest in philosophy and sufism, which can be witnessed by his best known work in theology, 'Risalat al Tawhid'(Treatise of Unity) published in 1897, his effort to reconcile Islam with modernization was well recognised. He and his well known disciple, Muhammad Rashid Rida advocated reforming Islam by restoring it to its original condition, modernizing the Arabic language and upholding people's right in relation with their rulers. Muhammad Abduh remains a towering figure in Eqypts intellectual history. 3.1.3 Development under the Turkish Ottomans Caliphate The Turkish Ottomans established an extensive and magnificent empire in the sixteenth century and soon recognized the utility of military technology, particularly cannons, which they readily borrowed from the West. Strong religious taboos, however, prevented the use of such innovations as the printing press or public clocks. Travellers to Turkey in this period remarked on the lack of interest in matters of science and learning. Sweeping changes in civil administration and education came with Sultan Selim III (1761-1808), the most radical of the Ottoman reformers. Selim established a new military corps armed and organized in the most modern European techniques of warfare. Gun-founding was introduced, printing presses were set up, and the works of Western authors were translated into Turkish. To sustain the modern army, the subjects of algebra, trigonometry, mechanics, ballastics and metallurgy were introduced into the teaching curriculum. Like Muhammad 'Ali, Selim had no choice but to import teachers from Europe for these subjects. The importance of theoretical science as a basis for continued development appears not to be recognized. The major impetus to the scientific development came after the revolution in 1924, brought about by Mustafa Kemal Atartuk (1881-
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 51 1938) at the expense of introduction of secularism in Turkey. Before this education had been limited to the cities and controlled by religious authorities, but after the secularization of Turkey, control was taken over by the state and curricula revised to include modern science, mathematics, world history, and other secular subjects. Fortunately, 80 years after the revolution, the light of Islam is glaring again in Turkey, and despite the label 'sickman of Europe', Turkey today among the Muslim countries, is the leader and the most advance of scientific research and in terms of the quality of its universities. 3.1.4 Development in Indian subcontinent The modern scientific ideas and techniques came in the wake of the English conquest. After the banishment of the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, in 1857, the English consolidated their rule and introduced modern education. A combination of shame, pride, defiance, and conservatism led Muslims to resist Western learning. Consequently, Muslims wre at a substantial disadvantage relative to Hindus, for example between 1876-1877 and 1885-1886, 51 Muslims and 1,338 Hindus took the B.A degree at Calcutta. The resistance of Muslims of the subcontinent to modern ideas motivated Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) to become a forceful proponent of modern science and thought. He devoted much of his life to convincing Muslims in India "that western scientific thought was not antithetical to Islam." He reinterpreted the Qur'an to find passages consistent with reason and nature, and insisted that "Muslims have in the Koran the source of a rational religion attuned to modern man's scientific interests." He was convinced that the subjugation of Muslims to the west was a result of their scientific backwardness, and that in turn was a consequence of the dominance of superstitious beliefs and of rejection of reason in favour of blind obedience to the tradition. He therefore set about the monumental task of reinterpreting Muslim theology, making it compatible with post-renaissance scientific ideas. Sayyid Ahmad Khan founded the Aligarh Muslim University, which provided Muslims of the subcontinent a unique opportunity for higher education. His articles in the periodical Tahzib al-akhlaq, which included translations and explanations of scientific tracts as well his
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 52 interpretations of religious issues, were highly influential among the Muslims. Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1838-1897), also a supporter of Western science and modern ideas, was a determined anti-imperialist who inspired Muslims in Turkey, Egypt, Iran and India. He was of belief that Islam encouraged rational thought and discouraged blind imitation. In 1870, because of the pressure from the clergy, he was expelled from Istanbul for advocating the setting up of a Dar al- Funun, a new university devoted to the teaching of modern science. He is known for his vitriolic critism of those ulama' who opposed modern ideas and science. 3.1.5 Progression after 1945 In the aftermath of World War II, for the first time, a perceived need for indigenous science and technology spread in the Muslim world. Such events as the creation of Pakistan and the 1948 Arab-Israeli war made Muslims very acutely aware of their deficiencies in science and technology. The attainment of independence fostered a technological (but not a scientific) nationalism. States took responsibility for managing technology as an instrument of national power and made relatively ample resources available for technology (though, again, not science). More than sixty new universities and technical schools opened during this period in the Arabic-speaking countries alone. Science and engineering programs received the most resources and so attracted the finest students; further, they have grown to the point that hundreds of thousands of students now graduate annually in the Muslim world. In addition, several hundred thousand Muslim students have since the 1950s studied science and engineering in the West, the former Soviet Union, India, and elsewhere, and a majority have returned home. Trouble is, these results have been more impressive quantitatively than qualitatively. The implementation of science and technology policy takes place at the national, not regional, level during this period. Most governments have established councils to oversee science and technology, drafted some
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 53 sort of national plan, and made an attempt at implementation. National science policies vary widely. Turkey has achieved the most research cooperation between the public and private sectors, especially in hydrology, textiles, and agriculture. Egypt has a cumbersome, centralized research bureaucracy and policy with little diffusion or practical results. Pakistan pursues a comprehensive, governmentdirected research effort with a priority for nuclear energy and other highly centralized projects, but implementation has been slow and expensive. Malaysia has a sophisticated applied-research policy focused on getting local private investors to work together to expand the export of electronic items. Indonesia has opted for a high-tech policy based on a national aerospace industry with high-cost risks. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates have poured vast amounts of money into science and technology. But the research output has not matched the state-of-the-art facilities. The prevailing mentality continues to be that of buying science and technology rather than producing it. Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia each operate its own modest version of French-style centralized research policies but their lack of linkages to the private sector or ability to diffuse results limits their productivity. Iran and Iraq concentrate on petroleum and weapons research to the detriment of other sectors. Other countries, such as the Sudan, Yemen, or the newly independent Central Asian republics, lack a critical mass of researchers or have experienced extensive emigration, or both. Political repression has crippled science in Afghanistan, Libya, and Syria. Fundamentalist governments in Iran and the Sudan suffered the emigration of so many scientists and engineers abroad. This problem in Iran, coupled with the devastating effects of the war with Iraq, had led the authorities to concentrate more towards nurturing the remaining research community. Indeed, the priority to reconstruct the wardamaged petroleum and petrochemical industries has dictated generous treatment of scientists and engineers. The science curriculum in the schools and universities has been largely retained along pre-1979 lines. Iranian scientists have preserved international contacts; even Abdus Salam, the Pakistan particle physicist and the only Muslim Nobel Prize winner in physic, has visited Iran.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 54 Sudan has experienced one of the most severe instances of brain-drain anywhere in the world. It appears that a half-million Sudanese technicians and professionals have emigrated, primarily to Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf, since 1960. Scientists, engineers, and physicians have left, primarily to the Persian Gulf countries. The Sudanese government that came to power in 1989 has been concerned to slow down this exodus of talent and to retrieve what remains of Sudanese scientific and technological capabilities. Hasan at-Turabi, philosophertheologian of the regime, envisions a moral, democratic, Islamic state with ample room for research.Unfortunately, enormous internal problems has hampered the progress of science there. Nor do fundamentalist movements in opposition aspire to Islamize science. Movements in Algeria and Tunisia, for example, demand the replacement of French with Arabic at all educational levels, but their objectives are political and cultural rather than anti-scientific. In Pakistan, due to internal political pressures and the particularly influential role of the mullahs (clergy), the government of Zia-ul Haq in 1987 introduced fundamentalist doctrines in the teaching of science at all levels, from primary schools to universities. 3.1.6 Why does the Muslim still lag behind in science Aaron Segal, in 1976 concluded that 'After nearly fifty years of would-be institution-building, the Muslim world has failed to provide a satisfactory home for science'. He attributed the low level of achievement was due to cumulative effect of multiple factors, and not from a single dominant cause. Islam, according to him, even though not the key factor, contributes to the Muslim world's lagging behind in science insofar as its tenets have not satisfactorily been reconciled with those of science. Islam's most deleterious effect may be to remove most Muslims from direct contact with science. Except for a brief exposure in school, there is little science in Islamic popular culture. Fortunately, this perception of Islam can easily be argued as we had explicitly described earlier, in so far the completeness of Islam is
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 55 concerned and its openness to scientific discovery .It is pretty immature to blame Islam based on the act of some deviated theologians, scholars or even scientists. Nevertheless, it is important to pay attention to the rest of his constructive comments at that time, which rather true and of benefit for the progress of the Muslims in science. Basically it can be divided into four groups: a. Education
Language still forms a barrier not only to science but to education generally. The fact that an estimated 80 percent of the world's scientific literature appearing first in English, the literature in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and other languages is inadequate for teaching students as well as researchers. Ineffective science education was also obvious at all level, primary, secondary and higher institutions. There is too much rote learning and emphasize was given to teaching instead of research. Overcrowded, under-funded, and turbulent universities have been unable to protect space and resources for research. b. Government
The Muslim governments lack of accountability and inability to diffuse scientific research in state-owned corporations, as the case in Algeria and Syria. This has led to wasted sources. At the same time industrial import substitution often continues to rely on turnkey projects and foreign maintenance. Multinational firms active in the respective region prefer to conduct research at European or North American sites. Except for Algeria, Iran, and Iraq, state oil companies are more managers of concessions than operators with strong technical capabilities. In some countries, authoritarian regimes deny freedom of inquiry or dissent, cripple professional societies, intimidate universities, and limit contacts with the outside world. A horrific detailed account by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences documents the long-term destruction of the scientific community in Syria by a nationalist regime, not a
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 56 fundamentalist one. Authoritarian regimes also reinforce the prevailing pattern of relying on technology transfer. Distrustful of their own elites and institutions, the rulers prefer to buy rather than generate technology. The oil-exporting countries especially see science and technology as commodities to be purchased, an outlook that has a pernicious effect on the development of indigenous research capabilities c. Research and development
Demographically, the number of research scientists and engineers in the Muslim world remains well below that of rich countries as well as Latin America and South and East Asia. The Muslim world suffers an acute scarcity of career researchers. This resulted from lack of in-house ability to train young researchers, promotion to bureaucratic post, inadequate research facilities and lack of incentive to scientific publications. One of the obvious consequences of this is the brain drain of whatever scientist left in those countries. A lack of financial resources and incentives has been a major barrier to research except in some oil-rich states. Whereas Japan, the United States, Germany, and other Western countries spend 2 percent or more of their gross domestic product (GDP) annually on research, no Muslim country spends more than .50 percent of its (much lower) GDP on research. Even where funds are available, research-management capabilities are in short supply. The prospects for stable research funding and effective institution-building are both poor. Within government agencies or ministries themselves, applied-research units, such as agriculture or construction, have often become sinecures for political appointees with little or no interest or capabilities for research. d. International collaboration
Broad-based interdisciplinary professional societies for science and engineering have been slow to develop in the Muslim world. Regional cooperation in science and technology has a less promising history in the Muslim world. It makes eminent sense in principle, for a handful of countries (like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia) are oil-rich and short of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 57 researchers, while other countries (Egypt and Pakistan) export them. Also, the similarity of applied-research needs and priorities, such as solar energy, desertification, and desalination, should produce shared interests. Unfortunately, meetings held over two decades to coordinate regional research have produced much rhetoric and little action. Much development has emerged ever since these 'pessimistic assessment' (in Segal's word) were made. In one aspect, it has portrayed the optimistic future of the Muslims world as far as the scientific advancement is concern, provided these commentaries has gone into brain cells of the Muslims and transformed into the other aspect, the long awaiting struggle and steps for re-emergence which will be discussed in the later chapter. 3.1.7 The challenge So why is much of today's Islamic world a "scientific desert," to use the stark language of a 2002 article in the journal Nature? Why do many predominantly Muslim countries, home to 1.3 billion people and 75 percent of the world's oil wealth is not at the fore front of science and technology? And how might they recapture their amazing scientific heritage? These questions and many other have resounded at international, Arab and Islamic scientific conferences and have made headlines in science journals. Here's how the Nature article summed up the situation in the Middle East, for instance: "The region is, for the most part, a scientific desert. In some states, oil wealth has allowed the construction of fabulous cities, magnificent mosques and sumptuous shopping malls. But little scientific infrastructure has emerged. Collectively, the Arab nations spend only 0.15 per cent of their gross domestic product on research and development, well below the world average of 1.4 per cent." Muslims account for 20 percent of the world's population, but less than one percent of its scientists. Scientists in Islamic countries now make barely 0.1 percent of the world's original research discoveries each year.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 58
It is interesting to welcome back the term 'desert' which is not strange to Islamic civilization. In fact, Islam itself originated in the dryness and dullness of the desert of Arabia, and with much hardness and unpopularity it crawled, stand, walked and in the end it ran over the world disseminating its nourishing spirit and irresistible physical appearance to the envisage of the great nation and civilization at that time. This eagerness of the demoralised material civilization to see the re- emergence of Islam and science particularly is as great as the time when the Arabian people waiting the appearance of the Prophet who will save them from darkness of life. Furthermore the condition of the Muslims today is much better and in advantage compared to the earlier time. They were nourished with spiritual, physical and historical assets. Yet the challenge is in themselves, the Muslim, both their attitude and their acts. 3.2 The Noble prize and its implication to Islam
Much had been said of this prestigious award since its inception in 1901. It is an international award given yearly since 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for peace. In 1968, the Bank of Sweden instituted the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize. Generally it had become the landmark of scientific achievement of the last decade. For the scientific community it is an important recognition of the individual, team or institutional credibility. For the other, it has been useful to measure the socio-economic and political influences on science advancement in society. Even for the layman, it had become a motivational subject for the young one to pursue scientific career. For the past 100 years there were only two Muslim scientists who had the honoured to hold the 'flag' of the Muslim nation in this scientific podium. This in one hand has again raised the questions on the credibility of the Muslim nations in the scientific arena. On the other hand it has raised the doubt in certain quarters of the reliability of the selection process.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 59 Whichever direction it will be, since it is going to be the 'household' talk for the next decade to come, it is of benefit for us to understand the philosophy behind this award and the effect it will bring to our future generation. 3.2.1 Life and philosophy of Alfred Nobel Alfred Nobel was born in Stolkholm in 1833 into a family of engineers. His family was descended from none other than Olof Rudbeck, the best-known technical genius of Sweden's 17th century era as a Great Power in Northern Europe. Having gone through a recent bankruptcy, when Alfred was five years old, his father Immanuel Nobel moved to St. Petersburg, where he started a mechanical workshop for the manufacture of land mines. In 1842, when Alfred was nine years old, the rest of the family also moved to St. Petersburg. By then his father's fortunes had improved, enabling the family to live in high bourgeois style. At the time, St.Petersburg was a world metropolis, alive with scientific, social, and cultural life. Immanuel Nobel's sons did not attend school, but were instead educated at home by outstanding teachers at the level of university professor. The instruction they provided focused on both humanities and natural sciences. Aside from Swedish, Alfred and his brothers were taught Russian, French, English and Germany, as well as literature and philosophy. In the natural sciences, they were guided by two professors of chemistry who taught them mathematics, physics and chemistry. Considering the specialty of his teachers, it was perhaps no coincidence that Alfred took a liking to chemistry. He learned to conduct chemical experiments, an activity that seemed to fascinate him from the very beginning. Alfred spent his most important formative years in the Russian capital. With his five languages, which he seemed to have mastered well, he laid the foundation for the cosmopolitan nature that would later become so prominent in his life. During the years 1850-52, Alfred was allowed a few study-oriented stays abroad. He spent one year in Paris with the famous chemist Jules Pelouze, a professor at the College de France who had just opened a private training laboratory. Pelouze, who incidentally had been a good
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 60 friend of the Swedish chemist Berzellius, had also taught Nikolai Zinin, one of Alfred Nobel's private teachers. During that year, Alfred completed his training as a chemist. But somewhere around the same time was the inception of what would become the greatest inventions of his life. For it was then, if not earlier, that he must have heard about the remarkable explosive called nitroglycerine. Strangely enough, this has not been pointed out by many scholars, who have dated the crucial moment 10 years later. The background of the story was, in 1847, in Turin, Ascanio Sobrero- an Italian student of Pelouze- had discovered a new explosive that he initially called pyroglycerine (later known as nitroglycerine). However, Sobrero, both in letters to Pelouze and in a subsequent journal article, issued a warning about the new compound, not only because it had incredible explosive power, but also because it was impossible to handle. Sobrero's discovery did not come as a bolt from the blue. As early as the 1830s, Pelouze himself and others had conducted important preliminary work by making guncotton. Since Alfred was extremely interested in explosives-it was of course a family interest- and since Pelouze had both first-hand knowledge of how explosives were manufactured and was familiar with Sobrero's discovery, Alfred must have learned about nitroglycerine at that time. However, any excitement he might have felt was immediately dampened by the difficulties of both manufacturing and handling the new compound. The end of the Crimean war (1856) spelled disaster for Immanuel Nobel's factor, which had lived off the manufacture of war material. The factory went bankrupt, and Alfred's parents and their youngest son Emil moved back to Sweden. The three older sons stayed in St. Petersburg to put the family affairs in order and restructure the company. Faced with this situation, Alfred and his brothers discussed various conceivable projects with their former teachers. That was when Nikolai Zinin reminded them of the potential of nitroglycerine. Professor Zinin is said to have demonstrated the power of nitroglycerine by pouring a few drops of the fluid an anvil, and striking it with a hammer, and producing a laoud bang. But only the liquid that came into contact with the hammer exploded. The rest of the liquid was not affected. The problem, as Sobrero had already realized, was twofold. First, it was difficult to manufacture the compound, because at
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 61 excessive temperatures the whole batch exploded. Second, once manufactured, the liquid was equally difficult to explode in a controlled fashion. During the years around 1860, Alfred conducted repeated experiments involving great risks. First, he succeeded in manufacturing sufficient quantities of nitroglycerine without mishaps. Then, he mixed nitroglycerine with black gunpowder and ignited the mixture with an ordinary fuse. After several successful explosions outside St.Petersburg on the frozen Neva river, Alfred travelled back to Stockholm. There, his father had begun similar experiments (though with less success) after reading about Alfred's tests in his letter. Immanuel Nobel even insisted that the new mixture was his own idea, but he backed off from this assertion after a sharp letter from Alfred that set matters straight in no uncertain terms. Instead, he even helped Alfred apply for a patent in his own name. In October 1863, Alfred Nobel was granted a patent for the explosive that he aptly called 'blasting oil'. With his first patent, Alfred had also reached his first milestone. Although he was only 30 years old, this was the start of an exciting adventure that would unfold with great speed. During the following spring and summer, Alfred continued his experiments. He soon obtained a new patent related to the manufacture of nitroglycerine (using a simplified method) as well as the use of a detonator, or what was called the 'initial igniter', in other words a hollow wooden plug filled with black gunpowder (later called a 'blasting cap'). The determination and self confidence that later would become more pronounced features all Alfred's personality were already apparent. He wrote "I am the first to have brought this subjects from the area of science to that of industry' and he had successfully arranged a large loan from a French bank. Around the same time, another personality trait began to assert itselfthe inventor also became an entrepreneur. Alfred dealt with failures in the same resolute manner as he did successes. In September 1864, a major explosion at the Nobel factory in Stolkholm claimed the lives of Alfred's brother Emil and four other people. Just month later, Alfredresolutely and without sentimentality- founded his first joint stack company. Despite the accident or perhaps because of it, since no one
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 62 could now doubt the explosive power of the new compound, orders began rolling in. the Swedish State Railways ordered blasting oil for use in building the Soder Tunnel in Stolkholm. A year later, in 1865, Alfred improved his blasting cap (now made of metal rather than wood) which in principle is still the same type used today. He then left for Germany. Set up a company there and bought land outside Hamburg where he built a factory. In the summer of 1866, Alfred travelled to America there he struggled against political bureaucracy, popular fear of accidents caused by explosives and, not least, dishonest business associates. In the end, he received patents, form companies and built factories there. Despite slow communications, everything now happened very quickly. Events literally assumed explosive force. While Alfred was in America, his factory in Germany exploded. When he returned to Germany in August, he had to supervise the clean-up of the debris and plan a new building. At the same time, he continued to brood over the safety problems of nitroglycerine and he conducted new experiments. He realized that nitroglycerine had to be absorbed by some kind of porous material, forming a mixture that would be easier to handle. On the German moorlands very close to where he was staying, he found a type of porous, absorbent sand or diatomaceous earth known in German as Kieselguhr. When nitroglycerine was absorbed by Kieselguhr, it formed a paste that was easy to knead and shape. This paste could be shaped into rods that were easily inserted into drilling holes. It could also be transported and subjected to jolts without triggering explosions. It could even be ignited without anything happening. Only a blasting cap would cause the paste to explode. The disadvantage of this new substance was its somewhat reduced explosive force - the Kieselguhr did not participate as an active substance in the explosion. But this was the price one had to pay. In short, that was how Alfred Nobel invented dynamite. Incidentally, Alfred himself coined the word dynamite from the Greek dynamis, meaning power. One of his German colleagues had proposed the term "blasting putty" because it had the same consistency as putty. But Alfred thought this sounded like something meant to be used for blasting window panes, which was certainly not his intention. In 1867, he was granted patents for dynamite in various countries, notably Britain, Sweden and the United States. Production was now set to begin on a large scale, and demand grew rapidly. It was an era of large infrastructure projects like railways, ports, bridges, roads, mines and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 63 tunnels, where blasting was necessary. For example, dynamite was of vital importance in the construction of the St. Gotthard tunnel through the Swiss Alps in the 1870s. In 1868, the year after the first patent for dynamite, Alfred Nobel and his father were awarded the Letterstedt Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. This prize, which Alfred valued highly, was awarded for "important discoveries of practical value to humanity." We can hear an echo of this wording in Nobel's will, where he stated the criteria for awarding his own prizes. He had taken the decisive steps that led to honour and fame. Let us pause a moment at the year 1873, when Alfred Nobel was 40 years old. All these events had taken place during the preceding 10 years. At age 30, Alfred had received his first patent. Now, by age 40, he had already made his greatest discoveries, he had built up a worldwide industrial empire, he had become wealthy, and he had bought a large house in the center of Paris. The foundation was in place. He later made new discoveries - primarily blasting gelatin and ballistite - and his industrial enterprises, as well as his fortune, grew. His distinguishing quality was his versatility. He was an inventor, an industrialist and an administrator. He had to safeguard his patent rights, develop products, establish new companies, and conduct business in five languages with the rest of the world - without the help of a secretary and before the telephone and fax made people's lives easier. He frequently travelled by train or boat, since this was before the advent of the airplane. His factories exploded, he had to withstand negative publicity campaigns, and he unmasked deceitful business partners. He had to deal with all of this himself. In addition, he seldom felt well - he viewed himself as sickly and frail, often complaining of migraines, rheumatism and an unsettled stomach. His life was hectic and stressful. In letters he wrote from Paris, he complained of being constantly hounded by people, which he described in his own words as "pure torture." People are crazy, he wrote - they rushed in and out of his office, everyone wanted to see him, and his presence was required everywhere. But despite everything, he managed to cope. In the role of the entrepreneur, he was unbeatable.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 64 It is incomplete if we do not touch another level of Alfred Nobel's personality, that of the humanist and philosopher. We know that he had literally interest and ambitions. He was an avid reader of fiction and wrote his own dramatic works and poems. In addition, he was attracted to philosophical issues. He read certain philosophical work with such interest that he underlined important passages. Among the papers that he left behind is a black notebook on philosophy that his biographers have not taken an interest in. Although not constituting profound original thoughts, these pencilled notes reflect his serious interest in philosophical questions. Nobel went through philosophy from antiquity to modern times, pointing out what he perceived to be vital issues. He made his own comments, which in a morose way showed his detachment from the subject. He commented on Plato, Aristotle and Democritus, but also on Newton and Voltaire as well as contemporary biologists such as Darwin and Haeckel. Nobel noted, for example, that it was unclear what caused people to form a conception of a God: "Aristotle attributes it to fear, Voltaire to the desire of the more clever to deceive the stupid." He spoke with respect of the philosophical doubts of Descartes and Spinoza, adding that doubt must surely be the starting point for all philosophical thinking. Theories of knowledge were of special interest to Nobel. Consequently, he returned several times to Locke's thesis that all knowledge arises from sensory impressions, declaring that the "brain is a very unreliable recorder of impressions." This led him to reflect further on the methodology of science and to develop a line of reasoning that, aside from being inspired by Locke's thesis, also seemed to have been influenced by Alexander von Humboldt's theory of knowledge. Nobel wrote that all science is built on observations of similarities and differences. He continued: "A chemical analysis is of course nothing other than this, and even mathematics has no other foundation. History is a picture of past similarities and differences; geography shows the differences in the earth's surface; geology, similarities and differences in the earth's formation, from which we deduce the course of its transformations. Astronomy is the study of similarities and differences between celestial bodies; physics, a study of similarities and differences that arise from the attraction and motive functions of matter. The only exception to this rule is religious doctrine, but even this rests on the similar gullibility of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 65 most people. Even metaphysics - if it is not too insane - must find support for its hypotheses in some kind of analogy. One can state, without exaggeration, that the observation of and the search for similarities and differences are the basis of all human knowledge." Nobel could have completed this train of thought with Humboldt's words that "from observation one goes on to experimentation....based on analogies and inductions of empirical laws." Nobel did not espouse any grand theory of knowledge, but rather an empirical method. Alfred Nobel himself seemed to think that he had accomplished quite a lot by applying this method in his work. Alfred Nobel also viewed himself with detachment, or shall we say, philosophical skepticism. He often described himself as a loner, hermit, melancholic or misanthrope. He once wrote: "I am a misanthrope and yet utterly benevolent, have more than one screw loose yet I am a super-idealist who digests philosophy more efficiently than food." Even from this description, it is clear that this misanthrope was also a philanthropist, or what Nobel called a super-idealist. It was the idealist in him that drove Nobel to bequeath his fortune to those who had benefited humanity through science, literature and efforts to promote peace. For Alfred Nobel, the idea of giving away his fortune was no passing fancy. He had thought about it for a long time and had even re-written his will on various occasions in order to weigh different wordings against each other. Efforts to promote peace were close to his heart, largely inspired by his contacts Bertha von Suttner (herself a Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1905). He derived intellectual pleasure from literature, while science built the foundation for his own activities as a technological researcher and inventor. On November 27, 1895, Nobel signed his final will and testament at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris. Alfred Nobel had many different homes during the final decades of his life. In 1891, he had left Paris to live in San Remo, Italy, after controversies with the French authorities. Four years later, he purchased the Bofors ironworks and armaments factory in Sweden and established his Swedish home at nearby Björkborn Manor. He equipped
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 66 all his residences with laboratories where he could continue his experiments. He was apparently homesick for Sweden but complained of the Swedish winter weather. His health began to falter. He visited doctors and health resorts more frequently, but never had time to heed their most important advice - "to rest and nurse my health," as he put it himself. On December 10, 1896, Alfred Nobel passed away at his home in San Remo. Nobel's will was hardly longer than one ordinary page. After listing bequests to relatives and other people close to him, Nobel declared that his entire remaining estate should be used to endow "prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind." His will attracted attention throughout the world. It was unusual at that time to donate large sums of money for scientific and charitable purposes. Many people also criticized the international character of the prizes, saying they should be restricted to Swedes. This would not have suited the cosmopolitan Alfred Nobel. Some of his relatives contested the will. Complicated legal and administrative matters also had to be sorted out. All this took time, but eventually it was all settled. In 1901, the first Nobel Prizes were awarded. The donor himself could hardly have dreamed of the impact that his benevolence would have in the future. The excerpt from Nobel's will is as the following: "The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 67 the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiology or medical works by the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm, and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting. It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be Scandinavian or not." 3.2.2 Alfred Noble's life and philosophy from the Islamic perspective One might questions the rational of writing the vast elaboration of Nobel's biography as mentioned above. Yet there are a lot of lessons that can be learned and be clarified from such a great and famous man. First of all let us look at the milieu that brought up such a charismatic person. This will help us to modify and rethink of our approach in upbringing our future scientific generation. Alfred came from a generation of intellectual and practical thinkers, which is self explanatory to his success story. He was educated in a most fortunate way at home, taught by teacher with credibility and mastered several foreign languages. In other words, he was brought up in a conducive- environment. A lesson to learn is that to produce a charismatic person we need a good environment and that might be missing in the Muslim nation. Our future generation should be given the appropriate stimuli to nurture interest in learning particularly in science. Continuity of the chain of knowledge within family is no stranger to the Muslims, who not only obliged to pass down any knowledge they have to their descendant, but also to the other Muslims without any reservation. Once the Muslims have a solid educational platform to start with, the next steps will be much easier and promising for them to excel. Secondly, let us study the philosophy behind his success. He was a man
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 68 with courage, unshaken with incoming obstacles and never satisfied with his discoveries. He was an inventor, an entrepreneur and a thinker. In short, he is a dynamic, self confident and full of determination to move forward. This is the attitude a good scientist should have and it is the attitude the Qur'an and the Prophet had instilled in the earlier generation of Islam. And such an attitude does not only belong to the Muslim alone, it belongs to anyone who strived for it. It is just unfortunate if the Muslim neglect these prime motivators (Qur'an and Hadith) that can change their attitude towards life and humanity. Noble's great observational capabilities brought him to the conclusion that the basis of human knowledge was the observations of similarities and differences. His love for science manifests in his residencelaboratorium and his unbelievable donations at that time. Yet he was still unclear of the conception of God despite agreeing to the fact that 'the brain is a very unreliable recorder of impressions'. His observational talent reminded us of the capabilities of al-Razi in differentiating between smallpox and measles, so as Ibn al-Haytham in explaining the phenomenon of rainbow. His residence-laboratory reminded us of the great in-house laboratory of Jabir Ibn Hayyan in Damascus. His love to science and generous contribution reminded us of 'Ali b Yahya who possessed a palace and a library called Khizanat alhikma which he placed at the disposal of scholars and not least, the contribution of Caliph al Hakim (1005) who built the Dar al Hikma with its invaluable sponsorships of scholars. Unfortunately, the question of the sovereignty of God was left unanswered for Noble since it is absolutely not something that can be read from books or learned from past history. It is a unique gift of Him to whosoever He wants. Thirdly, his scientific invention was mainly within the scope of blasting industry and the Letterstedt Prize won in 1868 was for the patented dynamite. However, it was not clearly stated whether the success of the industry were coming mainly from which part of the business contribution- the destructive war or the building of infrastructure itself. Nevertheless, we noted that during his life time, the family industry went bankrupt following the end of the Crimean war which signified its great contribution and dependent to the war.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 69 For the historical note, the Crimean war itself was another milestone in the downfall of the Ottoman Caliphate. In July 1853 Russia occupied territories in the Crimea that had previously been controlled by Turkey. Britain and France was concerned about Russian expansion and attempted to achieve a negotiation withdrawal. Turkey, unwilling to grant concessions declared war on Russia. After the Russians destroyed the Turkish fleet at Sinope in the Black Sea in November 1853, Britain and France joined the war against Russia. On the 20th September 1854 the Allies, under the joint commands of General Lord Raglan, Marshal St. Arnaud and General Omar Pasha, reached the Alma and met the Russians. The Allied army defeated the Russian army at the battle of Alma River (September 1854) but the battle of Balaklava (October 1854) was inconclusive. At the end, Sevastopol fell to the Allied troops on 8th September 1855 and the new Russian Emperor, Alexander II, agreed to sign a peace treaty at the Congress of Paris in 1856. It is not the scope of this discussion to determine which side Nobel was in favour during the war, neglecting the fact that his factory was located in St. Petersburg itself. What is more important is to understand his philosophy of science itself. It seems a contradictory philosophy when someone who willingly agreed to the usage of the scientific invention to cause harm to the humanity, is the same person who awarded a prize for peace. Perhaps, it might be the conscience of guilt that led him to this decision. In conclusion, generally there is nothing spectacular or new in the philosophies of Alfred Noble as seen from the Islamic point of view. Conscious or unconsciously those philosophies had been borrowed from Islamic philosophy of science mastered by the Muslims during the 6th to the 13th century. The younger Muslim generation should be made aware of this fact. While there is nothing wrong in having such a great person like Alfred Noble as our motivator in intellectual advancement, yet it should not blinded our eyes and worse still our mind of the fact that the great scientific philosophies has been instilled by the Muslims scientific ancestor into the western scientist.
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In the end, as determine that we want the origin of the scientific invention to be put back in its proper historical context, so it should be to the scientific philosophies that had become the key to their successful discoveries. 3.2.3 Muslim Noble prize winner To date, there were only two Muslim scientists who became the recipient of this prestigious award. This section has been allocated to them with the intention to motivate the reader and the future generation. Their biography and banquet speech serve for the rest to understand the struggle, philosophy and their wish in future scientific undertaking. 188.8.131.52 Prof Dr Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam - Biography Abdus Salam was born in Jhang, a small town in what is now Pakistan, in 1926. His father was an official in the Department of Education in a poor farming district. His family has a long tradition of piety and learning.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 71 When he cycled home from Lahore, at the age of 14, after gaining the highest marks ever recorded for the Matriculation Examination at the University of the Punjab, the whole town turned out to welcome him. He won a scholarship to Government College, University of the Punjab, and took his MA in 1946. In the same year he was awarded a scholarship to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he took a BA (honours) with a double First in mathematics and physics in 1949. In 1950 he received the Smith's Prize from Cambridge University for the most outstanding pre-doctoral contribution to physics. He also obtained a PhD in theoretical physics at Cambridge; his thesis, published in 1951, contained fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics which had already gained him an international reputation. Salam returned to Pakistan in 1951 to teach mathematics at Government College, Lahore, and in 1952 became head of the Mathematics Department of the Punjab University. He had come back with the intention of founding a school of research, but it soon became clear that this was impossible. To pursue a career of research in theoretical physics he had no alternative at that time but to leave his own country and work abroad. Many years later he succeeded in finding a way to solve the heartbreaking dilemma faced by many young and gifted theoretical physicists from developing countries. At the ICTP, Trieste, which he created, he instituted the famous "Associateships" which allowed deserving young physicists to spend their vacations there in an invigorating atmosphere, in close touch with their peers in research and with the leaders in their own field, losing their sense of isolation and returning to their own country for nine months of the academic year refreshed and recharged. In 1954 Salam left his native country for a lectureship at Cambridge, and since then has visited Pakistan as adviser on science policy. His work for Pakistan has, however, been far-reaching and influential. He was a member of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, a member of the Scientific Commission of Pakistan and was Chief Scientific Adviser to the President from 1961 to 1974. Since 1957 he has been Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College, London, and since 1964 has combined this position with that of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 72 Director of the ICTP, Trieste. For more than forty years he has been a prolific researcher in theoretical elementary particle physics. He has either pioneered or been associated with all the important developments in this field, maintaining a constant and fertile flow of brilliant ideas. For the past thirty years he has used his academic reputation to add weight to his active and influential participation in international scientific affairs. He has served on a number of United Nations committees concerned with the advancement of science and technology in developing countries. To accommodate the astonishing volume of activity that he undertakes, Professor Salam cuts out such inessentials as holidays, parties and entertainments. Faced with such an example, the staff of the Centre found it very difficult to complain that they are overworked. He has a way of keeping his administrative staff at the ICTP fully alive to the real aim of the Centre - the fostering through training and research of the advancement of theoretical physics, with special regard to the needs of developing countries. Inspired by their personal regard for him and encouraged by the fact that he works harder than any of them, the staff cheerfully submit to working conditions that would be unthinkable here at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna (IAEA). The money he received from the Atoms for Peace Medal and Award he spent on setting up a fund for young Pakistani physicists to visit the ICTP. He uses his share of the Nobel Prize entirely for the benefit of physicists from developing countries and does not spend a penny of it on himself or his family. Abdus Salam is known to be a devout Muslim, whose religion does not occupy a separate compartment of his life; it is inseparable from his work and family life. He once wrote: "The Holy Quran enjoins us to reflect on the verities of Allah's created laws of nature; however, that our generation has been privileged to glimpse a part of His design is a bounty and a grace for which I render thanks with a humble heart."(Abdus Salam died in 1996)
The biography was written by Miriam Lewis, now at IAEA, Vienna, who was at one time on the staff of ICTP (International Centre For Theoretical Physics, Trieste).From Les Prix Nobel 1979.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 73 Abdus Salam - Banquet Speech Abdus Salam's speech at the Nobel Banquet, December 10, 1979 Your Majesties, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, On behalf of my colleagues, Professor Glashow and Weinberg, I thank the Nobel Foundation and the Royal Academy of Sciences for the great honour and the courtesies extended to us, including the courtesy to me of being addressed in my language Urdu.
Pakistan is deeply indebted to you for this. The creation of Physics is the shared heritage of all mankind. East and West, North and South have equally participated in it. In the Holy Book of Islam, Allah says
"Thou seest not, in the creation of the All-merciful any imperfection, Return thy gaze, seest thou any fissure. Then Return thy gaze, again and again. Thy gaze, Comes back to thee dazzled, aweary." This in effect is, the faith of all physicists; the deeper we seek, the more is our wonder excited, the more is the dazzlement for our gaze. I am saying this, not only to remind those here tonight of this, but also for those in the Third World, who feel they have lost out in the pursuit of scientific knowledge, for lack of opportunity and resource.
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Alfred Nobel stipulated that no distinction of race or colour will determine who received of his generosity. On this occasion, let me say this to those, whom God has given His Bounty. Let us strive to provide equal opportunities to all so that they can engage in the creation of Physics and science for the benefit of all mankind. This would exactly be in the spirit of Alfred Nobel and the ideals which permeated his life. Bless You! From: Les Prix Nobel 1979. 184.108.40.206 Prof Dr Ahmed Zewail
Ahmed Zewail - Autobiography On the banks of the Nile, the Rosetta branch, I lived an enjoyable childhood in the City of Disuq, which is the home of the famous mosque, Sidi Ibrahim. I was born (February 26, 1946) in nearby Damanhur, the "City of Horus", only 60 km from Alexandria. In retrospect, it is remarkable that my childhood origins were flanked by two great places - Rosetta, the city where the famous Stone was discovered, and Alexandria, the home of ancient learning. The dawn of my memory begins with my days, at Disuq's preparatory school. I am
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 75 the only son in a family of three sisters and two loving parents. My father was liked and respected by the city community - he was helpful, cheerful and very much enjoyed his life. He worked for the government and also had his own business. My mother, a good-natured, contented person, devoted all her life to her children and, in particular, to me. She was central to my "walks of life" with her kindness, total devotion and native intelligence. Although our immediate family is small, the Zewails are well known in Damanhur. The family's dream was to see me receive a high degree abroad and to return to become a university professor - on the door to my study room, a sign was placed reading, "Dr. Ahmed," even though I was still far from becoming a doctor. My father did live to see that day, but a dear uncle did not. Uncle Rizk was special in my boyhood years and I learned much from him - an appreciation for critical analyses, an enjoyment of music, and of intermingling with the masses and intellectuals alike; he was respected for his wisdom, financially well-todo, and self-educated. Culturally, my interests were focused - reading, music, some sports and playing backgammon. The great singer Um Kulthum (actually named Kawkab Elsharq - a superstar of the East) had a major influence on my appreciation of music. On the first Thursday of each month we listened to Um Kulthum's concert - "waslats" (three songs) - for more than three hours. During all of my study years in Egypt, the music of this unique figure gave me a special happiness, and her voice was often in the background while I was studying mathematics, chemistry... etc. After three decades I still have the same feeling and passion for her music. In America, the only music I have been able to appreciate on this level is classical, and some jazz. Reading was and still is my real joy. As a boy it was clear that my inclinations were toward the physical sciences. Mathematics, mechanics, and chemistry were among the fields that gave me a special satisfaction. Social sciences were not as attractive because in those days much emphasis was placed on memorization of subjects, names and the like, and for reasons unknown (to me), my mind kept asking "how" and "why". This characteristic has persisted from the beginning of my life. In my teens, I recall feeling a thrill when I solved a difficult problem in mechanics, for instance, considering all of the tricky operational forces of a car going uphill or
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 76 downhill. Even though chemistry required some memorization, I was intrigued by the "mathematics of chemistry". It provides laboratory phenomena which, as a boy, I wanted to reproduce and understand. In my bedroom I constructed a small apparatus, out of my mother's oil burner (for making Arabic coffee) and a few glass tubes, in order to see how wood is transformed into a burning gas and a liquid substance. I still remember this vividly, not only for the science, but also for the danger of burning down our house! It is not clear why I developed this attraction to science at such an early stage. After finishing high school, I applied to universities. In Egypt, you send your application to a central Bureau (Maktab El Tansiq), and according to your grades, you are assigned a university, hopefully on your list of choice. In the sixties, Engineering, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Science were tops. I was admitted to Alexandria University and to the faculty of science. Here, luck played a crucial role because I had little to do with Maktab El Tansiq's decision, which gave me the career I still love most: science. At the time, I did not know the depth of this feeling, and, if accepted to another faculty, I probably would not have insisted on the faculty of science. But this passion for science became evident on the first day I went to the campus in Maharem Bek with my uncle - I had tears in my eyes as I felt the greatness of the university and the sacredness of its atmosphere. My grades throughout the next four years reflected this special passion. In the first year, I took four courses, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and geology, and my grades were either excellent or very good. Similarly, in the second year I scored very highly (excellent) in Chemistry and was chosen for a group of seven students (called "special chemistry"), an elite science group. I graduated with the highest honors - "Distinction with First Class Honor" - with above 90% in all areas of chemistry. With these scores, i was awarded, as a student, a stipend every month of approximately £13, which was close to that of a university graduate who made £17 at the time! After graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Science, I was appointed to a University position as a demonstrator ("Moeid"), to carry on research toward a Masters and then a Ph.D. degree, and to teach undergraduates at the University of Alexandria. This was a tenured
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 77 position, guaranteeing a faculty appointment at the University. In teaching, I was successful to the point that, although not yet a professor, I gave "professorial lectures" to help students after the Professor had given his lecture. Through this experience I discovered an affinity and enjoyment of explaining science and natural phenomena in the clearest and simplest way. The students (500 or more) enriched this sense with the appreciation they expressed. At the age of 21, as a Moeid, I believed that behind every universal phenomenon there must be beauty and simplicity in its description. This belief remains true today. On the research side, I finished the requirements for a Masters in Science in about eight months. The tool was spectroscopy, and I was excited about developing an understanding of how and why the spectra of certain molecules change with solvents. This is an old subject, but to me it involved a new level of understanding that was quite modern in our department. My research advisors were three: The head of the inorganic section, Professor Tahany Salem and Professors Rafaat Issa and Samir El Ezaby, with whom I worked most closely; they suggested the research problem to me, and this research resulted in several publications. I was ready to think about my Ph.D. research (called "research point") after one year of being a Moeid. Professors El Ezaby (a graduate of Utah) and Yehia El Tantawy (a graduate of Penn) encouraged me to go abroad to complete my Ph.D. work. All the odds were against my going to America. First, I did not have the connections abroad. Second, the 1967 war had just ended and American stocks in Egypt were at their lowest value, so study missions were only sent to the USSR or Eastern European countries. I had to obtain a scholarship directly from an American University. After corresponding with a dozen universities, the University of Pennsylvania and a few others offered me scholarships, providing the tuition and paying a monthly stipend (some $300). There were still further obstacles against travel to America ("Safer to America"). It took enormous energy to pass the regulatory and bureaucratic barriers. Arriving in the States, I had the feeling of being thrown into an ocean. The ocean was full of knowledge, culture, and opportunities, and the choice was clear: I could either learn to swim or sink. The culture was foreign, the language was difficult, but my hopes were high. I did not speak or write English fluently, and I did not know much about
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 78 western culture in general, or American culture in particular. I remember a "cultural incident" that opened my eyes to the new traditions I was experiencing right after settling in Philadelphia. In Egypt, as boys, we used to kid each other by saying "I'll kill you", and good friends often said such phrases jokingly. I became friends with a sympathetic American graduate student, and, at one point, jokingly said "I'll kill you". I immediately noticed his reserve and coolness, perhaps worrying that a fellow from the Middle East might actually do it! My presence - as the Egyptian at Penn - was starting to be felt by the professors and students as my scores were high, and I also began a successful course of research. I owe much to my research advisor, Professor Robin Hochstrasser, who was, and still is, a committed scientist and educator. The diverse research problems I worked on, and the collaborations with many able scientists, were both enjoyable and profitable. My publication list was increasing, but just as importantly, I was learning new things literally every day - in chemistry, in physics and in other fields. The atmosphere at the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM) was most stimulating and I was enthusiastic about researching in areas that crossed the disciplines of physics and chemistry (sometimes too enthusiastic!). My courses were enjoyable too; I still recall the series 501, 502, 503 and the physics courses I took with the Nobel Laureate, Bob Schrieffer. I was working almost "day and night," and doing several projects at the same time: The Stark effect of simple molecules; the Zeeman effect of solids like NO2- and benzene; the optical detection of magnetic resonance (ODMR); double resonance techniques, etc. Now, thinking about it, I cannot imagine doing all of this again, but of course then I was "young and innocent". The research for my Ph.D. and the requirements for a degree were essentially completed by 1973, when another war erupted in the Middle East. I had strong feelings about returning to Egypt to be a University Professor, even though at the beginning of my years in America my memories of the frustrating bureaucracy encountered at the time of my departure were still vivid. With time, things change, and I recollected all the wonderful years of my childhood and the opportunities Egypt had provided to me. Returning was important to me, but I also knew that Egypt would not be able to provide the scientific atmosphere I had enjoyed in the U.S. A few more years in America would give me and my
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 79 family two opportunities: First, I could think about another area of research in a different place (while learning to be professorial!). Second, my salary would be higher than that of a graduate student, and we could then buy a big American car that would be so impressive for the new Professor at Alexandria University! I applied for five positions, three in the U.S., one in Germany and one in Holland, and all of them with world-renowned professors. I received five offers and decided on Berkeley. Early in 1974 we went to Berkeley, excited by the new opportunities. Culturally, moving from Philadelphia to Berkeley was almost as much of a shock as the transition from Alexandria to Philadelphia - Berkeley was a new world! I saw Telegraph Avenue for the first time, and this was sufficient to indicate the difference. I also met many graduate students whose language and behavior I had never seen before, neither in Alexandria, nor in Philadelphia. I interacted well with essentially everybody, and in some cases I guided some graduate students. But I also learned from members of the group. The obstacles did not seem as high as they had when I came to the University of Pennsylvania because culturally and scientifically I was better equipped. Berkeley was a great place for science - the BIG science. In the laboratory, my aim was to utilize the expertise I had gained from my Ph.D. work on the spectroscopy of pairs of molecules, called dimers, and to measure their coherence with the new tools available at Berkeley. Professor Charles Harris was traveling to Holland for an extensive stay, but when he returned to Berkeley we enjoyed discussing science at late hours! His ideas were broad and numerous, and in some cases went beyond the scientific language I was familiar with. Nevertheless, my general direction was established. I immediately saw the importance of the concept of coherence. I decided to tackle the problem, and, in a rather short time, acquired a rigorous theoretical foundation which was new to me. I believe that this transition proved vital in subsequent years of my research. I wrote two papers with Charles, one theoretical and the other experimental. They were published in Physical Review. These papers were followed by other work, and I extended the concept of coherence to multidimensional systems, publishing my first independently authored paper while at Berkeley. In collaboration with other graduate
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 80 students, I also published papers on energy transfer in solids. I enjoyed my interactions with the students and professors, and at Berkeley's popular and well-attended physical chemistry seminars. Charles decided to offer me the IBM Fellowship that was only given to a few in the department. He strongly felt that I should get a job at one of the top universities in America, or at least have the experience of going to the interviews; I am grateful for his belief in me. I only applied to a few places and thought I had no chance at these top universities. During the process, I contacted Egypt, and I also considered the American University in Beirut (AUB). Although I visited some places, nothing was finalized, and I was preparing myself for the return. Meanwhile, I was busy and excited about the new research I was doing. Charles decided to build a picosecond laser, and two of us in the group were involved in this hard and "non-profitable" direction of research (!); I learned a great deal about the principles of lasers and their physics. During this period, many of the top universities announced new positions, and Charles asked me to apply. I decided to send applications to nearly a dozen places and, at the end, after interviews and enjoyable visits, I was offered an Assistant Professorship at many, including Harvard, Caltech, Chicago, Rice, and Northwestern. My interview at Caltech had gone well, despite the experience of an exhausting two days, visiting each half hour with a different faculty member in chemistry and chemical engineering. The visit was exciting, surprising and memorable. The talks went well and I even received some undeserved praise for style. At one point, I was speaking about what is known as the FVH, picture of coherence, where F stands for Feynman, the famous Caltech physicist and Nobel Laureate. I went to the board to write the name and all of a sudden I was stuck on the spelling. Half way through, I turned to the audience and said, "you know how to spell Feynman". A big laugh erupted, and the audience thought I was joking - I wasn't! After receiving several offers, the time had come to make up my mind, but I had not yet heard from Caltech. I called the Head of the Search Committee, now a colleague of mine, and he was lukewarm, encouraging me to accept other offers. However, shortly after this, I was contacted by Caltech with a very attractive offer, asking me to visit with my family. We received the red carpet treatment, and that visit did cost Caltech! I never regretted the decision of accepting the Caltech offer.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 81 My science family came from all over the world, and members were of varied backgrounds, cultures, and abilities. The diversity in this "small world" I worked in daily provided the most stimulating environment, with many challenges and much optimism. Over the years, my research group has had close to 150 graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and visiting associates. Many of them are now in leading academic, industrial and governmental positions. Working with such minds in a village of science has been the most rewarding experience - Caltech was the right place for me. My biological children were all "made in America". I have two daughters, Maha, a Ph.D. student at the University of Texas, Austin, and Amani, a junior at Berkeley, both of whom I am very proud. I met Dema, my wife, by a surprising chance, a fairy tale. In 1988 it was announced that I was a winner of the King Faisal International Prize. In March of 1989, I went to receive the award from Saudi Arabia, and there I met Dema; her father was receiving the same prize in literature. We met in March, got engaged in July and married in September, all of the same year, 1989. Dema has her M.D. from Damascus University, and completed a Master's degree in Public Health at UCLA. We have two young sons, Nabeel and Hani, and both bring joy and excitement to our life. Dema is a wonderful mother, and is my friend and confidante. The journey from Egypt to America has been full of surprises. As a Moeid, I was unaware of the Nobel Prize in the way I now see its impact in the West. We used to gather around the TV or read in the newspaper about the recognition of famous Egyptian scientists and writers by the President, and these moments gave me and my friends a real thrill maybe one day we would be in this position ourselves for achievements in science or literature. Decades later, when President Mubarak bestowed on me the Order of Merit, first class, and the Grand Collar of the Nile ("Kiladate El Niel"), the highest State honor, it brought these emotional boyhood days back to my memory. I never expected that my portrait, next to the pyramids, would be on a postage stamp or that the school I went to as a boy and the road to Rosetta would be named after me. Certainly, as a youngster in love with science, I had no dreams about the honor of the Nobel Prize.
For more updated biographical information, see: Zewail, Ahmed, Voyage through Time. Walks of Life to the Nobel Prize. American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, 2002.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 82 Ahmed Zewail - Banquet Speech Ahmed Zewail's speech at the Nobel Banquet, December 10, 1999 Your Majesties, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, Let me begin with a reflection on a personal story, that of a voyage through time. The medal I received from his Majesty this evening was designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902 to represent Nature in the form of the Goddess Isis or eesis - the Egyptian Goddess of Motherhood. She emerges from the clouds, holding a cornucopia in her arms and the veil which covers her cold and austere face is held up by the Genius of Science1. Indeed, it is the genius of science which pushed forward the race against time, from the beginning of astronomical calendars six millennia ago in the land of Isis to the femtosecond regime honored tonight for the ultimate achievement in the microcosmos. I began life and education in the same Land of Isis, Egypt, made the scientific unveiling in America, and tonight, I receive this honor in Sweden, with a Nobel Medal which takes me right back to the beginning. This internationalization by the Genius of Science is precisely what Mr. Nobel wished for more than a century ago. In visionary words, Mr. Nobel summed up the purpose of the Prize: "The conquests of scientific research and its ever expanding field awake in us the hope that microbes - of the soul as well as of the body - will gradually be exterminated and that the only war humanity will wage in future will be war against these microbes". Mr. Nobel saw clearly what he wished for the world and the value of scientific discovery and advancement. Although there exist in the world today some microbes of the soul, such as discrimination and aggression, science was and still is the core of progress for humanity and the continuity of civilization. From the dawn of history, science has probed the universe of unknowns, searching for the uniting laws of nature. The world applauds your Majesties and the Swedish people for your appreciation, recognition, and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 83 celebration of discoveries of the unknown, which, according to Alfred Nobel will "leave the greatest benefit to mankind". I know of no other country that celebrates intellectual achievements with this class and passion. To the world, the Nobel Prize has become the crowning honor for two reasons. For scientists, it recognizes their untiring efforts which lead to new fields of discovery, and places them in the annals of history with other notable scientists. For Science, the Prize inspires the people of the world about the importance and value of new discoveries, and in so doing science becomes better appreciated and supported by the public, and, hopefully, by governments. Both of these are noble causes and we thank you. To me, there is a third cause as well. If the Nobel Prize had existed 6,000 years ago, when Egypt's civilization began, or even 2,000 years ago, when the famous library and university (museum) at Alexandria were established, Egypt would have scored very highly in many fields. In recent times, however, Egypt and the Arab World, which gave to Science Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), IbnRushd (Averroës), Ibn-Hayan (Geber), Ibn-Haytham (Al Hazen), and others, have had no Prizes in science or medicine. I sincerely hope that this first one will inspire the young generations of developing countries with the knowledge that it is possible to contribute to world science and technology. As expressed eloquently in 1825 by Sir Humphrey Davy: "Fortunately, science, like that nature to which it belongs, is neither limited by time nor by space. It belongs to the world, and is of no country and of no age." There is a whole world outside the boundaries of the "West" and the "North" and we can all help to make it the microbe-free world of Mr. Nobel. I also hope that the Prize will help the region I came from to focus on the advancement of science, the Science Society, and on dignity and peace for humanity. Your Majesties, I do not know how to express my own
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 84 personal feelings and those of my family about this recognition. Behind this recognition, there exists a larger community of femtoscientists all over the world who tonight declare themselves proud. My own science family at Caltech of close to 150 young scientists represents the true army that marched to victory and made the contribution possible; they, too, must be proud of their effort. Personally, I have been enriched by my experiences in Egypt and America, and feel fortunate to have been endowed with a true passion for knowledge. I am grateful that this highest crowning honor comes at a young age when I can, hopefully, enjoy and witness its impact on science and humanity. The honor comes with great responsibilities and new challenges for the future, and I do hope to be able to continue the mission, recalling the thoughtful words of the great scholar, Dr. Taha Hussein:
which can be paraphrased in the following words: "The end will begin when seekers of knowledge become satisfied with their own achievements." Thank you, Your Majesties. Thank you, all who are celebrating science and scientists.
The inscription reads: Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes, loosely translated: "And they who bettered life on earth by new found mastery" (literally stated, "inventions enhance life which is beautified through art"). From: Les Prix Nobel 1999.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 85 3.2.4 Noble prize: Is there a selection bias? The rarity of Muslims in the list of Nobel Prize winner had alarmed certain quarters on the realibility of the Nobel Prize selection process. In science, some has postulated the possibility of selection bias, in particular to the Jewish scientific community in view of their outstanding representative of the award. The other felt that even Noble Prize award could not fully dissociates itself from considerable political influences. Well quoted was the questionable absent of Mahatma Gandhi in the list of Noble Price for peace. To draw a conclusion from assumptions is very easy, yet the credibility and the benefit can be better appreciated when a scientific evaluation was added, even though the end result is pain-staking for certain quarters to shallow. Philip Brooks in his book 'Extraordinary Jewis America' quoted 'One hundred and fifty years ago there were barely 50,000 Jews in America. Today there are more Jews in America than in any other country. A large number of Jewish Americans are distinguished writers, scholars and composers. Although Jews have never represented more than 3.5 percent of America's total population, more than one-third of America's Noble Prize winners have been Jews'. A brief survey at the list of the Noble Prize winners shows interesting facts. The percentage of the Jewish prize winners in comparison with the Muslims are as the following: _______________________________________________________ Jewish (%) Muslim (%) _______________________________________________________ Economy 40 0 Peace 8 3 Physics 26 0.5 Chemistry 18 1.2 Medicine 28 0 Literature 11 2 _______________________________________________________ From the figure above, even though the Jews overceded the Muslims in all categories of awards, in general they have not constituted more than 30% of the total winner except in economy. At least the Noble Prize for science doesn't look like pro-Judaism compared to economy, which
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 86 seems relevant with the current mode of capitalistic world dominated by the Jewish economists. Up to the year 2000 there were 19 Jewish winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 37 winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics and this was further enhanced by the addition of no less that 44 Jewish winners of the Nobel Prize in the Biomedical Sciences. To understand further the success story of the Jewish scientific community, let us go back to their historical background. Jews were prominent in the biomedical sciences throughout the ages. It is well documented that Jewish doctors were retained for their knowledge and expertise by royalty and noblemen through the ages even at times when Jews were otherwise suffering the severest ostracism and oppression. As in the case of the disciplines of chemistry and physics, Germany's brutal racial policies drained Europe of a host of its most distinguished scientists. The Nazis ignored the fact that Jews were prominent in and were even at the head of some of the Germany's greatest scientific institutions. Meyerhof, for example, had been the Director of the newlyformed Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Research in Medicine, and later Warburg became the Director of its Center for the Study of Cell Physiology. Nine winners of the biomedical Nobel Prize were among the escapees from Hitler's horrors and the Jewish community even presumed more would be if not because of the genocidal pyres of the Nazi regime. England and the United States were the main beneficiaries of Central Europe's "brain drain," the exodus of distinguished scientists from both Nazi Germany and eastern Europe. As many as twelve prize winners were born of parents who had fled the pogroms in Eastern Europe. Three other Nobel Prize winners had emigrated to the USA directly from the "Pale of Jewish Settlement." Emigration to England and the USA did not begin nor end with the Nazis. Agencies like the Rockefeller Institute and many universities were eager to capture the products of Europe's most scientifically fecund educational institutions. Six biomedical Nobel Prize winners
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 87 joined the many other Jewish scientists who were benefitted by or found refuge in the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Lederberg, in fact, was appointed President of Rockefeller University. Likewise, the Pasteur Institute in Paris could count six biomedical Nobel Prize winners in its distinguished roster. Prize winner Lwow was appointed Head of the Department at the Institut Pasteur, and later served on its board of directors. Lwow also won France's highest honor for his courageous participation as a partisan in the underground struggle against the Nazis. Switzerland was likewise blessed with three biomedical Nobel Prize winners. The Jewish scientists had started from a stable broad based chain of intellectual platform. The fact that they have the same 'vision'after struggling through the same'experiences' if not 'tribulations' and dominated credible scientific 'positions' had make them strong and competent in dominating the scientific world. This should not detered the Muslims nation. The very fact that the ancestor of our scientific progeny during the golden era used to sit at their feet and learn, and then conquered the arts should became a catalyst for us to advance. So as the fact that actually we are not lack of scientists and intellectuals which will be revealed later in the chapter, should be a good motivating factor. So it seems that the nagging problem now is that the Muslims themselves do not have the same 'vision'and could not accept the fact that they have to undergo the same 'experience' and 'tribulations' to achieve the 'ultimate rewards'. This should be pondered by everyone, the Muslim scientist in particular. Otherwise at the end of the day their efforts will be a scattered effort, their success will be an individual success and their 'positioning' is of little or no benefit to the development of the Muslim nation. As for the case of Mahatma Gandhi, the Nobel Committee records reveal that he was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948. The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee. When the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 88 memory of Mahatma Gandhi". However, the committee has never commented on the speculations as to why Gandhi was not awarded the prize, and, until recently, the sources that might shed some light on the matter were unavailable. Oyvind Tonnesson, Peace Editor, Nobel e- Museum, who has examined and reported on the diaries of the committee advisors and chairpersons of the Nobel Committee, confirms that Gandhi was nominated five times and that his candidature was considered and rejected thrice when it was on the short list in 1937, 1947, and 1948. The Nobel Committee´s adviser, historian Jens Arup Seip, wrote a report, which was "favorable and yet not explicitly supportive". The basis for this duality, according to Tonnesson, is that there was ambiguity about Gandhi's non-violent role in the Partition, "should Gandhi be selected for being a symbol of non- violence, and what political effects could be expected if the Peace Prize was awarded to the most prominent Indian leader". Historians and chroniclers of the Noble Peace Prize now admit that it was a "curious omission" when men like Martin Luther King Jr. (the 1964 laureate who acknowledged Gandhi as his mentor) and 1960 Nobel Prize winner Albert Luthuli (who applied Gandhi´s principles in South Africa) and the 1989 winner, the Dalai Lama, were duly honored, but Gandhi, the first to employ nonviolence in a political context, was never awarded the Peace Prize. Scholarly critics of the Nobel Peace Prize agree that the exclusion of Gandhi has been a serious setback to the integrity of the prize. Prof. Irwin Abrams makes the point that there has been a conspicuous and unjustifiable absence of war-resisters and non-violent activists among the laureates and concludes that ´even less defendable is the parochial neglect for so long of the non-western and non-Christian world´. In other words the Nobel Committee is open to the charge of religious and racial bias Attempts to determine the reasons for Gandhi´s omission from the ranks of laureates is plagued by procedural difficulties.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 89 According to Statute Eight of the Nobel Foundation ´The deliberations, opinions and proposals of the Nobel Committee in connection with the award of prizes may not be made public or otherwise revealed´, and Statute Ten adds that ´No protest shall lie against the award of an adjudicating body. If conflicts of opinion have arisen, they shall not be recorded in the minutes or otherwise revealed.´ Thus the Nobel statutes forbid public revelation of the deliberations of the Committee or the disclosure of the list of nominees for any given year. Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948, two days before the closing date for that year Nobel Peace Prize nominations. The Committee received six letters of nomination naming Gandhi; among the nominators were the Quakers and former prize winners such as Emily Greene Balch and the American friends Service Committee, five professors of philosophy from New York´s Columbia University, five professors of law from the University of Bordeaux, and Norwegian professors Fedge Castberg and Kristian Oftedal. For the third time Gandhi came on the Committee´s short list - this time the list only included three names - and Committee adviser Jens Arup Seip wrote a report on Gandhi´s activities during the last five months of his life. He concluded that Gandhi, through his course of life, had put his profound mark on an ethical and political attitude which would prevail as a norm for a large number of people both inside and outside India. Nobody had ever been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize posthumously. But according to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation in force at that time, the Nobel Prizes could, under certain circumstances, be awarded posthumously. Thus it was possible to give Gandhi the prize. However, Gandhi did not belong to an organization and he left no will; who should receive the Prize money? The Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, August Schou, asked another of the Committee´s advisers, lawyer Ole Torleif Røed, to consider the practical consequences if the Committee were to award the Prize posthumously. Røed suggested a number of possible solutions for general application. Subsequently, he asked the Swedish prize-awarding institutions for their opinion. The answers were negative; posthumous awards, they thought, should not take place unless the laureate died after the Committee´s decision had been made.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 90 On November 18, 1948, the Norwegian Nobel Committee decided to make no award that year on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate". Chairman Gunnar Jahn wrote in his diary: "To me it seems beyond doubt that a posthumous award would be contrary to the intentions of the testator." According to the chairman, three of his colleagues agreed in the end, only Mr. Oftedal was in favor of a posthumous award to Gandhi. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, had he not been felled by an assassin's bullet, says Tonnesson.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 91 3.3 3.3.1 220.127.116.11 Prominent Muslim scientific figures in the twentieth century. MUSLIM SCIENTISTS PROF. DR FAROUK EL BAZ
Dr. Farouk El-Baz is Research Professor and Director of the Center for Remote Sensing at Boston University, Boston MA, U.S.A. He is Adjunct Professor of Geology at the Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. He is also a Member of the Board of Trustees of the Geological Society of America Foundation, Boulder CO He was born on 1 January 1938 in the Nile Delta town of Zagazig. Twenty years later, he received a B.Sc. in chemistry and geology from Ain Shams University, followed by a scholarship for graduate study. In 1961, he received a M.S. degree in geology from the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy; his performance won him membership in the honorary society of Sigma Xi. In 1964 he received a Ph.D. in geology from the University of Missouri after conducting research in 1962-1963 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge MA. In 1989, he received an Honorary Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) degree from the New England College, Henniker NH. Dr. El-Baz taught geology at Assiut University, Egypt (1958-1960) and the University of Heidelberg, Germany (1964-1965). He joined the Pan
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 92 American - U.A.R. Oil Company in 1966, where he participated in the discovery of El-Morgan, the first offshore oil field in the Gulf of Suez. From 1967 to 1972, Dr. El-Baz participated in the Apollo Program as Supervisor of Lunar Science Planning at Bellcomm Inc., a division of AT&T that conducted systems analysis for NASA Headquarters in Washington DC. During these six years, he was Secretary of the Landing Site Selection Committee for the Apollo missions to the Moon, Principal Investigator of Visual Observations and Photography, and Chairman of the Astronaut Training Group. His outstanding teaching abilities were confirmed by the Apollo astronauts. While circling the Moon for the first time during Apollo mission 15, Alfred Worden said, "After the King's [Farouk's nickname] training, I feel like I've been here before." During the Apollo years, Dr. El-Baz joined NASA officials in briefing members of the press on the results of the lunar missions. His appeal rested in a unique ability to simplify complex issues in clear, succinct and easily understood words. His remarks on the scientific accomplishments were regularly quoted by the media during the Apollo missions. As the Apollo program progressed through its projected series of human orbits of the moon and the landings, Dr. ElBaz became mentor to the participants, instructing lunar-bound astronauts on every aspect of the geology and geography of the moon. Training sessions on orbital science and photography went on during odd moments the astronauts could spare almost until the moment of blast-off. After the Apollo Program ended in 1972, Dr. El-Baz joined the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC to establish and direct the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies at the National Air and Space Museum. At the same time, he was elected as a member of the Lunar Nomenclature Task Group of the International Astronomical Union. In this capacity, he continues to participate in naming features of the Moon as revealed by lunar photographic missions. El-Baz is certainly looking to the future. But he has made sure too that some aspects of the past will not be forgotten: he's officially named one area of the moon Arabia, because it "looks like sand dunes and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 93 approximates the shape of Arabia." He's named another one Necho, to honor the Egyptian pharaoh who launched a naval expedition to prove that Africa was surrounded by water. "Moon craters have from the beginning been named for contributors to astronomy, mathematics and other sciences," he says. "There already are craters named for ancient Arab scientists, and I wanted to continue that practice. There were, after all, so many great Arab scientists at the height of the Islamic civilization who were not fully honored." El-Baz is doing his part, too, to spread the Arabic language. Along with several books on geology and lunar exploration, he has published a little phrase book, "Say It in Arabic," for use by English-speaking tourists. It grew out of Arabic phrases he'd compiled to help his American-born, Irish-descended wife on their trips to Egypt. In 1973, NASA selected him as Principal Investigator of the Earth Observations and Photography Experiment on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), the first joint American-Soviet space mission of July 1975. Emphasis was placed on photographing arid environments, particularly the Great Sahara of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, in addition to other features of the Earth and its oceans. In May 1974. Dr. El-Baz had an audience with His Majesty King Faisal in Riyadh, during which the late monarch gave his enthusiastic support for continued studies of the Arabian Desert from space. El-Baz returned to the Saudi Arabian capital in March 1976 to attend the Islamic Conference on Science - and Technology. The five-day parley, held under the auspices of Riyadh University and opened by His Majesty King Khalid, brought together 160 distinguished scientists, educators and engineers from all over the Muslim world. While there Dr. El-Baz met with Amir Fah'd, the Crown Prince, who spoke of his desire to establish a scientific research institution in Saudi Arabia. In Dr. El-Baz's opinion, the Arabian Peninsula is not only an ideal desert laboratory, but also offers optimum conditions for a whole spectrum of solar energy studies. Emphasizing the study of the origin and evolution of arid landscapes, he collected field data during visits to every major desert in the world. One of his significant journeys took place, soon after the United States and China had normalized relations in 1979, when he coordinated the
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 94 first visit by American scientists to deserts in northwestern China. The six-week journey was chronicled in National Geographic and the Explorers Journal. His research on the origin and evolution of the desert resulted in his election as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). His desert research, spanning over 25 years, helped in dispelling the public misconception that deserts were man-made and explained how arid lands originated and evolved in response to global climatic variations. His research methods are now commonly replicated in desert studies throughout the world. From 1982 to 1986, Dr. El-Baz was Vice President of Science and Technology at Itek Optical Systems, Lexington MA. He oversaw the application of data from the Space Shuttle's Large Format Camera. The photography of this advanced system assisted greatly in El-Baz's program of desert study from space. He was elected Fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) in 1985, and became a member of its Council in 1997. He represents the Academy at the NonGovernmental Unit of the Economic and Social. In 1986 Dr. El-Baz joined Boston University as Director of the Center for Remote Sensing to promote the use of space technology in the fields of archaeology, geography and geology. Under his leadership, the Center has grown to become a leading force in the applications of remote sensing technology to environments around the world. In 1997, NASA selected it as a "Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing." Research at the Center has particularly pushed forward the frontiers of applying remote sensing in archaeology. For example, Dr. El-Baz developed a methodology for nondestructive investigation of a sealed chamber containing a disassembled boat at the base of the Great Pyramid in Giza, Egypt. He reported the results of this unique investigation in National Geographic and American Scientist, as well as many print, radio and television interviews. He also contributed an article on worldwide applications of remote sensing to archaeology in the "1991 Yearbook of Science and the Future" of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and another to the August 1997 issue of Scientific American.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 95 Dr. El-Baz is well known as a pioneer in the application of space-borne data to ground-water exploration. He utilizes satellite images to identify fracture zones, and radar data to reveal sand-buried courses of former rivers. He successfully applied these methods in the arid lands of Egypt, Somalia, Sudan and Oman. His findings alleviated shortages of ground water in areas of dire need. This won him the M.T. Halbouty Human Needs Award of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). He was also appointed Senior Advisor to the World Bank/UN World Commission on Water for the 21st Century. He is an accomplished author or editor of twelve books, including Say it in Arabic, The Moon as Viewed by Lunar Orbiter, Apollo Over the Moon, Egypt as Seen by Landsat, Deserts and Arid Lands, The Gulf War and the Environment, and Atlas of the State of Kuwait from Satellite Images. He has contributed over 200 scientific papers to professional journals, supervised numerous graduate students, and lectured in academic institutions and research centers worldwide. Dr. El-Baz is a member of the United States National Committee for Geological Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences. He serves on the Board of Trustees of the new Alexandria Library, the Arab Science and Technology Foundation, the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies, the Egyptian-American Affairs Council, the MoroccanAmerican Council, the World Affairs Council of Boston, as well as the editorial boards of several international professional journals. He is a member of many national and international professional societies and a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Astronomical Society (London), and the Explorers Club (New York). He has won numerous honors and awards, including NASA's Apollo Achievement Award, Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, and Special Recognition Award; the University of Missouri Alumni Achievement Award for Extraordinary Scientific Accomplishments; the Certificate of Merit of the World Aerospace Education Organization; the Golden Door Award of the International Institute of Boston; the Award for Public understanding of Science and Technology of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Arab Republic of Egypt Order of Merit - First Class. He also serves as
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 96 President of the Arab Society for Desert Research. In 1999, the Geological Society of America (GSA) established the "Farouk El-Baz Award for Desert Research," an annual award aimed at encouraging excellence in arid land studies. Dr. El-Baz travels often to the Middle East and North Africa in search of knowledge about the desert. He and his wife, Patricia, have four daughters: Monira (Mika), Soraya, Karima, and Fairouz. They also have four grandchildren: Yasmeen Grace, Alia Nisreen, William Jr. and Ian Shuler. Years since leaving his Cairo classrooms Farouk El-Baz has accomplished more than many gifted men and women have succeeded in doing in long lifetimes and attained a reputation in his field of the highest order. Conceding that the West has given him a great deal of knowledge in the space-science field, El-Baz talks feelingly about the debt he is convinced he owes to the other side of the world: "I have not forgotten my link with the Arab world, and I cannot. I came from there. I continually ask myself how I can contribute to scientific development there. And I believe one of the best ways I can pay back some of the knowledge I have gained is to use it, particularly for those who need it most." Farouk is the fourth in line of nine talented El-Baz brothers and sisters. His father was a "relatively poor" teacher of religion and Arabic, undogmatic but fiercely ambitious for his children, who gave each of the older ones unstinting aid in their homework. It was not long before the older children, as is the custom in Arab families, were tutoring the younger ones and taking enormous pride in their scholastic achievements. Farouk remembers well how his father, a graduate of alAzhar University and a very devout man, would often say, "I wish that God will help me get at least one of my boys through high school." Farouk's mother married in her early teens. With her husband's help she taught herself the rudiments of reading and writing after her older children were half grown. But what the senior Mrs. El-Baz still lacks in formal education she more than compensates for, according to son Farouk, with "fantastic common sense and native intelligence."
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 97
In 1972, after repeated entreaties from those of her children living in the West, and by then a widow with no travel experience-even on a bus-the mother flew from Cairo to visit her U.S. daughter and two sons. Special reason for her second trip to the United States, in 1975, was to witness the Apollo-Soyuz launch at the Kennedy Space Center. At the launch site this visitor from far-off Nile country was accorded well-deserved treatment as a V.I.P.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 98 18.104.22.168 DR FAZLUR RAHMAN KHAN
Fazlur Rahman Khan was "the father of modern-day tall buildings." His creative yet realistic designs helped make high-rise construction possible in the 1960s and 1970s and are a legacy to today's engineers. In step with the abounding vitality of the time, structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan (1929 - 1982) ushered in a renaissance in skyscraper construction during the second half of the 20th century. Fazlur Khan was a pragmatic visionary: the series of progressive ideas that he brought forth for efficient high-rise construction in the 1960s and '70s were validated in his own work, notably his efficient designs for Chicago's 100-story John Hancock Center and 110-story Sears Tower (the tallest building in the United States since its completion in 1974).These projects utilize a tubular system method of construction that Khan popularized. The Hancock Center features a braced tube and the Sear Tower uses a bundled tube. One of the foremost structural engineers of the 20th century, Fazlur Khan epitomized both structural engineering achievement and creative collaborative effort between architect and engineer. Only when architectural design is grounded in structural realities, he believed thus celebrating architecture's nature as a constructive art, rooted in the earth - can "the resulting aesthetics … have a transcendental value and quality."
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 99 He introduced a groundbreaking structural system, the "bundled tube." This design for Chicago's 110-story Sears Tower was structurally efficient and economic: at 1,450 feet, it provided more space and raised higher than the Empire State Building, yet cost much less per unit area. Equally important, the new structure type was innovative in its potential for versatile formulation of architectural space. Efficient towers no longer had to be box-like; the tube-units could take on various shapes and could be bundled together in different sorts of groupings. When one looks at a text on tall-building design today, one finds these recognizable structure types: the framed tube, the shear wall frame interaction, the trussed tube, the bundled tube, and the composite system (also developed by Fazlur Khan). Though Khan developed structural systems for particular project needs, he based his innovations on fundamental structural principles that allowed them wide application. His developments are among today's "conventional" systems for skyscraper design. His ideas for these sky-scraping towers offered more than economic construction and iconic architectural images; they gave people the opportunity to work and live "in the sky." Hancock Center residents thrive on the wide expanse of sky and lake before them, the stunning quiet in the heart of the city, and the intimacy with nature at such heights: the rising sun, the moon and stars, the migrating flocks of birds. The cornerstone of Khan's approach; science and durability in fusion with creativity, endures also in the less affluent parts of the world. Until his death in 1981, Fazlur Rahman Khan was profoundly concerned with the rapid urbanisation of developing countries and called for the application of workable and appropriate forms of technology. Fazlur Khan was always clear about the purpose of architecture. His characteristic statement to an editor in 1971, having just been selected Construction's Man of the Year by Engineering News-Record, is commemorated in a plaque in Onterie Center (446 E. Ontario, Chicago),the last buiding he designed: The technical man must not be lost in his own technology. He must be able to appreciate life; and life is art, drama, music, and most importantly, people.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 100
After completing undergraduate coursework at the Bengal Engineering College, University of Calcutta, Fazlur R. Khan received his bachelor's degree from the University of Dacca in 1951 while placing first in his class. A Fulbright Scholarship and a Pakistani Government Scholarship subsequently enabled him to travel to the United States in 1952 where he pursued advanced studies at the University of Illinois, Urbana. In three short years Khan earned two masters' degrees - one in structural engineering and one in theoretical and applied mechanics - and a PhD in structural engineering. He received an Alumni Honor Award from the University of Illinois, Urbana (1972), an Honorary Doctor of Science from Northwestern University (1973), and an Honorary Doctor of Engineering from Lehigh University (1980). In 1961, Fazlur Khan was made a Participating Associate in Skidmore, Owings & Merrill; in 1966 he became an Associate Partner and in 1970 a General Partner - the only engineer partner at the time. In 1973 he was honored with the top accolade for an engineer in the United States, election to the National Academy of Engineering. He was cited five times among "Men Who Served the Best Interests of the Construction Industry" by Engineering News-Record (for 1965, 1968, 1970, 1971, and 1979); and in 1972 he was named "Construction's Man of the Year." He was posthumously honored with the International Award of Merit in Structural Engineering from the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering and a Distinguished Service Award from the AIA Chicago Chapter (both in 1982). In 1983 the American Institute of Architects recognized Fazlur Khan's contributions with an AIA Institute Honor for Distinguished Achievement. That same year he was honored with the Aga Khan Award for Architecture "for the Structure of the Hajj Terminal, An Outstanding Contribution to Architecture for Muslims," which was completed over the last years of his life.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 101 The Structural Engineers Association of Illinois recognized his achievements with the John Parmer Award in 1987. The SEAOI also commissioned a sculpture in Fazlur Khan's honor by the Spanish artist Carlos Marinas. The sculpture is located in the lobby of the Sears Tower. In 1998 the city of Chicago named the intersection of Jackson and Franklin Streets (located at the foot of the Sears Tower) "Fazlur R. Khan Way." Other honors include: · · · · · · · · · · · Chicagoan of the Year in Architecture and Engineering, Chicago Junior Chamber of Commerce (1970); Special Citation Award, American Institute of Steel Construction (1971); Wason Medal for the most meritorious paper, American Concrete Institute (1971); Thomas A. Middlebrooks Award, American Society of Civil Engineers (1972); Chicago Civil Engineer of the Year, Illinois Section, ASCE (1972); J. Lloyd Kimbrough Medal, American Institute of Steel Construction (1973); Khan was only the fifth recipient of AISC's highest tribute to professional achievement in the award's 35-year history; Alfred E. Lindau Award, American Concrete Institute (1973) "for outstanding contributions in advancing the art of reinforced concrete construction in high buildings"; Oscar Faber Medal, Institution of Structural Engineers, London (1973); State Service Award, Illinois Council, American Institute of Architects; Ernest E. Howard Award, American Society of Civil Engineers (1977); G. Brooks Earnest Award, American Society of Civil Engineers, Cleveland Section.
He passed away on the 27 March 1982 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In rememberance of his excellent contributions to the world of sctructural engineering the Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 102 and of Art & Architecture at Lehigh University, Pennsylvania had created the Fazlur Rahman Khan Chair, reserved for candidate with a world-class research reputation in Structural Engineering and those expected to bring innovative ideas to the classroom and design studio with a focus at the intersection of Structural Engineering and Architecture.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 103 22.214.171.124 DR ABDUL QADEER KHAN
Abdul Qadeer Khan is a Pakistani engineer widely regarded as the father of Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme. Born in 1935 into a middle-class Muslim family in Bhopal, India, Khan migrated to Pakistan in 1952 following the country's partition from India five years earlier. He trained as an engineer at the University of Karachi before moving after graduation to West Germany and Belgium for further studies, earning a doctorate from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium in 1972. That same year, he joined the staff of the Physical Dynamics Research Laboratory, or FDO, in Amsterdam. FDO was a subcontractor for the URENCO uranium enrichment plant at Almelo in the Netherlands, which had been established in 1970 by the United Kingdom, West Germany and the Netherlands to assure a supply of enriched uranium for European nuclear reactors. The URENCO plant used highly classified centrifuge technology to separate fissionable uranium-235 from U-238 by spinning a mixture of the two isotopes at up to 100,000 revolutions a minute. The technical complexity of this system is the main obstacle to would-be nuclear powers developing their own enrichment facilities. In May 1974, India tested a nuclear bomb, to the great alarm of Pakistan's government. Around this time, Khan had privileged access to the most secret areas of the URENCO plant as well as to documentation on centrifuge technology. A subsequent investigation
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 104 by the Dutch authorities found that he had passed highly classified material to a network of Pakistani intelligence agents, although they found no evidence that he was sent to the Netherlands as a spy, nor were they able to determine whether he approached his government or whether it was the other way around. He left the Netherlands suddenly in January 1976 and was put in charge of the Pakistani nuclear programme with the support of then prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Khan established the Engineering Research Laboratories at Kahuta in July 1976, subsequently renamed as the Dr. A.Q. Khan Research Laboratories (KRL), as the focal point for developing a uranium enrichment capability. KRL also took on many other weapons projects, including the development of the nuclear-capable Ghauri ballistic missiles. KRL occupied a unique role in Pakistani industry, reporting directly to the Prime Minister's office, and having extremely close relations with the military: former prime minister Benazir Bhutto has said that during her term of office, even she was not allowed to visit the facility. Pakistan very rapidly established its own uranium enrichment capability and was reportedly able to produce highly enriched uranium by 1986. This progress was so rapid that international suspicion was raised as to whether it had had outside assistance. It was reported that Chinese technicians had been at the facility in the early 1980s, but suspicions soon fell on Khan's activities at URENCO. In 1983, he was sentenced in absentia to four years in prison by an Amsterdam court for attempted espionage, although the sentence was later overturned on appeal on a legal technicality. Khan rejected any suggestion that Pakistan had illicitly acquired nuclear expertise: "All the research work [at Kahuta] was the result of our innovation and struggle," he told a group of Pakistani librarians in 1990. "We did not receive any technical know-how from abroad, but we can't reject the use of books, magazines and research papers in this connection." During the 1980s and 1990s, Western governments became increasingly convinced that covert nuclear and ballistic missile collaboration was taking place between China, Pakistan and North Korea.The activities of the Khan Research Laboratories led to the United States terminating economic and military aid to Pakistan in October 1990, following which
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 105 the Pakistani government agreed to a freeze in the nuclear programme. The American clampdown may have prompted an increasing reliance on Chinese and North Korean nuclear and missile expertise. In 1995, the U.S. learned that the Khan Research Laboratories had bought 5,000 specialized magnets from a Chinese government-owned company, for use in uranium enrichment equipment. More worryingly, it was reported that Pakistani nuclear technology was being exported to other aspirant nuclear states, notably North Korea. In May 1998, Newsweek magazine published an article alleging that Khan had offered to sell nuclear know-how to Iraq, an allegation that he denied. A few weeks later, both India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests that finally confirmed both countries' development of atomic weapons.Pakistan exploded six nuclear weapons in the desert of Baluchistan, in May 1998, (two weeks after India's re-tested theirs. The event was greeted with jubilation in both countries and Khan was feted as a national hero. President Rafiq Tarrar awarded him a gold medal for his role in masterminding the Pakistani nuclear programme. The United States immediately imposed sanctions on both India and Pakistan and publicly blamed China for assisting the Pakistanis. Khan's open promotion of Pakistan's nuclear and missile capabilities was really worrying The United States government who became increasingly convinced that Pakistan was trading nuclear technology to North Korea in exchange for ballistic missile technology. In the face of strong American criticism, the Pakistani government announced in March 2001 that Khan was to be dismissed from his post as chairman of KRL, a move that drew strong criticism from the religious and nationalist opposition to President Pervez Musharraf. Perhaps in response to this, the government instead appointed Khan to the post of special science and technology adviser to President Musharraf, with ministerial rank. While this could be presented as a promotion for Khan, it removed him from hands-on management of KRL and gave the government an opportunity to keep a closer eye on his activities. In January 2004, Khan confessed to having been involved in an international network of clandestine nuclear proliferation from Pakistan to Libya, Iran and North Korea. However on February 5, 2004, president Pervez Musharraf announced that he had pardoned Khan.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 106 Despite that ,Khan remains an extremely popular figure in Pakistan. He is known as an outspoken nationalist and for his belief that the West is inherently hostile to Islam. Dr Khan was awarded with Pakistan's countless official decorations including 13 solid gold medals and many more public honours - the only Pakistani to have twice received the Nishan-I-Imtiaz, the country's highest civilian honour. His image - wreathed in roses or electron rings - is a common sight on billboards and the sides of lorry that rumble down the roads of Pakistan. Ordinary Pakistanis revere Dr Khan as a great patriot and innovator who put himself at risk to obtain the nuclear grail.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 107 126.96.36.199 DR AVUL PAKIR JAINULABDEEN ABDUL KALAM
Born on 15th October 1931 at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu, Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam is known as the 'Father of India's missile programme' and brain behind the 1998 Pokharan nuclear tests. He specialized in Aeronautical Engineering from Madras Institute of Technology. In his early career he went to NASA (the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration) for a short training. At NASA's flight Facility's reception lobby, Kalam's eyes caught a painting prominently displayed; of the 'Tipu Sultan's army fighting the British'. Tipu Sultan (1750-1799), a ruler of Mysore, South India, was the pioneer of warfare rocketry. The painting inspired Kalam to develop Indian rocket, 'a revival of the eighteenth century dream of Tipu Sultan.' Space is the limit insofar as Kalam's own vision is concerned. Dr. Kalam made significant contribution as Project Director to develop India's first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully injected the Rohini satellite in the near earth orbit in July 1980 and made India an exclusive member of Space Club. He was responsible for the evolution of ISRO's launch vehicle programme, particularly the PSLV configuration. After working for two decades in ISRO and mastering launch vehicle technologies, Dr. Kalam took up the responsibility of developing Indigenous Guided Missiles at Defence Research and Development Organisation as the Chief Executive of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). He was responsible for the development and operationalisation of AGNI and PRITHVI Missiles and for building indigenous capability in critical technologies through networking of multiple institutions. He was the
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 108 Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development from July 1992 to December 1999. During this period he led to the weaponisation of strategic missile systems and the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in collaboration with Department of Atomic Energy, which made India a nuclear weapon State. He also gave thrust to self-reliance in defence systems by progressing multiple development tasks and mission projects such as Light Combat Aircraft. As Chairman of Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) and as an eminent scientist, he led the country with the help of 500 experts to arrive at Technology Vision 2020 giving a road map for transforming India from the present developing status to a developed nation. Dr. Kalam has served as the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India, in the rank of Cabinet Minister, from November 1999 to November 2001 and was responsible for evolving policies, strategies and missions for many development applications. Dr. Kalam was also the Chairman, Ex-officio, of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet (SAC-C) and piloted India Millennium Mission 2020. Dr. Kalam took up academic pursuit as Professor, Technology & Societal Transformation at Anna University, Chennai from November 2001 and was involved in teaching and research tasks. Above all he took up a mission to ignite the young minds for national development by meeting high school students across the country. In his literary pursuit four of Dr. Kalam's books - "Wings of Fire", "India 2020 - A Vision for the New Millennium", "My journey" and "Ignited Minds - Unleashing the power within India" have become household names in India and among the Indian nationals abroad. These books have been translated in many Indian languages. His humble background, born as a son to a boatman is a testament to how education can raise people from poverty. He refuses to be distracted by fame and glory, but remain totally modest. Prayer "acts as a stimulus to creative ideas," so he writes in Wings of Fire, an autobiographical work. His simplicity and his almost ascetic lifestyle have helped bolster the myth of the selfless, patriotic scientist who has
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 109 devoted his entire life to a mission - making India into a major military power. Dr. Kalam is one of the most distinguished scientists of India with the unique honour of receiving honorary doctorates from 30 universities and institutions. He has been awarded the coveted civilian awards Padma Bhushan (1981) and Padma Vibhushan (1990) and the highest civilian award Bharat Ratna (1997). He is a recipient of several other awards and Fellow of many professional institutions. Dr. Kalam became the 11th President of India on 25th July 2002. His focus is on transforming India into a developed nation by 2020.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 110 188.8.131.52 GENERAL KERIM KERIMOV
Kerim Kerimov was born in November 14, 1917 in Baku, Azerbaijan.A son of an engineer, he was known as the shadowy scientist whose leading role shaped the Soviet space programme. He has been involved in Soviet aeronautics from its inception after World War II. During his career, he rose to the highest position as Chairman of the State Commission, and supervised every stage of development and operation of both manned space complexes as well as unmanned interplanetary stations for the entire former Soviet Union. Kerim, chairman of the Soviet Aeronautics Commission, had a leading role behind the Soviet space programme over several decades. He was one of the architects of the string of Soviet successes that stunned the world from the early 1960s - from the launch of the first human in space, Yuri Gagarin's 108-minute trip around the world to Mir space station in 1986. In 1967, Cosmos 186 made history by successfully completing the first automated link-up between two unmanned spacecraft. For this achievement, Kerim was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General. He took a leading role in overseeing the numerous launches from Soviet Union's secret cosmodromes. His career in space industry expanded from Commander of TsUKOS 1964-1965 to Directorate Chief of Ministry of General Machine Building 1965-1974 before being appointed as the Chairmen for the State Commission for Soyuz 1966-1991. Kerim Kerimov identity has remained a secret for most of his career until 1987- when he was first mentioned in Pravda during Mikhail Gorbachev's era of glasnost and perestroika. Even Azerbaijanis did not
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 111 know that the man holding the Number One position in aerospace was an Azerbaijani. At televised space launchings, cameras always focused on the cosmonauts and not the person to whom they reported their readiness to carry out the mission. As Karimov was a "secreted general", he was always hidden from the camera's view; only his voice was broadcast. The following are few excerpts from an exclusive interview with Betty Blair, revealing this 'unknown' great contributor to the Soviet space mission: About the space missions: I haven't counted. But I was in that position 25 years and I launched all of them during that period. I almost didn't have a personal life. I used to work Saturdays and Sundays. I couldn't fall ill. I didn't have the right to get sick. Despite all this, I'd have to admit I'm satisfied with my life except for the fact that I lost my wife very early on. She was only 50 when she died and, afterwards, I never remarried. I had met her at school; we had studied together. About his being kept secret from public: First of all, I was a "secret" general. Previously, I had been in the sphere of strategic rockets (hydrogen bombs). Later, after being transferred to aeronautics (we had given that division the non-descript name of "Ministry of General Machinery"), they continued the tradition of keeping me secreted. My name was first mentioned publicly in the newspaper, "Pravda", on August 7, 1987. After that, everybody started interviewing me. That was during Gorbachev's "Glasnost" and "Perestroika". Prior to that, I was known as the "nameless" or "anonymous" Chairman of the Commission About his book published in 1995: It's called "The Way to Space: The Notes of the Chairman of the State Commission." Frankly speaking, much of the information that was made public was produced as propaganda. But after 1988, it became possible to write about me as I had been in the position to have
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 112 participated in all the space flights. It was then that I was asked to write about what actually happened behind the scenes-many events had not been made known. People were curious about space missions so I offered to write about my activities and to document everything that I had experienced. The book is very technical. In fact, it's my first published work. I wanted to write about each space flight with all its shortcomings as well as its benefits. Not a single flight went smoothly. The descriptions in the book are based on reports that I made to the State Commission. If anyone wants to discover any information about the dates, time of flights, their landings, it's all there. I tried not to hide anything. There had been rumors that Gagarin was not the first cosmonaut to go into space, but that wasn't true. I write about these kinds of things. About life: I've had incredible experiences in my life time, most of which I wouldn't trade for anything in the world. He was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labour and the Order of Lenin. He died in March 2003 in Moscow after a brief illness at the age of 85.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 113 184.108.40.206 PROF DR SEEYED MAHMOUD HESSABY
Professor at the University of Tehran, Dr. Mahmoud Hessaby was an important Iranian and Muslim scientist.He is also known as the 'Father of Modern Physic in Iran'. He was born in Tehran in 1903.At the age of seven he moved to Beirut where he began attending school. At the age of seven he memorized the Qur'an by heart and later he started to read great books of Persian literature, which are regarded as very sophisticated. At the early age of seventeen he obtained his Bachelor's in Arts and Sciences from the American University of Beirut. Later he obtained his BA in civil engineering while working as a draftsman. After a short period of time he obtained a BA in Mathematics and Astronomy. He continued his studies and as a graduate of the Engineering school of Beirut he was admitted to the "École Superieure d'Electricité". In 1925 he graduated from this school at the same time he was hired by the French Electric Railway Co. He had a scientific mind and continued his research in Physics at the Sorbonne University and obtained his Ph.D in Physics from this University at the age of twenty-five. According to the Professor Hessaby Institute, the following were some of his accomplishments: Founding the Highway Engineering school and teaching there from 1928 Survey and drawing of the first coastal road-map between Persian
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 114 Gulf ports Founding the "teachers college" and teaching there from 1928 Construction of the first radio-set in Iran (1928) Construction of the first weather-station in 1931 Installation and operation of the first radiology center in Iran in 1931 Calculation and setting of Iranian time (1932) Founding the first private hospital in Iran (Goharshad Hospital) in 1933 Writing the University charter and founding Tehran University (1934) Founding the Engineering school in 1934 and acting as the dean of that school until 1936 and teaching there from then on Founding the faculty of science and acting as its dean from 1942 to 1948 Commissioned for the dispossession of British Petroleum Company during government of Dr. Mossadegh and appointed as the first general manager of the National Iranian Oil Company Minister of Education in the cabinet of Dr. Mossadegh from 1951 to 1952 Opposing the contract with the consortium while in the senate Opposing the membership of Iran in CENTO (Baghdad Pact) Founding the Telecommunication Center of Assad-Abad in Hamedan (1959) Writing the standards charter for the standards Institute of Iran (1954) Founding the Geophysical Institute of Tehran University (1961) Title of distinguished professor of Tehran University from 1971 Founding the atomic research center and atomic reactor at Tehran University Founding the atomic Energy center of Iran, member of the UN scientific sub-committee of peaceful use of member of the international space committee (1981) Establishment of Iran's space research committee and member of the international space committee (1981) Establishment of the Iranian music society and founding the Persian language Academy. He continued lecturing at University for three working generations, teaching seven generations of students and professors. He spoke four
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 115 living languages: French, English, German and Arabic and he also knew Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Pahlavi, Avestan, Turkish and Italian which he used for his etymological studies. In the scientific field: twenty-five research papers, articles and books have been put to print by professor Hessaby. His theory of "Infinitely extended particles" is well-known among the world scientist. The medal of the commandeur de la legion d honneure, France's greatest scientific medal, was awarded to him for his theories. Professor Hessaby was the only Iranian student of professor Albert Einstein, he was known to be his favourite student, and during his years of scientific research he had meetings with well-known scientists such as Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, Enrico Fermi, Paul Dirac, Aage Niels Bohr ....and scholars such as Russel and Andre-Gide. During the congress of "60 years of physics in Iran" the services rendered by him were deeply appreciated and he was entitled "the father of physics in Iran". He passed away on September 3, 1992, at the University hospital of Geneva. As Hesabi had wished he was buried in his mother-land Tafresh.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 116 220.127.116.11 PROF DR ZAKARIA ERZINCLIOGLU
Dr. Zakaria, also known as Dr. Zak, was Britain's leading forensic entomologist Britain's leading forensic entomologist (an expert in the application of insect biology to criminal investigations) with three decades' experience in solving all manner of grisly crimes. He was also the author of the fascinating, if gruesome, Maggots, Murder and Men (2000).In this book Erzinçlioglu, who described himself as a "maggotologist", explained the scientific basis of his work: "When a body begins to decompose, it releases volatile compounds with particular chemical compositions. These are the odours that attract a fly to a corpse." Once the odours disappear, usually within a few weeks of death, flies ignore the corpse, so by calculating the age of the flies and fly larvae found on the body, a forensic entomologist can determine with a degree of confidence how long ago (and often in what sort of environment) the person died. Erzinçlioglu, or "Dr Zak", as he was affectionately known, was a professed admirer of the methods of Sherlock Holmes and, like his hero, was unsqueamish about death. He observed that "viewed dispassionately a dead human body is a magnificent and highly nutritious resource," and claimed to find "a great deal of beauty" in the blowflies and other insects whose maggots thrive on decaying flesh. During his career, Erzinçlioglu helped to solve more than 200 murders, including those committed by Robert Black, alias "Smelly Bob", who was convicted in 1994 of the murders and rapes of three young girls. He was also consulted in 1985 during the investigation of the murder of 14-
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 117 year old Jason Swift by members of a paedophile ring. Erzinçlioglu's evidence in this case showed that Jason had been killed indoors and not in the woods where his body was discovered. In 1984, Erzinçlioglu's evidence helped to convict Dr Sampson Perera, a dental lecturer at Wakefield accused of murdering a 13-year old girl he had adopted illegally and kept as a slave. Perera had chopped his victim in pieces and hidden her remains round his house, laboratory and garden. When the remains were found, he claimed they were sterile bones he used in his medical research. But by identifying a particular fly which was still present on some of the bones, Erzinçlioglu was able to prove the bones had been recently dismembered, a crucial piece of evidence in the prosecution. Despite his evident relish for his subject, Erzinçlioglu was a soft-spoken man of immense compassion and integrity who never forgot the human tragedy behind the forensic evidence, believing that "the last aspects of your life have to be dealt with as well". Zakaria Erzinçlioglu was born on December 30 1951 in Hungary to parents of Turkish origin. He was partly brought up in Egypt and the Sudan and partly in England, where, as a child, he contracted polio, and as a result developed a limp. He started out an as entomologist interested in how insects transmit diseases and obtained a degree in Applied Zoology at Wolverhampton Polytechnic in 1975. From 1976 to 1981 he worked for the Zoological Society of London as a compiler for the Zoological Record.In the early 1970s, he was telephoned by police who needed someone who knew something about maggots. They came back to him again and again and, as he recalled, "soon I thought, 'well, this is an interesting area'." In 1981 he moved to Durham University to study for a doctorate with Lewis Davies. His thesis was on blowfly eggs and larvae and their development. Not all his forensic investigations were grisly. On one occasion he was consulted by a firm of vintners accused of negligence by an aggrieved customer in Scotland who had found a spider in one of their bottles of wine. Erzinçlioglu identified the spider as Clubonia diversa, a species
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 118 which does not occur indoors but is common in boggy areas of the north. He concluded that it was difficult to see how the spider could have entered the wine during bottling and since the complainant lived in a marshy area of lowland Scotland, it was likely that it had entered after the bottle had been opened, probably during an alfresco party. In 1984, as an employee of the Field Studies Council, he moved to Cambridge University, where he worked with Henry Disney in the Zoology department. Among other publications this resulted in Blowflies (1996 - volume 23 in the Naturalists' Handbook series). He was then funded by the Home Office to undertake research in forensic entomology and was later appointed director of a new Forensic Science Research Centre at Durham University. Erzinçlioglu fought constant battles for funding, and in 1995, shortly after the Royal Army Medical College had awarded him their John Grundy Medal for medical entomology, the centre was forced to close. He returned to Cambridge as an affiliated researcher at the Department of Zoology and continued to do case work for the police. In 1997, however, he announced that, in future, he would only carry out forensic work if paid by the judiciary. Explaining his decision in an article in Nature in 1998, Erzinçlioglu claimed that incompetent and dishonest forensic scientists were undermining Britain's criminal justice system. The Government's decision to make the forensic science service an agency of the Home Office, he argued, had led to the development of an unregulated market in which lawyers acting for one side or the other in criminal trials could effectively buy the evidence most favourable to their cause. Erzinçlioglu recommended that a fully-staffed statutory body should be set up, answerable solely to the judiciary and not dependent on the "goodwill" of its customers. Much of Erzinçlioglu's later forensic work was concerned with miscarriages of justice - work he often carried out for nothing.Dr Erzinclioglu said: "Forensic scientists should not be subject to financial or emotional pressures and their independence must be guaranteed and defined in law so that, like judges, their neutrality and objectivity can be upheld in every way. "Unfortunately at the present time forensic science evidence is paid for by people who are, by the very nature of the system, biased, even if they are sincerely trying to
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 119 arrive at the truth. Police officers and lawyers are interested but not, with the best will in the world, disinterested, parties." In the last years of his life, Erzinçlioglu spent much of his time working from home writing books. Maggots, Murder and Men was the runnerup in the Crime Writers' Association 2001 Silver Dagger Award for nonfiction. He also wrote Every Contact Leaves a Trace (2001), as well as a children's story, Ivo of the Black Mountain, and a thriller, Jackdraw Crag, which have yet to be published. Erzinçlioglu served, variously, on the council of the Linnean Society and of the Zoological Society and as a member of the National Trust Wicken Fen Management Committee and the advisory committee of the Centre for Albanian studies. He was a trustee of the BosniaHerzegovina Rescue Foundation. At the time of his death he was working on books on poisons and on miscarriages of justice as well as a play. He participated in television programmes on forensic science, including the documentary The Witness was a Fly, which was shown on the BBC. Zakaria Erzinçlioglu married Sharon Wynne Davies in 1984 and they had a son and two daughters. They met while both were studying for zoology PhDs at Durham University. Her research was into the underwater foraging behaviour of mink. Dr Zak was developing ways to identify flies from their maggots, a skill he would use regularly in his later career as a forensic scientist.Dr Zak's last effort was to set up an independent forensic science centre, which he named the Solon Institute, after the Greek sage who reformed Athenian law. Unfortunately,in September 2002, before he could get the idea off the ground, he had an unexpected and fatal heart attack, aged 50.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 120 18.104.22.168 PROF DR SAMIRA IBRAHIM ISLAM
Prof Dr Samira Ibrahim Islam of Saudi Arabia was she was the first Saudi woman to complete a basic education; the first Saudi woman to obtain a BA and PhD degree; also with respect to all specialties she was the first Saudi woman to become a full professor. While in the field of Pharmacology she was the first Saudi, man or woman, to become a full professor. Her successful working career was not limited to pure science research projects only; with considerable devotion to, and a sincere interest in the field of girl's higher education which was in its infancy in the early 70s - Professor Islam's contribution branched into many separate areas.. She is also the first to introduce formal university education for girls in the Kingdom and the first woman vice dean in a Saudi university. Professor Islam started her academic career in 1971 by volunteering to lecture at the College of Education, King Abdulaziz University, Makkah Branch (now Umm Al Qura University). In 1972, Dr Ahmed Muhammad Ali, the university President, appointed Dr Islam as an official member of the teaching staff in the position of Lecturer. With the encouragement and support of Dr Mohammed Abdu Yamani, then the Rector of King Abdulaziz University, in 1973 Dr Islam was assigned as Academic Advisor for the girl's section in both the Jeddah and Makkah branches. She introduced formal university education sections for girls; prior to 1973 girls were enrolled as external students only, and those interested were allowed to attend limited evening classes only. At the expense at time of furthering her own scientific career and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 121 research Professor Islam dedicated her time to starting official, regular daytime university education for girls. Dr Islam established many new educational programs for women and she was also assigned as the Head of the Science Departments. During 1973, Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Biology were founded in the College of Education Makkah branch with Dr Islam at their Head. This was the first time girls were enrolled into science subjects and allowed to carry out practical studies in laboratories. In 1974 the Faculty of Medicine was established; Professor Abdullah Basalamal became the Dean of the Faculty and Professor Islam was the Vice Dean, the first time such a title had been given to a woman in Saudi Universities. In 1975 she was the second person to be assigned as one of the founders of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences. In 1975 male and female students were enrolled in the medical program, Nursing and Medical Technology programs followed in 1976. The Nursing Program was opened for girls only, with no male staff; Professor Islam took the full responsibility of developing its program faculty and in 1978 became the Dean of that program.she was responsible for the establishment, together with the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences Facilities, a BA degree program in Natural Sciences for girls and the first group were also enrolled in 1975. Professor Islam took charge of this college for the following three years and participated in the required planning to develop its faculty and facilities until it became an independent college of Kind Abdul Aziz University. With support of the Health Sector of the Armed Forces and Aviation between 1981 and 1984 she also established the specialized secondary school program for girls 'School of Health Sciences' which grants a secondary school certificate in specialized areas of the health profession. Whilst achieving so much on behalf of women in her country in terms of higher education, Professor Islam also managed to combine her academic work with a successful career as a research scientist - never losing touch with her dream of conducting research that would eventually benefit the whole of Saudi society. Professor Islam received strong support and co-operation from colleagues and assistants which enabled her to develop her prime interest in research. With their encouragement and due to her dedication to scientific research she would travel to Britain to complete
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 122 her research in Pharmacology, as there were no research laboratories in her own country during the seventies. "It was with considerable difficulty. I used to collect samples for my experiments in those days and hand carried them to the UK to my Medical School at Paddington," recalls Professor Islam. At that stage she focused on pharmacogenetic studies, and managed to phenotype the Saudi population; she defined the polymorphism traits with respect to some metabolic pathways; 'acetylation' and '4-hydroxilstion' reactions, which some drugs undergo when taken into the body of patients. "Our country is an open market for imported drugs from East and West and none of the producers have studied the ethnic influences on the effects of these drugs. With regard to medication, we were vulnerable in not having enough specific information about the normal biological and physiological constitution of our population, with the consequence that physicians would used the empirical values for calculating drug doses, which may be extremely risky when prescribing certain drugs because there are many hereditary factors which distinguish the different populations of the world and consequently their needs for specific drug doses, these differences are not critical for all drugs. In any event my research is the first of its kind in the international literature which defines the Saudi profile in drug metabolism and is an important contribution to drug safety," she observes. Professor Islam achieved recognition in her field and she became the first Saudi full professor in Pharmacology in 1983. She focused her research on the effect of drugs on the Saudi population through the Drug Monitoring Unit at King Fahd Medical Research Canter of King Abdulaziz University. She founded the Drug Monitoring Unit from the research funds she was granted where the blood of patients undergoing medication is analyzed, thus helping physicians to decide on accurate doses. Professor Islam remarked that she publicized the need for every organization and individual to support scientific research in this country, especially concerning the drug safety which includes treatment of illnesses and curing of diseases. Her groundbreaking research and contributions to science in her home country were finally recognized when Professor Samira Ibrahim Islam
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 123 became the first Muslim and Arab woman to be nominated by UNESCO as a distinguished Scientist of the World for the Year 2000, at their For Women in Science Awards. The award, first instituted in 1998, selects female scientists who have made a major contribution to their area of expertise. Of the 100 women scientists nominated globally, the UNESCO award committee in Paris chose 32 in late 1999 as final nominees. Saudi Arabia was one of the six Asian counties shortlisted along with China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea and India. Professor Islam established collaborative links of mutual benefit with several international academic institutions internationally. From 1996 to '98 Professor Islam became the first Saudi woman and the second Saudi Arab to hold an official staff position in the World Health Organization (WHO); she was appointed to the post of Regional Advisor (Essential Drug Program in the Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean), which covers 23 countries of the Region. Denying herself an international career Professor Islam resigned from the WHO in 1998, and returned to Jeddah in response to the request which she was deeply honored to receive from the late Queen Effat to establish the first private university college for girls - Effat National College. For this remarkable effort,she was conferred the title of Establishing Dean. Professor Islam manages to combine her scientific interests at the Pharmacology Department and the Drug Monitoring Unit at King Fahd Medical Research Canter, King Abdulaziz University with her work at Effat College, continuing to make huge advances in the sciences and in women's education in Saudi.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 124 22.214.171.124 PROF. DR HAROON AHMED
Professor Haroon Ahmed is a distinguished electrical and electronics engineer. He is the Master of Corpus Christi College, University of Cambridge (the first Muslim master of an Oxbridge College) and Professor of Microelectronics at the Cavendish Laboratory. Haroon Ahmed first came to the Engineering Department, Cambridge University in 1959 having graduated at Imperial College London. He worked for his PhD with Charles Oatley and Bill Beck. He then continued to work with Charles Oatley, until Oatley retired, before moving into the new research area of electron beam lithography in 1970. He taught electrical engineering at the Department for twenty-two years, until 1984, and saw the electronics courses change from valves to transistors and eventually to modern microelectronics. His two text books, one with Beck and the other with Spreadbury, have been used to teach many generations of students. His research group eventually became so large that he moved it to the Science Park, although it still remained part of the Department. This group left the Engineering Department in 1984 when Haroon moved to the Cavendish to set up the Microelectronics Research Centre with the aid of a large donation from Hitachi. As the Head of the Microelectronics Research Centre he has carried out many projects in collaboration with well-known industrial companies. He is nonExecutive Chairman of the Board of Smartbead Ltd which is a start-up company in biotechnology and he has served as an advisor to electronic companies and to Government bodies nationally and internationally.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 125
In August 2000 he was elected as the Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.Haroon Ahmed has worked at the University of Cambridge in the Engineering and Physics Departments for more than 30 years. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and of the Institute of Physics. He retired from Cambridge in September 2003. Haroon Ahmed has lived in Cambridge for 42 years. His wife Anne, also a graduate of the University of Cambridge, worked for many years as a Research Assistant on the Addenbrooke's site.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 126 126.96.36.199 PROF DR AHMED SHAMMIN SIDDIQUI
Dr Ahmed Shamim Siddiqui was a brilliant physicist whose original contributions to the fields of optical communications stimulated what was a paradigm of collaboration between academe and industry. His peculiar talent was to envisage novel applications of the physics of the infra-red to photonics. He gained international recognition for his work in optical communication systems and particularly for his pioneering research on polarisation effects in fibre-optic transmissions. During the early 1990s his research focused on the fundamental polarisation properties of optical fibres. His work contributed greatly to the understanding of Polarisation Mode Dispersion (PMD). This is an important limiting factor for transmitting high-speed and high-volume information through optical fibres over very long distances. He demonstrated the first two-channel optical transmission using polarisation division multiplexing. This work led to the invention of the first real-time optical polarimeter, which was granted a US patent in 1992. The understanding and management of PMD in fibre-optic links has been a major step for achieving today's global information society based on the huge capacity that only optical fibre can provide. Siddiqui worked closely with Nortel (Northern Telecom), British Telecom, STC submarine systems and later Alcatel Submarine Networks searching for solutions for greater transmission capacities over their long-haul undersea fibre networks. Siddiqui's more recent
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 127 pioneering achievements in the field include the development of the first fully polarisation-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer as well as the novel polarisation mode dispersion compensation techniques. Shamim Siddiqui was born in Patna, India in 1942, the son of a Professor of Zoology at the University of Lucknow, and grew up in Pakistan. He came to Britain after taking a first degree in Karachi, and became a British citizen shortly after completing his education in Physics at Heriot-Watt University, in Edinburgh, in 1972. He then embarked on the uncertain life of a post-doctoral research assistant, which took him into the physics departments of Bristol, Essex and Queen Mary College, London, and eventually, in 1983, to a lectureship in the Department of Electronic Systems Engineering at Essex. In 2001, he was awarded a Professorship at Essex University. He has published more than 100 papers and was a holder of three patents. He had a daughter from previous marriage with Elizabeth Noble in 1967. In 1977 he married Cora van Helfteren. He died in Cholchester on 22 August 2001. As a tribute to his extensive contribution the University of Essex has introduced the Shamim Siddiqui Award. This prize is awarded annually to an outstanding student in the Department of Electronic Systems Engineering who submits the best essay on a theme of general intellectual interest, including topics that reflect Professor Siddiqui's interests including the philosophy of science and ethical and social issues arising from science and technology.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 128 188.8.131.52 PROF. DR ALI JAVAN
Prof Dr Ali Javan currently is the Professor Emeritus in Physics, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. He is internationally known as the inventor of the 'gas laser'. He was born in 1928 in Tehran of Azerbaijani parentage. His mother and father were born in Tabriz (Iran). Javan came to the United States in 1949 and received the Ph.D. degree in physics in 1954 from Columbia University in New York City under the direction of Charles Townes. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University, he joined the research staff of Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey in September, 1958. In 1961 he joined the MIT faculty, where he has continued to teach and conduct research up to the present. Professor Javan conceived of the gas laser principle in 1958, while a member of the Bell Laboratories technical staff, and in 1960 he brought this concept to fruition, successfully operating the well-known and widely used helium-neon laser. This invention, the first laser to operate continuously, attracted immediate international attention and laid the foundation for a great deal of subsequent work. Prior to his work on the laser, Professor Javan developed the theory of the three level lasers and showed the importance of phase coherence in this microwave device. This work introduced the concept of lasers without population inversion, and he further extended this idea to the use of the stimulated Raman effect to achieve gain, a concept that subsequently led to novel extensions in the optical regime.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 129 Professor Javan's continued contributions over the years have advanced diverse frontiers in the field of quantum electronics. At MIT, he established a major research laboratory and developed it into the largest university laser research laboratory throughout the 1960's and 1970's. Many of the early breakthroughs in the scientific uses of lasers took place there. These include the many developments in laser spectroscopy at sub-Doppler resolution, which defined the field of gas phase nonlinear spectroscopy; the first use of lasers to accurately test the special theory of relativity and the isotropy of space; the introduction of absolute frequency measurement technology into the optical region, and the first development of laser atomic clocks. Professor Javan has continued to be active in novel areas of research, including his recent work exploring the effects of coupling light by an optical antenna into a nanoscale volume of matter. A number of active fields of research have emerged from his work. His contributions have also extended to applied research areas, from the development of high energy gas lasers and multistatic laser radars, controlled by accurate optical clocks, to lasers for medical diagnostic use. He has supervised the doctoral thesis research of a large number of physics graduate students. In addition, he has served as an active consultant to government and industry. For his work on gas lasers, Professor Javan was awarded the 1964 Stewart Ballentine Medal of the Franklin Institute, the 1966 Fanny and John Hertz Foundation Medal, the 1975 Fredrick Ives Medal of the Optical Society, and the 1993 Albert Einstein World Medal of Science of the World Cultural Council. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an Associate Fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences, and an Honorary Member of the Trieste Foundation for the Advancement of Science. In 1966 he was named a Guggenheim Fellow, and in 1979 and 1995 a Humbolt Foundation Fellow. He's been with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) since 1962. Prof Javan, known as a person who always pre-occupied with the future of science, yet the following excerpts can summarise the vision and perception of this great scientist:
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 130 On science and discovery: "In the scientific world, they always say that when the time comes for an invention or a discovery to be made, if you don't do it, someone else will. To a large extent, that's true. But it's not always the case. People can miss a good idea." "Science always develops on the strength of work done in the past. When Newton discovered gravity, he admitted that he had "stood on the shoulders of giants and that's how he had seen farther." Nothing ever develops on its own, isolated from the past. There's always a foundation for our knowledge that others have laid and that we build upon" "It's difficult to pinpoint the moment when a creative idea is born. Oh, I suppose there's a beginning somewhere along the line. But who knows? At some moment you know everything about your invention even though you're not aware that you do. And then suddenly it all fits together and the discovery is made" As a child: "As long as I can remember, I've always been interested in science. I never hesitated to get involved in science……. I remember playing a lot with gadgets. My first attempt to invent something was for an idea that could never have worked out. Conceptually, it was impossible.But I tried anyway…."
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 131 184.108.40.206 PROF DR KARIMAT EL-SAYED
Prof Dr Dr. Karimat EL-SAYED is currently the Professor of Solid State Physics, Department of Physic, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. As a high school girl, Karimat EL-SAYED was overwhelmed by the glorious biography of Marie Curie, the scientist and the woman. Thus she majored in physics for her first university degree. After graduating from Ain Shams University with honor, she acquired her Ph.D. under another distinguished woman scientist: Kathleen Lonsdale of University College, London University. In her thesis, which could be considered innovative at the time, Dr. EL-SAYED correlated the thermal vibration of each individual atom in the structure with the thermal expansion of the studied material. Returning home, she was appointed to the physics department of the science faculty of Ain Shams University in Cairo, at a time when the discovery of the transistor began to show that small amounts of impurities (doping) could profoundly change the properties of many materials. Dr. EL-SAYED undertook and published most of her work concerned with structures (finding the distribution of atoms and impurities in atoms inside materials), microstructural properties and application of low concentrations of constituents in materials relevant to industrial metallurgy, and semi-conducting materials. For example, Dr. ELSAYED has diagnosed that aluminum foils were weakened by cracks resulting from the presence of a particular form of silica (sand) impurity and that oxygen atoms were poisoning certain semiconductors exposed to the air.Thanks to the expertise she acquired regarding crystal growth,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 132 Dr. EL-SAYED has analyzed the formation of urinary stones. These grow epitaxially layer upon layer, alternately calcium oxalate and organic material consisting of proteins. Dr. EL-SAYED's efforts also relate to the on-going training of students, teachers and researchers in Egyptian universities through workshops and seminars, and she is a sought-after speaker at international conferences. She also has devoted a significant part of her time to describing the condition of women scientists in Egypt. Her findings show that the low number of female researchers in physics does not arise from a lack of talented students or from discrimination on the part of the teaching staff, but from social attitudes. And she puts much effort too, into educating, encouraging and inspiring female scientists in Egypt and abroad. Dr. EL-SAYED has successfully managed her academic and private lives, overcoming technical, academic, and institutional challenges. "I liked to teach the young students, but now the percentage of students who are studying science is less than in my time. All teachers should try to make teaching materials that are easy for students to learn and to play…. Many professors my age stop doing science, but I'm still doing it because I love it. We want to take part in developing our country, and we have good people and good scientists" Her academic credibility and invaluable contribution to science were internationally acknowledged when she was awarded the prestigious 2003 L'Oreal-UNESCO Award for Women in Science in 2003.(The L'Oreal-UNESCO Award distinguishes five remarkable women researchers representing the five continents - Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America. Professor Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Nobel Prize in Physics 1991, presided over an international jury of 10 eminent scientists for 2003.) Karimat EL-SAYED is blessed with a family of an understanding husband, two sons, one daughter, and four grand children. She is also blessed with a fine group of graduate students and colleagues. The following are few excerpts of the philosopies behind her success: About life as a working mother:
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 133
"I was studying under a great lady there (in UK).She had been a housewife, and then later a mother and scientist. She taught me how to balance the three roles, because she discovered that she was looking after her children much better when she was working. When you work, your time with your children is limited. So it becomes quality time. You stop taking their day for granted and you want to know every detail. You want them to fill you in on what you've missed.And in return, they miss out on nothing either." "The children of a working mother do better in life. A working mother gains experience. She learns what life is about and learns to deal with the challenges one faces. Children, in turn, learn to accomplish many things and juggle responsibilities and activities because their mother passes this experience on to them. A working mother works at the office, works to take care of her children, works to take care of the house, and works to take care of her husband -- who is also like a child." On research: "It was a real struggle to do research.I had to travel a lot.To be a good researcher you have to interact with advanced countries, and I made sure I married another solid state physicist.He understands the requirements of research, so he's not like the other husbands who tell their wives that they can't travel.He used to look after the children with the help of my mother and mother-in-law On her passion to science: "Think of a human body. As humans, we have cells. They are repeated in everyone, but with individual arrangements. These individual arrangements give us our characteristics.God created materials similar to the way he created humans.Think of a fingerprint.Every material, every substance, has a fundamental structure -- its unit cell. This structure is made out of atoms, which are arranged in a certain way. This arrangement gives each material its characteristics. So each material has a fingerprint. And no material is similar to another, so each has its own fingerprint."
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 134 "Materials are like humans.Substances become ill too. And when they are sick, their properties changed and they became deformed - their character changes. And the substance as you knew it - with its particular properties - transforms, changes, and dies. If you try to compress, or heat, or put a material in unfriendly conditions, it transforms to another material.Its fingerprint changes. If you were burnt, you would change too." The problem with scientific research in developing countries: "The problem, unfortunately, is that scientists' hours of enigmatic research remain incomprehensible to most citizens, and the importance of such work remains significantly, outside of the national grasp. We're not like abroad. Abroad, research is used to address a specific problem, to develop it in a certain way. Take India, the only research they do is for the purpose of development (she points to the example of India's prowess in the global software industry). I do research because I love it, but if we use it for the country we would be in a very different place." On women capability in science: "Women are naturally suited to research.Women like details, they notice them, their eye falls across them. The success of women in science - in particular material sciences - is universal. Our concern in this field is mapping the arrangement of atoms three dimensionally [crystallography]. That's depth. Women can see things in three dimensions much better than men. The pioneers of the field, the Nobel Prize winners, are women." "Women are better observers.We notice the details; in homes and in science. We are also more intuitive and far-sighted. We sense things. That helps us see the depth in the structures and look for the three dimensional element to them." (According to UNESCO, 12 research centres in France, Asia and America, approximately 2,700 scientists are responsible for the registration of hundreds of patents annually. About 55 per cent of those scientists are women) "There is an American expression 'green thumb', describing the ability to make plants grow. Like gardeners, women researchers have this
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 135 ability; they know how to make a colony of bacteria grow, how to extract a protein cleanly; they have a heightened sensitivity to living things.They see not just the life in elements, but also the depth." "We must work together with men," El-Sayed says, dispelling any suspicions that she is anti- male. "God created both to be integrated in the world. We need to capitalise on the individual skills and talents and God-given gifts to fully exploit this integration." On the role of government: "The government needs to be a part of this process of educating women and letting them move ahead in their fields. To start with, they need to provide nurseries in the workplace. They need to have laundromats and ready-to-go meals. They need to make it easy for women to run both a household and career." "The poet Ahmed Shawqi said 'A mother is like a school. If you know how to let her do her job in that school, you will educate a nation', and Prof El-Sayed added; "Its very much like the African proverb that when you educate a man you educate an individual, but when you educate a woman, you educate a family, a nation."
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 136 220.127.116.11 PROF DR AYSE ERZAN
Dr Ayse Erzan is currently the Professor of Physics at Istanbul Technical University, Turkey. She is one of the five recipients of the 2003 L'OrealUNESCO Women in Science Award, representing European Continent. A native of Ankara, Turkey, Erzan was home-schooled until third grade, when her parents enrolled her in private school. She went on to secondary school at the American College for Girls, where, she recalls, "A lot of subjects came naturally, but physics was the hardest for me, so I decided to do physics." At the urging of her physics teachers, Erzan applied to Bryn Mawr and was accepted, a placement exam placing her in junior year. "Bryn Mawr on the whole was a very positive experience," she says. Upon graduation, "Like other young people coming to physics, I had this slightly starry-eyed, romantic idea that I would do particle physics and explore the basic building blocks of the physical world." At the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where she earned her doctorate in 1976, Erzan became interested in critical phenomena in phase transitions. "Phase transitions are very special," she explains. "When water freezes, for example, this occurs at a very sharp temperature point. On each side of that point, the compounds are qualitatively different and their symmetry is different. In the liquid form, the molecules are spaced randomly, whereas in the solid or crystalline form they form a perfectly regular periodic structure. How this change comes about as you lower the temperature is a very beautiful question, and also a philosophical question. That fired my
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 137 imagination." During the 1970s, Cornell physics professor Kenneth G. Wilson published a series of influential papers on his theory of critical phenomena in phase transitions, for which he received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1982. His research clarified how many different systems can show identical behavior at the critical point, as had been experimentally observed. "People like me, who graduated in 1976, were drawn naturally into the area of fractals, self-organized critical points and pattern formation in the 1980s," Erzan says. After graduation she returned to Turkey and joined the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, and a year later the Istanbul Technical University. "At this time I was active in the women's and peace movements," she says "Thus, after the military coup in 1980, I left the country and worked at various universities and research institutions, among which are the University of Geneva, University of Porto in Portugal, University of Marburg in Germany (as an Alexander von Humboldt fellow, with Siegfried Grossmann) and the University of Groningen. After a brief stint at the ICTP in Trieste she went back to her home institution, the Istanbul Technical University, in 1990. Since then she have been teaching and doing research at the ITU as well as at the Feza Gursey Institute for Fundamental Research, sponsored by TUBITAK, the Turkish equivalent of the NSF. Over the course of her career, Erzan has studied phase transitions and scaling behavior in a slew of complex systems: spin glasses, fractal growth models, sand piles, charge density waves, surface catalysis, earthquakes, and, recently, biologically motivated problems such as protein folding and the evolution of sexual reproduction. On her passion to science: "I am just a theoretical physicist who works in her corner and worries about such things as how complexity arises spontaneously, from interactions between simple building blocks. Contrary to the reductionist approach, this means investigating certain global features that display a great deal of universality: cracks work similarly to
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 138 earthquakes; the sudden flash of lightning is in fact very similiar, in its growth mechanism, to the spread of dampness in plaster, or to the growth of bacteria in a Petri dish, and forms similar patterns- in which the common denominator is a geometric effect called percolation, the formation of paths spanning a random network of clusters at a threshold concentration." "All of these phenomena may happen at many different scales, but nevertheless they follow the same patterns that can be described by the same geometrical concepts," she says. "They display certain universal mathematical relationships." "Lately I have been working more on biologically motivated problemsafter all, the greatest challenge is to try to understand how life started!" Recently Erzan and her colleagues have submitted a paper about their research into the origin of the unique folding configurations of proteins. Their calculations and modeling suggest that proteins with big energy gaps between their folded and unfolded states could have acted as refrigerants, enhancing the replication rates of those RNA which coded them. Their work is in line with the increasingly popular view that thermal and chemical gradients must have played an important role in prebiotic evolution, and casts doubt on a widely held theory that proteins' form followed biological function. Instead, Erzan concludes, "Those proteins with a deeply folded native state would, in effect, have been selected in an evolutionary sense before specific biological functions came into being." Erzan, who was among five female scientists honored with the 2003 L'Oreal-UNESCO Awards, delights in the challenges and rewards of science. "It is like a race against time," she says. "You know other people are pursuing similar types of problems, and you try to do better, to get there first. That race is very much part of the fun." Erzan was elected a full member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences in 1997 and awarded the TUBITAK Science prize in 1997. She is on the editorial boards of the European Physical Journal B and The Journal of Statistical Physics.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 139 18.104.22.168 PROF. DR SALIM AL-HASSANI
Dr Salim al-Hassani is an Iraqi-born Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. He is a world expert on the responses of materials, structures and systems to impact and blast loading. He was born in Iraq, educated in Stoke-on-Trent, UK to University level. He received BSc first class Honours in Mechanical Engineering at UMIST (1962 to 1965), MSc in Mechanical Engineering at UMIST (19661967) andPhD in Mechanical Engineering at UMIST (1967-1969). He was the assistant and later lecturer at UMIST (1968-1975),Assistant Professor and Associate Professor, College of Engineering, University of Riyad (1974-1975), Senior Lecturer (1976-1983) and Reader (19831992). In 1991 he was appointed as a Professor. His professional affiliations includes the Institute of Petroleum, Deputy Head of the Impact and Explosion Engineering Group (IMPEX), Director of Computing Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Chairman of FLAIR Industrial Unit He served as an expert witness in the Piper Alpha oil rig disaster of 1988. He is well known in the field of impact engineering and publishes and lectures all over the world. His extra-curricular expertise is in the history of science, particularly the contribution of the Islamic civilization. He is also actively involved
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 140 in Manchester's Muslim community, and helped to set up Manchester Central Mosque, the Muslim Youth Foundation and student Islamic societies at UMIST and Manchester University. Despite his intellectuality, he is a humble person, well potrayed when receiving the 2001'Fazlur Rahman Khan Award'from the Muslim News saying: It was a very useful occassion with a very positive outcome. It is a great Honour to receive this award, but a greater reward is from Allah.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 141 3.3.2 MUSLIM ASTRONOUTS AND COSMONAUTS Sending humans into space is often considered a dual monopoly of the United States and Russia, with their junior partners in allied nations. But even the Western public would be surprised to learn that seven men from Islamic cultures are among the 400-odd humans who have voyaged into orbit. These men need to be recruited as spokesmen for the values that their space missions represent. Their achievements, if more widely advertised in the Muslim world, would inspire millions of their cultural compatriots. Modernist and moderate Muslims the world over have never had any problems with the concept of humans walking on the moon, since Mohammed himself denounced pagan moon worshippers. And the scientist in charge of teaching Apollo astronauts about lunar geology was a devout Muslim named Farouk El-Baz, now at Boston University. El-Baz sent the first chapter of the Koran to the moon aboard Apollo-15, with an inscribed prayer to protect the mission and its crew. This illustrates the friendship and mutual respect between him and the Apollo astronauts. For those misled into disbelieving space travel on supposedly religious grounds, the evidence of their own eyes should be enough to convince them that it is truly occurring, as claimed. Western radio broadcasts should make more effort to announce the dawn and dusk over flights of easily visible space vehicles such as the international space station, which is brighter than any star in the sky. The lesson should be stressed that such man-made facilities are available to all nations who seek to progress into the future together rather than recede into a mythical past. There is a place for modernist Islamic societies on this new frontier, and history has proven this even as most of the world remains ignorant about it. Actual Islamic space travelers include a Saudi Arabian businessman who flew on a space shuttle in 1985 as a representative of his communications satellite company, which had booked a launching of one of its payloads, and an Afghan pilot who was taken on a Soviet space flight as a propaganda show but whose sharp eyes caught a
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 142 potentially fatal flaw during the return to Earth, and thereby saved the lives of the entire crew. The Saudi was Sultan Salman al-Saud, a minor royal prince; the Afghan was Abdul Ahad Mohmand, now in exile in Stuttgart, Germany, after death threats from the Taliban government. Another guest-cosmonaut aboard a Soviet space mission in 1987 was Syrian pilot Muhammed Ahmed Faris. Two pilots from Kazakhstan, with the 'russified' last names of Aubakirov and Musabayev, have been aboard the space stations, and Talgat Musabayev has commanded both a Mir space station crew and the first-ever 'space tourist' mission. Another Soviet cosmonaut, Musa Manarov, is from Daghestan in the Caucasus; he was on the first space station crew to spend a full year in outer space. Russian pilot-cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov, an Uzbek from Kirghizia in Central Asia, flew aboard an American space shuttle in 1998 and is slated to command a new mission again. These men were raised in Islamic cultures but have joined the select cadre of the symbol of the future, space travelers. They should be called upon to speak out widely about how Muslim people can enter the future successfully, and how valuable such an activity can be. These 'space aces' have been hidden away, unrecognized and unused, for too long. The Challenger disaster in 1986 denied the Muslim world an even better role model, a female space traveler. She was Dr. Pratiwi Sudarmono, a physician with a doctorate in microbiology, who had been designated to accompany an Indonesian communications satellite into orbit. She also had developed plans for performing a classic Indonesian dance in zero gravity. Dr. Sudarmono was also selected by the Fulbright Foundation to take part in a global health issues project. There is no lack of other highly-educated Muslim women, perhaps from Egypt, Bangladesh, Turkey or elsewhere, who could perform worthy space experiments and even more high-value public relations back on Earth.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 143 22.214.171.124 SULTAN SALMAN ABDULAZIZ AL-SAUD
Prince Sultan ibn Salman ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz Al Sa'ud of Saudi Arabia, is the first Arab, the first Muslim and the first member of royalty in space. Prince Sultan was born in Riyadh,Saudi Arabia on June 27, 1956. He completed his elementary and secondary education in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He later went on to study communications and aviation in the United States. He was a 28-year old graduate of the University of Denver - with a degree in mass communications - and a trained pilot, when picked to be the first Arab in space after a search of several months. Because the Arabsat organization was to have its second satellite launched by NASA during the June 1985 flight, its 22 member countries were permitted to select a payload specialist to travel aboard Discovery, and Saudi Arabia won the slot. Payload specialist refers to individuals selected and trained by commercial or research organizations for flights of a specific payload on a space flight mission. These payload specialists may be cosmonauts or astronauts designated by the international partners, individuals selected by the research community, or a company or consortia flying a commercial payload aboard the spacecraft. Payload specialists are not involved in the launch or operation of the space shuttle; they begin to function only when the spacecraft commences its orbit around the earth. Nonetheless, their training schedule is intense.Arriving in the United States, Prince Sultan and Major al-Bassam, a back-up pilot began the 114 hours of what NASA calls "habitability" training, or - in
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 144 layman's language - learning to adapt to the routines of daily life in a space shuttle. Initial tasks at the Johnson Space Center in Houston covered such ordinary, down-to-earth chores as choosing what clothing selected from NASA's list of possibilities and what food - again from NASA's proposed menu - they would desire while aloft. For the launch and landing procedures, light blue jumpsuits, decorated with various mission-related patches, were required, but once the shuttle reached orbit, the astronauts were free to wear whatever suited their individual taste. Obviously the Saudi national dress-the flowing thwb and ghutra is not appropriate in zero gravity, but one traditional food of Saudi Arabia was stowed in the fresh food locker aboard the orbiter and consumed by the Arab astronaut: dates from Medina. Prince Sultan, French scientist Patrick Baudry, and Americans Daniel Brandenstein, commander; John Creighton, pilot; John Fabian, mission specialist, Steven Nagel, the 100th American in space, and Shannon Lucid, the sixth woman in space, worked hard for the success of the historical mission which started on June 17 and end on June 24,1985. They launched three communications satellites - including one for the Arab Satellite Communications organization (Arabsat) - deployed and retrieved a scientific platform to probe the Milky Way, and their space ship served as the target for a laser in the first "Star Wars" space shuttle test. In addition, Prince Sultan carried out a series of in-cabin experiments designed by Saudi scientists, talked to his uncle, King Fahd, by telephone from space, gave a guided tour of the space shuttle's interior in Arabic, which was beamed back to Arab television viewers on earth, and also found time to pray and to read the Koran. Prince Sultan also performed three scientific experiments and two remote observation tasks during the mission; these experiments and the training of the specialists in the procedures were the responsibility of the Arabsat Scientific Experiments Team led by Dr. Abdallah Dabbagh, director of the Research Institute of the University of Petroleum and Minerals (UPM) in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 145 Of the three scientific experiments performed by Prince Sultan, the most complex was an Ionized Gas Experiment designed by another member of the Saudi Royal Family, Prince Turki ibn Sa'ud ibn Muhammad Al Sa'ud, as part of his Ph.D. dissertation at Stanford University. The purpose of this experiment was to obtain measurements which might help explain the extent of the chemical combination of the atoms of gas discharged from rocket engines with the atoms composing the earth's ionosphere - 50 to 1,000 kilometers up (30 to 620 miles). Though most scientists believe rocket-exhaust gases do not combine with ionospheric gases, some have noticed recently that there are ions and electrons in proximity to space vehicles as a result of the ignition of rocket engines.To record the experiment, Prince Sultan used the shuttle's television cameras, which register changes in the gases discharged by the engines, such as temperature change, structure of chemical makeup, the mechanism of gas diffusion and the time required for dissipation; this was done by augmenting the strength of the television signals which will be interpreted with the help of computers. For Arab and Muslim scientists, with their proud memories of the Golden Age and the House of Wisdom, the opportunity of working at the leading edge of science is an exciting challenge. "The Arab world," says Prince Sultan "is at a turning point. We have gone through the phases of oil, money and early technological development. The new generation is looking forward to joining the rest of the world by obtaining the most important things in that turnaround: opportunity and education. Together they are the keys that open the door for our future. My space flight is just a crack in that door." Later, Prince Sultan told a television interviewer that another big moment was when he had first glimpsed Saudi Arabia from space. "Once," he said, "I was woken up by some crew members who said: 'Come and see your country.' I was looking from the upper deck window. The earth was above us, and I saw the Eastern Province with its lights. It was a very moving sight." But the "happiest moment," Sultan said "was coming back - re-entering the earth's atmosphere.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 146 Whatever distance we travel away from earth, man always feels that this is his home, not space or anywhere else." At the same interview, Prince Sultan praised the team of Saudi scientists, who had been monitoring his experiments from earth. "We don't lack talent in the Arab world. We have plenty of it," the prince said. "All we need to do is give people the chance to prove themselves" Prince Sultan also displayed the small Koran he had carried into space; inside was a prayer dictated by his mother asking God to take care of travelers - and the prince's Saudi pilot's licence. "I was saying the prayer during take off," said Sultan. "And the pilot's license?" he was asked. "I took that with me in case we had to land somewhere and I needed to hire an areoplane." Upon conclusion of his space flight, he helped in founding the Association of Space Explorers, an international organization comprising all astronauts and cosmonauts who have been in space, and served on its Board of Directors for several years.In 1985 he was commissioned as an officer into the Royal Saudi Air Force. He holds the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and is qualified in several military and civilian aircraft.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 147 126.96.36.199 ABDUL AHAD MOHMAND
Abdul Ahad Mohmand (b. January 1, 1959) was the first Afghan cosmonaut and spent nine days in space aboard the Mir space station in 1988. He currently lives in Stuttgart, Germany. Along with Commander Vladimir Lyakhov and Dr. Valery Polyakov, Mohmand was part of the Soyuz TM-6 three-man crew, which launched at 04:23 GMT August 29, 1988. Mohmand's inclusion in the mission was a significant symbol during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. During his brief time on the Mir, Mohmand took photographs of Afghanistan, participated in astrophysical, medical and biological experiments, spoke to Afghan president Najibullah and brewed Afghan tea for the crew. The September 6 landing of Soyuz TM-6 was delayed because of mechanical complications on the Mir. Radio Moscow reassured listeners that Lyakhov and Mohmand were fine and in touch with Mission Control. A recording was played of them laughing. The British media jumped on the story and incorporated words like "marooned" and "lost in space" into their headlines. They even suggested (erroneously) that the cosmonauts had run out of food. With each passing orbit, the danger for the crew became more and more serious. Fortunately, a day later the retro-fire was successful, and at 00:50 GMT Soyuz TM 5 landed near Dzhezkazgan. During touchdown there was no live radio coverage, only live television pictures of Mission Control.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 148
Born in Sardah, Afghanistan, Mohmand graduated from the Polytechnical High School in Kabul and then the Air Force Academy. He served in the Afghan Air Force and later trained in the USSR as a pilot.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 149 188.8.131.52 TOKTAR ONGARBAEVICH AUBAKIROV
Toktar Ongarbaevich Aubakirov (born on July 27, 1946, in Karaganda, Kazakhstan) is a Kazakh military pilot, and the first Turkic man in space. Aubakirov graduated from Air Force Institute and was parachutist and test pilot with the rank of Major General in the Kazakh Air Force before he was selected as cosmonaut. On October 2, 1991 he started together with the Austrian cosmonaut Franz Viehböck and the Russian cosmonaut Alexander A. Volkov in Soyuz TM-13 from the Baikonur cosmodrome spaceport, and spent over eight days in space. He was also the first Soviet citizen to go into space without being fully certified as a cosmonaut, as his flight was hurried forward - several commercial international cosmonauts were already booked, but the flight of a Kazakh cosmonaut was part of the Baikonur rental agreement between Kazakhstan and Russia. Since 1993 he is the general director of the National Aerospace Agency of Republic of Kazakhstan and a member of Kazakhstan parliament.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 150 184.108.40.206 TALGAT AMANGELDYEVICH MUSABAYEV
Talgat Amangeldyevich Musabayev is a cosmonaut who flew on the following space missions: 1 Soyuz TM-19 Flight Engineer - 04.11.1994 (125d 22h 53m) 2 Soyuz TM-27 Commander - 25.08.1998 (207d 12h 49m) 3 Soyuz TM-32 Commander - 06.05.2001 (7d 22h 04m) Currently he is the Russian Federation Air Force Major General, working for the Russian State Scientific Research Institute "Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center" Born 7th January 1951 in Kargaly, Dzhambul District, Alma-Ata Region, Kazakh SSR (Kazakhstan), he graduated from the Riga Civil Aviation Engineers Institute as a specialist in aircraft radio equipment. His career tenure ranging from aircraft equipment & radio avionics engineer, instructor of the Kazakh Civil Aviation Head Office Personnel Department to deputy commander in charge of personnel at the Alma-Ata United Civil Aviation Operations Division. He completed training in the civil aviation training team and received a civil aviation pilot certificate in 1986. From July 6th 1989 he was the AN2 airplane commander at the Burundaisk United Civil Aviation Division and had one memorable experience where in one of the flights Talgat Musabaev made a forced landing on a field because of an engine failure
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 151 (he was commended for his courage and high level of his professional skills). Later he graduated from the Aktyubinsk-based Civil Aviation Advanced Flying School with an engineer-pilot's certificate in 1993. In 1990 by decision of the State Interdepartmental Commission, he was recommended to take a general space flight training course at the Ministry of Civil Aviation and subsequently was called up for military service and placed as a candidate on the list of researcher cosmonauts of the 4th cosmonaut detachment at the Cosmonauts Training Center where on finishing the course he was given a test cosmonaut qualification Beween the 1st July - 4th November 1994 he achieved his first space flight on the Soyuz-TM-19 spacecraft and MIR orbital space station as a flight engineer of the EO-16 crew together with Y. Malenchenko and V. Polyakov. He performed two spacewalks for the total duration of 11 hrs 7 min. The flight duration was 126 days. Subsequently on the 29th January 1998 to 25th August 1998 he was a commander of the Soyuz TM-27 spacecraft and MIR space station under the EO-25 Program (NASA-7/"Pegasus") together with N. Budarin and L. Eyharts (France, till 19th February 1998), and E. Thomas (U.S.A., till 8th June 1998).During these flights they emerged into outer space five times for the total duration of 30 hrs 8 mins. The flight duration was 207.5 days From 28th April to 6th May 2001 he participated again in a space flight as a commander on the Soyuz-TM32 spacecraft together with Y. Baturin, a flight engineer, and the world's first space tourist Dennis Tito. He received various awards and honors to commemorate his extensive career in space. Amongst them were the Hero of the Russian Federation (1994),Space Pilot of the Russian Federation (1994) and People's Hero of Kazakhstan (1995). He was later promoted to major general. Musabayev was married to Musabaeva (maiden name: Latsis) Victoria Voldemarovna, (born 1952), who worked as a dentist in a hospital in the town of Zvyozdny. They had a son Musabaev Daniyar Talgatovich
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 152 (1975), a serviceman of the Kazakhstan Ministry of Internal Affairs and a daughter Musabaeva Kamilya Talgatovna (1981), a student of the Russian State Humanitarian University. The following are few excerpts of his personal view and experiences: About fear in space: I am a normal person. All normal people feel and should feel fear. I don't believe those, who say that they don't fear anything. It'sa bravado or they are just insane... The other thing is to overcome fear, to reasonably evaluate circumstances and potential danger and take an immediate decision. As our attitude regarding reliability of space technology, do we, cosmonauts, resemble insane people? Only an insane person can fly to work in space not being assured of equipment reliability... About UFO: I think it is still a good dream of people. There may be something, but I must say that nobody of those who has been out in space saw anything of the kind... ...I cannot say definitely because during my first flight I experienced something very unlikely. More precisely, I saw for 10 to 15 minutes a luminous object moving in parallel with our spacecraft slightly overtaking us. I seized a video camera and filmed. But when I replayed, it contained nothing... About relationship among people of different ethnic origin: It is unwise, ridiculous and in some cases even tragic to divide people by their ethnic origin. How can it be possible to tear a family apart if a husband is of one ethnic origin while a wife - of another? What about children then? My family is international. We have two children... My wife who is Latvian gave them Kazakh's names. We have nothing to quarrel about, but each nation should preserve its distinctive features. Our family is harmonious. We understand and support each other. I am pleased to have such a companion in my life. What is then a problem of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 153 the ethnic origin? ... Most likely, it is an internal problem of each individual. I am Kazakh, I work in Russia and I serve to the entire mankind. Because, regardless of the "port of registry", cosmonautics works for the entire mankind in the long run. And I consider myself a happy man. I call upon everybody... to adhere more to the truth that our fathers and grandfathers communicated to us. We live today in a totally different time, in a totally different country, in a totally different w orld community... Our next generation and, naturally, we all... have one opinion: we must do everything to get united for the mankind as a whole to pioneer cosmic space. On what he brought to space: There was a special container on the ship where the Flag of Kazakhstan, a book by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, his portrait, the Constitution of Kazakhstan, a capsule with the soil from Astana and the Koran were kept. All these things were in space with us and returned to the Earth.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 154 220.127.116.11 MUSA MANAROV
Musa Manarov is a cosmonaut who was born on March 22, 1951, in Baku, Azerbaijan. He was a civil engineer affliated to Energia NPO. He has spent over 541 days in space on two spaceflights. Manarov made his first spaceflight in 1987, aboard Soyuz TM-4. The spacecraft docked with the Mir space station where Manarov remained for one year. He was the first person to spend a year in space. In 1990, Manarov stayed on Mir for a second time. During his 176-day stay, Manarov observed the Earth and worked in space manufacturing. He also performed 20 hours of spacewalks. He has spent over 541 days in space on two spaceflights. He was married with two children at the time of embarkation.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 155 18.104.22.168 SALISZAN SHAKIROVICH SHARIPOV
Saliszan Shakirovich Sharipov is the first Uzbek astronaut. He was born August 24, 1964 in Uzgen, Oshsk region, Kirghizia. Saliszan graduated from the Air Force Pilot School in 1987. After graduation, he worked as a pilot-instructor and taught 8 cadets. He has logged over 950 hours flying time. He has experience flying on MIG-21, L-39 aircraft. Selected by the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) Sharipov became a cosmonaut-candidate in 1990. In 1992, he completed general space training and became a cosmonaut. As a member of the group he has completed a full course of training for OC MIR space flights as a crew commander. In 1994, he graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in cartography. Sharipov has flown one mission and has logged over 211 hours in space. He served as a mission specialist on the crew of STS-89 (January 22-31, 1998), the eighth Shuttle-Mir docking mission during which the crew transferred more than 8,000 pounds of scientific equipment, logistical hardware and water from Space Shuttle Endeavour to Mir. In the fifth and last exchange of a U.S. astronaut, STS-89 delivered Andy Thomas to Mir and returned with David Wolf. Mission duration was 8 days, 19 hours and 47 seconds, traveling 3.6 million miles in 138 orbits of the Earth.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 156 Sharipov was assigned as Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer on ISS Expedition-10 which just completed their mission in early October 2004. He is married to Nadezhda Mavlyanovna Sharipova. They have one daughter and one son. He enjoys football, likes to read books. His father, Mr. Shakirzhan Sharipov, resides in Uzgen, Oshsk region, Kirghizia.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 157 22.214.171.124 MUHAMMED FARIS
Muhammed Faris was born May 26 1951 in Aleppo, Syria. He was the first Syrian cosmonaut. He was a pilot in the Syrian Airforce with the rank of a colonel. He specialized in navigation when he was selected as a cosmonaut on September 30 1985. He flew as Research Cosmonaut on Soyuz TM-3 in July 1987, spending 7 days 23 hours and 5 minutes in space together with Soviet cosmonauts Alexander Viktorenko and Alexander Alexandrov. After his spaceflight he returned to the Syrian Air Force and lives now again in Aleppo. He is married and has three children. During a celebration in Damascus in 2003 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the space flight of Valentina Tereshkova, the world's first woman-cosmonaut, he was asked about his space experience and his response was: "I know how difficult is a space flight and admire the first woman who successfully made it," stressed the Syrian cosmonaut.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 158 3.3.3 MUSLIM SCIENTISTS CUM POLITICAL LEADERS 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, may Allah be pleased with him, reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: There should be no envy but only in case of two persons: one having been endowed with wealth and power to spend it in the cause of Truth, and (the other) who has been endowed with wisdom which he uses for judging and teaches it (to others). (Sahih Muslim) The beauty of Islam is that it never dissociates the world with the hereafter, the material well-being with the inner spiritual need and the knowledge of science and religion. They are all inter-related and act harmoniously in the eyes of the believers. Islam gave high respect to scholars and intellects, irrespective of the branches of their speciality as explicitly described in the hadith above.The religious scholars, the material or social scientists, the administrators and the legal experts were all considered 'alim (scholars) in the widest sense. Past history of Islam has shown Caliphs who were not only interested but directly involved with scientific development, scientists who were as influential as the leaders and in some instances much more popular than the administrators. The nature of responsibilities in Islam goes to the extent that everybody is a leader irrespective of the number of their follower. It covers from the king of a kingdom to the head of a family. So, it is not a strange phenomenon to witness the modern scientists or scholars taking the leadership role in the community, within their professional bodies, in political or non political organization, or even becoming the head of a state. Their scientific upbringing might offer several advantages to them, since in some way science management seems to be no different from political scenario. A good scientist is the one who can produce the most creative, insightful, ground-breaking scientific work, and had this work accepted by peer review. He has to work within his financial limitation and time constraint.Further, he must have the courage and capability to defence the innovation. And the utmost important is that it should be of great benefit for humanity. He should foresee the coming obstacles of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 159 his idea, either by a better innovation by other collegue or even by intentional condemnation by his opponents. He should be prepared with various steps of implementation and survival if idea. If he is a physician, he should be able to diagnose the illness, administered the proper medication and even much better if he can anticipate it before it occurs and implement the preventive approach ahead. Irrespective of which countries or organizations they represented, these scientists cum politician had themselves potrayed the true sense of science in Islam.Yet despite their obligation to prepare the necessary platform for scientific re-emergence in the Muslim world, the political gameball seems to challenge their existence in reality.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 160 126.96.36.199 PROF. DR. NECMETTIN ERBAKAN
Born in1926, he was the former prime minister in Turkey, leader of coalition between the Welfare Party (his own) and the True Path Party (1996- 1997). Academically he was a professor in physics and lived in Germany for many years, where he worked as a scientist. His career in politics started as a minister in coalition government under Bülent Ecevit in 1974. Erbakan was one of the founders of the Welfare Party, which started to grow tremendously in the recent few years. In 1980 Erbakan was the leader of pro-Islamic protests which resulted in a military coup. Erbakan's party was banned and he was excluded from politics for 7 years. It is believed that the Welfare Party's politics had less support than the actual election results, which was 21% in the elections of December 24, 1995. But people cast their ballots for it, as it has a high reputation for honesty in municipal governments. Many have also supported the Welfare Party because it has a polity that help the least fortunate in the Turkish society. Erbakan raised the wages for civil servants with 50% shortly after taking office. As prime minister, Erbakan chose a moderate line, but still oriented himself more in direction of other Muslim states without cutting any ties to the West, which many observers had expected. In Western media, his improved relations with Iran and Libya's leader Mu'amar Ghadafi have been hard to accept. During his period of being prime minister, Erbakan changed from opposition to, into supporting Turkey's application for membership in the European Union (EU).
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 161
Erbakan's Welfare Party was outlawed in 1997 after a long campaign led by the Turkish military and forces afraid of a disintegration of the country by its possible Islamization and the chances of an escalation of the conflict with Khurdish nationalists. Necmettin Erbakan, who has sought for years to integrate Islam into mainstream politics and who has become in the process one of the country's best-known Islamic leaders, has already had several of his organizations banned by Turkey's Constitutional Court. Erbakan's first party, the National Order Party, was banned in 1972. Undeterred, Erbakan formed the National Salvation Party, which was dismantled in 1980 after Gen. Kenan Evran seized power in a bloodless coup and imposed martial law. The Welfare Party followed, and as its leader, Erbakan was elected Turkey's first Islamist prime minister in 1995. Three years later, however, the Constitutional Court banned the Welfare Party as well, on the grounds that it was engaged in fundamentalist activity and was violating the secular principles of the Turkish constitution. The verdict barred Erbakan from politics for five years, but, as has happened to the Virtue Party today, most of party's deputies kept their seats in Parliament and simply formed a new party under a new name with a new party program. This new incarnation, the Virtue Party, immediately did very well, capturing nearly a fifth of the seats in Parliament in the 1999 elections. One of the important contributions of Erbakan to the Muslim worlds is the initiation of D-8 Group. The D-8 is a grouping of eight Muslim countries with diverse economic and political outlooks. They are geographically not contiguous. It is a slight improvement on the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) which groups together Turkey, Iran and Pakistan with the Central Asian Republics as well as Azerbaijan and Afghanistan. The ECO, too, has not taken off as its members had hoped. In April 1996, during the meeting of its foreign ministers in Tehran, president Hashemi Rafsanjani of Iran complained that the organisation had not made much progress despite its vast potential. The D-8, first mooted on January 1,1997 in Istanbul, has far greater potential. It has a market of 800 million people compared with the 300
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 162 million in ECO, although the three major players - Turkey, Iran and Pakistan - are common to both. The D-8 brings together Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan and Turkey to develop trade, industry and financial projects. Its strength is that it brings in some of the leading economic movers of Southeast Asia. Its weakness lies in geography. Bangladesh and the Southeast Asian tigers are separated from the D-8 core countries by a hostile India while Egypt and Nigeria lie on a different continent with no direct links to the rest. Erbakan had been very optimistic with D-8 as elicited in his opening address of the First Summit meeting 'The D-8 will take on an important role in solving the problems of humanity in our globalizing world'. He described D-8 as 'a turning point in human history' and 'an organization of the new world. God willing, this group will play a big role in bringing peace and security.' Erbakan visited all D-8 countries except Bangladesh soon after coming to power last June. He fostered economic links with projects such as a $23 billion gas deal with Iran. His opponents have continued to run down the whole scheme. Erbakan, however, continued to talk enthusiastically about major D-8 projects to build passenger aircraft, helicopters, cars and computers. Among planned areas of cooperation, Egypt will oversee trade, Turkey will coordinate industry proposals, Pakistan will be responsible for agriculture, Nigeria will oversee energy plans and Indonesia will be responsible for human resources. Iran will oversee telecommunication projects, Bangladesh will deal with rural development and Malaysia will focus on privatization, banking and Islamic insurance or takaful.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 163 188.8.131.52 PROF. DR BACHARUDDIN JUSUF HABIBIE
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie was the former and the third president of Indonesia (1998-1999). He was born on June 25, 1936 in Pare-Pare, Sulawesi,Indonesia. In 1954, after graduating from Bandung Institute of Technology, Habibie was given a scholarship by the Ministry of Education and Culture to study aircraft construction engineering at RWTH (Rheneisch-Westfalische Technische Hocschule) in Aachen, Germany. After receiving his diploma in 1965 and doctorate in 1965, he joined the Hamburger Flugzeugbau (HF) aircraft industry and later the Messerschmitt Boelkow Blohm (MBB) aircraft manufacturer, where he became a vice-president. In 1974, Suharto (who came to know the young man and his family during a military posting to the South Sulawesi) asked Habibie to return to Indonesia, and placed him in charge of the strategic stateowned oil company. He worked under President Suharto for 20 years, first as minister of state for research and technology in 1978 and later as vice president. In his post as technology minister, Habibie was an aggresive advocate for expensive state-funded economic projects aimed at making Indonesia technologically self-sufficient.Using his connections with German corporations, he began by assembling Messerschmitt helicopters in a hangar at Bandung. The operation expanded to employ 20,000 workers in making small and medium-sized turboprop aircraft.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 164 Ambitious plans were drawn up for an Indonesian-made commercial airliner to rival the US and European aerospace companies. His other projects included the costly purchase of the entire navy of the former East Germany in the 1990s, and plans for a string of nuclear reactors throughout Java.Critics point to the high cost of these industries which rely heavily on huge tariff protection and guaranteed sales to the armed forces and national airlines. Habibie was central to the establishment of the Association of Indonesian Moslem Intellectuals (ICMI) in 1990. The ICMI is a focus for non-Chinese or pribumi businessmen.The association has its own bank and daily newspaper Republika. Habibie's days as vice president were few, however, as the economic troubles that had been festering under Suharto's crony capitalism boiled over just 10 weeks after Habibie's appointment. In May 1998, Suharto resigned after 32 years as undisputed head of state, handing the reins over to Habibie. Habibie quickly removed from office the most egregious examples of Suharto's nepotism in an attempt to distinguish himself from his predecessor and win favor with the emerging opposition factions. In 1999 he lost a parliamentary vote of confidence and he withdrew from the presidential race.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 165 184.108.40.206 TUN DR MAHATHIR MOHAMED
Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (born December 20, 1925 in Alor Star, Kedah) was the Prime Minister of Malaysia from July 16, 1981 to 2003. He had his early and secondary education in his home town. In 1947 he gained admission into the King Edward VII College of Medicine in Singapore Upon graduation he joined the Malaysian Government Service as a Medical Officer. He left government Service in 1957 to set up his own practice in Alor Setar. He was first elected to Parliament in 1964 as a member of the UMNO, the dominant party within the ruling governmental coalition. In 1969, however, Mahathir was expelled from the UMNO after his forceful advocacy of ethnic Malay nationalism brought him into conflict with Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman. After Tun Abdul Razak became prime minister in 1970, Mahathir rejoined UMNO and was reelected to its Supreme Council in 1972. During his term in office, Mahathir forcefully guided Malaysia's development as a regional high-tech manufacturing, financial, and telecommunications hub through his economic policies based on corporate nationalism, known as the National Economic Policy, which remained in effect almost to the end of his tenure in office. His pet projects have included Perwaja Steel, an attempt to emulate South Korea and Japan, the Proton car company, and ASTRO, a satellite television service. He is credited with spearheading the phenomenal growth of the Malaysian economy, now one of the largest and most powerful in South East Asia. Growth between 1988 and 1997 averaged
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 166 over ten percent and living standards rose twenty-fold, with poverty almost eradicated and social indicators such as literacy levels and infant mortality rates on a par with developed countries. During this period, Mahathir embarked on various enormous construction projects, such as the North-South highway, which has cut transport times in half on the West Coast of Malaysia, the Multimedia Super Corridor, a flagship project based on Silicon Valley designed to enable Malaysia's foray into information technology (it includes Malaysia's new capital Putrajaya), Port Tanjung Pelepas, a project to rival Singapore's SPA port, the glittering Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Sepang, an adjacent Formula One circuit, the Bakun Dam, meant to supply all of the electricity needs of the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak and which has enough capacity to enable exportation of power to Brunei, Olympic-class stadia in Bukit Jalil, and the buildings which have become symbolic of modern Malaysia, the Petronas Twin Towers, the tallest buildings in the world from 1997 to 2003. While most Malaysians are justifiably proud of these projects, their extreme costs have made Malaysians reluctant to engage in more such ventures until such time as the economy can afford it. He has been criticised for the failures and horrendous inefficiency of some of his pet projects. During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Mahathir was strongly criticized by the international financial community for contravening IMF policies by keeping interest rates down and slowing the flow of foreign capital. Mahathir blamed currency speculators for the crisis, foremost among them George Soros. Critics said his accusations were "tinged with antisemitism." Banks were forced to merge and to write off bad debts, consolidating the financial system. The Ringgit, which stood at RM2.50 to the US Dollar prior to the crisis but plunged to RM4.97 during the worst part of the recession, was pegged at RM3.80. Initially this was seen as a move to keep the currency from falling further, but is now seen as keeping the currency artificially low in order to boost exports. As a result of these policies, Malaysia's economy recovered much faster than comparative countries which did follow IMF prescriptions, the repercussions of which are still felt in those countries, and more prudent
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 167 fiscal and monetary policies have ensured that the Malaysian economy, while not growing yet as spectacularly as before, is well balanced and not built on rotting foundations. As the Malaysian economy recovered, the IMF and George Soros released statements saying that Mahathir's policies had indeed been the right ones. However, long term structural considerations, such as the uncompetitiveness of Malaysian firms, the failure of Malaysian industry to move up the value chain in the face of increasing costs and competition from other countries in the region (most notably China) and a total lack of R&D, still cloud the horizon and yet to be addressed accordingly. During twenty-two year grip on power, Mahathir was seen as a political "strongman", despite being criticised for his authoritarian policies. His charismatic leadership and strong political wills help him to survive several controversial issues. These include removal of the royal veto and royal immunity from prosecution (1983 &1991), the dismissal of the Lord President of the Supreme Court, Tun Salleh Abas, and three other supreme court justices(1988), and the dismissal of his deputy, Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim in 1997. Among developing and Islamic countries, however, Mahathir remains greatly admired, particularly for Malaysia's impressive economic growth. Foreign leaders such as Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev praised him and have been trying to emulate Mahathir's developmental formulae. He was one of the greatest spokesmen on Third World issues, and strongly supported the bridging of the NorthSouth divide, as well as exhorting the development of Islamic nations. He was dedicated to various Third World blocs such as ASEAN, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of Islamic Nations and most recently, the G22 at the latest WTO talks at Cancun. In 2003, shortly before leaving office, Mahathir sparked off a fierce controversy when he called on Muslim leaders at the 57-member Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) summit to "fight back against their Jewish oppressors" who "ruled the world by proxy". His comments were widely criticized in the West, but the issue was ignored in Asia and Islamic countries, which felt that his remark had been taken out of context. Mahathir later defended his remarks, saying "I am not anti Semitic ... I am against those Jews who kill Muslims and the Jews
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 168 who support the killers of Muslims." He tagged the West as "antiMuslim", for double standards by "protecting Jews while allowing others to insult Islam." Largely due to the economic development of the country, which by and large has benefited all races, Mahathir left behind a peaceful, prosperous, and self-confident Malaysia. On his retirement he was granted Malaysia's highest honour, which entitles him to the title Tun. Dr Mahathir is married to a doctor, Tun Dr Siti Hasmah Mohamed Ali, and they both have seven children and ten grandchildren. Basically, Mahathir achieved his objective to place him as the Malaysia Modernization Father.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 169 3.3.4 MUSLIM SCIENTIST AND PHILOSOPHER 220.127.116.11 PROF DR SEYYED HOSSEIN NASR
Seyyed Hossein Nasr, currently University Professor of Islamic Studies at the George Washington University, Washington D.C. is one of the most important and foremost scholars of Islamic, Religious and Comparative Studies in the world today. Author of over fifty books and five hundred articles which have been translated into several major Islamic, European and Asian languages, Professor Nasr is a well known and highly respected intellectual figure both in the West and the Islamic world. An eloquent speaker with a charismatic presence, Nasr is a much sought after speaker at academic conferences and seminars, university and public lectures and also radio and television programs in his area of expertise. Seyyed Hossein Nasr was born on April 7, 1933 (19 Farvadin 1312 A.H. solar) in Tehran into a family of distinguished scholars and physicians. His father, Seyyed Valiallah, a man of great learning and piety, was a physician to the Iranian royal family, as was his father before him. The name "Nasr" which means "victory" was conferred on Professor Nasr's grandfather by the King of Persia. Nasr also comes from a family of Sufis. One of his ancestors was Mulla Seyyed Muhammad Taqi Poshtmashhad, who was a famous saint of Kashan, and his mausoleum which is located next to the tomb of the Safavid king Shah Abbas, is still visited by pilgrims to this day.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 170 As a young boy, Nasr attended one of the schools near his home. His early formal education included the usual Persian curriculum at school with an extra concentration in Islamic and Persian subjects at home, as well as tutorial in French. However for Nasr, it was the long hours of discussion with his father, mostly on philosophical and theological issues, complemented by both reading and reaction to the discourses carried on by those who came to his father's house, that constituted an essential aspect of his early education and which in many ways set the pattern and tone of his intellectual development. This was the situation for the first twelve years of Nasr's life. Nasr's arrival in America at the young age of twelve marked the beginning of a new period in his life which was totally different and therefore, discontinuous from his early life in Iran. He attended The Peddie School in Highstown, New Jersey and in 1950 graduated as the valedictorian of his class and also winner of the Wyclifte Award which was the school's highest honor given to the most outstanding all-round student. It was during the four years at Peddie that Nasr acquired his knowledge of the English language, as well as studying the sciences, American history, Western culture and Christianity. Nasr chose to go to M.I.T. for college. He was offered a scholarship and was the first Iranian student to be admitted as an undergraduate at M.I.T. He began his studies at M.I.T in the Physics Department with some of the most gifted students in the country and outstanding professors of physics. His decision to study physics was motivated by the desire to gain knowledge of the nature of things, at least at the level of physical reality. However, at the end of his freshman year, although he was the top student in his class, he began to feel oppressed by the overbearingly scientific atmosphere with its implicit positivism. Furthermore, he discovered that many of the metaphysical questions which he had been concerned with were not being asked, much less answered. Thus, he began to have serious doubts as to whether physics would lead him to an understanding of the nature of physical reality. His doubt was confirmed when the leading British philosopher, Bertrand Russell, in a small group discussion with the students following a lecture he had given at M.I.T, stated that physics does not concern itself with the nature of physical reality per se but with mathematical structures related to pointer readings
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 171 Upon his graduation from M.I.T., Nasr enrolled himself in a graduate program in geology and geophysics at Harvard University. After obtaining his Master's degree in geology and geophysics in 1956, he went on to pursue his Ph.D. degree in the history of science and learning at Harvard. Nasr wanted to study other types of sciences of nature apart from the modern Western and also to understand why modern science had developed as it had. He planned to write his dissertation under the supervision of George Sarton, a great authority on Islamic science. However, Sarton passed away before he could begin his dissertation work and since there was not another specialist in Islamic science at Harvard then, he wrote his dissertation under the direction of three professors. They were I. Bernard Cohen, Hamilton Gibb and Harry Wolfson. It was also at Harvard that Nasr resumed his study of classical Arabic which he had left since coming to America. He struggled with philosophical Arabic while getting some assistance from Wolfson and Gibb. However, the mastery of philosophical Arabic was only attained after he studied Islamic philosophy from the traditional masters of Iran after his return to his homeland in 1958. At twenty-five, Nasr graduated with a Ph.D. degree from Harvard and on the way to completing his first book, Science and Civilization in Islam. His doctoral dissertation entitled "Conceptions of Nature in Islamic Thought" was published in 1964 by Harvard University Press as An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Although he was offered a position as assistant professor at M.I.T., Nasr decided to return permanently to Iran. Back in Iran, Nasr was offered a position as an Associate Professor of philosophy and the history of science at the Faculty of Letters in Tehran University. A few months after his return, Nasr married a young woman from a respected family whose members were close friends of his family. Five years later at the age of thirty, Nasr became the youngest person to become a full professor at the University. He used his position and influence to bring major changes to strengthen and expand the philosophy program at Tehran University which like many of its other programs, was very much dominated by and limited to French intellectual influence.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 172 Nasr initiated the important move of teaching Islamic philosophy on the basis of its own history and from its own perspective and to encourage his Iranian students to study other philosophies and intellectual traditions from the point of view of their own tradition. He maintains that one cannot hope to understand and appreciate one's own intellectual tradition from the viewpoint of another, just as one cannot see oneself through the eyes of another person. He also created greater awareness and interest in the study of Oriental philosophies among the students and faculty members. Since Tehran University was the only university in Iran to offer a doctorate in philosophy, these changes introduced by Nasr had far reaching influence. Many universities in Iran integrated these changes into their philosophical studies and until today Nasr's perspective that Iranian students should study other philosophical traditions from the view of their own tradition instead of studying their tradition from the perspective of Western thought and philosophy remains widely influential. The students he has trained and who have become scholars and university professors of philosophy have enabled this perspective to have enduring influence in Iran. Apart from the philosophy program, Nasr was also involved in the university's doctoral program in Persian language and literature for those whose mother tongue was not Persian. He strengthened the philosophical component of this program and had many outstanding students from outside of Iran to receive training, not only in Persian language, but also the rich treasury of philosophical and Sufi literature written in Persian. Many of the students trained in this program have since become important scholars in this field such as the American scholar, William Chittick and the Japanese woman scholar, Sachiko Murata. Furthermore, from 1968 to 1972, Nasr was made Dean of the Faculty and for a while, Academic Vice-Chancellor of Tehran University. Through these positions, he introduced many important changes which all aimed at strengthening the university programs in the humanities generally and in philosophy, specifically. In 1972, he was appointed President of Aryamehr University by the Shah of Iran. Aryamehr University was then the leading scientific and technical university in Iran and the Shah, as the patron, wanted Professor Nasr to develop the university on the model of M.I.T. but with firm roots in Iranian culture. Consequently, a
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 173 strong humanities program in Islamic thought and culture, with a particular emphasis upon an Islamic philosophy of science, was established at Aryamehr University by Nasr. Nasr's pioneering effort has led Aryamehr to create one of the first graduate programs in the Islamic world in the philosophy of science based upon the Islamic philosophy of science, some ten years ago. In 1973, the Queen of Iran appointed Professor Nasr to establish a center for the study and propagation of philosophy under her patronage. Hence, the Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy was established and very soon became one of the most important and vital centers of philosophical activities in the Islamic world, housing the best library of philosophy in Iran and attracting some of the most distinguished scholars in the field, both from the East and the West, such as Henry Corbin and Toshihiko Izutsu. The Academy also organized important seminars and lecture series given by philosophers, offered fellowships for short and long term research work in Islamic philosophy, and comparative philosophy and undertook a major publication program of works in this field in Persian, Arabic, English and French. Another very important dimension to Nasr's intellectual activities after his return to Iran in 1958, was his program in re-educating himself in Islamic philosophy by learning it at the feet of the masters through the traditional method of oral transmission. He studied hikmah for twenty years under some of the greatest teachers in Iran at the time, reading traditional texts of Islamic philosophy and gnosis, three days a week at the Sepahsalar madrasah in Tehran and also in private homes in Tehran, Qom and Qazwin. Among his venerable teachers were Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Assar, an alim who was an authority on Islamic law, as well as philosophy, and a very close friend of Professor Nasr's father; the great luminary and master of gnosis, Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai and Sayyid Abul-Hasan Qazwini, a great authority on Islamic law and the intellectual sciences who knew mathematics, astronomy and philosophy extremely well. Nasr read and studied several of the major texts of Islamic philosophy under these masters such as the al-Asfar al-arbaah of Mulla Sadra and the Sharh-i manumah of Sabziwari and benefited greatly from the invaluable insights and commentaries provided by them orally. In this way, Nasr
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 174 had the best educational training both from the modern West and the traditional East, a rare combination which put him in a very special position to speak and write with authority on the numerous issues involved in the encounter between East and West, and tradition and modernity, as demonstrated very clearly by his writings and lectures. During the years Professor Nasr was in Iran, he wrote extensively in Persian and English and occasionally in French and Arabic. His doctoral dissertation was rewritten by him in Persian and it won the royal book award. Nasr also brought out the critical editions of several important philosophical texts such as the complete Persian works of Suhrawardi and of Mulla Sadra and the Arabic texts of lbn Sina and al-Biruni. Nasr's great interest in the philosophy of one of the greatest later Islamic philosophers, Mulla Sadra resulted in the publication of the Mulla Sadra written by the traditional masters of Islamic philosophy. Nasr was also the first person to introduce the figure of Mulla Sadra to the English speaking world. In 1979 at the time of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Nasr moved with his family to the United States where he would rebuild his life again and secure a university position to support himself and his family. By 1980, Nasr began to write again. He started to work intensively on the research and text of the prestigious Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh to which he received an invitation shortly before the Iranian Revolution took place. Nasr had the honor of being the first nonWesterner to be invited to deliver the most famous lecture series in the fields of natural theology and philosophy of religion in the West. Thus, Knowledge and the Sacred, one of Nasr's most important philosophical works, one which had a great impact on scholars and students of religious studies, came to be prepared amidst the strain of trying times and the strenuous commute between Boston and Philadelphia. However, Nasr discloses that the actual writing of the text of Knowledge and the Sacred came as a gift from heaven. He was able to write the texts of the lectures with great facility and speed and within a period of less than three months, they were completed. Nasr says that it was as though, he was writing from a text he had previously memorized. In 1982, Nasr was invited to collaborate on a major project to bring out the Encyclopedia of World Spirituality together with Ewert Cousins,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 175 chief editor and professor of Medieval philosophy at Fordham University, and many other leading philosophers and scholars of religion. Nasr accepted to edit the two volumes on Islamic Spirituality, which came out in 1989 and 1991. Both volumes have since become invaluable reference material in English for those interested in this subject. In 1983, Nasr delivered the Wiegand Lecture on the philosophy of religion at the University of Toronto in Canada. He also helped in the establishment of the section on Hermeticism and perennial philosophy at the American Academy of Religion Within the recent years, Nasr together with the British scholar of Islamic and Jewish philosophy, Oliver Leaman, edited a two volume work, History of Islamic Philosophy which consists of articles written by important scholars in this field, discussing the different aspects and schools of Islamic philosophy and its development in the different parts of the Islamic world. Nasr's continued interest in science is made evident by his latest book on this subject, The Need for a Sacred Science. Also, together with one of his former students, Mehdi Amin Razavi, Nasr is brought out a major four volume work, An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. Razavi also edited earlier, The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia, which is a collection of Nasr's articles on Islamic philosophy in Persia written during the last forty years. Over the years, Profesor Nasr has trained different generations of students. This expanded since 1958 when he was a professor at Tehran University and then, in America since the Iranian revolution in 1979, specifically at Temple University in Philadelphia from 1979 to 1984 and at the George Washington University since 1984 to the present day. They have come from the different parts of the world, and many of whom have become important and prominent scholars in their fields of study. The range of subjects and areas of study which Professor Nasr has involved and engaged himself with in his academic career and intellectual life are immense. As demonstrated by his numerous writings, lectures and speeches, Professor Nasr speaks and writes with great authority on a wide variety of subjects, ranging from philosophy to religion to spirituality, to music and art and architecture, to science and literature, to civilizational dialogues and the natural environment.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 176 For Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr, the quest for knowledge, specifically knowledge which enables man to understand the true nature of things and which furthermore, "liberates and delivers him from the fetters and limitations of earthly existence," has been and continues to be the central concern and determinant of his intellectual life. At seventy, Seyyed Hossein Nasr leads an extremely active intellectual life with a very busy schedule of teaching at the university and lecturing at many institutions in America and around the world, writing scholarly works, being involved in several intellectual projects simultaneously and meeting individuals who are interested in traditional thought. At the same time, he leads a very intense spiritual life spent in prayer, meditation and contemplation and also providing spiritual counsel for those who seek his advice and guidance. Exiled from his homeland, Seyyed Hossein Nasr has found his home in the inviolable and sacred Center which is neither in the East nor the West.
The Scientific 4 Reemergence and Its Future Directions
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 178 THE SCIENTIFIC REEMERGENCE AND ITS FUTURE DIRECTIONS 4.1 Important Elements of re-emergence
Reality has shown us that what is true of weakness, energy, health and disease, is also true with nations and civilization. We see a man who is healthy, hale and hearty but all of a sudden he is attacked by diseases, and illnesses overtake him from all sides to the extent that his strong and sturdy building of his body is shaken up. He is constantly changing sides restlessly and cries in anguish. At last Allah blesses him, and he gets the services of an expert healer, who diagnoses the real malady, precisely gets to the root-cause of the disease, and treats him sincerely and painstakingly. After some days, you find that the energy and health of the patients returns. Sometimes, it so happens that his health gets better than before. Similar is the case of the Muslim nation and its scientific civilization. They face trials and tribulations. The edifice of the nation got dilapidated, and all manifestations of power and glory come to an end. Constant assaults of trouble and mishaps enervate them, and they get absolutely weak, powerless and emaciated. Then they are neither in a position to check the oppression of the tyrants, nor stop the mouth of the avaricious. At that time, their power, well-being, existence and progress depends on three things- diagnosis of the disease, treatment of the sickness and an expert doctor, who should be their patron. The treatment should continue till they get well, alright and full of health and energy. 4.1.1 The correct diagnosis: What really happened to Islamic Science? Abdus Salam, the only Muslim to have won the Noble Prize in physics, once was asked the similar question 'what happened to Islamic Science?' and he gave no suprising answer `Nothing. Instead what we cultivated in Isfahan and Cordoba is now being cultivated in MIT, Caltech and at Imperial College, London. It's just a geographical translation of place'.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 179
Nasr, further validated this statement by saying 'The Muslims has been studying the history of science from the Western perspective, and the Westerner have their right to decide the era which is important and which is not for them. If we are going to utilise their reference, then we are overlooking 700 years, not 70 years, 700 years of Islamic intellectual history during which the Muslims were supposed to have done nothing. They were supposed to have been decadent for 700 years. Now how can you revive a patient that has been dead for that long a time? The idea [which] is propagated in the West [is] that Muslims are very brilliant, that they did science and things like that, [and then] suddenly decided to turn the switch off and went to selling beads and playing with their rosaries in the bazaar for the next 700 years till Mossadegh nationalized the oil and they came back on the scene of human history are now living happily again. This, of course, is total nonsense and it brings about a sclerosis, intellectually, which is far from being trivial.Over [the] twenty years I have taught at Tehran University, I always felt, [our students] could never overcome this very long historical loss of memory. Somehow it was very difficult for them. They wanted to connect themselves to Al-Biruni and Khawarizmi and people like that, but this hiatus was simply too long. This hiatus has not been created by history itself. It has been created by the study of history from the particular perspective of Western scholarship, which is as I said, perfectly [within] its right in its claim that Islam is interesting only till the moment that it influences the West. The great mistake is when that objective divides the history of Islam [into a period of productivity and one of degeneration]. In the field of history of science, that is a very important element.' In the earlier chapter we have proven the facts that the Muslim scientific community had continuously contributed to the development and advancement of science within their geographical or institutional platforms. Despite their achievements, surprisingly, some of them who even honoured by the Western world were not significantly acknowledged to the Muslim worlds in the true sense. They were the 'hidden scientific torch-bearers' for the Muslim, the 'unknown heroes'. They supposed to be the motivators and the catalysts for the success of the Muslim generation. Yet, their forceful voice couldn't be heard but only to be seen in their written biography, some even after they have
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 180 left the world. Overlooking the abundant Muslim scientists over the world today, the first question that should be asked is, how many of them really care of their collective status and how many of them really interested to know their role in the scientific re-emergence. This will somehow bring into challenge the aim of their intellectual existence, the role of their academic positioning and the future direction of their ambitious career. It might be bittersome for some who never thought of the important of this religion throughout their successful academic journey.It might be hard for some to readjust the preset future glooming status and it might be difficult for some to sacrifice their profit-adjusted time just to rekindle the light of scientific interest in future generation. It will take time and time is always the good healer. Yet this issue had to be clarified individually and in the best possible approach. This is vital before we go to the next question, how many of them are willing to work hand-in-hand to achieve the same objective and who will play the leading roles manoeuvring the whole process of reemergence. There is a big difference between thinking and saying, saying and acting, acting and struggling, and true struggle and wrong struggle. This brought all of us back to the important elements in any process of change: the right attitude, the correct and blessed objective and the courage to sacrifice for the benefit of the Muslim ummah. 4.1.2 The proven treatment: Al-Qur'an It is without doubt that the Qur'an was the prime motivating factor in the success of the Muslims ….for centuries. This has been well supported not only by the sequence of events and achievements following the earlier generations of Muslims, but also well agreed by even the non Muslims researchers in the field of Islamic sciences and history. So, it is obvious that when the Muslims started to interpret the Qur'anic teaching in their own perspective, if not losing interest in it, they are embracing unavoidable defeat, spiritual and materially. "The Koran actually forms one of the cornerstones of science in Islam in a way unlike any other scripture of any other religion," said Glen M.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 181 Cooper, a professor of the history of science and Islam at Brigham Young University."The Koran enjoins the believer and the unbeliever alike to examine nature for signs of the creator's handiwork, evidence of his existence, and his goodness," Cooper said. "Reason is revered as one of the most important of God's gifts to men. The examination of nature led historically into a scientific perspective and program." Farkhonda Hassan, a professor at the University of Cairo who has written about barriers to science careers for Islamic women, agreed."The teachings of the Holy Prophet of Islam emphasize the acquiring of knowledge as bounden duties of each Muslim from the cradle to the grave, and that the quest for knowledge and science is obligatory upon every Muslim man and woman," she said. "One eighth -that is, 750 verses - of the Koran exhort believers to study, to reflect, and to make the best use of reason in their search for the ultimate truth." Muslim should go back to the essence of the Qur'anic teaching. They should be educated the way the Prophet had taught them. They should be the 'living Al Qur'an'. They should be told that seeking knowledge and exploring the nature was not a mere encouragement to whosoever wanted to do so, but it is a religious obligation, not only for their own inner faith but for the benefit of the humanity. The spirit of unity amongst the Muslims scientists, Muslims countries and amongst Muslims in general as propagated by the Qur'an is based on the sincerity and good faith and not because of material gain or economic and political privileges. Qur'an should be embraced as the first generation embraced it and the importance of it should be intilled in the very heart of the Muslims. 4.1.3 The expert doctors: The Muslim scientists and religious scholars The religious scholar (ulama') should come hand in hand with the Muslim scientist in the real sense. They should be no gap between them since there is nothing in the teachings of Islam that contends against learning, against science, and against technology. The pursuit of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 182 knowledge and scientific research is the birthright of every Muslim woman and every Muslim man. The rediscovery of Islamic science and technology in the 21st century is an intellectually formidable task requiring a sustained effort over several decades.It demands a strong cooperation between both of them. The religious scholar should be updated of the development of the modern science and technology so that they can give their input especially on moral and legal aspect of such an innovation and development. At the same time the Muslim scientists and technologists should be aware of the importance to impart if not mastered the Islamic knowledge so they are well guided in their development. The combination of these efforts will not only witness a positive scientific development flourished based on the essence of the Qur'an and the Hadith but furthermore, it will enhanced the development for healthy 'ijtihad which without doubt, is essential in the rapid changing world of science and technology. Muslim religious scholar and scientists should be united in their aim at applying science and technology in the building of a new Islamic civilization. This will prevent the imbalance, disharmony and disintegration in almost every field of human endeavor such as social, economic, cultural, political or any other. 4.1.4 The Islamic Unity The secret of the Islamic unity, as was proven historically was the establishment of the Caliphate. Not only that it is a special symbol of Islam with its distinction, many of the orders of the Islam are directly connected with the Caliph and cannot be completed in his absence. This was the reason that before the burial of the Holy Prophet, the honoured Companions were anxious about the matter and till they settled this important work satisfactorily, they did not consent to his burial. It was also under the directive of the Caliph that the centre of Islamic scientific civilization was moved to Baghdad. As explicitly explained by al-Faruqi, the content of the Divine amana,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 183 and therefore of khilafa, is the development and establishment of culture and civilization. To institute peace and assurance of life and property, to organize humans into an ordered society capable of producing food and of processing, storing, and distributing it to all in adequate quantities and quality, to provide shelter, warmth and comfort, communication and ease, to build and make available the tools necessary to realize these goals, and, finally, to furnish opportunities for education and self-realization, and for recreation and esthetic enjoyment, this is the core content of khilafa. It is equivalent to the making of culture and civilization, to the affirmation and promotion of life and the world. Allah (SWT) commands all this to be done and declares it to be the very reason for His creation of the world. The Divine, anterior motive in all this is that humans may prove themselves ethically worthy in doing it. They can do so by entering into their routines of action for His sake and maintaining the balance of justice throughout their actions. Rightly, Muslims understand khilafa as predominantly political. The Qur'an repeatedly associates khilafa with establishment of political power (Surah al A'araf 7:73), the reassurance of security and peace (Surah al Nur 24:55), the vanquishing of enemies and the replacement of their regime by that of the vicegerents (Surah al A'araf 7:128 and Surah Yunus 10:14 & 73). Political action, i.e. participation in the political process as in election or bay'ah of the ruler, giving continual counsel and advice to the chief of state and his ministers, monitoring their actions, criticizing and even impeaching them - all these are not only desirable but prime religious and ethical duties. Failure to perform such duties is, as the Prophet (SAWS) said, to lapse into jahiliya. On the other hand, to be part of the politico-religious body of Islam is integral to the faith itself. Abu Bakr and the sahaba fought those who wanted to secede from the body while keeping the faith, branding them as apostates who had rejected the whole of Islam. Unlike Christianity, large sections of which have always regarded the political process as the depth of evil and counseled against involvement in it, Islam considers it to be of the essence and prohibits withdrawal. The same is true a fortiori of culture and civilization. Islam regards building them as the very business of religion. All the more contrasting with the norms of Islam therefore is the disengagement of the Muslim masses from the
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 184 political process in the period of decay in which we are still ensnared. Revival of the Caliphate is essential, although it will take great pains for Muslim and many difficult problems will have to be settled before the last steps for the resuscitation of the Caliphate is taken. It is really encouraging to witness steps taken towards economic, social and cultural cooperation and liaison among all the Muslim nations and groups. The formation of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) was a first major step towards achieving that aim even though its direction is still in vague. It was established in Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco, on 12th Rajab 1389H(25th September 1969) when the first meeting of the leaders of the Islamic world was held in this city in the wake of the criminal arson perpetrated on the 21st August 1969 by Zionist elements against Al-Aqsa Mosque, in occupied Jerusalem. It was indeed in order to defend the honour, dignity and faith of the Muslims, to face this bitter challenge launched in the holy city of Al-Quds so dear to them and against the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, the first Qibla and third holiest Shrine of Islam, that the leaders of the Muslim world, at their summit in Rabat, to think together of their common cause and muster the force required to overcome the differences, unite and lay the foundations of this large grouping of states. Six month after that historical meeting, the First Islamic Conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs held in Jeddah set up a permanent general secretariat, to ensure a liaison among member states and charged it to coordinate their action. The conference appointed its secretary general and chose Jeddah as the headquarters of the organization, pending the liberation of Jerusalem, which would be the permanent headquarters. The charter of this organization which now consists of 57 member states, was adopted in Muharram 1392H(February 1972) aiming to strengthen Islamic solidarity among member states, to built cooperation in the political, economic, social, cultural and scientific fields, and safeguard the dignity, independence and national rights of all Muslim people. It will coordinate action to safeguard the Holy places and support the struggle of the Palestinian people and assist them in recovering their rights and liberating their occupied territories. Politically, the chapter
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 185 also enumerates the principles of full equality among member states, observation of the right to self determination and non interference in the internal affairs of member states and observation of the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of each state. Unfortunately, despite 35 year of its establishment, Jerusalem is still under the hand of Israel, and history had witnessed various events such as Iraq-Iran war, Kuwait invasion and intervention of foreign forces in the Islamic lands which do not in line with the spirit of OIC itself. This signifies that even though the external frame of re-establishment of the Caliphate was in the mind of the Muslims-conscious or subconsciously, the internal content and implementation of it is still far from reality. 4.1.5 Review of educational approach For several hundred years, Islamic countries were colonial countries ruled by foreigners.The Muslim masses were not only left behind in education and loosing their natural resources, but also lacked inspiring and guiding leaders. Without these they could not struggle and could not compete and keep pace with the rest of the world, which has been developing fast. Awakening from its slumber, the Ummah is today confronted with formidable problems on all fronts. It's economic, social and political problems, which are overpowering by any standard, are "tip of the icebergs" of its deeper-lying malaise on the education, intellectual and moral level. All or most of the Muslim countries are blindly following the western science and technology without any modification or change. This will again result in injury to the Islamic personality and culture at all levels and also it will destroy the physical environment. Muslim scientists and technologists who are in pursuit of building a new Islamic civilization must understand and solve the Ummah's problems. They must understand them correctly and analyze them critically. They must assess with precision how their solutions will affect the life of the Ummah. The young Muslim generation should be taught of Islamic patriotism. The objective is that the new generations should make their own the
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 186 modes of their Muslim scientific ancestor such as Ibn Sina, Ibn Khaldun and many other as mentioned earlier, whom they regard as an example worthy to be followed. In their heart should lay the foundation of greatness, honour, elevation, dignity, courage and chivalry like them. They should hug to their hearts the ancestral grandeur, regard it as a heritage of honour, and feel in themselves an urge of valour and boldness.It is obvious that if we do not revive the deeds of the predecessors, do not talk of their greatness and honour, how valour could be generated in the present and future generation. History books have been ripped from the rich culture of Islam. Professors have been reluctant to attribute any discovery or invention to Muslims. As stated even by Prince Charles"If there is much misunderstanding in the West about the nature of Islam, there is also much ignorance about the debt our own culture and civilisation owe to the Islamic world. It is a failure, which stems, I think, from the straight-jacket of history, which we have inherited. The medieval Islamic world, from central Asia to the shores of the Atlantic, was a world where scholars and men of learning flourished. But because we have tended to see Islam as the enemy of the West, as an alien culture, society, and system of belief, we have tended to ignore or erase its great relevance to our own history." (Prince Charles, lecture at Oxford University) Many education systems teach that the world civilisation scientifically passed through, Greeks Era (BC), Romans Era (500 AD), Dark Ages(6001600 AD) Renaissance(1600 AD), Industrial Revolution (1800/1900 AD), Modern Civilisation (2000-)."Dark Ages" is the word some corrupt historians used to convinced the mass that for 1000 years nothing happened, no discovery, no invention, no progress ,every body was somehow mentally dead and their brains stop working. While it was true for the Western Civilisation which was asleep during this time, across the western countries an exemplary civilization arose, yet masked by the historical fallacy. During these 'neglected'centuries many remarkable developments took place including discovery of Pulmonary Circulation, first Complete Medical Encyclopedia, first successful surgeries, founding of chemistry,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 187 founding of algebra, discovery of the laws of refraction and determination of the Solar Year. There were many more discoveries that took place during the 6th-16th century that shaped up the world immensely and without doubt should be renamed as the Golden Era of the World. 4.1.6 Mastering the language of technology Without doubt, the tedious translation works done by the earlier Islamic generation has given a fruitful outcome to their dominancy in science. The similar situation occurred when the western nation started to dig the treasure of knowledge of the Islamic civilization. Even until today, the Muslim Arabic transcripts are still being translated. We have to agree that today the English language is considered the language of technology besides German, French and Japanese languages. Scientific work, therefore, requires a competence in reading, writing, and comprehending English, an area in which Muslims overall lag behind other peoples, such as Chinese, Indians, and Brazilians. Even though the Arab League has systematically promoted scientific translations and an updated Arab vocabulary, yet where English or French are the language of instruction (the former in the Arabicspeaking countries of the Persian Gulf, the latter in North Africa), hostility often develops between students in science, who study in a foreign language, and those in other disciplines, who work in Arabic. Some Muslim countries, and Malaysia was one of them, has even gone a step forwards by sending their students to various part of the world studying in different languages beside English. To quote Malaysia itself, in the early 80's has started sending students to Belgium, Germany, France, Japan, Korea and of late to Russia. The effort was to be applauded but yet the follow up of such a 'daring' initiative was miserable. The brilliant students, after their 'torturous' years learning in foreign languages and successfully came out 'the burning oven' in one piece, found themselves back home struggling as the rest to find a good job and life. The language of technology that they learnt fade as time goes. It is much beneficial if they were gathered in scientific or academic institutions so that their different experiences and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 188 technological approaches or transmission can be fully utilized to enhance scientific development in the respective countries. 4.1.7 Effective Scientific Learning Effective science education at primary and secondary levels must be available to everyone. Encouragement should be given towards understanding principle of science and its application in day to day life. Students should be encouraged to think, experiment and invent simple scientific discovery. The concept of study for exam should be erased and the curriculum should be less stringent on academic marks and not 'exam oriented'. Universities and technical schools should emphasize research rather than teaching.Strong doctoral programs or research centers of academic excellence must be brought into existence. The approach to science should be from the Islamic perpective. Understanding of the material science should come hand in hand with the Islamic scientific philosophies. As well described by Syed Hossein Nasr 'Modern science is successful in telling you the weight and chemical structure of a red pine leaf, but it is totally irrelevant to what is the meaning of the turning of this leaf to red. The ``how'' has been explained in modern science, the ``why'' is not its concern. If you are a physics student and you ask the question, `what is the force of gravitation?' the teacher will tell you the formula, but as to what the nature of this force is, he will tell you it is not a subject for physics. So [science] is very successful in certain fields, but leaves other aspects of reality aside'. And the Muslim students should also be reminded and trained as budding scientists, with ability to gather scientific informations, to screening it, to assimilate it with the Islamic principle and understanding before digesting or rejecting it. As explicitly quoted by Nasr: 'symbolically, and the symbol is important, when the West adopted Islamic science, it even adopted the gown of the Muslim Ulema, but it never took the turban and put it on its head. The headdress of the European bishops of the Middle Ages, was kept on, whereas at many Islamic universities today, we have taken both the gown and the cap from the West. We cannot think of ourselves independently. The
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 189 whole thing has been taken over and has now been made our own.' 4.1.8 Promotion and Commercialization of scientific research Muslims countries must develop the mechanisms not only to produce but to sustain outstanding individual researchers and projects. Besides steps taken to invite back local prominent scientist who is abroad, adequate incentives and unconditional support for scientific projects and publications should be given for the talented scientists at home. Promotion, even to bureaucratic posts should be conditioned not to hamper their scientific momentum. Attempts to develop research capabilities should not only be limited to the universities or research institutes but should expand to the government ministries, non-profit foundations, multinational corporations, or local corporations. 4.1.9 Recognition and award Recognition of the contribution of the individual or group is important not only for personal satisfaction but also to foster a healthy environment for further scientific advancement. And it should not only be limited to the universities or higher institutional learning centres, but must go down to the school, community and family level. The scientific bodies or academies in the Muslims countries should not be carried over by prestigious awards in science such as the Noble Prize and the L'oreal-Unesco Awards for 'Women in Science' and concentrating only to the 'big gun' in science. They should be well aware of the value attached to the recognition of the young talents especially in their effort to nuture the budding scientific generation. Each award has its own credibility, seen by individual from different level of education and accepted by different strata of people. Noble prize has little meaning for a farmer who is struggling to get enough money to send his beloved children to school. For them a financial award and a 'science scholarship' will not only lessened their
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 190 financial constraint but will open their eyes, broaden their mind and enhance their encouragement to motivate the learning of science in the family circle. Teachers of science at the primary and secondary school played the utmost important role in shaping the future generation, and they too should be encouraged with appropriate recognition and awards. How can we expect our future scientists to be born out from an institution where the teacher themselves are not scientifically inclined and not innovative enough. They should built the interest together with their students to explore the scientific world of innovation,even to start with the simplest project of thinking how to measure the amount of water used for performing wudhu'(ablution) to a complex project of making a fountain clock that splash water at certain hour. 4.1.10 Building up the 'scientific family, scientific community'
Islam recognizes the family as the constitutive unit of social order, and buttresses its extended form with legislation regarding inheritance and dependence in order to enable the largest possible family membership to eat from the same kitchen and hence mutually and economically to support the social, emotional, and mental health and prosperity of its members. Beyond the family, Islam recognizes multiple levels of community in humanity, and finally the universal social order of the largest community, mankind. Man's membership in this order generates interest in the social sciences, or should do so. Human groupings without a moral basis between the family and humankind, such as country, region, the "people," or "nation-state," Islam regards purely as administrative units absolutely irrelevant to the definition of good and evil and to the interpretation and application of the shari'ah. The arts, the humanities, and the social sciences of the modern West must therefore be totally recast. The basic need to build up a scientific family is as emphasized by Islam, the pursuit of knowledge. The Quran begins with the word "iqra" or "read". Every Muslim family must be encouraged and guided to take part in acquisition of knowledge. Reading habit should be instilled in each member of the family starting from the parent themselves. Each
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 191 Muslim house should have its own library, irrespective of its size, and each housing area should have its community library. The education system must be orientated towards encouraging reading habits instead of dumping children with endless 'copying'homeworks rather than initiating self research and reading. Important issues related to Islam and science in particular should be a regular topic of discussion within the family circle. The issue can be outsourced from journals, media or the reading of Qur'an and Hadith itself. It has been a routine phenomenon nowadays that Islam has been wrongly potrayed with multiple pictures and labels from 'poverty', 'starvation', 'war' to 'terrorism'. These disrecpectful issues should be well explained to our children so that they are well repared to face the true face of the world. The understanding of Islam as our way of life should be translated in reality within the family. The teachings of Qur'an and Sunna must be activated in our houses, among our children and wives and all those around us so that they may receive its guidance for implementation not for mere knowledge. Thereafter we will notice a manifest change in both individual and collective behaviors. This positive change should be guided to the right direction in order to make of it a comprehensive change incorporating the whole nation. This is not an imagination or theoretical thinking but it is a reality that we can live and put into effect. 4.1.11 Credibility of muslims countries
Globally, Muslim countries are devoid of a common voice that is taken seriously. They are known to be very consistent in arranging annual international conferences beside regular regional meetings, discussing important issues related to Muslim countries. They usually end up with excellent resolutions and even credible steps to move forward. Yet unfortunately, in general they are poor in implementations. So many matters, from untouchable internal politics to 'mental' if not 'physical' non-deliberation from Western influences have stagnate the progress of Muslim nations. It had become obvious that the moral boostering speeches given by particular goodhearted leaders will be
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 192 repeated again and again in the subsequent meetings. Many Muslim countries are synonymous with poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition. Some stand out because of oppression, tyranny and injustice. Statistic has shown that only a small minority of the 57 Muslim-majority countries, five to be exact, is deemed as having high human development by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme); 24 countries are in the medium-developing category. The remaining 28, or half the Muslim world, are classified as having low human development. Only five countries in the Muslim world enjoy a per capita GDP above US$10,000 (RM38,000). The acquisition of knowledge in much of the Muslim world is still lacking.Educational standards are low and illiteracy high in many countries, due to poverty, poor management and allocation of resources, war and conflict. In some countries more than half the adult population is illiterate. The number of scholar produced could not compesate the brain drain to other developed countries. All this conditions led if not make worse with another disease in the society, corruption.Corruption is another major problem in the Muslim world. We fare extremely poorly in Transparency International's corruption perception index. Of the 133 countries surveyed in 2003, the Muslim country with the best record could only rank 26th. Four Muslim countries occupied the last 10 rankings. The Muslim countries are in need of credible leaders, who able to observe, hear and think the pressing problems of their countries and the Muslim nations.A leader who has the courage to move forward.A leader who has the broad vision of the future not only for his country but more importantly for the Muslim ummah and a leader who work and implement things more than mere talking. Gone should be the days of leaders who accommodated their time more on the issue of their political survival, who accumulated their own wealth at the expense of starvation of the'mind' and 'body' of the nation and who had never thought of re-establishing the dominancy of Muslim ummah in this world. The Muslim countries has been so long 'isolated' in their 'mind' and
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 193 'vision' by their geographical boundaries, political egoism and worse still religious illeteration or misunderstanding. Understanding this, insy'Allah (with the will of Allah), we can be a credible nation. 4.2 The Assets
Understanding the pre-requisites for the re-emerging process and the huge responsibilities awaiting the sincere Muslims, it is important for us to reconsider the assets that we have to determine at which point should we began, and at which level are our capabilities. For this we need to evaluate those beneficial assets that we have or had been passed down by the previous generations. 4.2.1 The Spiritual Assets The formative period of Islamic civilization began with the revelation of the Holy Qur'an, which laid down the basic principles of Islamic teaching. This has been agreed upon by both the Muslim and non Muslim scholars who had done extensive research on the history of the Islamic nation. This is the key of the spiritual assets which is still in the hand of the Muslims without any minute alteration. This was further elaborated both by the words and the practical aspect of life of the Prophet Mohammad which was preserved as the Tradition (Hadith) till today with its stringent authenticity scrutiny. The Holy Quran that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad By Allah(God), is the only book who's content has not been altered or changed a bit for more then 1400 years, and the book has been learnt byheart, word to word by millions of Muslims. This Book that was revealed verse by verse in almost 23 years, explained to us each and every aspect of the way our life should be, the way our life should not be. It even explained many advanced scientific facts, including, The Origin of the Universe, Human Embryonic ,Purpose of Mountains, Origin of Rain and many other scientific and mathematical facts . These are the two important spiritual elements that lit up the hearts of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 194 the esteemed companions that they brightened up despite the deep gloom which prevailed at that time. These are the drink of spiritualism which Prophet Mohammad made them drink which sent a wave of life and freshness in to them. Thereafter the flowers of wisdom blossomed amongst them, the buds of emotions and sentiments bloomed into fragrance and leaves of intelligence and insight budded. These are the spiritual elements needed and should be instilled in the heart of the current and future Muslim scientist, not only to motivate them but more importantly to purify their ultimate aim of the scientific innovations and achievements. And they are still in the hand of the Muslims. 4.2.2 The Historical Assets History has justified that the Muslims were at the forefront of human and scientific civilization. History has witnessed that the expansion of Islam was not dominantly spearheaded by oppression and swords but by high moral upbringing and positive attitudes of the earlier generations. History has also taught the human being, without fail that given the appropriate time and processes, events will be repeated in the same principle irrespective of the different geographical areas or time frames. The fact is that if the Muslims willing to learn and stroll ahead in the successful pathway of the earlier generations, the door of victory will be widely opened for them. Beside the authentic historical book and manuscripts, as we open our eyes, we are not devoid of historical geographical landmarks throughout the world. These physical remains of history should be appreciated not only for the sake of its artistic or architectural values, but should trickle the Muslims minds and woke them up of their shameful laziness in continuing and benefiting the great heritage of intellectuality and civilization of their ancestors. Historically and till today the Muslim nation had never been exhausted in producing scientific geniuses. This historical and 'to be historic' figures is invaluable assets in shaping the minds of the Muslims and motivating the younger generation, proving the intrinsic capability of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 195 the Muslims. It is timely for them to become more extrinsic in their appearances and their achievements. With regards to the manuscripts of Muslim civilization, it is enough to know that there exist at the present day, in spite of many losses by destruction, nearly quarter of a million manuscripts in the various libraries of the Muslim world, and in the great libraries of Europe and America. A large part of this wealth deals with scientific subjects, and includes both Arabic translation of Ancient Greek words, and original works written by Muslim scholars themselves. History, day by day kept on unveiling the impact of Islam's discoveries during the 'Golden' period which went far beyond individual innovations like algebra or the establishment of models for modern hospitals and universities. The spread of Islamic knowledge to Europe sparked, or at least helped to spark, the Renaissance and scientific revolution of the 17th century which repeatedly elicited even by the Western historians. "It is highly probable that, but for the Arabs, modern European civilization would never have arisen at all," Sir Thomas Arnold and Alfred Guillaume wrote in their 1997 classic, "The Legacy of Islam." Robert Briffault wrote in the 'Making of Humanity' that "Spain, not Italy, was the cradle of the rebirth of Europe. After steadily sinking lower and lower into barbarism, it had reached the darkest depths of ignorance and degradation when cities of the Saracenic world, Baghdad, Cairo, Cordoba, and Toledo, were growing centers of civilization and intellectual activity. It was there that the new life arose which was to grow into a new phase of human evolution." 4.2.3 The Material and Physical Assets Islam is the faith of over 1.25 billion Muslims, centered historically and symbolically on the cities of Mecca and Medina in the Arabian Peninsula, where the word of God was revealed to Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah from 610 until the Prophet's death in 632. Demographically,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 196 the center of the Islamic world is well to the east of the Middle East. Only one-fifth of Muslims are Arab, and the largest populations of Muslims live in Indonesia, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Out of 191 countries of the United Nations, 57 are Muslim countries which also represent the OIC. With over one fifth of the world population and also possession of roughly one fifth of the world's land mass, Muslim countries also had been blessed with great wealth. They own some of the most abundant energy and mineral resources in the world. They possess 70% of world's energy resources. And they supply 40% of the global exports of raw materials. But, unfortunately, the OIC as a group has failed to convert their abundant human and physical resources into economic achievement. As a group the OIC has less than 5% of the world GDP; and, besides, the others are growing faster. Therefore the per capita income o f the OIC group is depreciating relative to other countries. The GDP of the entire Ummah is roughly $1400 billion while that of Japan alone is $4500 billion. The highest GDP of a Muslim country is $ 185 billion while that of tiny European countries with no natural resources is above $ 200 billion. This disparity is because of the technological and human resource edge they enjoy. The Ummah collectively can boast only of 500 universities (leave the quality aside) and 1000 PhDs per annum. Japan alone has more than 9000 universities and England alone produces more than 2000 PhDs. Incomes within OIC are also skewed. Only 6 countries account for more than half the OIC income. Rest of the 51 countries generate a meager income of barely $ 600 billion. Out of the world's 48 least developed countries, 22 are in OIC. 23 OIC countries are classified as severely indebted by international institutions. In Trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), the OIC countries performance is again dismal. OIC share in world trade is only 6 to 8 percent. Hardly $15 billion of FDI is attracted by all the OIC countries. This figure is roughly that of Sweden or Thailand alone. China atone has FDI of $50 billion. What is most saddening is that lntra-OIC trade is a small fraction of its total trade volume. The Muslims world was granted abundant material assets and human
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 197 resources. And it might be one of the important reasons why they still lack behind economically. Self contented with the pouring profit from their energy resources and raw material, they became less innovative compared to those without their own resources. It is just the repetition of the history of the 17th century. The Muslim nations should start thinking seriously on steps to generate economic growth in their countries. They should invent practical manouvers to increase intra OIC trade and investment so that their citizens can share in the prosperity and superior technology through better governance.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 198 4.3 Future Direction
4.3.1 Centrally based scientific leadership The importance of a central scientific leadership is unquestionable.The formation of the Network of Academies of Science in Countries of the Organization of Islamic Conference (NASIC) on the 17th March 2004 at Islamabad was a happy augury for the future. Founded by 15 National Science Academies of the OIC Member States, it has selected Prof. Attaur-Rahman from Pakistan as its president with the Pakistan Academy of Sciences as the secretariat of the network. They have agreed to establish a formal network to provide each other with mutual support and to discuss the scientific aspects of problems of common concern. Hopefully the network could help to build a unified approach to capacity building in science and technology within OIC member states. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, who is Pakistan's federal minister of science and technology, is also the coordinator-general of COMSTECH, the OIC's Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation. NASIC is intended to be an autonomous, non-governmental, nonpolitical and non-profit organisation. Its tasks will include developing scientific research collaborations between members of the network; promoting cooperation between academies in OIC countries; assisting in building the capacities of academies in OIC countries to improve their role as independent expert advisors to governments; and assisting science communities in OIC countries to set up national independent academies where such bodies do not exist. In pursuing its objectives, it was also agreed that NASIC should collaborate with other academies both inside and outside the OIC, as well as with regional and international organisations concerned with problems in OIC countries. It is our hope that through NACIS the linkages between the scientists in OIC countries can be strengthened, leading to exchange of scientists, initiation of programmes in education and training in various fields of science and technology, together with promotion of joint research in
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 199 priority fields. The flourishing numbers of international based association of Muslim professionals were also an important development for a better future of science. This includes the International Muslim Association of Scientists and Engineers (IMASE) and the Federation of Islamic Medical Association (FIMA).Futher collaboration with Internat….Social Scientist and the Fatwa The International Muslim Association of Scientists and Engineers (IMASE) is a global networking organisation of researchers, scholars, technologists and professionals that aims to nurture and exploit knowledge, with an Islamic framework, for the benefit of mankind. IMASE strives to achieve this by gathering and focussing the knowledge, talents and experience of its members from around the world, to identify and address the scientific and technological challenges facing developing communities. They work to deal with these challenges by delivering distinctive contributions through research, action and publication. Their areas of focus include technology for development, water issues, enterprise and Muslim science policy. IMASE aims to be a practical consulting and problem-solving organisation that draws upon its network of members from the scientific community's finest, in order to assist in the development of individuals, organisations and nations across the world.Their Focus Group aims to nurture and employ attitudes and practices of an Islamic character towards science while their Islam and Science Forum aims to research and deliver coherent and realistic seminars, discussions and studies on matters related to science, technology, society and development. By pooling their disciplinary resources and engaging their collective curiosity towards contemporary challenges, they hope to play a beneficial role in building capability and confidence in Muslim knowledge structures on an Ummah level. The practical dimension of this group is in Translation, which refers to the translation of an Islamic Philosophy of Science, to a deliverable Science Policy for Muslim nations and institutions. Through
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 200 consultations, surveys and publications, they will work to identify and build awareness amongst drivers of research priorities in contemporary Muslim societies. The Federation of Islamic Medical Association (FIMA), was established in 1981, by a group of Muslim physicians and health care professionals from Canada, United State of America, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Jordan, South Africa, Sudan, Nigeria, United Kingdom of Eire, who first met in Orlando, Florida, USA. They discussed the need for an organization to unite all Islamic Health Care association in the world under one banner. Currently it has over 24 member organizations from all over the world. Amongst the major objectives of FIMA are to foster the unity and welfare of Muslim medical professionals all over the world and to promote Islamic medical activities including health services, education and research, through cooperation and coordination among member organization. It also strives to promote the understanding the application of Islamic principal in the field of medicine, to mobilize professional and economic resources in order to provide medical care and relief to affected areas and people. It also has the role to promote exchange of medical information and technical data among member organization. Over the years, Muslim medical professionals under FIMA banner, were capable of making history in overcoming and bypassing boundaries and divisions of politics, ethnicity and geography, and to step forward as brothers in Islam, descendants of one great Islamic civilization and culture.Over the past few years, Islamic Medical Associations all over the world were able to develop their activities in various areas of medical, educational, scientific, humanitarian and other fields of action. FIMA, as an umbrella organization, became instrumental in coordination, bridging and guidance, to bring about sound cooperation and planning among member associations. To fulfill the Aims and Objectives layed down in December 1982, FIMA has embarked on major projects including medical relief work in disaster areas, Islamic University Consortium, Islamic Hospital Consortium, High Technology Center, Medical Professional Database,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 201 international and regional scientific conventions, medical student activities including scholarship summer and winter camps, and other activities in collaboration with various member associations. Other projects are awaiting genuine efforts, initiatives and leadership of successive and devoted professionals. 'Organized Islamic medical work is in dire need for dedication and diligent innovation from all of us, in our continuous strife to regain the proper leading and dignified status of our Ummah in science, and all walks of life' as once stressed by the past-president Dr. Aly Mishal, an endocrinologists who he himself is the director of the Islamic Hospital in Jordan. The Islamic Academy of Sciences (AIS) establishment was proposed by the Organisation of the Islamic Conference; (OIC) Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Co-operation (COMSTECH), and approved by the Fourth Islamic Summit held in Casablanca in 1984.Upon the invitation of Jordan, the Founding Conference of the Academy was held in Amman (Jordan) in October 1986, under the patronage of HRH Prince Al-Hassan, who kindly accepted the patronage of the Academy together with the President of Pakistan.the secretariat is currently in Amman,Jordan. IAS's mission is to provide an institutional set up for the utilisation of Science and Technology for the development of Islamic countries and humanity at large. It aims to increase interaction among scientists and facilitate the exchange of views on development issues, and to function as the Islamic Brain Trust helping the Islamic and Developing Worlds in the field of science and technology. The Annual Academy Conferences represent open fora at which experts meet and discuss a particular topic, with the aim of arriving at a common understanding of that topic and formulating core policies that can help developing countries overcome their development difficulties. In 2003, the thirteenth IAS Conference was held in Malaysia (Kucing,Serawak) and at the conclusion of the four-day conference the Academy adopted the IAS Kuching Declaration on Energy for Sustainable Development and Science for the Future of the Islamic World and Humanity.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 202 The declaration re-iterated the fact that the teachings of Islam emphasize the importance of prudently using all resources for Man's lasting well-being, and explicitly emphasize that human-beings' relation to nature should be one of stewardship and not of unrestricted mastery, and that Islam promotes a balance between all living creatures and their life-sustaining environment. It further called for the implementation of an R&D policy that addresses the complex interconnections among technological advance and societal responses and needs including sustainability. Through the declaration, the IAS re-iterated that science is a major asset of humanity, an asset that in the 21st century offers new opportunities and faces new challenges as well as old ones, challenges related to the prevalence of sustainable development, justice, tolerance, dialogue between civilisations and peace. It promulgated that the international science/academic community must lead the way in bridging prevailing civilisational, social, economic, even political divides between the peoples of the world. The Academy has been publishing the Journal of the Islamic Academy of Sciences since August 1988.For the first ten years of its existence the Journal was a broad-based scientific publication on average carrying general scientific articles. However it has been re-launced in 1998 as a specialised medical Journal thus becoming the Medical Journal of the Islamic Academy of Sciences. 4.3.2 Identification of the expertise (Muslim Who's who in Science) Despite the fact that there are bountiful of Muslim scientists in the western countries, identification and bringing them together was not an easy process. This can partly be attributed to the result of continuous assault on Islam. The label given to Islam and Muslims, from 'poor, underdeveloped countries', 'authoritarian religion and regimes' and 'terrorist' has been repetitively emphasized by the media and popularity-gainer politicians. This has led to the inferior complex within the Muslims themselves to their religion. The consequences of this are variable. First, residing in foreign countries
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 203 which gave full support to their career advancement and their gifted intellectuality, and working under great western scientists or institutions, some of the Muslim scientists prefer to keep Islam within their inner self, afraid it will be a hindrance to their future career development. Their active involvement in their professional societies far superseded their own contributions to promote scientific generation to the Muslim community, if any. Second, many previously prominent scientist or scholars prefer to take a defensive stand when it came to Islamic issues. Not only that they have to spent unnecessary time to re-explain Islam in the most diplomatic way, they also feel that some attachment to the any Islamic association or interest group not of utmost important. They prefer to portray their scientific achievement as individual achievement rather than representing a collective effort of Muslims. Third and most unfortunate phenomenon is that some of the scientists with Muslim name tag behind them do not even practised Islam in their daily life. Islam has long been left behind back home, and it is understandable that they do not appreciate the role of Islam in their intellectual upbringing, if not an obstacle for their scientific achievement in the Muslim world. In general, despite their excellent scientific intellectualities, many of Muslim scientists abroad are morally depressed, consciously or subconsciously.Their moral should be boosted with proper approach and encouragement. Individual effort is appreciated but the organizational impact is much more effective. Academy of Sciences of each Muslim country should identify and trace all their scientists, locally and abroad. Those abroad should be invited to join the academy of their respective countries so that they have the sense of belonging to a Muslim organization. They should be invited to give speeches of their speciality or appoint as honorary lecturer with their local university. Student should be sent to them for attachment. These kind of efforts will be much more appreciated by them and will boost their moral to participate in further scientific programme for the benefit of the Muslims.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 204 Efforts should be made to produce Islamic Who's who in Science. This will not only give the recognition to their works but will serve as a direct source of networking among the Muslim scientists. Furthermore it will motivate the young budding generation of Muslim scientists reading through the journey of success of their older generations. Muslim culture has a long tradition of biographical compilations. One of the earliest biographical dictionaries was that of Ibn Khalikan, born in Erbil in Iraq in 1211, who compiled the seven volume 'Wafayat al-A'yan wa Anba' Abna' al-Zaman' (The Obituaries of Eminent Men). During the course of this research, the author himself felt the difficulties in identifying the prominent modern time Muslim scientists. Uncountable days passed in order to search, select and authenticitate for the prominent one. The problems are numerous. Some had their Islamic name modified for some particular reason. Some with Muslim's name had not potrayed or even hint in their formal or informal presentation or life that they are Muslim. Some had to be reconsidered and re-edit for because of their openedly exposed routine habit that is not inline with Islam itself. In general, the author had taken the 'face' value of Islam for everyone, as the rest is between them and God. Despite that one obvious thing that every one should know is that we are not lack of credible scientists. What we are in dire need is their ability to come forward and let themselves to be known at least to the Muslim world. No matter how uncomfortable it may make the Western world, Muslim scientists are now as much a part of the West as the East. In the future, an American-born Muslim scientist might win the Nobel Prize and Muslim children would have a new type of Western role model, far removed from the standard movie stars and sports figures. This was explicitly pointed by Dr. Iqbal Unus, in his article, "Muslim Scientists & Engineers: From Then to Now," confirming what as been said earlier by Abdus Salam:"Strange as it may sound, there are more highly qualified Muslim science and engineering professionals in North America than in any one single Muslim Country. This unique science and engineering community has become a source of much expectation and hope in the Muslim world. Distinguished by the quality of its achievements, and its access to the best in research and development facilities, it holds the promise of a better tomorrow for a world stuck
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 205 seemingly forever in a 'developing?' phase. The promise is yet to be fulfilled, but the potential is there, as is the challenge." 4.3.3 Reorganization of material and human resources As for any successful organization the material assets should be well invested and human resources should be efficiently utilized. The abundant wealth scattered all over the Muslim world should neither be wasted unnecessarily nor kept hidden unexplored. At the same time, the excessive human resources should neither be neglected nor exploited to benefit the others outside the nation. Muslim world is facing economic inferiority complex because the lack of effective implementor rather than economic gurus. Similar tragedy occurred to the intellectual pool, the brain drain of the talented Muslim scientists superceded the production capability of the intellectual 'factories' throughout the Muslim countries.The emigration of scientists, disenchanted by factors ranging from a lack of investment in research to social and political instability in the region, is threatening the future technological and scientific development of the Muslim world. As for the material resources, The Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) representing one-fifth of the world's population and possessed rich natural resources and mineral reserves must create the necessary 'economic mass'in order to have influence over international trade relations. The fact is that if the Muslim countries do not enter into some form of economic co-operation within the OIC, they risk having to bear the brunt of extreme competition from the global trading system. Internal review of OIC found that a large portion of the wealth generated in some member countries do not get invested in other OIC countries. Even the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) report in 2003 pointed out that Arab rulers invest much of their oil money in the United States and other foreign countries, rather than using it to develop their own nations, and import technical know-how instead of educating ample numbers of their own citizens to be scientists and engineers. The Muslim nations need to focus on the economic development of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 206 Muslim countries to gain political clout and they must start by understanding the causes and effects of economic backwardness in some members so that specific programmes can be tailored to sustain their future growth.Trade should be seen within the context of enriching Muslims and developing their economies. To start with, the domestic economic policies of the OIC countries should be reform and the key areas of reform include foreign investment laws, tax and trade regimes, currency and exchange control systems, corporate governance, stock exchanges and the judiciary. The final outcome should be an attractive and easy intra-OIC flow of investments. Further, active participation in regional economic groupings especially amongst the OIC countries and their neighbourhood such as ASEAN, African Union,and others should be encourage or activated, with the view of benefiting the Muslim countries involved. While large business groups can afford to conduct due diligence and make intelligent trade and investment decisions, a concerted effort should be launched to assist medium-sized enterprises.Support should be given to innovative firms in emerging industries. There is a huge potential for leveraging the cultural affinities within the Muslim countries to build robust brands. The success of Al-Jazeera and Mecca Cola are examples of the penetrative effect of successful brands, learnt probably from the speed with which Nike and Starbucks have expanded their businesses around the world as a testimonial to effective branding. Another area of cooperation is the global market for "halal" food, potentially worth up to 500 billion dollars a year with some 1.8 billion consumers. Even Malaysia had openly offered contract farming or contract manufacturing arrangements with other OIC members to bring it into reality. Muslims should realize their strength in consumerism. With a better understanding of playing the globalization game and a new awareness of their own purchasing power, they can fight back with substitute goods and services. Even in America the spectrum ranges from "Abu Ammar" potato chips to local substitutes for DisneyWorld has shown promising signs.And the purchasing power of Muslims has not gone
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 207 unnoticed, even in the US and and Britain. And in another sign of creative flexibility, longtime economic pariah Iran is succeeding in its efforts to market bonds in international markets. Western financial markets have responded with Islamic indices and investment funds, such as those by Dow Jones and HSBC Investment Bank. These are yet the early potential of the Muslim economy. The OIC's collective gross domestic product is less than five percent of the global total, and trade among its members is estimated at 800 billion dollars annually which constitutes only six to seven percent of world trade.These numbers are relatively small given the total population size of the OIC. As such, the Muslim countries should work hard to realise the huge growth potential for trade and investment in the OIC, quickly and effectively. One of the effective measurements is by identifying a cluster of industries for focused attention in promoting intra-OIC ventures instead of dissipating our energies on too many sectors and industries. To begin with the following four sectors had been suggested for their synergies within the OIC: Energy, Agri-business, Financial Services, Information and Communications Technology. Other steps include developing investment funds to facilitate joint ventures and accelerate direct investment within the OIC especially by utilizing the experience of the Islamic Development Bank, exploring mechanisms for allowing trading across the stock exchanges of OIC countries and leverage of new technologies for the rapid transfer of information about OIC business opportunities which include sharing information on best practices and creating directories and data bases. The abovementioned steps are actually not new to OIC, yet past efforts to enhance economic relations within OIC failed because of two fundamental reasons: a lack of an institutional framework for implementation and a lack of involvement of the business and private sector. And as proposed by the President Musharraf during a recent meeting in Kuala Lumpur, a Joint Economic and Business Team consisting of top officials and top businessmen from OIC countries seems to be an acceptable remedy for the future. Given the increasing links between science and technology, state-
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 208 owned corporations have a potentially important scientific role. Linkage should be build with university and researcher institutes, locally or within the OIC member countries. For example, adaptive research in the petroleum and petrochemical industries can provide incentives for joint ventures in research with state-owned companies. This will enhance scientific progress while maximizing the available resources The very fact that the Muslim nations can offer unlimited opportunities in the oil, gas, mining and energy sectors, in tourism and infrastructure development, in the IT and telecommunication sector, in privatization of state enterprises and in small and medium enterprises confirmed that physically they a fit for the future success. What left to be 'treated' or 'tuned' is their 'mind'and 'attitude'.The Muslim nation has to be emancipated. They have to develop the capability to realise their potential and purify their willingness to help each other in optimising their strength. As for the intellectual 'brain drain', the following figures is alarming.According to a new study by Cairo's Gulf Centre for Strategic Studies, the emigration of intellectuals from the Arab world accounts for about one-third of the total 'brain drain' from developing countries to the West. Arab countries lose half of their newly-qualified medical doctors, 23 per cent of engineers and 15 per cent of scientists each year, with three quarters of these moving to the United Kingdom, United States and Canada. This is estimated to equate to annual losses to Arab states of more than US$2 billion. The study also found that 45 per cent of Arab students who study abroad do not go back to their countries after graduating. As a result, it says that Western states are the greatest beneficiaries of 450,000 Arabs with higher scientific qualifications. The study says that a range of political, economic, social and personal factors are to blame for the brain drain. These include the slow development in Arab countries, a failure to make adequate use of new technologies in the productive sector, low salaries, and the relative lack of opportunities for scientific research. Broader factors include the political and social instability in many
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 209 countries in the region. Iraq, for example, is currently suffering a new brain drain as intellectuals flood out of the country to avoid unemployment and assassination attempts. The study recommends an 11-fold increase in spending on scientific research and preparation of a strategy for science development in the Arab world as part of a strategy to counteract the impact of the brain drain. It points out that at present only 0.2 per cent of the Arab region's Gross Domestic Product is spent on scientific research, compared to between two and 3.6 per cent in Denmark, France, Japan, Israel, Switzerland and the United States. "If the 10,000 Egyptian experts who are working abroad in the medical and biotechnology sector came back, it would be enough to start a new technological revolution in Egypt," says Venice Kamel Gouda, former Egyptian minister of scientific research. She urges Arab states to support the Network of Arab Scientists and Technologies Abroad (ASTA) to act as 'an emigrant think-tank' that would serve as a bridge with Arab countries through consultancies, sabbaticals and the exchange of information. Malaysia's last national survey of research and development (R&D), carried out in 2000, indicated that spending on R&D represented only 0.5 per cent of gross domestic product, and that there were 15.6 researchers per 10,000 of the labour force. The Second National Science and Technology Policy, drawn up by Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), aims to increase R&D expenditure to at least 1.5 per cent of GDP, and to achieve a competent work force of at least 60 researchers per 10,000 labour force by 2010. These goals fall into Malaysia's broader objectives of achieving the status of a developed nation by 2020. The Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi has also instructed MOSTI to review incentives to attract Malaysian scientists working overseas to return home. The country's human resources ministry has already agreed to make venture capital, financial assistance and research development facilities more accessible. Reports in the
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 210 Malaysian press suggest that other moves being explored by the science ministry may include the encouragement of more research collaboration between Malaysians abroad and those at home. Such projects are a good way of tapping into the knowledge of the former while allowing them to continue working overseas. In total, 30,000 Malaysian graduates are thought to work in foreign countries. Some have held scholarships in top universities overseas like those offered by the Public Service Department, but have decided to stay at the end of their studies."It costs the government a lot of money to send our students overseas," said former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad."[Those countries] should pay [Malaysia] for having taken away our graduates since, by right, the graduates' training and knowledge should be called intellectual property."Other scientists have left their country to pursue a research career in well-equipped laboratories abroad. In Indonesia, universities are calling for greater autonomy, which they hope will help reverse the brain drain of science and technology graduates from the country. According to government statistics, more than 85,000 Indonesians study overseas each year. Many of these emigrate permanently.Leading institutions, including the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), the University of Indonesia, and the science and technology campus of the Gadjah Mada University, are calling for reform of the education system. They want improved funding and more control over how they manage courses.The ITB, which is slipping in international academic rankings, is already taking steps to increase control over its activities. By the end of 2004, it will have broken away from government funding and will be a semi-private institution. "The pendulum can swing back," wrote Ibrahim B. Syed of the University of Louisville "Islamic countries have the opportunity and resources to make Islamic science and medicine number one in their world once again." 4.3.4 Selection and establishment of regional scientific centres
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Regional scientific centres play an important role in ensuring the implementation of scientific activities within the region. They should function not only as a watchdog to the international scientific committee but more importantly as a motivator to the continuity of scientific endevours. In view of practicality, they can be divided into continents and should identify their scope of scientific interest and research. The collaboration between the regional centres is well encouraged and should be adequately monitored by the international scientific committee. To date there are several excellent and 'state of the art' centres in the Muslim countries, however their religional of merely national role are yet to be clarified. The similar condition applied to the regional association or foundation. The Arab Science and Technology Foundation in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates was form by a group of leading scientists in 2000. The emirates are among a handful of countries - which include Egypt, Pakistan and Jordan - that lately are investing more in science education and research. Sheikh Sultan Bin Mohammed Al-Qassimi, the ruler of Sharjah, donated $1 million from his own pocket to start the science foundation and provided its $5 million headquarters building. The foundation hopes to raise $100 million so it can provide research grants and encourage Arab scientists in other countries to return home. The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, backed by the Emir of Qatar is building a vast "Education City" featuring branch campuses of Carnegie Mellon and Cornell Universities. The Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers (AMSE) based in Indiana, USA is a non-profit scientific, educational and cultural organization of Muslim scientists and engineers who are citizens of or reside in North America. The objectives of the Association are: encouraging Muslim scientists and engineers to direct their talents to the betterment of humankind; providing encouragement, guidance and assistance to Muslim professionals and students in science and engineering and lastly gathering, distributing and disseminating technical information. It carries out activities that are scientific,
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 212 educational, religious, cultural and charitable in service to the Muslim community in North America. It is very important to avoid redundancy in the activities of all these regional or state-based institutions. The central body should take the effort to identify and recognises their specific role so that there won't be any repetition and waste of material and human resources. Effective collaboration and periodic assessment and report should be the routine quality control. The regional centers should be easily accessible without much red-tape for other scientists within the region its represents. Short or long term scholarstic exchanges should be maximised so that the spirit of regionality for the benefir of the Muslim nation can be maintained and their expertise can be fully utilised. 4.3.5 Preservation of scientific heritage As mentioned earlier, knowing that there are over three thousand manuscripts of medicine in India which have never been studied by anybody and there are thousands of manuscripts in Yemen which we don't even know about, and in addition to abundant treasuries of Islamic manuscripts in Ethopia, many of them in the sciences, the necessity to assemble Islamic manuscripts from all over the world is unquestionable. Effort should be devoted to compile those manuscripts and original surveys. Eventhough the process will take a long time, steps has been taken and progress has been made.However continous support from everybody should be maintained and the search should be made obligatory in one mind. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation was established in London in 1988 by the Yamani Cultural and Charitable Foundation. It is housed in a historic Jacobean manor: Eagle House. The Foundation has as its aim the documentation and preservation of the Islamic written heritage. It is pursuing this aim principally through its work in surveying, cataloguing, editing and publishing Islamic manuscripts. Islamic manuscripts are estimated to number three million, covering subjects as diverse as the Quran, Prophetic traditions, jurisprudence, logic and philosophy, as well as mathematics, botany, biology, poetry
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 213 and literature, and art and crafts. Nowadays these manuscripts are not the exclusive preserve of Arab and other Muslim countries, or even of countries with large Muslim minorities. Manuscripts are found extensively in Europe, the Americas, Japan, Australia and Africa. There is hardly a country that does not possess some manuscripts produced under the aegis of the Muslim civilisation. This large and important resource is, tragically, in great danger of being damaged or even lost forever. Political conflict, social upheaval or merely natural causes - whenever and wherever there is a lack of resources essential for its maintenance and preservation, this heritage is in danger. Al-Furqan Foundation is committed to mobilising every available expertise to preserve these manuscripts and to restore their content to the cultural mainstream. Regional and international Islamic scientific community and association have also shown their interest in collecting these invaluable heritages especially the one related to their speciality. This has several advantages. Besides the ability of focusing on the details of previous innovations, they can relate it intelligently with the current development and make it more digestable to the ever-eager fresh generation of Muslim scientists. They can assimilate these historical achievements into the present education making science a joyful, memorable and spirit-enhancing subject for our children. However, all these encouraging efforts can be effectively utilised if these bodies can established formal linkage among themselves, allowing proper monitoring and collection into a central established body or foundation. Otherwise we will be occupied with redundant activities which will delay if not hamper the progress of rebuilding our scientific generation. 4.3.6 Awards and scholarship Historically, Muslim societies have devoted considerable resources to support science. The eighth-century Umayyad caliph 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, known as pious, frugal and peaceful, in the early eighth century established cash prizes of between 100 and 300 dirhams for
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 214 "scholarly works." The eighth to 10th centuries were times of intense achievement in science, astronomy and medicine in the Islamic world and translations into Arabic of scholarly works from other cultures were supported by patrons who included royalty, ranking civil servants and members of the political and religious elite. "Until the rise of modern science, no other civilization engaged as many scientists, produced as many scientific books, or provided as varied and sustained support for scientific activity," wrote Ahmad Dallal in The Oxford History of Islam. In distinction from religious knowledge, he notes, the exact sciences were often called al-'ulum musbtarakatun bayna al-'umam ("the sciences shared among all the nations"). To date, the King Faisal International Prize (KFIP) can be considered the most prestigious award offered by the Muslim world. Founded in 1977, the KFIP is the first multidisciplinary, international prize sponsored from the Arab world in modern times. Having now recognized 139 laureates from 35 countries in five award categoriesscience, medicine, Islamic studies, Arabic literature and service to Islamthe KFIP is globally recognized. It is administered by the King Faisal Foundation, a legacy of the third king of Saudi Arabia. The prize rewards men and women who exceptionally contribute to the preservation and promotion of Islamic heritage. It also recognizes excellence in academic and scientific research. The cornerstones of the KFIP are its prizes for service to Islam, Islamic studies and Arabic literature, which were first awarded in 1979. Yet it was the prizes for science, begun in 1982, and for medicine (1984) that brought the KFIP to world attention by generous recognition of advances that benefit humanity as a whole. These categories are assigned a theme each year: The science prize rotates through the disciplines of chemistry, biology, physics and mathematics in a four-year cycle; the medicine prize is awarded for diverse, topical themes. Next in line is the The Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement in Sciences Prize, organised by The Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences under the The Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS). They allocated two prizes to be awarded every alternate year to support and promote scientific research in the field of
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 215 Islamic Medical Science in the following areas: 1. 2. Medical practice, addressing professional and well-documented clinical and laboratory experiments. Appropriate documentation of Islamic Medical Heritage including Medical Islamic Jurisprudence
Each Prize consists of a cash sum of K.D. 6.000/-(U.S.$ 20.000/approx.), a KFAS Shield and a Certificate of Recognition. The winners will be invited to receive their prizes at the Prize Awarding Ceremony during the commencement of the Organization's conference. These are the 'hallmark' prizes for the prestigious group of scientists and are much applauded without forgetting the other prizes and awards that should be similarly initiated at different level of scientific achievement and for different group of people.The Muslim professionals, irrespective whether they belong or not to the scientific fraternity should start giving such prizes or awards within their capabilities. They can even individually sponsor an award at their children's school or colleges or even in their community circle. The award should be persistent on annually basis to build up the momentum within their respective target group, and it should include both the student and the teacher of science. The Muslims organizations, besides giving prizes, can also award a sponsorship for scientific books and material to the library in school, community centre and mosques. The target group gets the useful material and recognition, while the organization is able to build a scientific bridge with them.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 217 CONCLUSIONS 'The great task facing Muslim intellectuals and leaders is to recast the whole legacy of human knowledge from the standpoint of Islam. The vision of Islam would not be a vision unless it is a vision of something, namely, life, reality, and the world. That vision is the object of study of various disciplines. To recast knowledge as Islam relates to it, is to Islamize it, i.e., to redefine and reorder the parameters and the data, to rethink the reasoning and interrelationships of the data, to reevaluate the conclusions, to re-project the goals, and to do so in such a way as to make the reconstituted disciplines enrich the vision and the serve the cause of Islam.' Those were the words of Al-Faruqi almost 20 years ago which still valid up to this day. The weakness of the Muslim nation and commonwealth is a major contributing factor to the stagnation of the Muslim scientific dominancy. Remedial measures should be taken to address this problem in order to assure a successful scientific re-emergence. Negligence to this important issue will only hamper the collective progress of science in the Muslim nations despite the present of individual achievers in their respective field. Muslim scientists are the supporting brick in the house of Islam. The house and foundation should be in existence or in progress for the brick to play into function. The principles of Islam, namely, the unity of truth, the unity of knowledge, the unity of humanity, the unity of life, the purposeful character of creation, and the subservience of creation to man and of man to Allah (SWT), must replace the Western categories and determine the perception and ordering of reality. So too, the values of Islam should replace Western values and direct the learning activity in every field. These values, especially the usefulness of knowledge for man's felicity, the blossoming of man's faculties, and the remolding of creation so as to concretize the divine patterns, should be manifested in the building of culture and civilization The blessed spiritual, historical and physical assets given by Allah to the Muslim nation should be maximally utilised in the most effective way in order to prove the appreciation of the gift itself. It shouldn't be wasted or left at the disposal and manipulated by the other nation.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 218 The diring need of credible leaders in the Muslim countries similarly applied to the scientific fraternity. The Muslim scientists and the Muslim scientists cum politicians or philosophers, whoever and wherever they are, should take the leadership role to steward this ship of scientific geniuses who has unconsciously floating too long in the ocean of tribulations. Their collegues should be waken up or even resuscitated to take part actively so that this valuable ship can reach it harbour of destiny without any significant casualties. More important, is the task it has undertaken, to convey the treasure of knowledge passed to them by their ancestor when they first sail to the awaiting predecessor at the port where they anchor their ship. This leadership role should expand beyond the Muslim dominated countries to the international and regional forum, government or non governmental organizations (NGO), and political parties both as opponents or opposition to signify their understanding of the necessity of re-building of the Muslim nation and commonwealth as a prerequisite to future scientific dominancy. In summary, the success of scientific re-emergence is more of the domain of the attitude and leadership of the Muslim world rather than material restriction or insufficient human resources. Even the long term 'insults' to Islam are also facing ambivalences. 'The modernization of Muslim societies, promoted by the Western allies as a buffer against traditionalism, seems to wind up fueling Islamism. Modern schools produce Islamists as well as liberals; modern businesses fund Islamist as well as other causes; modern communications can broadcast Islamist as well as other messages. Western culture, we are learning, is not the only form that modernity may assume' as quoted by Kurtzman. Lastly, we hope that Allah will keep the doors of knowledge and intelligence open to us. The facts and recommendation laid throughout this research are for everyone. This is a general invitation for all the Muslims, which is neither connected to particular group and community, nor it has a bias towards any such thinking or ideology as may be known for a particular shade of opinion or for some special attachments, but its attention and activities are always centred round the spirit of the religion and its nerve centre.
Leadership Role of Muslim Scientist: Sign of Scientific Reemergence ________________________________________________________ 219 It is strongly desired that the point of view of all of us should be one, the target before our courage should be one, in order that our efforts should not go waste, but should be most useful and effective. We should encourage collectivism and abhors segregation since the denial of the common highway is infidelity in its eyes. It is a fact that the Muslims did not face any greater test than divisions into groups, a liking for difference and mutual differences and conflict. It is the malady which has eaten up the Muslim nation. If the Muslims were disgraces and dishounoured, it was due to this. And if they were victorious in any period, it was by virtue of love, affection and mutual cooperation only. We should remember that the important thing, on which the success of our ancestors and their welfare was based, would be the basis of our prosperity and well being. This is the basic fact that should have taken a firm root in our hearts and minds. Let the transition of this beloved heritage of intellectuality and civilization be accomplished before we met our final destiny.
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Science and Faith Once Science said to Faith: "My eye can see all that is in this world; The Entire world is within my net. I am only concerned with material things, What have I to do with spiritual matters? I can strike a thousand melodies, And openly proclaim all the secrets that I learn." Faith said: "With your magic even the waves in the sea are set ablaze, You can pollute the atmosphere with foul, poisonous gases. When you associated with me, you were light, When you broke off from me, your light became fire. You were of Divine origin, But you have been caught in the clutches of Shaytan. Come, make this wasteland a garden once again. Borrow from me a little of my ecstasy, And in the world set up a paradise. From the day of creation we have been associates, We are the low and high tunes of the same melody." (Allama Iqbal)