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Marc 2008 r1

Volume D: User Subroutines and


Special Routines

Main Index
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Main Index
Contents
Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Contents

1 Introduction
Common Blocks Description, 14
Note on Double Precision, 14
Format, 15
Element Result Database Utility Routine, 17
Example, 19
Nodal Results Database Utility Routine, 19
Table Evaluation Routine, 21
MATDAT Common Block, 23
CONCOM Common Block, 29
ELMCOM Common Block, 36
BCLABEL Common Block, 40
Determining the Elements or Nodes in a Set, 43
Internal Data Structure, 43
Element Data, 44
Element Order, 45
Nodal Vectors, 45

2 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State


Variables User Subroutines List
2 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State
Variables User Subroutines
FORCEM — Input of Nonuniform Distributed Loads, 61
FLUX — Input of Nonuniform Fluxes, 66
UWELDFLUX — Input of User Defined Welding Flux, 68
UWELDPATH — Input of User Defined Welding Path, 70
CUPFLX — Coupling of Inelastic Energy and Internal Heat Generation, 72

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4 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

UINSTR — Input of Initial State of Stresses, 74


UFOUR — Input of a User-defined Function F(Q) for Fourier Analysis, 76
FORCDT — Input of Time Dependent Nodal based Boundary Conditions, 78
Stress Analysis, 78
Heat Transfer Analysis, 81
Format, 81
Joule Heating Analysis, 82
Diffusion Analysis, 83
Electrostatic Analysis, 84
Magnetostatic Analysis, 86
FORCDF — Input of Frequency Dependent Loads or Displacements in Harmonic Analysis, 88
Stress Analysis, 88
Piezoelectric Analysis, 89
FILM — Input of Nonuniform Film Coefficients, 92
FLOW — Input of Mass Flow Rate and Inlet Temperature, 94
UFOUND — Input of Nonlinear Foundation Stiffness and Damping, 96
UFILM — Input of Nonuniform Convective Coefficients, 98
USINKPT — Input of Sink Point Temperatures, 100
UQVECT — Directed Thermal Flux, 101
GAPT — Input of Thermal Contact (Conrad) Gap Temperature, 103
UFORMSN — Definition of Constraint Conditions, 104
CREDE — Input of Pre-specified State Variables, 109
INITSV — Initialize State Variable Values, 112
NEWSV — Input New State Variable Values, 113
USSD — Input of Spectral Response Density, 115
USINC — Input of Initial Conditions, 116
USDATA — Input of Initial Data, 117
UTIMESTEP — Input of User-defined Time Step, 118
UVELOC — Generation or Modification of Nodal Velocity Vectors, 119
MOTION (2-D) — Definition of Rigid Surface Motion for 2-D Contact, 120
MOTION (3-D) — Definition of Rigid Surface Motion for 3-D Contact, 123
UGROWRIGID — Changes the Size of a Rigid Body During the Analysis, 126
UFRIC — Definition of Friction Coefficients, 127
UFRICBBC — Definition of Friction Coefficients for Beam-to-Beam Contact, 129
DIGEOM — Definition of 3-D Rigid Surface Patch, 131
SEPFOR — Definition of Separation Force, 132
SEPFORBBC — Definition of Separation Force for Beam-to-Beam Contact, 134
SEPSTR — Definition of Separation Stress, 136
UHTCOE — Definition of Environment Film Coefficient, 138
UHTCON — Definition of Contact Film Coefficient, 141
UDAMAGE_INDICATOR — Indicator of Material Damage, 143
UHTNRC — Definition of Thermal Near Contact Film Coefficient, 145

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Contents 5

UVTCOE — Definition of Environment Electrical Film Coefficient, 148


UVTCON — Definition of Electrical Film Coefficient, 151
UVTNRC — Definition of Electrical Near Contact Film Coefficient, 153
UMDCOE — Definition of Environment Mass Diffusion Coefficient, 156
UMDCON — Definition of Contact Mass Diffusion Coefficient, 159
UMDNRC — Definition of Mass Diffusion Coefficients between Surfaces almost in Contact, 161
UNORST — Definition of Normal Stress, Flow Stress and Temperature at Contact Node, 163
INITPL — Initialize Equivalent Plastic Strain Values, 167
INITPO — Initialize Pore Pressure in an Uncoupled Fluid-Soil Analysis, 168
NEWPO — Modify Pore Pressure in an Uncoupled Fluid-Soil Analysis, 169
UREACB — Definition of Reactive Boundary Coefficients in an Acoustic
Harmonic Analysis, 170
UCAV — Input of Volume-Dependant Pressure Load for Cavities, 171
UOBJFN — Definition of Objective Function and its Gradient, 173
UPRFILM — Input of Nonuniform Pressure Film Coefficients, 175
UFAH — Define Correction Factor for Convection Coefficient aH, 177
UFLUXMEC — Determine the Rate of Ablation due to Mechanical Erosion from Sources other
than Particle Impact, 179
UFTHP — Define Empirical Correction for the Effect of Surface Temperature, 180
UGLAW — Determine the Empirical Correlation G for Flux Calculation, 182
UTIMP — Define Thermal Effects of Particle Impact, 184
UFMEC — Define Empirical Correction Factor for Mechanical Erosion by Particles, 186
UGMEC — Determine the Empirical Correlation G for Recession Calculation, 188
UABLATE — Definition of Surface Recession Rate, 190
UABLTNORM — Definition of Direction of Recession, 192
UWEAR — Define the Rate of Mechanical Wear on a Surface, 193

3 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User


Subroutines List
3 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations
User Subroutines
ANELAS — Elastic Anisotropy, 205
HOOKLW — Anisotropic Elastic Law, 218
ANPLAS — Anisotropic Yield Surface and Creep Potential, 221
UFAIL — User-defined Failure Criterion, 223
UPROGFAIL — Definition of Material Stiffness Reduction Factors for Progressive Failure
Analysis, 225
ORIENT — Specification of Preferred Orientation, 228

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6 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

ANEXP — Anisotropic Thermal Expansion, 230


ANKOND — Input of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity Matrix, 232
UEPS — Input of Anisotropic Permittivity Matrix, 234
UMU — Input of Anisotropic Permeability Matrix, 235
USIGMA — Input of Anisotropic Electric Conductivity Matrix, 237
USPCHT — Definition of Specific Heat, 238
UCURE — Define the Cure Kinetics, 240
USHRINKAGE — Define Volumetric Cure Shrinkage, 242
UCRPLW (Viscoplastic) — Input of Creep Factors for Power Law Implicit Creep, 244
CRPLAW — Input of Special Creep Law, 246
VSWELL — Input of Special Swelling Law, 251
WKSLP — Work-hardening Slope Definition, 254
USPRNG — Input of Nonlinear Spring, Dashpot and Foundation Stiffness, 257
UCRACK — Input of Ultimate Stress for Cracking Analysis, 261
TENSOF — Input of Tension Softening Modulus for Cracking Analysis, 263
USHRET — Input of Shear Retention Factor for Cracking Analysis, 265
UVOID — Definition of the Initial Void Volume Fraction, 266
UVOIDN — Definition of the Void Nucleation Rate, 267
UVOIDRT — Definition of the Initial Void Ratio or Initial Porosity, 269
UGRAIN — Calculation of Grain Size, 271
UDAMAG — Prediction of Material Damage, 273
UPOWDR — Definition of Material Data for Powder Metallurgy Model, 275
UPERM — Definition of Permeability, 277
UMOONY — Mooney-Rivlin Material, 278
UENERG — Strain Energy Function, 279
UOGDEN — Definition of Ogden Material Parameters, 281
UELDAM — Definition of Damage Parameters in Ogden Model, 283
HYPELA2 — User-defined Material Behavior, 285
UFINITE — Finite Deformation Isotropic Material Models, 291
UELASTOMER — Generalized Strain Energy Function, 294
GENSTR — Generalized Stress Strain Law (Shells & Beams), 299
UBEAM — Input for Nonlinear Beam, 301
UCOHESIVE — Interface Material Model, 304
UPHI — Input of PHI Function in Harmonic Analysis, 306
UCOMPL — Input of Viscous Stress Strain Relationship, 308
GAPU — Input of Gap Direction And Closure Distance, 310
UGASKET — Define the Initial Gasket Gap Distance, 312
USELEM — User-defined Element, 313
UNEWTN — Input of Viscosity in Flow Analysis, 317
URPFLO — Rigid-Plastic Flow, 318
UARRBO — Arruda-Boyce Material Model, 320

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UGENT — Gent Material Model, 321


UACOUS — Definition of Material Properties for Acoustic Analysis, 323
USSUBS — Superelements Not Generated by Marc, 324
UPYROLSL — Calculate the Rate of Decomposition, 326
UCOKSL — Calculate the Mass Fraction of Carbon in Pyrolysis Gas, 328
UWATERSL — Calculate the Rate of Water Evaporation, 330
UPYROLEFF — Define the Effective Conductivity, 332
USPCHTAB — Define Specific Heat for Simplified Pyrolysis Model, 335

References, 337

4 Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines List


4 Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines
UVSCPL — Definition of the Inelastic Strain Rate, 343
UCRPLW (Viscoplastic) — Input of Creep Factors for Power Law Implicit Creep, 346
CRPLAW (Viscoplastic) — Input of Explicit Viscoplastic Strain Rate Law, 348
NASSOC — Input of a Nonassociated Flow Law, 350
ZERO — Calculation of Equivalent Stress, 352
YIEL — Calculation of Current Yield, 353
ASSOC — Input of Associated Flow Law, 354
SINCER — User Subroutine for Improving Accuracy, 355

5 Viscoelasticity User Subroutines List


5 Viscoelasticity User Subroutines
CRPVIS — Viscoelasticity – Generalized Kelvin Material Behavior, 362
TRSFAC — Define a Shift Function for Thermo-Rheologically Simple (T.R.S.)
Material Behavior, 365
HOOKVI — User-defined Anisotropic Viscoelasticity, 368

6 Geometry Modifications User Subroutines List


6 Geometry Modifications User Subroutines
UFXORD — Coordinate Generation or Modification, 374
UFCONN — Connectivity Generation or Modification, 375
MAP2D — Boundary Node Coordinates Modification in Mesh2D, 377
USIZEOUTL — Local Refinement Definition for 2-D Remeshing with
Advancing Front Mesher, 378

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8 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

UMAKNET — User-defined Remeshing Routine, 380


t18 file for 2-D or Axisymmetric - Fixed Format, 381
feb file format - fixed format, 383
UPNOD — Update Nodal Positions in Flow Solutions, 385
UACTIVE — Activate or Deactivate Elements, 387
REBAR — Input of Rebar Positions, Areas and Orientations, 389
UFRORD — Rezoning Coordinate Generation or Modification, 390
URCONN — Rezoning Connectivity Generation or Modification, 391
USPLIT — User-defined Criterion to Split a Two-dimensional Body, 392
UCOORD — Relocate Nodes Created During Adaptive Meshing, 393
UADAP — User-defined Error Criterion, 394
UCRACKGROW — Definition of Crack Growth Direction and Crack Growth Increment for the
VCCT Option, 395
USPLIT_MESH — User Subroutine for Splitting Up a Mesh, 397
UADAP2 — User-defined Unrefinement, 399
UADAPBOX — User-defined Region For Local Adaptive Meshing, 400
UCRACK_PARIS — Define the Crack Growth Increment, 403
UTRANS — Implement Local Coordinate System, 405
USHELL — Modify Thickness of Shell Elements, 406
UTHICK — User-specified Nodal Thicknesses, 407
UACTUAT — Prescribe the Length of an Actuator, 408

7 Output Quantities User Subroutines List


7 Output Quantities User Subroutines
PLOTV — User-selected Postprocessing of Element Variables, 413
UPOSTV — User-selected Postprocessing of Nodal Variables, 415
UPSTNO — User-selected Postprocessing of Nodal Variables, 418
IMPD — Output of Nodal Quantities, 420
Stress Analysis, 420
Joule Heating (Current Pass) Analysis, 422
Electrostatic Analysis, 423
Magnetostatic Analysis, 424
Harmonic Electromagnetic Analysis, 425
Transient Electromagnetic Analysis, 425
Acoustic Analysis, 426
Fluid or Fluid-Thermal Analysis, 427
ELEVAR — Output of Element Quantities, 428
ELEVEC — Output of Element Quantities in Harmonic Analysis, 430
INTCRD — Output of Integration Point Coordinates, 432
UBGINC — Beginning of Increment, 433

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Contents 9

UEDINC — End of Increment, 434


UBGITR — Beginning of Iteration, 435
UBGPASS — Beginning of Pass in Coupled Analyses, 436
UELOOP — Beginning of Element Loop, 437

8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines List


8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines
UBEAR — Input of Spatial Orientation of Lubricant Thickness, 443
UGROOV — Input of Groove Depths, 444
URESTR — Input of Nonuniform Restrictor Coefficients, 445
UTHICK (Hydrodynamic Lubrication) — Generation or Modification of Nodal Thickness or
Thickness Change Field, 447
UVELOC (Hydrodynamic Lubrication) — Generation or Modification of Nodal
Velocity Vectors, 449

9 Special Routines User — Marc Post File Processor List


9 Special Routines User — Marc Post File Processor
PLDUMP13/PLDUMP2000 — Marc Post File Processor, 455
Marc Post File Layout (Revision 9 or Higher): PLDUMP 2000, 456
Marc Post File Layout (Revision 13 or Higher): PLDUMP13, 521

10 Utility Routines List


10 Utility Routines List
DDOT — Inner Product of Two Vectors, 587
GMADD — Matrix Add, 588
GMPRD — Matrix Product, 589
GMSUB — Matrix Subtract, 590
GMTRA — Matrix Transpose, 591
GTPRD — Transpose Matrix Product, 592
INVERT — Invert Matrix, 593
INV3X3 — Invert 3 x 3 Matrix, 594
MCPY — Matrix Copy, 595

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10 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

PRINCV — Find Principle Values, 596


SCLA — Set Matrix to Value, 597

11 Considerations for Parallel Processing


Overview, 600
Auxiliary Routines, 600
DOMFLAG, 600

Reading Input, 602


Sharing Data, 604

12 Code Coupling Interface User Subroutines and Utility List


12 Code Coupling Interface
CPLREG_INIT — Initialization of a Coupling Analysis, 612
CPLREG_EXCHANGE — Exchange Data on a Coupling Region, 614
CPLREG_FINALIZE — Finalize the Coupling, 616
CPLREG_FIND_NAME — Find Coupling Regions by Name, 617
CPLREG_GET_INFO — Get General Information about a Coupling Region, 618
CPLREG_GET_QUANTS — Get the Prescribed Quantities on a Coupling Region, 620
CPLREG_GET_MESH — Get the Mesh of a Coupling Region, 621
CPLREG_GET_GLOBAL_VALUES — Get the Values of a Global Quantity, 624
CPLREG_GET_NODE_VALUES — Get the Values of a Nodal Quantity at a Coupling
Region, 626
CPLREG_GET_ALL_NODE_VALUES — Get the Values of a Nodal Quantity at a Coupling
Region, 629
CPLREG_PUT_GLOBAL_VALUES — Put the Values of a Global Quantity, 632
CPLREG_PUT_NODE_VALUES — Put the Values of a Nodal Quantity at a Coupling
Region, 634
CPLREG_PUT_ALL_NODE_VALUES — Put the Values of a Nodal Quantity at a Coupling
Region, 636
CPLREG_PUT_EDGE_VALUES — Put Edge Data at Coupling Regions, 638
CPLREG_PUT_ALL_EDGE_VALUES — Put Edge Data at Coupling Regions, 640

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CPLREG_PUT_FACE_VALUES — Put Face Data at Coupling Regions, 642


CPLREG_PUT_ALL_FACE_VALUES — Put Face Data at Coupling Regions, 644
CPLREG_PUT_ELEM_VALUES — Put Element Data at Coupling Regions, 646
CPLREG_PUT_ALL_ELEM_VALUES — Put Element Data at Coupling Regions, 648

A User Subroutines, Special Routines, and Utility Routines List

Main Index

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12 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Main Index

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Chapter 1 Introduction

1 Introduction

■ Common Blocks Description 14


■ Note on Double Precision 14
■ Element Result Database Utility Routine 17
■ Nodal Results Database Utility Routine 19
■ Table Evaluation Routine 21
■ MATDAT Common Block 23
■ CONCOM Common Block 29
■ ELMCOM Common Block 36
■ BCLABEL Common Block 40
■ Internal Data Structure 43

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14 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

In Marc, the user subroutine feature constitutes one of the real strengths of Marc,
allowing the user to substitute his own subroutines for several existing in Marc. This
feature provides the user with a wide latitude for solving nonstandard problems.
These routines are easily inserted into Marc. When such a routine is supplied, the
user is simply replacing the one which exists in Marc program using appropriate
control setup. A description of each of the available user subroutines is given in this
manual. In addition, discussions of special routines are also included.

Note: The reading of data is not recommended in most of the user subroutines since many of
these routines are in the recycling loop for nonlinear analysis, and hence, you cannot
know how many times per increment the routine is called.

Common Blocks Description


Often, when using a user subroutine, more information is needed than is provided
through the call arguments. Almost all information is available through common
blocks. Much of the information provided below is already available but
occasionally, especially in older subroutines, it is not.
All common blocks can be accessed by the user by “including” them in the user
subroutine. The syntax to use in the user subroutine is:
include ’yyy’
where yyy is the name of the common block. Note that the word include must begin
after column 6 and that the common block name must be within single quotes. A
path to the Marc installation directory does not need to be provided.

Note on Double Precision


Marc is written completely in double precision. Hence, on all machines, an
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z) statement is required in the user subroutines. This
is to ensure that variables passed between Marc and the user subroutine are
compatible and to ensure that any common blocks included are correct.

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CHAPTER 1 15
Introduction

Format
The following quantities are available in all user subroutines:
TIME AT BEGINNING OF INCREMENT:CPTIM
TIME INCREMENT:TIMINC
AVAILABLE THROUGH
include ’creeps’
INCREMENT NUMBER: INC
SUBINCREMENT NUMBER: INCSUB
AVAILABLE THROUGH
include ’concom’

Note: During the output phase, CPTIM has been updated to the time at the end of the
increment and TIMINC has been set to zero if the total time for an increment or a series
of increments has been reached. If the total time has not yet been reached, TIMINC has
been set to the time increment of the next increment.
NUMBER OF ELEMENTS IN MESH: NUMEL
NUMBER OF NODES IN MESH: NUMNP
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM PER NODE: NDEG
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF COORDINATE DIRECTIONS: NCRD
AVAILABLE THROUGH
include ’dimen’

In a coupled analysis, reference variable IPASS to determine if the current iteration


is a stress or heat transfer iteration:
IPASS = 1 STRESS
IPASS = 2 HEAT TRANSFER
IPASS = 3 FLUIDS
IPASS = 4 JOULE HEATING
IPASS = 5 DIFFUSION
IPASS = 6 ELECTROSTATICS
IPASS = 7 MAGNETOSTATIC
IPASS = 8 ELECTROMAGNETICS
AVAILABLE THROUGH
include ’concom’

The following quantities are available in user subroutines which are in an


element loop:
ELEMENT NUMBER: M
AVAILABLE THROUGH
include ’far’

ELSTO ELEMENT NUMBER: N


INTEGRATION POINT NUMBER: NN
USER LAYER NUMBER: KCUS(1)

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16 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

INTERNAL LAYER NUMBER: KCUS(2)


AVAILABLE IN
include ’lass’

NUMBER OF NODES IN ELEMENT: NNODE


AVAILABLE IN
include ’elmcom’

NUMBER OF DIRECT COMPONENTS OF STRESS: NDI


NUMBER OF SHEAR COMPONENTS OF STRESS: NSHEAR
SIZE OF STRESS-STRAIN LAW: NSTRM1
ELEMENT TYPE: JTYPE
NUMBER OF LAYERS PER ELEMENT: NSTRM2
NUMBER OF INT. PTS PER ELEMENT: INTEL
NUMBER OF GEN. STRESS COMP. PER ELEMENT: NGENEL
AVAILABLE THROUGH
include ’elmcom’

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LAYERS PER ELEMENT: NEQST


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INT. PTS PER ELEMENT: NSTRES
AVAILABLE THROUGH
include ’nzro1’

To determine the coordinates of integration point NN of element M and to place these


coordinates in array CCINT, use the following procedure:
include ’lass’
include ’dimen’
include ’space’
include ’heat’
include ’array4’
DIMENSION CCINT(12)
LA1 = ICRXPT + (NN-1)*NCRDMX + LOFR
D0 II = 1, NCRD
CCINT(II) = VARSELEM(LA1)
LA1 = LA1 + 1
ENDDO

Note: This is only available after the first stiffness matrix assembly.

To obtain the array of internal node numbers of an element, use variable LM:
include ’blnk’

The first NNODE numbers of LM are the internal node numbers.


To determine the internal node number LINT of user (external) node number LEXT,
use the following function call:
LINT = NODINT(LEXT)

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CHAPTER 1 17
Introduction

To determine the external (LEXT) node number from the internal (LINT) node
number, use the following function call:
LEXT = NODEXT(LINT)

To determine the internal element number MINT from the user (external) element
number MEXT, use the following function call:
MINT = IELINT(MEXT)

To determine the user (external) element number MEXT from the internal number
MINT, use the following function call:

MEXT = IELEXT(MINT)

To determine which contact body (mybody) an element belongs to, use:


MYBODY = GETBODYID (MEXT)

To determine the coordinate of internal node number LINT and place these
coordinates in array CCNODE, use the following procedure:
include ’dimen’
include ’spacevec’
include ’strvar’
DIMENSION CCNODE(12)
JRDPRE = 0
CALL VECFTC (CCNODE, XORD_D, NCRDMX, NCRD, LINT,JRDPRE, 2, 1)

To determine the total displacement of internal node number LINT and place this
data in array DDNODE, use the following procedure:
include ’dimen’
include ’spacevec’
include ’strvar’
DIMENSION DDNODE(12)
JRDPRE = 0
CALL VECFTC (DDNODE, DSXTS_D, NDEGMX, NDEG, LINT, JRDPRE, 2, 5)

Element Result Database Utility Routine


To facilitate extraction of solution results, it is possible to use the ELMVAR utility
routine. This utility routine can be called from any user subroutine that is within an
element loop. ELMVAR is used in conjunction with the Marc post element post codes
to return the calculated values to the user.
ELMVAR is called with the following header:
CALL ELMVAR (ICODE,M,NN,KCUS,VAR)

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18 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

where:
ICODE is the standard post code.
M is the user’s element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS is the internal layer number.
VAR is the current value(s) of the items requested.

Note: If the user is requesting a tensor, he must make VAR a local array in his user subroutine.

The values of ICODE are given in Marc Volume C: Program Input in the model
definition section in the POST option. This routine does not support negative post
codes associated with the PLOTV user subroutine. If the ELMVAR utility routine is
called from a subroutine within the element assembly or stress recovery stage, the
values of VAR are the current ones for this iteration. They are not necessarily the
converged values.
ELMVAR can be called from user subroutines:
Table 1-1 Element Based User Subroutines
ANELAS FORCEM SINCER UELASTOMER UMDCON USIGMA
ANEXP GENSTR TENSOF UENERG UMOONY USPCHT
ANKOND HOOKLW TRSFAC UEPS UMU UVOIDN
ANPLAS HOOKVI UACTIVE UFAIL UNEWTN UVOIDRT
ASSOC HYPELA2 UACOUS UFILM UOGDEN UVSCPL
CRPLAW INITSV UADAP UFOUND UPERM UVTCOE
CRPVIS INTCRD UARRBO UGENT UPOWDR UVTCON
CUPFLX NASSOC UCOMPL UFINITE URESTR UWELDFLUX
ELEVAR NEWSV UCRACK UHTCOE URPFLO VSWELL
ELEVEC ORIENT UDAMAG UHTCON USELEM WKSLP
FILM PLOTV UELDAM UINSTR USHELL YIEL
FLUX REBAR UELOOP UMDCOE USHRET

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CHAPTER 1 19
Introduction

Example
Suppose the user would like the plastic strain tensor from within the UADAP user
subroutine for a user-defined adaptive meshing criteria. In this example, there are
no shell elements, so KCUS=1 and the number of integration points per element = 4,
so INTEL=4. The plastic strain tensor is code 321. The plastic strains are stored in a
local array EPTEN. The user could create the following routine:
SUBROUTINE UADAP (M,XORD,DSXT,NCRDMX,NDEGMX,LM,NNODE,USER)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRDMX, *),DSXT(NDEGMX, *),LM(*)
DIMENSION EPTEN (6,28)
KCUS=1
INTEL=4
ICODE=321
DO NN=1,INTEL
CALL ELMVAR(ICODE,M,NN,KCUS,EPTEN(1,NN))
ENDDO

USER CODE TO DEFINE USER


RETURN
END

Nodal Results Database Utility Routine


Nodal values can be extracted from the Marc database by means of the NODVAR
utility routine. This routine can be called from any user subroutine.
NODVAR is called with the following header:
CALL NODVAR(ICOD,NODEID,VALNO,NQNCOMP,NQDATATYPE)
where:

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20 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Input:
NODEID is the user node number.
ICOD 0 = Coordinates 25 = Reaction mass flux
1 = Displacement 26 = Bearing pressure
2 = Rotation 27 = Bearing force
3 = External force 28 = Velocity
4 = External moment 29 = Rotational velocity
5 = Reaction force 30 = Acceleration
6 = Reaction moment 31 = Rotational acceleration
7 = Fluid velocity 32 = Modal mass
8 = Fluid pressure 33 = Rotational modal mass
9 = External fluid force 34 = Contact normal stress*
ICOD 10 = Reaction fluid force 35 = Contact normal force*
(continued) 11 = Sound pressure 36 = Contact friction stress*
12 = External sound source 37 = Contact friction force*
13 = Reaction sound source 38 = Contact status*
14 = Temperature 39 = Touched contact bodies*
15 = External heat flux 40 = Not available
16 = Reaction heat flux 41 = Not available
17 = Electric potential 42 = Not available
18 = External electric charge 43 = Not available
19 = Reaction electric charge 44 = Not available
20 = Magnetic potential 45 = Not available
21 = External electric current 46 = Tying force**
22 = Reaction electric current 47 = Coulomb force
23 = Pore pressure 48 = Tying moment**
24 = External mass flux
Output:
VALNO*** is the current value of the item requested.
NQNCOMP is the number of components returned.
* Not available when NODVAR is called from within a contact-related user subroutine;
for example, UFRIC. Preferably use NODVAR for contact data during the output
phase of an increment.
** Only available if the corresponding nodal post code has been requested.
*** If a vector is requested, VALNO should be an array large enough to hold all
NQNCOMP components of the vector. When a complex vector is requested, VALNO
will contain first all real components followed by all imaginary components of the
vector. NQCOMP is then the sum of real and imaginary components and VALNO
should be a noncomplex vector.

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CHAPTER 1 21
Introduction

NQDATATYPE is the type of data returned.


0 = Default
1 = Modal
2 = Buckle
3 = Harmonic real
4 = Harmonic real/imaginary
5 = Harmonic magnitude/phase
* Not available when NODVAR is called from within a contact-related user subroutine;
for example, UFRIC. Preferably use NODVAR for contact data during the output
phase of an increment.
** Only available if the corresponding nodal post code has been requested.
*** If a vector is requested, VALNO should be an array large enough to hold all
NQNCOMP components of the vector. When a complex vector is requested, VALNO
will contain first all real components followed by all imaginary components of the
vector. NQCOMP is then the sum of real and imaginary components and VALNO
should be a noncomplex vector.

See the UPSTNO user subroutine for an example of how this utility can be used.

Table Evaluation Routine


When using the table driven input format, it is often useful to evaluate the value of
a table in a user subroutine. This may be done with the TABVA2 user subroutine from
many of the user routines. In particular, it can be done from those routines listed in
Table 1-1.
This is based on the fact that the value of the independent variable (s) has been
defined in common block CTABLE. In such cases, the evaluation may be obtained
by doing the following:
CALL TABVA2(REFVAL, EVALUE, IDTABLE, 0, 0)
where:
REFVAL is the reference value
EVALUE is the valuated value
IDTABLE is the table id given

The table must have been defined in the input file.


For example, in a cracking problem, one might want to have the strain softening
modulus as a function of the temperature dependent Young’s modulus, which is not
available in the UCRACK user subroutine. The following procedure can be used:

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22 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

subroutine ucrack(scrack,esoft,ecrush,ecp,dt,dtdl,n,nn,
* kcus,inc,ndi,nshear,shrfac)
include '../common/implicit'
dimension ecp(*),dt(*),dtdl(*), kcus(2)
c
c this routine is called at each integration point for those
c elements that have activated cracking
c
c scrack - user defined cracking stress
c esoft - user defined strain softening modulus
c ecrush - user defined crushing strain
c ecp - array of cracking strains at this integration point
c dt - array of state variables at the begining of increment
c dtdl - array of increment of state variables
c n - user element number
c nn - integration point number
c kcus(1) - user layer number
c kcus(2) - internal layer number
c inc - increment number
c ndi - number of direct components of stress or strain
c nshear - number of shear components of stress or strain
c shrfac - user defined shear retention factor
c
c Define reference value (REFVAL) of Young's modulus = 30.e6 psi
c In input file for this material, table number 1 was associated
c with Young's modulus of this material, so set IDTABLE=1
c
refval=30.d6
idtable=1
call tabva2(refval,evalue,idtable,0,0)
c
c now set the softening modulus to be 10% of the Young's modulus at
c the current temperature
c

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CHAPTER 1 23
Introduction

esoft=0.1d0*evalue
c
return
end

MATDAT Common Block


The material identification numbers (1,2,3, etc.) for cross-referencing to various
quantities such as TEMPERATURE EFFECTS, WORK HARD, etc., must be used in
user subroutines: ANELAS, HOOKLW, ANPLAS, ANEXP, ANKOND, ORIENT, CRPLAW,
VSWELL, etc. The common block elmcom contains the material identification
number “MATUS” for each material type.
In addition, the reference values of the material properties as given in the model
definition section can be obtained in common block matdat. The contents of this
common block correspond to the contents of array rprops as available in the
ANELAS and HOOKLW user subroutines according to:
et(3) Young's moduli rprops(1-3)
xu(3) Poisson's ratios rprops(4-6)
rho mass density rprops(7)
shrmod(3) shear moduli rprops(8-10)
coed(3) coefficient of thermal expansion rprops(11-13)
yield(1) yield stress rprops(14)
yield(2) ORNL 10th cycle yield stress rprops(15)
yield(3) ORNL reversed plasticity yield stress rprops(16)
yrdr(3) direct ratio's for Hill anisotropic plasticity rprops(17-19)
yrsr(3) shear ratio's for Hill anisotropic plasticity rprops(20-22)
condu(3) conductivities rprops(23-25)
spht specific heat rprops(26)
condv(3) resistivity rprops(27-29)
rhoht mass density for heat transfer rprops(30)
emisv emissivity rprops(31)
costpv cost per unit volume rprops(32)
costpm cost per unit mass rprops(33)
permeab(3) magnetic permeability rprops(34-36)

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24 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

reluct(3) reluctance rprops(37-39)


permair permeability of air rprops(40)
permit(3) electrical permittivity rprops(41-43)
econd(3) electrical conductivity rprops(44-46)
viscosit viscosity rprops(47)
tk21 thermal conductivity 21 rprops(48)
tk31 thermal conductivity 31 rprops(49)
tk32 thermal conductivity 32 rprops(50)
r21 electrical resistivity 21 rprops(51)
r31 electrical resistivity 31 rprops(52)
r32 electrical resistivity 32 rprops(53)
c10 Mooney parameter C10 rprops(54)
c01 Mooney parameter C01 rprops(55)
c11 Mooney parameter C11 rprops(56)
c20 Mooney parameter C20 rprops(57)
c30 Mooney parameter C30 rprops(58)
bulk bulk modulus (Mooney, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, Gent) rprops(59)
amohr Amohr rprops(60)
enthalpy Enthalpy rprops(61)
flperm(3) fluid permeability rprops(62-64)
phfrac1 fraction of phase rprops(65)
chabpr(10) Chaboche material data rprops(66-75)
formls forming limit rprops(76)
flden fluid density for diffusion rprops(77)
reftempen reference temperature for enthalpy rprops(78)
frctiso fraction for isotropic hardening rprops(79)
flbulk bulk modulus of fluid in diffusion analysis rprops(80)
poros porosity rprops(81)
flperm2(3) fluid permeability (21, 31, 32) rprops(82-84)
ogmu reference μ (Odgen or Foam) rprops(85)
ogalpha reference α (Ogden or Foam) rprops(86)
ogbeta reference β (Foam) rprops(87)
vscdevtrm reference deviatoric relaxation time rprops(88)
vscvoltrm reference volumetric relaxation time rprops(89)

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CHAPTER 1 25
Introduction

vscfunct(9) reference viscoelastic values rprops(90-98)


wgtmol molecular weight rprops(99)
errate energy release rate; used for interface elements rprops(100)
dispcrit critical opening of displacement; used for rprops(101)
interface elements
dispmax maximum opening displacement or exponential rprops(102)
decay factor; used for interface elements
fnorsh shear-normal stress ratio; used for rprops(103)
interface elements
xstst NLELAST: reference value for stress-strain curve rprops(104)
xyoung NLELAST: reference value for Young in compression rprops(105)
xpois NLELAST: reference value for Poisson rprops(106)
in compression
xtens NLELAST: reference value of tension cutoff rprops(107)
xcompr NLELAST: reference value of compression cutoff rprops(108)
strdpe(3) NLELAST: strain dependent E11, E22, E33 rprops(109-111)
strdpp(3) NLELAST: strain dependent v12, v23, v32 rprops(112-114)
strdpg(3) NLELAST: strain dependent G12, G23, C31 rprops(115-117)
ve11 first term of volumetric strain energy function rprops(118)
ve12 second term of volumetric strain energy function rprops(119)
ve13 third term of volumetric strain energy function rprops(120)
ve14 fourth term of volumetric strain energy function rprops(121)
vel15 fifth term of volumetric strain energy function rprops(122)
qparm shear-normal energy ratio; used for rprops(123)
interface elements
vis_zeta viscous energy dissipation factor; used for rprops(124)
interface elements
vis_refrate reference rate for viscous energy dissipation; user rprops(125)
for interface elements
comp_stiff compression stiffening factor; used for rprops(126)
interface elements

In addition to array rprops, an iprops integer array is available in the ANELAS and
HOOKLW user subroutines. The entries of this array have the following meaning
(unless otherwise indicated, if the entry has a value of zero, it is false, and a value
of one indicates true):

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26 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

iprops(1) element control flag for anisotropic material behavior defined via
the user subroutines
iprops(2) element control flag for non-isotropic material behavior
iprops(3) not used
iprops(4) element control flag indicating that the current element is involved
in a shell to brick tying
iprops(5) element control flag indicating that the current element is a
composite element
iprops(6) element control flag indicating that cracking is allowed
iprops(7) not used
iprops(8) element control flag for damage material model
iprops(9) element control flag for anisotropic material behavior defined via
input file
iprops(10) element control flag for generalized plasticity model
iprops(11) element control flag indicating that the current element is a
Herrmann-type element:
0: conventional elements;
1: higher-order Herrmann elements;
2: lower-order Herrmann elements
iprops(12) number of integration points per element
iprops(13) number of inertia degrees of freedom; used for mass
matrix calculation
iprops(14) number of integration points for distributed (edge or surface)
load integration
iprops(15) element control flag for curvilinear coordinates; used for element
types 4, 8 and 24
iprops(16) element control flag for hypoelastic material behavior
iprops(17) element control flag for thermal rheologically simple
material behavior
iprops(18) element control flag indicating that the element is a shell or beam
with layer integration
iprops(19) integration point number of centroid
iprops(20) element control flag for isotropic material
iprops(21) internal element type of current element

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CHAPTER 1 27
Introduction

iprops(22) Updated Lagrange element class type (< 0 implies that Updated
Lagrange is not supported for the current element)
iprops(23) Kelvin viscoelastic flag (global variable defined via
CREEP option)
iprops(24) element control flag for viscoelasticity
iprops(25) element control flag for Cam-Clay plasticity model
iprops(26) element control flag for powder material model
iprops(27) element control flag for ORNL material law
iprops(28) element control flag for indicating type of ORNL
0: normal ORNL;
1: 2-1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL;
2: reversed plasticity ORNL;
3: full alpha reset ORNL
iprops(29) element control flag for Ogden material model
iprops(30) element control flag for soil material model
iprops(31) user element type of current element
iprops(32) element control flag for implicit creep material model
iprops(33) not used
iprops(34) element control flag for kinematic hardening
1: conventional kinematic hardening;
2: combined isotropic-kinematic hardening;
3: Chaboche kinematic hardening
iprops(35) element control flag for axisymmetric elements with bending
iprops(36) element control variable giving the class of the current element
0: pipe bend 9: Fourier
1: truss 10: axisymmetric with twist
2: 3-D shells 11: 2-D with layer integration
4: plane stress 12: open section beams
5: plane strain 13: closed section beams
6: generalized plane strain 14: membrane or shear panel
7: axisymmetric 15: gap element
8: brick
iprops(37) element control flag for heat transfer elements
iprops(38) element integration control flag
0: most conventional elements
1: reduced integration elements
2: elements without integration (12, 31, 68, 51 and 97)

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28 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

iprops(39) element control flag for rebar elements


iprops(40) internal material identifier of the current element; for a composite
element, this is the composite group number
iprops(41) internal element material identifier of the current element
iprops(42) element control flag for hydrostatic stress dependent
plasticity law
1: linear Mohr-Coulomb
2: parabolic Mohr-Coulomb
3: Buyokozturk
iprops(43) element control flag for Mooney-Rivlin material behavior
iprops(44) not used
iprops(45) number of coordinates associated with the current element
iprops(46) number of degrees of freedom per node of the current element
iprops(47) number of direct stress components of the current element
iprops(48) number of generalized strains of the current element
iprops(49) number of nodes of the current element
iprops(50) element control flag to indicate that mid-increment method is
not used
iprops(51) element control flag for orthotropic or anisotropic
material behavior
iprops(52) control flag to indicate that interlaminar shear is not calculated
iprops(53) number of (membrane) strains per elements if no interlaminar
shear calculation is performed; otherwise
1 for 2-D beam element 45
3 for 3-D thick shell elements
iprops(54) number of shear stress components of the current element
iprops(55) not used
iprops(56) number of transverse shear stresses
1 for 2-D beam element 45
2 for 3D thick shell elements
iprops(57) element control flag for progressive cracking
iprops(58) number of generalized strains of the current element
iprops(59) internal Marc flag
iprops(60) element control flag to indicate that the current element uses
reduced integration with hourglass control

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CHAPTER 1 29
Introduction

CONCOM Common Block


Two common blocks might be particularly useful for advanced usage in Marc.
Common block concom contains most of the program controls in Marc. The
variables and their meaning are given below. Unless otherwise indicated, if the
variable has a value of zero, it is false, and a value of one indicates true.
1 iacous acoustic analysis
2 iasmbl reassemble stiffness matrix
3 iautth auto therm or auto therm creep
4 ibear hydrodynamic bearing
5 icompl complex harmonic analysis
6 iconj EBE iterative solver
7 icreep explicit creep
8 ideva(32) debug print flags
9 idyn dynamic analysis type (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) based on the
DYNAMIC parameter.
10 idynt permanent dynamic analysis type (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
11 ielas elastic reanalysis or Fourier
12 ielcma flag to indicate this pass is a electromagnetic analysis
(0,1,2)
13 ielect flag to indicate this pass is a electrostatic analysis
14 iform contact
15 ifour Fourier
16 iharm harmonic analysis
17 ihcps thermal-mechanical or thermal-Joule-mechanical
coupled analysis
18 iheat flag to indicate this pass is heat transfer analysis
19 iheatt flag to indicate that a heat transfer is performed in
this job
20 ihresp indicate that currently in a harmonic subincrement
21 ijoule flag to indicate that Joule heating is performed in this job
22 ilem indicates in which part of element assembly
23 ilnmom indicates whether a coupled soil analysis (0,1,2)
24 iloren DeLorenzi calculation required

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30 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

25 inc increment number


26 incext creep extrapolation
27 incsub subincrement number
28 ipass pass number for coupled analysis
ipass = 1 stress pass
= 2 heat transfer
= 3 fluids
= 4 electrical pass in Joule heating
= 5 diffusion
= 6 electrostatics
= 7 magnetostatics
= 8 electromagnetics
29 iplres dynamic, buckling or heat transfer second global
matrix required
30 ipois Poisson analysis for this pass
31 ipoist Poisson flag for this job
32 irpflo Eulerian - rigid plastic flow
33 ismall small displacement analysis for this pass
34 ismalt small displacement flag for this job
35 isoil soil analysis
36 ispect spectrum response
37 ispnow perform spectrum response now
38 istore update stress strain information.
39 iswep currently performing eigenvalue extraction
40 ithcrp thermal creep analysis
41 itherm temperature dependent properties are present
42 iupblg follower force
43 iupdat update Lagrange
44 jacflg Lanczos eigenmethod
45 jel elastic increment
46 jparks Fracture mechanics by Park method
47 largst finite strain
48 lfond distributed vs. foundation flag
49 loadup nonlinearity has occurred

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CHAPTER 1 31
Introduction

50 loaduq nonlinearity has occurred


51 lodcor load correction is activated
52 lovl analysis phase
1 - Memory Allocation 13 - History Definition Input
2 - Model Definition Input 14 - Mass Matrix
3 - Distribute Load 15 - Fluid-Solid
4 - Stiffness Matrix 16 - Fluid- Solid
5 - Solver 17 - Vector Transformations
6 - Stress Recovery 20 - Rezoning
7 - Output 21 - Convergence Testing
8 - Operator Assembly 22 - Lanczos
23 - Global Adaptive Meshing
53 lsub flag to indicate which part of calculation
54 magnet flag to indicate this pass is magnetostatic
55 ncycle cycle number
56 newtnt permanent Newton-Raphson flag (0, 1, 2, 3, 8). See the
CONTROL option.
57 newton Newton-Raphson flag for this pass (0, 1, 2, 3, 8)
58 noshr transverse shears included
59 linear storage of betas, etc.
60 ivscpl viscoplastic
61 icrpim implicit creep
62 iradrt radial return
63 ipshft control on inclusion of initial stress terms (0, 1, 2, 3, 4).
See the CONTROL option.
64 itshr transverse shear
65 iangin orientation angle
66 iupmdr update-anisotropy flag
67 iconjf sparse conjugant gradient solver
68 jincfl not used
69 jpermg indicates that permanent magnets are included
70 jhour indicates that there are some reduced integration with
hourglass control elements
71 isolvr solver flag (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10). See the SOLVER option.

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32 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

72 jritz indicates that Ritz vectors are used in


eigenvalue analysis
73 jtable flag indicates that tables are used for
boundary conditions
74 jshell indicates presence of shell elements
75 jdoubl indicates that double eigenvalue extraction is used with
Inverse Power Sweep method
76 jform not used
77 jcentr internal flag
78 imini reduced storage flag for the ELASTIC parameter
79 kautth flag used in the AUTO THERM option
80 iautof flag indicating that global adaptive meshing is active
81 ibukty convergence problem with buckling flag
82 iassum assumed strain flag
83 icnstd constant dilatation flag
84 icnstt not used
85 kmakmas recalculate mass matrix flag
86 imethvp implicit viscoplastic procedure
87 iradrte flag for large strain elastic material
88 iradrtp radial return flag for plastic material
89 iupdate updated Lagrange flag for elastic material
90 iupdatp updated Lagrange flag for elastic-plastic material
91 ncycnt number of times the increment restarted with the first
iteration in automatic procedures. This variable is used
to stop the analysis with exit 3008 if it becomes to high
to prevent infinite loop in the program.
92 marmen = 0 if Marc used for normal analysis
= 1 if Marc used as reader via Marc Mentat
93 idynme implicit dynamic analysis
= 0 for Newmark-beta
= 1 for Single Step Houbolt (SSH)
94 ihavca = 0 if Cauchy stresses not stored separately
= 1 if Cauchy stresses stored separately
95 ispf Super Plastic Forming analysis

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CHAPTER 1 33
Introduction

96 kmini used for minimizing memory needed for element


quantities if fast elastic-plastic material libraries of
Superform are used
97 imixed flag set to 1 in a Rigid Plastic analysis if some part of the
material in the model has elasto-plastic material
behavior
98 largtt flag to preserve finite strain plasticity flag for the elasto-
plastic part of the model while doing the rigid-plastic part
99 kdoela flag to trigger assembly in elastic analysis
100 iautofg flag for analysis with MSC.SuperForm
101 ipshftp flag to save the control for inclusion of the initial stress
matrix ipshft during automatic increment restart feature
102 idntrc variable to indicate that the end of an automatic load
stepping could not be reached within specified number
of increments. The program stops with exit number 3003
103 ipore flag to indicate this pass is a diffusion analysis
104 jtablm flag to indicate that tables are to be used for
material properties
105 jtablc flag to indicate that tables are to be used for the
CONTACT option
106 isnecma flag to indicate expanded film capabilities (not active
in 2003)
107 itrnspo flag to indicate steady state transport loadcase
108 imsdif flag to indicate this pass is a diffusion analysis (not
active in 2003)
109 jtrnspo flag to indicate SS-ROLLING analysis
110 mcnear flag to indicate that near thermal contact behavior is
included between two bodies
111 imech flag to indicate this pass is a mechanical analysis
112 imecht flag to indicate that mechanical analysis will be
performed in this job
113 ielcmat flag to indicate electromagnetic analysis will be
performed in this job
114 ielectt flag to indicate electrostatic analysis will be performed in
this job

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34 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

115 magnett flag to indicate magnetostatic analysis will be performed


in this job
116 imsdift flag to indicate diffusion analysis will be performed in
this job
117 noplas flag to indicate no material nonlinearity - reduce
memory requirements
118 jtabls flag to indicate that tables are to be used for the
SPRINGS option
119 jactch flag to indicate elements have been activated
or deactivated
120 jtablth flag to indicate that tables are to be used for the
GEOMETRY option
121 kgmsto = 1 store geometry in old format,
= 2 store geometry based on geometry id
122 jpzo flag to indicate piezoelectric analysis
123 ifricsh flag to indicate that nodal based friction used
124 iremkin flag to indicate gradual removal of kinematic boundary
condition (table driven input)
125 iremfor flag to indicate gradual removal of reaction force (table
driven input)
126 ishearp flag to indicate that shear panel elements are in
the model
127 jspf = 1 first increment of superplastic analysis
128 machining flag to indicate that machining option is active
129 jlshell flag to indicate that shells are present
130 icompsol indicates the presence of composite solids in the mesh
131 iupblgfo follower force point loads used
132 jcondir contact priority is used
133 nstcrp variable to indicate type of tangent in the implicit
Maxwell Creep model or implicit viscoplastic creep
model (0=elastic, 1= secant and 22 radial return)
134 nactive number of active physics
135 ipassref default physics type
136 nstspnt not used
137 ibeart permanent flag for hydrodynamic bearing

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CHAPTER 1 35
Introduction

138 icheckmpc indicate if check mpc is activated


139 noline deactivate iterative contact if increment almost complete
140 icuring set to 1 if the curing is included for the heat
transfer analysis
141 ishrink set to 1 if shrinkage strain is included for
mechanical analysis
142 ioffsflg 1 for small displacement beam/shell offsets
2 for large displacement beam/shell offsets
143 isetoff 0 do not apply beam/shell offsets
1 apply beam/shell offsets
144 ioffsetm minimum value of offset flag
145 iharmt harmonic analysis flag
146 inc_incdat flag to record increment number of a new loadcase
147 iautospc flag for AutoSPC option
148 ibrake brake squeal in this increment
149 icbush set to 1 if cbush elements present in model
150 istream_input set to 1 for streaming input calling Marc as library
151 iprsinp set to 1 if pressure input introduced so other variable
such as h can be a function of pressure
152 ivlsinp set to 1 if velocity input introduced so other variables
such a h can be a function of velocity
153 ifirst_time internal
154 ipin_m number of beam elements with pin flag
155 jgnstr_glb global control over pre or fast integrated
composite shells
156 imarc_return Marc return flag for streaming input control
157 iqvcimp in nonzero, then the number of QVECT
boundary conditions
158 nqveceid number of QVECT boundary conditions where
emissivity/absorption id
159 istpnx 1 if to stop at end of increment
160 igenoa 1 if Genoa interface is used

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36 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

ELMCOM Common Block


In subroutines that are within an element loop, information about a particular
element can be found in common block elmcom. The variables in common block
elmcom and their meaning are as follows:

1 ianels anisotropy flag


2 ianiso anisotropy flag
3 irebar rebar element flag
4 icolps indicates collapsed element
5 icomps composite
6 icrack cracking
7 ictrns no longer used
8 idamag damage
9 ianmat anisotropic elastic constants given in input
10 igenpl generalized plasticity
11 iherr Herrmann element (0, 1, 2)
0 - not Herrmann element
1 - higher-order Herrmann element
2 - lower-order Herrmann element
12 intel number of integration points
13 intin integration point number if centroid
14 intpre number of integration points for distributed
15 iort curvilinear coordinates
16 ipela hypoelastic
17 irheol thermal rheologically simple
18 ishell shell
19 isnte integration point number if centroid
20 isotrp elastic material
21 ityp internal element type
22 iupcls -3, -2, -1, 0 - No updated Lagrange for this element type
1 - supports updated Lagrange
2 - supports updated Lagrange; results given with respect to
convected coordinate system
3 - supports updated Lagrange; results given with respect to
curvilinear convected coordinate system

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CHAPTER 1 37
Introduction

23 ivisc Kelvin viscoelastic flag


24 ivisel Hereditary integral viscoelastic flag
25 jcamcl Cam Clay model
26 jhip powder model
27 joakr Oak Ridge model
28 joakrm Type of Oak Ridge model
29 jogden Ogden
30 jsoil Soil
31 jtype element type
32 jviscp viscoplastic
33 jvisel hereditary integral viscoelastic
34 kinhrd kinematic hardening
35 lbend pipe bend
36 lclass element class
0 - pipe element 8 - 3D solid
1 - truss element 9 - Fourier element
2 - shell 10 - axi with twist
3 - none 11 - axisymmetric shell
4 - plane stress 12 - open section beam
5 - plane strain 13 - closed section beam
6 - generalized plane strain 14 - membrane
7 - axisymmetric solid 15 - gap
37 lheat heat transfer element
38 lnoint no integration points
39 lrebar rebar element
40 matno material or composite id
41 mats internal material id (see matus in this common block for user
material id)
42 mohrc Mohr-Coulomb (0, 1, 2)
0 - not Mohr-Coulomb
1 - linear Mohr-Coulomb
2 - quadratic Mohr-Coulomb
43 mooney Mooney
44 mroz Mroz - not supported
45 ncrdel number of coordinates

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38 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

46 ndegel number of degrees of freedom


47 ndi number of direct components
48 ngenel number of generalized strains
49 nnode number of nodes
50 nomid mid-increment not used
51 noniso anisotropic
52 kkdum1 dummy
53 nregs pointer to transverse shear
54 nshear number of shears
55 nstran number of strains
56 ntshr number of transverse shears
57 ipgrcr progressive cracking
58 ngens number of generalized strains
59 jparel element running in parallel mode
60 jhoure this element is a reduced integration element with
hourglass control
61 jfoam foam model
62 nnodg number of nodes per element, excluding extra nodes for
Herrmann and generalized plane strain
63 nstrm1 number of stresses stored per section point
64 nstrm2 number of stress points stored per integration point (layers
for shell elements, cross-section point for beam elements, 1
for continuum elements
65 irpfle control flag whether this element needs rigid plastic analysis
(irpfle = 1) or not (irpfle = 0)
66 jpowlw control flag for various work hardening models
= 1 power law
= 2 rate power law
= 3 Not Available
= 4 Johnson-Cook
67 jhamlt not used
68 jyada flag to use Yada grain size model (jyada = 1) or not (jyada =
0)
69 jintel integration points to store stresses (jintel = intel except for
the CENTROID parameter when jintel = 1)

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CHAPTER 1 39
Introduction

70 jvarcon not used


71 jthpor pyrolysis model (not available in 2003)
72 iphase phase number
73 lphase flag indicating this material has multiple phases
74 igasket gasket material group number
75 ipreten cross-section number to which this element belongs
76 ilinel linear elastic material
77 idgeom geometry id for this element
78 lmbody body number of element only valid in stiffness, mass,
and recovery
79 ipiezo = 1 stress based piezoelectric element
= 2 strain based piezoelectric element
80 jcompsol flag indicating element is a composite continuum
81 jshapemem flag indicating shape memory material
82 intstf number of integration points for stiffness matrix evaluation
83 jgnstr flagged to 1 for generalized composite shells
84 matus(2) two-term array for user material id and internal material id
matus(1) = user material id
matus(2) = internal material id, same as mats
85 jcuring flagged to 1 for curing analysis of the element
86 jcuremt if curing rate is based upon table, then table id
87 jshrink flagged to 1 for cure shrinkage strain calculation for
the element
88 jshnkmt if shrinkage law is based upon table, then table id
89 ioffset flag for beam-shell offset:
-1 for beams
-2 for shells
-3 for cbush
90 ioffsum number in list of offset elements (from 1 to n_elmoff_act)
91 jtopcls topology class of element

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40 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

92 mpermtyp flag for magnetostatics new input indicating how the


permeability is obtained:
0 old style
1 permeability
2 inverse permeability
3 B-H relation
4 H-B relation
93 jcohesive interface element
94 ipaddup interface element, large displacement formulation
95 ipshell 1 pshell formulation
2 pshell formulation for thick shell
96 jnlelast NLELAST model type (0 to 7)
97 jnlelastsy 1 if nonsymmetric (tension/compression behavior)
98 inlelastcp 1 if constant Poisson ratio
2 if constant Bulk modulus
99 inlelastct 0 conventional
1 limited tension
2 limited compression
3 limited tension and compression
100 jslosh flagged to 1 for solid shell element (185)
101 jgenrec 0 if generalized composite layer are not recovered
1 if generalized composite layer are recovered
102 nstrm2sv
103 jcwcon flag to see if the element node numbering is clockwise
-1 clockwise
0 before checking
1 normal
104 isolbeam 0 beam section does not use numerical integration
(type 98, 52)
1 beam section does use numerical integration (type 98, 52)

BCLABEL Common Block


When using the table driven input format, it is often useful to know the loadcase
name and/or the boundary condition name in a user subroutine. The loadcase name
is available in all user subroutines and the boundary condition name is available in
the user subroutines:
FORCEM UVELOC

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CHAPTER 1 41
Introduction

FORCDT USINC
FLUX INITPO
NEWSV NEWPO
UFILM INITSV
UFOUND USINKPT
USESTR

This information can be obtained by including the common block BCLABEL in the
user subroutine. Then one obtains:
LDCASENAME loadcase name
BCNAME boundary condition name

Both are character variables of length 32. For example, if a pressure on different
parts of the model is different and dependent on the loadcase, and if the boundary
condition is applied to a curve, adaptive meshing is used and the element numbers
are unknown. Given boundary condition names load 1 and load 2, and loadcases
names early and late, one could implement:
subroutine forcem(press,th1,th2,nn,n)
include '../common/implicit'
include '../common/bclabel'
common/lpres3/prnorm(3)
dimension n(10)
c* * * * * *
c
c defined non-uniformed distributed force on an element.
c
c press distributed load increment magnitude
c if follower force then give total magnitude
c th1 coordinate
c th2 coordinate
c nn integration point number
c n(1) user element number
c n(2) parameter identifying the type of load
c n(3) is the integration point number
c n(4) not used

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42 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

c n(5) is the distributed load index - not used if Table


c inout format
c n(6) =0 if conventional pressure
c =1 if user returns 2 or 3 components for pressure
c in global direction
c n(7) is the internal element number
c n(8) not used
c n(9) general CID load flag
c n(10) boundary condition number if Table input format
c
c for distributed load in a given direction
c prnorm is the direction cosine of the direction of the load
c with respect to the global system
c
c* * * * * *
if(ldcasename.eq.'early') then
if(bcname.eq.'load1') then
press=
elseif(bcname.eq.'load2') then
press=
else
write(6,101) n(1),nn,ldcasename,bcname
endif
elseif(ldcasename.eq.'late') then
if(bcname.eq.'load1') then
press=
elseif(bcname.eq.'load2') then
press=
else
write(6,101) n(1),nn,ldcasename,bcname
endif
else
write(6,101) n(1),nn,ldcasename,bcname
endif

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CHAPTER 1 43
Introduction

101 format(/,'*** warning - forcem for element ',i10,


* ' integration point',i4,' for loadcase ',a,
* ' boundary condition ',a,' is not coded')
return
end

Determining the Elements or Nodes in a Set


From within a user subroutine, it is often useful to know the elements or nodes that
are members of a user-defined set. Subroutine marc_setinf can be used to obtain
this information. This routine is used as follows:
call marc_setinf(getnam,ihav,list,ityp,inum)
where
Required Input:
GETNAME nchnam character string with setname in lower case.
Output:
IHAV 0 if set name is not found
1 if set name is found
LIST List of entries in set in user numbers. See note below.
ITYP 0 element set
1 node set
12 element:edge set
13 element:face set
INUM Number of entries in set

Note: if ityp=12 or ityp=13, then list contains 2*inum entries:


1...inum: element numbers
inum+1...2*inum: edge/face numbers

Internal Data Structure


Complex simulations occasionally require additional data which is not passed into
the user subroutine. This section outlines some of the data storage issues in Marc
and assists in converting pre 2005 r3 user routines to the current release.

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44 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Element Data
As of the MSC.Marc 2005 r3 release, the storage of element data like stresses,
strains and temperatures has changed. In previous versions, this piece of data was
stored in the so-called general memory. The amount of memory allocated per
element (stored in the variable nelsto as the number of integer words) was then the
same for all elements. This amount was based upon the maximum over all elements
of number of integration points, number of layers and similar items. In the new
scheme, the elements are internally divided into groups, where the allocation for the
elements in each group is the same but it can vary between groups. Now, the
allocation is based upon the actual number of integration points and layers etc. and
this can lead to substantial savings in memory usage for models using different
types of elements. The storage is done outside of the general memory. This is
reflected in the memory summary printout in that the element data portion is now
in the lower part under "allocated separately". Instead of accessing the data in the
array for general memory, vars, it is now accessed in the array varselem. The
element loops in Marc are now done as one loop over element groups and then one
loop over all elements in the group. This has no implication for user subroutines that
are called from within an element loop, except that varselem must be used instead
of vars. New element loops must be performed in the new style. We take, as an
example, a hypothetical user subroutine to find the largest coordinate of the
integration points. These are stored using the pointer icrxpt. In the new scheme this
can be done as
include 'array4'
include 'cdominfo'
include 'dimen'
include 'elemdata'
include 'elmcom'
include 'heat'
include 'space'
coordmax=-1.0e+20
do igroup=1,nelgroups
call setup_elgroups(igroup,numel_group)
do iel_g=1,numel_group
mm=ielgroup_elnum(iel_g)
ityp=ieltype(mm)
call setel(mm)
do intp=1,jintel
call wrat3n(varselem(ielsbn),n,iel_g,igroup,0)
lofr=(n-1)*nelstr
la1 = icrxpt + (intp-1)*ncrdmx + lofr
do i = 1, ncrd
coord = varselem(la1)

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CHAPTER 1 45
Introduction

la1 = la1 + 1
if (coord.gt.coordmax) coordmax=coord
enddo
enddo
enddo
enddo
if (nprocd.gt.0) call domflag(idummy,coordmax,0,1,0,1)
write(6,*) 'max coordinate:',coordmax

The variable nelgroups is the number of element groups. The subroutine


setup_elgroup sets things up for each element group. This includes pointers like
icrxpt and also makes sure the correct varselem is used (different arrays are used
for different element groups). The do iel_g loop is done over all elements within
the group. In this loop, first, the internal element number mm is defined. Then it picks
up the internal element type ityp and calls the subroutine setel for defining
element properties; in this case, we need jintel – the number of integration points
of this element. In the loop over integration points, we call subroutine wrat3n for
handling out-of-core element storage and defining the variable n used for
calculating the offset for each element. Then we set the pointer la1 and loop over
all coordinates and pick up the current coordinate and check for the maximum.
After the loops, we take the maximum over all domains in case we run in parallel
(see Chapter 11 in this manual) and, finally, print out the maximum value found to
the output file (jobname.out).

Element Order
One of the consequences of the restructured data is that the elements are no longer
evaluated in sequential order based upon the user element numbering. Some users
would initialize local storage based upon the first element number and perform
other operations, such as calculate based upon the last element number. This was
not a good idea when using single input DDM in the past and is no longer valid for
any analysis in the 2005r3 or subsequent releases. Initialization of data should be
performed in the UGBINC or UBGITR user subroutine, and accumulation type
operations should be done in the UEDINC user subroutine.

Nodal Vectors
The storage scheme of most nodal vectors like coordinates, displacements, and
reaction forces were changed in the MSC.Marc 2005 version. User subroutines
using the old storage scheme need to be modified for the 2005 and subsequent
versions. In the old scheme, the vectors were stored in the so-called general

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46 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

memory in an array called vars (defined in common block space). For instance, to
access the nodal coordinates, one would use the variable ixord, which is a pointer
in the array vars. The x coordinate of node 1 would be located at vars(ixord), the
y coordinate at vars(ixord+1), etc. In the 2005 and subsequent versions, these nodal
vectors are allocated separately. The nodal coordinates are stored in the array xord_d
available in common block spacevec. The x coordinate of node 1 is now at
xord_d(1).

It is recommended that the nodvar utility routine be used for quantities available
there. However, existing user subroutines may access other quantities. Table 1-1
lists some of the nodal vectors that have been changed.

Table 1-2 Some Nodal Vector Changes

Old Pointer New Array


ixord xord_d
idsx dsx_d
idsxt dsxt_d
idsx1 dsx1_d
idsx2 dsx2_d
idynd dynd_d
ipload pload_d
itx tx_d
ipinc pinc_d
ixload xload_d
iptot ptot_d
icofor cofor_d
ifrfor frfor_d
idynv dynv_d
idyna dyna_d

Many of the arrays in this table come in different variants for different passes in
coupled analysis. For instance, idsxts (s for structural) corresponds to dsxts_d and
is similar for other quantities. However, the list is not complete as several other
internally used vectors are also in the new storage scheme. The convention is
simple, remove the trailing i and append the _d. The complete list is in
common/spacevec. Some integer quantities are in common/spaceivec. Two arrays that
are likely to occur in older user subroutines are the ones used for converting
between internal and user node and element numbers. Code like
next=ints(inoids+nint-1)

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CHAPTER 1 47
Introduction

iel=ints(ielids+ielint-1)

can be converted to
next=inoids_d(nint)
iel=ielids_d(ielint)

but the best is to use the standard utility routine instead:


next=nodext(nint)
iel=ielext(ielint)

As a guide for converting existing subroutines, consider the following simple


example of printing out the nodal coordinates to the output file.
Old code:
include ’space’
include ’dimen’
include ’array2’
do i=1,numnp
write(6,*) i,(vars(ixord-1+(i-1)*ndeg+j),j=1,ncrd)
enddo

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48 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

New code:
include ’spacevec’
include ’dimen’
do i=1,numnp
write(6,*) i,(xord_d((i-1)*ncrd+j),j=1,ncrd)
enddo

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Chapter 2 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User
Subroutines List

2 User-defined Loading,
Boundary Conditions, and
State Variables User
Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

CREDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

CUPFLX .......................................................... 72

DIGEOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

FILM . . . . ......................................................... 92
FLOW . . . ......................................................... 94
FLUX . . . ......................................................... 66
FORCDF . ......................................................... 88
FORCDT . ......................................................... 78
FORCEM ......................................................... 61

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50 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

User Subroutine Page

GAPT ........................................................... 103

INITPL . .......................................................... 167


INITPO .......................................................... 168
INITSV. .......................................................... 112

MOTION (2-D) . .................................................... 120


MOTION (3-D) . .................................................... 123

NEWPO . ......................................................... 169


NEWSV . ......................................................... 113

SEPFOR . . . . ..................................................... 132


SEPFORBBC . ..................................................... 134
SEPSTR . . . . ..................................................... 136

UABLATE . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 190


UABLTNORM. . . . . . . . . ............................................. 192
UCAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 171
UDAMAGE_INDICATOR. ............................................. 143
UFAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 177
UFILM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 98
UFLUXMEC . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 179
UFMEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 186
UFORMSN . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 104
UFOUND . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 96
UFOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 76
UFRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 127
UFRICBBC . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 129
UFTHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 180
UGLAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 182
UGMEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 188
UGROWRIGID . . . . . . . . ............................................. 126
UHTCOE . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 138
UHTCON . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 141
UHTNRC . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 145
UINSTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 74

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CHAPTER 2 51
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

UMDCOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
UMDCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
UMDNRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
UNORST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
UOBJFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
UPRFILM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
UQVECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
UREACB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
USDATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
USINC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
USINKPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
USSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
UTIMESTEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
UTIMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
UVELOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
UVTCOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
UVTCON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
UVTNRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
UWEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
UWELDFLUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
UWELDPATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

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52 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Main Index

Main Index
Chapter 2 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State V ariables User

2 User-defined Loading,
Boundary Conditions,
and State Variables
User Subroutines

Subroutines

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54 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

The user subroutines described in this chapter provide an alternative to the standard
input file for providing data in the analysis. Many problems have complex boundary
conditions due to their spatial variation (such as wind loads) or due to their temporal
variation. These routines provide a powerful mechanism to define this behavior in
a simple manner. Table 2-1 summarizes these routines and indicates what
parameters or model definition options are required to invoke the user subroutine.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 55
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Table 2-1 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, State Variables User


Subroutine Requirements

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options

CREDE THERMAL LOADS Definition of state variable


including temperature.
CUPFLX COUPLE Heat generated due to inelastic
DIST FLUXES (flux type 101) behavior in coupled analysis.
DIGEOM CONTACT (2-D) Definition of rigid surface.
CONTACT (3-D)
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact
Problems”
FILM HEAT or COUPLE Definition of convective heat
FILMS (Model Definition) transfer coefficient and sink
FILMS (History Definition) temperature.
FLOW HEAT Definition of mass flow rate.
CHANNEL
FLUX DIST FLUXES (Model Definition) Definition of nonuniform
DIST FLUXES (History Definition) flux input.
DIST CURRENT (Joule)
DIST MASS (Diffusion)
DIST CHARGES
DIST CURRENT (Diffusion)
DIST SOURCES (Acoustics)
FORCDF FORCDT Definition of point load or
FIXED DISP or kinematic boundary condition in
DISP CHANGE a harmonic analysis.
FORCDT FORCDT Definition of point load or
FIXED DISP or DISP CHANGE prescribed displacement in
FIXED TEMPERATURE or stress analysis. Definition of
TEMP CHANGE point flux or prescribed
temperature in heat
transfer analysis.
FORCEM DIST LOADS (Model Definition) Definition of distributed load.
GAPT HEAT Definition of thermal contact
CONRAD GAP gap temperature.
INITPL INITIAL PLASTIC STRAIN Definition of initial plastic strain.

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56 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 2-1 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, State Variables User


Subroutine Requirements (continued)

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options

INITPO PORE Definition of initial pore


INITIAL PORE pressure in a uncoupled
soil analysis.
INITSV INITIAL STATE Definition of initial values of
state variables.
MOTION (2-D) CONTACT (2-D) Definition of velocity of
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact rigid surfaces.
Problems”
UMOTION
MOTION CHANGE (History Definition)
MOTION (3-D) CONTACT (3-D) Definition of velocity of
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact rigid surfaces.
Problems”
UMOTION
MOTION CHANGE (History Definition)
NEWPO PORE Change pore pressure in an
CHANGE PORE (Model Definition) uncoupled soil analysis.
CHANGE PORE (History Definition)
NEWSV CHANGE STATE (Model Definition) Change value of the
CHANGE STATE (History Definition) state variable.
SEPFOR CONTACT (2-D) Definition of force required for
CONTACT (3-D) separation.
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact
Problems”
SEPFORBBC CONTACT (2-D) Definition of the separation
CONTACT (3-D) force for beam-to-
CONTACT TABLE beam contact.
SEPSTR CONTACT (2-D) Definition of stress required
CONTACT (3-D) for separation.
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact
Problems”
UABLATE ABLATION Definition of Surface
RECEDING SURFACE Recession Rate

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CHAPTER 2 57
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Table 2-1 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, State Variables User


Subroutine Requirements (continued)

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options

UABLTNORM ABLATION Definition of direction


of recession
UCAV CAVITY (Parameter) Allows definition of the pressure
CAVITY (Model Definition) load for internal cavities
DIST LOADS (model definition and
history definition)
UDAMAGE_INDICATOR UDAMAG Allows calculation of a damage
indicator to be shown
in postprocessing.
UFAH SURFACE ENERGY Allows application of a
correction factor to the
convection coefficient.
UFILM FILMS Inputs nonuniform
TABLE convective coefficients
UFLUXMEC ABLATION Determines the rate of ablation
RECEDING SURFACE due to mechanical erosion
from sources other than
particle impact.
UFMEC ABLATION Definition of empirical
RECEDING SURFACE correction factor for mechanical
erosion by particles.
UFORMSN TYING Definition of user-defined
constraint matrices.
UFOUND FOUNDATION Permits the introduction of
TABLE nonlinear spring constants and
input of nonlinear damping for
dynamics or harmonics.
UFOUR FOURIER Definition of function giving
nonuniform variation about
the circumference in
Fourier analysis.

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58 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 2-1 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, State Variables User


Subroutine Requirements (continued)

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options

UFRIC CONTACT (2-D) Definition of friction coefficient.


CONTACT (3-D)
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact
Problems”
UFRICTION
UFRICBBC CONTACT (2-D) Definition of variable friction
CONTACT (3-D) coefficients for beam-to-
UFRICTION beam contact.
UFTHP SURFACE ENERGY Definition of empirical
correction for the effect of
surface temperature.
UGLAW SURFACE ENERGY Determines the empirical
correlation g for flux calculation.
UGMEC ABLATION Determines the empirical
RECEDING SURFACE correlation G for
recession calculation
UGROWRIGID UMOTION Changes the size of a rigid
body during the analysis
UHTCOE CONTACT (2-D) Definition of heat transfer
CONTACT (3-D) coefficient to environment for
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact coupled contact analysis.
Problems”
UHTCOEF
UHTCON CONTACT (2-D) Definition of heat transfer
CONTACT (3-D) coefficient between bodies in
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact contact in coupled analysis.
Problems”
UHTCON
UHTNRC CONTACT (2-D) Definition of thermal near
CONTACT (3-D) contact film coefficient.
COUPLE
UHTCON
UINSTR ISTRESS Definition of initial stress.

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CHAPTER 2 59
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Table 2-1 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, State Variables User


Subroutine Requirements (continued)

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options

UMDCOE CONTACT Definition of variable mass


DIFFUSION diffusion coefficients and sink
UHTCOEF pressure on free surfaces.
UMDCON CONTACT Definition of variable mass
DIFFUSION diffusion coefficients of surfaces
UHTCON that are in contact with
other surfaces.
UMDNRC UHTCON Definition of mass diffusion
CONTACT coefficients between surfaces
THERMAL CONTACT almost in contact.
CONTACT TABLE
UNORST CONTACT (2-D) Definition of normal stress for
CONTACT (3-D) user elements in contact.
Table 3-3, “User Subroutines for Contact
Problems”
USER
UOBJFN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Allows definition of the objective
DESIGN OBJECTIVE function and its gradient for
design optimization analysis
using the current values of the
design variables.
UPRFILM PRESS FILM Facilitates the inclusion of
nonuniform pressure films in
diffusion or soil analysis
UQVECT QVECT Defines the magnitude and
direction of the thermal flux.
UREACB CONTACT (2-D) Definition of reactive boundary
CONTACT (3-D) coefficients in an Acoustic
Harmonic Analysis
USDATA USDATA Definition of user-
defined constants.
USINC INITIAL DISP Definition of initial
INITIAL VEL displacement, initial velocity,
INITIAL TEMP or temperature.

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60 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 2-1 User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, State Variables User


Subroutine Requirements (continued)

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options

USINKPT FILMS (model definition option) Changes the sink point


temperatures as a function
of time.
USSD DYNAMIC CHANGE Definition of spectrum
RESPONSE SPECTRUM displacement density function.
UTIMESTEP AUTO STEP Definition of input for user-
defined time step.
UTIMP SURFACE ENERGY Definition of thermal effects of
particle impact.
UVELOC HEAT Definition of convective
velocities.
UVTCOE JOULE Definition of environment
CONTACT (2-D) electrical film coefficient.
CONTACT (3-D)
UHTCOEF
UVTCON JOULE Definition of contact electrical
CONTACT (2-D) film coefficient.
CONTACT (3-D)
UHTCOEF
UVTNRC JOULE Definition of electrical near
CONTACT (2-D) contact film coefficient.
CONTACT (3-D)
UHTCON
UWEAR RECEDING SURFACE Definition of the rate of
mechanical wear on a surface.
UWELDFLUX HEAT or COUPLE Definition of distributed
WELD FLUX (Model /History Definition) welding flux.
WELD PATH (Model / History Definition
Option)
UWELDPATH HEAT or COUPLE Definition of weld path to be
WELD PATH (Model / History Definition) followed by a distributed
WELD FLUX (Model / History Definition) welding flux.

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CHAPTER 2 61
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ FORCEM

Input of Nonuniform Distributed Loads

Description
This user subroutine allows input of nonuniform distributed loads. This user
subroutine can be used to specify the load magnitude as a function of coordinate
position and/or time.
The FORCEM user subroutine is called during the calculation of the equivalent
nodal loads, at each integration point needed to calculate the loads specified in the
DIST LOADS option regardless of the use of the ALL POINTS or CENTROID
parameters. When not using table driven input option, the use of this user
subroutine is flagged by the appropriate load type in the DIST LOADS input option
where the type chosen depends on the element type (see Marc Volume B: Element
Library). When using table driven input format, directly specify if the user
subroutine is invoked on the DIST LOADS option.
For three-dimensional magnetostatic analysis, this user subroutine allows surface
or body currents to be specified as functions of time, potential, or position. The use
of this user subroutine is flagged by the appropriate current type in the DIST
CURRENT input option. For two-dimensional magnetostatic analysis, use the FLUX
user subroutine.

Format
The definitions in FORCEM depend on the element dimensionality as follows:
For two-dimensional elements:
SUBROUTINE FORCEM (P,X1,X2,NN,N)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
COMMON/LPRES3/PRNORM (3)
DIMENSION N(10)
user coding
RETURN
END

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62 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

where:
Input:
X1 is the first coordinate of the integration point.
X2 is the second coordinate of the integration point.
NN is the integration point number.
N(1) is the element number.
N(2) is the parameter identifying the type of load.
N(3) is the integration point number.
N(4) is not used.
N(5) is the distributed load index -not used if Table input format.
N(6) = 0 if conventional pressure.
= 1 if user returns 2 or 3 components for pressure in global direction.
N(7) is the internal element number.
N(8) is not used.
N(9) is the general CID load flag.
N(10) is the boundary condition number if Table input format.
Required Output:
P is the magnitude of the distributed load to be defined by the user at the
integration point being evaluated.
PRNORM is the direction cosine of the direction of the load with respect to the global
system for a distributed load in a given direction.

When using Nastran like CID loads, it is possible to specify the direction of the load
though the prnorm array.
When using nonuniform volumetric load (IBODY=107), nonuniform force per unit
length (IBODY=111) or nonuniform for per unit area (IBODY=113), the direction of the
load should be defined in the prnorm array.
For three-dimensional elements and shell element types 22, 49, 72, 75, 138, 139,
and 140, the required headers are:
SUBROUTINE FORCEM (P,X1,X2,NN,N)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION X1(3), X2(3), N(7)
where:

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Input:
X1(3) is the (x,y,z) position of the integration point.
NN is the integration point number.
N(1) is the element number.
N(2) is the parameter identifying the type of load.
N(3) is not used.
N(4) is not used.
N(5) is the distributed load index -not used if Table input format.
N(6) = 0 if conventional pressure.
= 1 if user returns 2 or 3 components for pressure in global direction.
N(7) is the internal element number.
N(8) is not used.
N(9) is the general CID load flag.
N(10) is the boundary condition number if Table input format.
Required Output:
P is the magnitude of the distributed load at this point to be defined by the user.
In cases where a direction is also needed (shell or beam elements).
X2(3) is the vector describing direction of load.
PRNORM is the direction cosine of the direction of the load with respect to the global
system for a distributed load in a given direction.

Nontable Driven Input


Load Control User Supplies
AUTO LOAD INCREMENTAL PRESSURE
AUTO LOAD with FOLLOW FOR PRESSURE END OF INCREMENT
AUTO STEP INCREMENTAL PRESSURE
AUTO STEP with FOLLOW FOR PRESSURE END OF INCREMENT
AUTO INCREMENT (include common PRESSURE END OF PERIOD
block AUTOIN)
AUTO INCREMENT with FOLLOW PRESSURE END OF PERIOD (KPPASS = 1)
FOR (include common block AUTOIN) PRESSURE BEGINING of INCREMENT
(KPPASS = 2)
COMPLEX HARMONIC ANALYSIS REAL COMPONENT OF PRESSURE
(include common block HARMON) (IHPASS =1)
IMAGINARY COMPONENT OF PRESSURE
(IHPASS = 2)

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64 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table Driven Input


Load Control User Supplies
AUTO LOAD PRESSURE END OF INCREMENT
AUTO STEP PRESSURE END OF INCREMENT
AUTO INCREMENT (include common PRESSURE END OF PERIOD (KPPASS = 1)
block AUTOIN) PRESSURE BEGINING of INCREMENT
(KPPASS = 2)
COMPLEX HARMONIC ANALYSIS REAL COMPONENT OF PRESSURE
(include common block HARMON) (IHPASS =1)
IMAGINARY COMPONENT OF PRESSURE
(IHPASS = 2)

The FORCEM user subroutine is called twice per increment when AUTO INCREMENT
and FOLLOW FOR are used together in the analysis. The value of KPPASS is available
in the common block AUTOIN which must be included in all analysis using AUTO
INCREMENT and the FORCEM user subroutine.

For harmonic analysis with complex damping, the FORCEM user subroutine is
called two times per integration point for each harmonic sub-increment. The call
number is identified by the variable IHPASS which is available in the common block
HARMON. For IHPASS = 1, the real component of the pressure should be input while
for IHPASS = 2, the imaginary component of the pressure should be input.
The reading of data is not recommended in FORCEM since this user subroutine is in
the recycling loop for nonlinear analysis, and the user cannot know how many times
per increment it is called.
Note: When FORCEM is used to specify the “incremental pressure” (see above table) in
conjunction with a stepping procedure that supports cut-backs, it is necessary that the
pressure be specified as a function of time using the variables CPTIM and/or TIMINC
available in common block CREEPS. This ensures that correct loads are applied even if
the time step is reduced within an increment due to cut-backs.

Examples
It is often useful to have the distributed load vary with time in a dynamic analysis.
To obtain the current time and increment of time add:
include ’creeps’
where:
CPTIM is the time at the beginning of the increment

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

TIMINC is the increment of time.

are variables in this common block.


To obtain transient time corresponding to heat transfer analysis where temperatures
are read in using the CHANGE STATE/AUTO THERM option, add:
include ’heattm’
where:
CUTIME is transient time at the beginning of the current increment from the heat
transfer analysis.
DUTIME is the time increment during the current increment from the heat
transfer analysis.

To obtain the increment number add:


include ’concom’
where:
INC is the current increment number.

In the example shown below, a beam is given a linearly varying distributed load.

P ( X ) = X * ⎛ --------------⎞
MAX
0 ≤ X ≤ LEN
⎝ LEN ⎠

where LEN is the length of the beam and MAX is the load intensity at X = LEN .
The resulting user subroutine is as follows:
SUBROUTINE FORCEM (P,X1,X2,NN,N)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION N(10)
REAL LEN,MAX
MAX =
LEN =
P = X1* MAX/LEN
RETURN
END

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66 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ FLUX

Input of Nonuniform Fluxes

Description
For heat transfer analysis, this user subroutine allows surface or body fluxes to be
specified as functions of time, temperature, or position. When not using the table
driven input format, the use of this user subroutine is flagged by the appropriate flux
type in the DIST FLUXES input option where the type chosen depends on element
type (see Marc Volume B: Element Library). When using table driven input format,
directly specify if the user subroutine is invoked.
This user routine may be used for other Poisson type problems such as Joule heating
(DIST CURRENT), diffusion (DIST MASSES), electrostatic (DIST CHARGES),
magnetostatic (DIST CURRENT), or acoustic (DIST SOURCES).

Format
User subroutine FLUX is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FLUX(F,TS,N,TIME)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION TS(6), N(10), F2
user coding
RETURN
END
where
F(1) is the surface or volumetric flux, to be defined at this
integration point in this user subroutine.
F(2) Derivative of the flux with respect to temperature. This may
improve convergence behavior. Not required.
TS(1) is the estimated temperature at the end of the increment.
TS(2) is the current values of the area under the volumetric flux

∫o Qdt . This total includes all


t
versus time curve, that is,
uniform and nonuniform volumetric fluxes.
TS(3) is the temperature at the beginning of the increment.
TS(4), TS(5), TS(6) are the integration point coordinates.

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N(1) is the element number.


N(2) is the parameter identifying the type of flux.
N(3) is the integration point number.
N(4) is the flux index - not used if table input.
N(5) is not used.
N(6) 1 - heat transfer.
2 - joule.
3 - bearing.
4 - electrostatic.
5 - magnetostatic.
6 - acoustic.
8 - diffusion.
N(7) is the internal element number.
N(8) is the layer number for heat transfer shells elements and
volume flux.
N(9) is not used.
N(10) is the boundary condition number if table input used.
TIME is the current time.

This user subroutine is called at each time step for each integration point and
element listed with an appropriate flux type in the DIST FLUXES or similar
input option.
The reading of data is not recommended in FLUX since this user subroutine is in the
recycling loop, and the user cannot know how many times per increment it is called.

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68 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UWELDFLUX

Input of User Defined Welding Flux

Description
For heat transfer analysis, this user subroutine allows surface or body welding
fluxes to be specified as functions of time, temperature, or position. The use of this
user subroutine is flagged by the appropriate flux type in the WELD FLUX input
option where the type chosen depends on element type (see Marc Volume B:
Element Library).

Format
User subroutine UWELDFLUX is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UWELDFLUX(F,TEMFLU, MIBODY, WELDDIM,TIME)
INCLUDE ’../COMMON/IMPLICIT’
DIMENSION MIBODY(*),TEMFLU(*),WELDDIM(*)

user coding

RETURN
END

where:
Input:
TEMFLU(1) integration point coordinate in local X direction (along Weld
Width Direction).
TEMFLU(2) integration point coordinate in local Y direction (along Weld
Depth Direction).
TEMFLU(3) integration point coordinate in local Z direction (along Weld
Path Direction).
TEMFLU(4) integration point coordinate in global X direction.
TEMFLU(5) integration point coordinate in global Y direction.
TEMFLU(6) integration point coordinate in global Z direction.
MIBODY(1) user element number.

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MIBODY(2) distributed flux type.


MIBODY(3) integration point number.
MIBODY(4) weld flux index.
WELDDIM(1) weld width.
WELDDIM(2) weld depth.
WELDDIM(3) weld forward length.
WELDDIM(4) weld rear length.
TIME time at end of increment.
Required Output:
F is the surface or volumetric welding flux to be defined at this integration
point in this user subroutine.

This user subroutine is called at each time step for each integration point and
element listed with an appropriate load type in the WELD FLUX model definition
option. Since this user subroutine is in the recycling loop, the reading of data is not
recommended in UWELDFLUX as the user does not know how many times per
increment it is called.
The weld path to be followed by the heat source specified in this subroutine can be
directly given in the input file or specified through the UWELDPATH user
subroutine. This weld path is used to define the local coordinate system at the
current position of the weld source. The global integration point coordinates
TEMFLU(4 - 6) are then transformed to local integration point coordinates TEMFLU(1
- 3) using the direction cosines of the local coordinate system. Any path offsets in
the local X and Y directions are also applied during this process. Both the global
and local integration point coordinates are provided as input in the program.
The weld dimensions WELDDIM are optional input. They can be varied as a function
of time or arc length using tables. The weld dimensions can be used for defining the
weld pool size. The latter can be used for three purposes: for defining the weld flux
F in this subroutine; for defining a filler element bounding box which can be used
to identify filler elements that are in the weld pool (note that if separate bounding
box dimensions are provided, they over-ride the weld pool dimensions); and for
defining a moving adaptive box with the heat source that identifies which elements
need to be adaptively subdivided.

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70 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UWELDPATH

Input of User Defined Welding Path

Description
This user subroutine allows the specification of a weld path to be followed by a weld
heating source. The use of this user subroutine is flagged by the appropriate weld
path and arc orientation types (type 5) in the WELD PATH input option.

Format
User subroutine UWELDPATH is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UWELDPATH(NWELD, NPATH, NFILL,DISTWELD,STARTPOS,
FINALPOS, WELDVEC, ARCVEC, CPTIM, TIMINC)
INCLUDE ’../COMMON/IMPLICIT’
DIMENSION WELDVEC(*), ARCVEC(*), STARTPOS(*), FINALPOS(*),
NWELD(*), NPATH(*), NFILL(*)

user coding

RETURN
END

where
Input:
NWELD(1) external weld flux ID.
NWELD(2) internal weld flux ID.
NPATH(1) external weld path ID.
NPATH(2) internal weld path ID.
NFILL(1) external weld filler ID.
NFILL(2) internal weld filler ID.
DISTWELD incremental distance travelled by weld heat source.
STARTPOS weld position vector at start of increment.
CPTIM time at start of increment.
TIMINC incremental time step.

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Required Output:
FINALPOS weld position vector at end of increment.
WELDVEC weld path vector at end of increment position.
ARCVEC arc orientation vector at end of increment position.

This user subroutine is called once at the beginning of each increment or when the
time step for the increment is changed due to a cut-back. The position of the weld
source at the end of the increment and the corresponding path and orientation
vectors are required to be specified by the user. This information is used to construct
the local coordinate system at the end of increment position. Note that the specified
ARCVEC vector should be perpendicular to the WELDVEC vector. Otherwise, Marc
makes the ARCVEC vector perpendicular to the WELDVEC vector.
The UWELDPATH subroutine should be used in conjunction with a weld heat source
that is either directly specified through the WELD FLUX model definition option or
through the UWELDFLUX user subroutine. Note that when this subroutine is used to
specify the weld path, the position of the associated weld source should be
initialized on the WELD FLUX model definition option, else Marc terminates with
exit 20. Also, note that when this subroutine is used to specify the weld path, it is
the responsibility of the user to cater to any filler elements that may lie along the
path. If the elements are initially deactivated, this can be done by calling the general
activation UACTIVE user subroutine at the end of the increment.

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72 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ CUPFLX

Coupling of Inelastic Energy and Internal Heat Generation

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to modify the default routine for the calculation
of the internal heat generated due to inelastic energy dissipation. This user
subroutine is only used if a coupled thermal-mechanical or thermal-Joule-
mechanical analysis is being performed and a DIST FLUXES type 101 is chosen.

Format
User subroutine CUPFLX is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE CUPFLX (F,TS,N,TIME,TIMINC,TOTPLE,DIFPLE,DEN,
FCMECH)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION TS(1), N(1)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
TS(1) is the estimated temperature at the end of the increment.
TS(3) is the temperature at the beginning of the increment.
TS(4), TS(5), TS(6) are the integration point coordinates.
N(1) is the element number.
N(2) is 101.
N(3) is the integration point number.
N(7) is the internal element number.
TIME is the time at the beginning of increment.
TIMINC is the time increment.
TOTPLE is the total plastic strain energy.
DIFPLE is the incremental plastic strain energy.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

DEN is the mass density.


FCMECH is the factor entered through the CONVERT model
definition option.
Required Output:
F is the volumetric flux to be defined by the user.

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74 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UINSTR

Input of Initial State of Stresses

Description
This user subroutine is called in a loop over all the elements in the mesh when the
ISTRESS parameter is used. Note that this user subroutine is called twice for each
point. During the first call, the user-defined stress vector S is used to define the net
nodal force. During the second call, the user-defined stress vector S is used to define
the initial stress at each point. In a rigid-plastic analysis, this user subroutine is
called at every increment; otherwise, only in increment zero.

Format
User subroutine UINSTR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UINSTR (S,NDI,NSHEAR,N,NN,KCUS,XINTP,NCRD,
+INC,TIME,TIMEINC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION S(1), XINTP(NCRD), N(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NDI is the number of direct stress components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear stress components.
N(1) is the user element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
XINTP is the array of integration point coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
INC is the increment number.

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TIME is the total time at beginning of increment.


TIMEINC is the incremental time.
Required Output:
S is the stress vector defined by the user.

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76 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFOUR

Input of a User-defined Function F(Θ) for Fourier Analysis

Description
This user subroutine allows input of a function F(Θ) where it can be expressed
analytically. The values of F(Θ) are then passed into a Marc routine that calculates
the Fourier expansion coefficients.

Format
User subroutine UFOUR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFOUR (F,N,NS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(1)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
N The number of stations around the circumference for which the function value F
is specified. N is to be defined by the user.
NS The number of the Fourier series.
Required Output:
F The F-array should contain the N values of F (Θ) in sequential order starting at
Θ = 0° and ending with Θ = 360°.
The user specifies the N values of F(Θ) in degrees sequentially from 0 to 360° in
positions N + 1 through 2N of the F-array.

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Example
For example, suppose the following function is to be expanded in a Fourier series:
1 Θ = 135°, 315°
F(Θ) = -1 Θ = 45°, 225°
0 elsewhere.

This might be accomplished through the following code for the UFOUR user
subroutine which calculates F(Θ) for 25 values of Θ from 0° to 360° by 15°.
SUBROUTINE UFOUR (F,N,NS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(1)
C
DO 10 I=1,N
F(I)=0
F(I+N) = (I-1)*15
10 CONTINUE
F(4) = -1.0
F(10) = +1.0
F(16) = -1.0
F(22) = +1.0
C
RETURN
END
The UFOUR user subroutine is called by using the following model
definition option:
FOURIER
0,0,25,

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78 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ FORCDT

Input of Time Dependent Nodal based Boundary Conditions

Stress Analysis

Description
Simple time dependent load or displacement histories can be input on data lines.
However, in more general cases, when the load history is complex, it is often more
convenient to input the history through a user subroutine. For distributed loads, this
is achieved with the FORCEM user subroutine; for point loads, it is achieved via the
FORCDT user subroutine.

When not using the table driven input format, this user subroutine is flagged by
introducing a model definition set, FORCDT, listing the node numbers for which this
user subroutine is called. Then, at each increment of the analysis, for each of the
nodes on the list, the user subroutine is called. When using table driven input
format, one explicitly activates this routine on the POINT LOADS or FIXED DISP
options. In static analyses, displacement and load arrays are available and, for
dynamics, velocity and acceleration analyses are also given. For nodes without
kinematic boundary conditions, the user can define increments of point loads (thus
overwriting any point load input at the same nodes in the POINT LOAD option). For
nodes with kinematic boundary conditions (that is, listed in the FIXED DISP or DISP
CHANGE options), the user can define increments of displacement.

Note: FORCDT cannot be used to modify Fourier type boundary conditions.

Format
User subroutine FORCDT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (U,V,A,DP,DU,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,
1 UG,XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC, IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION
U(NDEG),V(NDEG),A(NDEG),DP(NDEG),DU(NDEG),UG(1),XORD(1)
user coding
RETURN
END

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where
U is the array of total displacements at this node.
V is the array of total velocities at this node (dynamics only).
A is the array of total accelerations at this node (dynamics only).
non table driven input
Nontable Driven Input:
DP is the array of incremental point loads at this node – can be set by the user
at degrees of freedom without kinematic boundary conditions.
DU is the array of incremental displacements at this node, is the array of total
accelerations at this node, or is the array of total velocities, see IACFLG –
can be set by the user for degrees of freedom listed as having kinematic
boundary conditions.
Table Driven Input:
DP is the array of total force to be applied to the node
DU is the array of incremental displacements to be applied to the node If
IACFLG = 0.
is the array of total displacements to be applied to the node at the end of the
increment if IACLFG = -1.
DTIME is the increment of time (only relevant for dynamics or creep).
TIME is the total time (only relevant for dynamics or creep) at the beginning of
the increment.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
NODE is the global node number.
UG is the array of total displacements in the global system.
XORD is the array of original nodal coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
IACFLG is set to 1 if accelerations are prescribed.
is set to 2 if velocities are prescribed in dynamic analysis.
is set to -1 if total displacements are applied with table driven input.
INC is the increment number.
IPASS = 1 stress portion.

To obtain transient time corresponding to heat transfer analysis, where


temperatures are read in using the CHANGE STATE/AUTO THERM option, add
include ’xxx/common/heattm’
where

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80 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

CUTIME is the time at the beginning of the current increment from heat
transfer analysis.
DUTIME is the change in time during current increment from heat transfer analysis.

are variables in the common block heattm.


As an example, suppose a sinusoidal forcing is required at the third degree of
freedom at a node.
The forcing function is
P = B sin ω t
so
dp = B(sin ω (t + dt) - sin ω t)
Hence, for non table driven input, we write the user subroutine as follows:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (U,V,A,DP,DU,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,
1 UG,XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC, IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION U(1),V(1),A(1),DP(1),DU(1),UG(1),XORD(1)
B =
OMEGA =
DP(3) = B*(SIN(OMEGA*(TIME+DTIME)) - SIN(OMEGA*TIME))
RETURN
END
For table driven input, where total values are entered use the following:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (U,V,A,DP,DU,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,
1 UG,XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC, IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION U(1),V(1),A(1),DP(1),DU(1),UG(1),XORD(1)
B =
OMEGA =
DP(3) = B*SIN(OMEGA*(TIME+DTIME))
RETURN
END

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Heat Transfer Analysis

Description
Time dependent nodal fluxes or temperature boundary conditions can be input most
conveniently through the use of user subroutine FORCDT. For distributed fluxes, the
FLUX user subroutine should be used to input the value of the distributed flux as a
function of time and position.
When not using the table driven input format, the FORCDT user subroutine is
flagged by a model definition set, FORCDT, listing the node numbers. Then at each
step in the analysis, for each of the nodes in the list, the user subroutine is called.
The current, calculated temperature is provided at the nodes. For nodes not
specified as having temperature boundary conditions, the user can give the point
flux. For those nodes specified with temperature, boundary conditions (in FIXED
TEMPERATURE or TEMP CHANGE) sets the temperature.

When using the table driven input, one explicitly activates this routine on the POINT
FLUX or FIXED TEMPERATURE option.

Format
User subroutine FORCDT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (X1,X2,X3,F,T,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,X4,
1 XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC,IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(NDEG),T(NDEG),XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
X1,X2,X3 are not used.
F is the array of fluxes at the node – can be re-defined for nodes free of
temperature boundary conditions.
T is the array of temperatures at the node – can be redefined for nodes
having temperature boundary conditions.
TIME is the total time at the end of the current step.
DTIME is the current time increment.
NDEG is 1 unless heat transfer shell elements are used.

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82 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NODE is the global node number.


X4 is not used.
XORD is the array of nodal coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
IACFLG is not used.
INC is the increment number.
IPASS = 2 heat transfer portion.

Joule Heating Analysis

Description
Time dependent nodal currents or voltage boundary conditions can be input most
conveniently through the use of user subroutine FORCDT. For distributed current,
the FLUX user subroutine should be used to input the value of the distributed current
as a function of time and position.
When not using the table driven input format, the FORCDT user subroutine is
flagged by a FORCDT model definition set, listing the node numbers. Then, at each
step in the analysis, for each of the nodes in the list, the user subroutine is called.
The calculated voltage is provided at the nodes. For nodes not specified as having
voltage boundary conditions, the user can give the point current. For those nodes
specified with voltage, boundary conditions (in VOLTAGE or VOLTAGE CHANGE)
sets the voltage. When using table driven input format, one explicitly activates this
routine on the POINT CURRENT or FIXED VOLTAGE option.

Format
User subroutine FORCDT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (X1,X2,X3,F,T,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,X4,
1 XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC,IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(NDEG),T(NDEG),XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END

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where
X1,X2,X3 are not used.
F is the array of currents at the node – can be re-defined for nodes free of
voltage boundary conditions.
T is the array of voltages at the node – can be redefined for nodes having
voltage boundary conditions.
TIME is the total time at the end of the current step.
DTIME is the current time increment.
NDEG is 1 unless heat transfer shell elements are used.
NODE is the global node number.
X4 is not used.
XORD is the array of nodal coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
IACFLG is not used.
INC is the increment number.
IPASS = 4 electrical pass in Joule heating analysis.

Diffusion Analysis

Description
Time dependent nodal mass flux or pressure boundary conditions can be input most
conveniently through the use of the FORCDT user subroutine. For distributed mass
flux, the FLUX user subroutine should be used to input the value of the distributed
mass flux as a function of time and position.
When not using the table driven input format, the FORCDT user subroutine is
flagged by a model definition set, FORCDT, listing the node numbers. Then at each
step in the analysis, for each of the nodes in the list, the user subroutine is called.
The current, calculated pressure is provided at the nodes. For nodes not specified
as having pressure boundary conditions, the user can give the point mass flux. For
those nodes specified with pressure, boundary conditions (in FIXED PRESSURE or
PRESS CHANGE) sets the pressure.When using the table driven input format, one
explicitly activates this routine on the POINT MASS or FIXED PRESSURE option.

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84 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine FORCDT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (X1,X2,X3,F,T,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,X4,
1 XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC,IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(NDEG),T(NDEG),XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
X1,X2,X3 are not used.
F is the array of mass fluxes at the node – can be re-defined for nodes free
of pressure boundary conditions.
T is the array of pressure at the node – can be redefined for nodes having
pressure boundary conditions.
TIME is the total time at the end of the current step.
DTIME is the current time increment.
NDEG is 1 unless heat transfer shell elements are used.
NODE is the global node number.
X4 is not used.
XORD is the array of nodal coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
IACFLG is not used.
INC is the increment number.
IPASS = 5 diffusion pass.

Electrostatic Analysis

Description
Time dependent nodal charges or potential boundary conditions can be input most
conveniently through the use of the FORCDT user subroutine. For distributed
charges, the FLUX user subroutine should be used to input the value of the
distributed charge as a function of time and position.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

When not using the table driven input format, the FORCDT user subroutine is
flagged by a model definition set, FORCDT, listing the node numbers. Then at each
step in the analysis, for each of the nodes in the list, the user subroutine is called.
The current, calculated potential is provided at the nodes. For nodes not specified
as having potential boundary conditions, the user can give the point charge. For
those nodes specified with potential, boundary conditions (in FIXED POTENTIAL
or POTENTIAL CHANGE) sets the potential. When using the table driven input,
one explicitly activates this routine on the POINT CHARGE or the FIXED
POTENTIAL option.

Format
User subroutine FORCDT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (X1,X2,X3,F,T,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,X4,
1 XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC,IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(NDEG),T(NDEG),XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
X1,X2,X3 are not used.
F is the array of charges at the node – can be re-defined for nodes free of
potential boundary conditions.
T is the array of potential at the node – can be redefined for nodes having
potential boundary conditions.
TIME is the total time at the end of the current step.
DTIME is the current time increment.
NDEG is 1 unless heat transfer shell elements are used.
NODE is the global node number.
X4 is not used.
XORD is the array of nodal coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
IACFLG is not used.
INC is the increment number.
IPASS = 6 for electrostatic pass.

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86 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Magnetostatic Analysis

Description
Time dependent nodal current or potential boundary conditions can be input most
conveniently through the use of the FORCDT user subroutine. For distributed
currents, the FLUX user subroutine should be used to input the value of the
distributed current as a function of time and position.
When not using the table driven input format, the FORCDT user subroutine is
flagged by a model definition set, FORCDT, listing the node numbers. Then at each
step in the analysis, for each of the nodes in the list, the user subroutine is called.
The calculated potential is provided at the nodes. For nodes not specified as having
potential boundary conditions, the user can give the point current. For those nodes
specified with potential, boundary conditions (in FIXED POTENTIAL or POTENTIAL
CHANGE) sets the potential. When using the table driven input, one explicitly
activates this routine on the POINT CURRENT or the FIXED POTENTIAL option.

Format
User subroutine FORCDT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDT (X1,X2,X3,F,T,TIME,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,X4,
1 XORD,NCRD,IACFLG,INC,IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(NDEG),T(NDEG),XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
X1,X2,X3 are not used.
F is the array of currents at the node – can be re-defined for nodes free of
potential boundary conditions.
T is the array of potentials at the node – can be redefined for nodes having
potential boundary conditions.
TIME is the total time at the end of the current step.
DTIME is the current time increment.
NDEG is 1 unless heat transfer shell elements are used.
NODE is the global node number.
X4 is not used.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

XORD is the array of nodal coordinates.


NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
IACFLG is not used.
INC is the increment number.
IPASS = 7 for magnetostatic pass.

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88 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ FORCDF

Input of Frequency Dependent Loads or Displacements in


Harmonic Analysis

Stress Analysis

Description
Simple nodal load or displacement excitations can be input on data lines. However,
in more general cases, when the load is nonhomogeneous, it is often more
convenient to input the excitation through a user subroutine. In harmonic analysis,
for distributed loads, this is achieved with the FORCEM user subroutine; for point
loads or displacements, it is achieved via the FORCDF user subroutine.
When not using the table driven input format, this user subroutine is flagged by
introducing a model definition option, FORCDT, listing the node numbers for which
this user subroutine is called. Then, at each harmonic sub-increment of the analysis,
for each of the nodes on the list, the user subroutine is called. For nodes without
kinematic boundary conditions, the user can define increments of point loads (thus,
overwriting any point load input at the same nodes in the POINT LOAD option). For
nodes with kinematic boundary conditions (that is, listed in the FIXED DISP or DISP
CHANGE options), the user can define increments of harmonic displacement. When
using table driven input format, one explicitly activates this routine on the POINT
LOAD or FIXED DISP option.

Format
User subroutine FORCDF is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDF (U,FR,FI,DUR,DUI,FREQ,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,
1 UG,XORD,NCRD,ICOMPL,INC,INCSUB)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION (NDEG),FR(NDEG),FI(NDEG),DUR(NDEG),DUI(NDEG),
+UG(1),XORD(1)
user coding
RETURN
END

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

where
Input:
U is the array of total displacements at this node.
FREQ is the excitation frequency.
DTIME is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
NODE is the global node number.
UG is the array of total displacements in the global system.
XORD is the array of original nodal coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
ICOMPL is 0 if real analysis; 1 if complex analysis.
INC is the increment number.
Required Output:
FR is the array of the real components of the harmonic point loads.
FI is the array of the imaginary components of the harmonic point loads.
DUR is the array of the real components of the harmonic displacements.
DUI is the array of the imaginary components of the harmonic displacements.

Piezoelectric Analysis

Description
Simple nodal load, charge, displacement, or potential excitations can be input on
data lines. However, in more general cases, when the load is nonhomogeneous, it is
often more convenient to input the excitation through a user subroutine. For
distributed loads, this is achieved with the FORCEM user subroutine; for distributed
charge, this is achieved with the FLUX user subroutine; for point loads, point charge,
displacements, or potential, this is achieved via the FORCDF user subroutine.
When not using the table driven input, this user subroutine is flagged by the
FORCDT model definition option listing the node numbers for which this user
subroutine is called. Then, at each harmonic subincrement of the analysis for each
of the nodes on the list, the user subroutine is called. For nodes without kinematic
boundary conditions, increments of point loads and increments of point charge can
be defined (this overwrites any point load input at the same nodes in the POINT
LOAD option or overwriting any point charge in the POINT CHARGE option). For

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90 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

nodes with kinematic boundary conditions (that is, listed in the FIXED DISP, FIXED
POTENTIAL, DISP CHANGE, or FIXED POTENTIAL options), the user can define
increments of harmonic displacement and/or potential. When using the table driven
input, one explicitly activates this routine on the POINT LOAD, POINT CHARGE,
FIXED DISP, or FIXED POTENTIAL option.

Format
User subroutine FORCDF is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FORCDF (U,FR,FI,DUR,DUI,FREQ,DTIME,NDEG,NODE,
1 UG,XORD,NCRD,ICOMPL,INC,INCSUB)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION
U(NDEG),FR(NDEG),FI(NDEG),DUR(NDEG),DUI(NDEG),UG(1)
1 XORD(1)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
U is the array of total displacements and potential at this node.
FREQ is the excitation frequency.
DTIME is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
NODE is the global node number.
UG is the array of total displacements in the global system.
XORD is the array of original nodal coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
ICOMPL is 0 if real analysis; 1 if complex analysis.
INC is the increment number.
Required Output:
FR is the array of the real components of the harmonic point loads and
harmonic point charge.
FI is the array of the imaginary components of the harmonic point loads and
harmonic point charge.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

DUR is the array of the real components of the harmonic displacements and
harmonic potential.
DUI is the array of the imaginary components of the harmonic displacements
and harmonic potential.

The first ndeg-1 elements of the arrays refer to the structural point loads
or displacements.
The ndeg’th element of the arrays refers to the point charge or harmonic potential.

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92 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ FILM

Input of Nonuniform Film Coefficients

This user subroutine is used when the table input format is not used;
otherwise, use the UFILM user subroutine.

Description
In heat transfer analysis, it is often necessary to include nonuniform film
coefficients and sink temperatures for the calculation of convection or radiation
boundary conditions. The FILM user subroutine facilitates this. It is called at each
time step for each integration point on each element surface given in the FILMS
model definition set, and allows the user to modify the film coefficient and sink
temperature that is input through the data lines. In coupled contact analyses, the
UHTCOE, UHTNRC, and UHTCON user subroutines are preferred.

Format
User subroutine FILM is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE FILM (H,TINF,TS,N,TIME)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION H(2), N(7),TS(6)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
TS(1) is the estimated surface temperature at the end of the increment.
TS(2) is the surface temperature at the beginning of the increment.
TS(3) is not used.
TS(4) is the integration point 1st coordinate.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

TS(5) is the integration point 2nd coordinate.


TS(6) is the integration point 3rd coordinate.
N(1) is the element number.
N(2) is the IBODY code.
N(3) is the integration point number.
N(4) is the film index.
N(5) is the sink temperature index.
N(6) is not used.
N(7) is the internal element number.
TIME is the current time.
Required Output:
H(1) is the ratio of the desired film coefficient to that given on the FILMS data set
for this element to be defined by the user (preset to 1).
TINF is the ratio of the desired sink temperature to that given on the FILMS data
set for this element to be defined by the user (preset to 1).
Optional Output:
H(2) is the derivative of the ratio of the film coefficient to that given on the FILMS
data set; this can be defined optionally and may improve the convergence
behavior in a nonlinear heat transfer analysis.

Note that since H and TINF are defined as ratios, if the user does not re-define them
in this user subroutine, the data set values are used. If the user wishes to give
absolute values here, the corresponding values on the FILMS data set can be
conveniently set to 1.

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94 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ FLOW

Input of Mass Flow Rate and Inlet Temperature

Description
In a heat transfer analysis involving fluid channel elements, user subroutine FLOW
is available to the user for the modification of mass flow rate, inlet temperature, and
film coefficient. Both the inlet temperature and mass flow rate can be dependent on
time; the film coefficient can also be a function of streamline distance.

Format
User subroutine FLOW is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE FLOW (II,IFACE,N1,NBSURF,STOT,RATE,TINLET,SURFJ,
+TSURJ,HJ,TFLUID,TIMINC,CPTIME)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SURFJ(4),TSURJ(4),HJ(4)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
II is the channel number.
IFACE is the channel face identification, defining the flow direction.
N1 is the fluid channel element number.
NBSURF is the number of channel surfaces.
STOT is the total stream line distance.
SURFJ(I) is the channel surface area array.
TSURJ(I) is the channel surface temperature array.
TFLUID is the fluid element temperature.
TIMINC is the time increment.
CPTIME is the current total time.
Required Output:
RATE is the mass flow rate (redefined by the user in this user subroutine).

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TINLET is the inlet temperature (redefined by the user in this user subroutine).
HJ(I) is the film coefficient of the ith surface (redefined by the user in this
user subroutine).

In two-dimensional analyses, SURFJ(1), SURFJ(2) are the lengths of the edges


bordering the channel element. In three-dimensional analyses, SURFJ(1) through
SURFJ(4) are the areas on adjacent faces. In a similar manner, TSURJ is the average
temperature on adjacent edges (for 2-D) or adjacent faces (for 3-D).

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96 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFOUND

Input of Nonlinear Foundation Stiffness and Damping

This user subroutine is used when the table input format is used;
otherwise, use the USPRNG user subroutine.

Description
The UFOUND user subroutine permits the introduction of nonlinear spring constants
for use with the FOUNDATION option, and input of nonlinear damping for dynamics
or harmonics. The user coding must supply both of the spring stiffness and the total
spring force. The data value of the stiffness/damping constant, total time, and the
element or spring number are made available to the user subroutine. For harmonic
analysis, the stiffness/damping constants can be a function of the frequency. The
UFOUND user subroutine is activated by the FOUNDATION option.

Format
User subroutine UFOUND is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFOUND(EFFK,EFORC,U,TIME,N,IHRESP)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION EFFK(*),U(*),TIME(*),N(*),EFORC(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
For Elastic Foundation
EFFK(1) foundation stiffness
EFFK(2) foundation damping (dynamics and/or harmonics)
For Statics or Dynamics
EFORC(1) foundation resistance force due to stiffness

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EFORC(2) foundation resistance force due to damping


U(1) total displacement
U(2) total velocity
TIME(1) time at beginning of increment
TIME(2) incremental time
For Harmonics
EFORC(1) real component of foundation resistance force
EFORC(2) imaginary component of foundation resistance force
U(1) real component of harmonic displacement
U(2) imaginary component of harmonic displacement
TIME(1) time
TIME(2) frequency
N(1) element number
N(2) face id (ibody)
N(3) integration point number
N(4) boundary condition id
N(5) boundary condition id
N(6) internal element id
IHRESP 0 statics or dynamics
1 harmonics

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98 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFILM

Input of Nonuniform Convective Coefficients

This user subroutine is used when the table input format is used;
otherwise, use the FILM user subroutine.

Description
In heat transfer analysis, it is often necessary to include nonuniform convective
coefficients and sink temperatures for the calculation of convection or radiation
boundary conditions. The UFILM user subroutine facilitates this. It is called at each
time step for each integration point on each element surface given in the FILMS
model definition set, and allows the user to modify the convective coefficient and
sink temperature that is input through the data lines. In coupled contact analyses,
the UHTCOE and UHTCON user subroutines are preferred

Format
User subroutine UFILM is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFILM(UHFILM,UTSINK,UHNATUR,UEXPNAT,
* UEFFVIEW,UEMISS,UQFLUX,TS,N,TIME,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION TS(*),N(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
UHFILM is the conventional convective heat transfer coefficient.
UTSINK is the sink temperature.
UHNATUR is the natural convection coefficient.
UEXPNAT is the natural convection exponent.
UEFFVIEW is the effective view factor.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

UEMISS is the emissivity.


UQFLUX is the applied flux.
TS(1) is the estimated surface temperature at the end of increment.
TS(2) is the surface temperature at the beginning of increment.
TS(3) is not used.
TS(4) is the integration point 1st coordinate.
TS(5) is the integration point 2nd coordinate.
TS(6) is the integration point 3rd coordinate.
TS(7) is the first component of direction cosine of surface normal.
TS(8) is the second component of direction cosine of surface normal.
TS(9) is the third component of direction cosine of surface normal.
N(1) is the element number.
N(2) is the ibody number.
N(3) is the integration point number.
N(4) is the boundary condition id.
N(5) is the boundary condition id.
N(6) is not used.
N(7) is the internal element number.
N(8) is the layer number if heat transfer shell.
N(9) is not used.
N(10) is the boundary condition id.
TIME is the time.
INC is the increment number.

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100 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USINKPT

Input of Sink Point Temperatures

Description
The USINKPT user subroutine allows the user to change the sink point temperatures
as a function of time. For every integration point associated with an element face
defined in the FILMS model definition option, the closest sink point will be
determined. This routine will be called for each one of these integration points.

Format
User subroutine USINKPT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE
USINKPT(M,NN,ISINK,TSINK,TIME,INC,XINT,XSINK,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION XINT(NCRD),XSINK(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Updates Temperature of Sink Point
M element number.
NN integration point number.
ISINK sink id.
TSINK temperature of sink point - to be updated by the user.
TIME time at the end of the increment.
INC increment number.
XINT coordinates of surface integration point.
XSINK coordinates of sink point.
NCRD number of coordinates.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UQVECT

Directed Thermal Flux

Description
This user subroutine permits the definition of the magnitude of the thermal flux and
the direction. The equivalent nodal flux is calculated based upon

∫ N T αq ( – n∗ d ) dS
Where
N is the shape functions.
α is the absorption constant.
q is the user defined magnitude of the flux.
n is the outward normal to the surface of the element.
d is the user defined direction cosine vector.

Note, by default, if the flux is a positive quantity, but the product ( – n*d ) is a
negative quantity, than heat it extracted from the surface. The user can use the
ISIDE value in the QVECT model definition option to control this behavior.

Format
The UQVECT user subroutine is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE UQVECT(M,NN,FLUX,QV,TSOURCE,ABSORP,NDIR,INC,
*CPTIM,TIMINC)
INCLUDE '../COMMON/IMPLICIT'
DIMENSION QV(NDIR)
USER CODING
RETURN
END

Required Input
m is the element number.
nn is the integration point number.

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102 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

ndir is the number of directions; either 2 or 3.


inc is the increment number.
cptim is the time at beginning of increment.
timinc is the time increment.
Required Output
flux magnitude of thermal flux to be defined.
qv direction cosine of the flux.
tsource temperature of source (optional).
absorp absorption coefficient.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ GAPT

Input of Thermal Contact (Conrad) Gap Temperature

Description
In a heat transfer analysis involving thermal contact (CONRAD) gap elements, the
gap temperature is compared with a given gap closure temperature for the
determination of gap open/closed condition. In Marc, the gap temperature is
estimated from the average of gap nodal temperatures 0.5∗ ( T1 + T2 ) and the gap
closure temperature is entered through the CONRAD GAP model definition option.
The GAPT user subroutine allows for the redefinition of gap temperature (TGAP)
based on the nodal temperatures T1 and T2. If the gap temperature (TGAP) is greater
than or equal to the gap closure temperature (TCLOSE), the gap is closed. Otherwise,
the gap is open. This also influences the electrical contact in a coupled Joule heating
analysis.

Format
User subroutine GAPT is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE GAPT(N,I1,I2,T1,T2,TCLOSE,TGAP,INC,TIME,TIMINC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N is the gap (tie) number.
I1,I2 are the nodal numbers.
T1,T2 are the nodal temperatures.
TCLOSE is the gap closure temperature.
INC is the increment number.
TIME is the total transient time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
Required Output:
TGAP is the gap temperature (to be defined the user).

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104 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFORMSN

Definition of Constraint Conditions

Description
The UFORMSN user subroutine allows the definition of a constraint condition.
Marc's capability for applying arbitrary homogeneous constraints between nodal
displacements is used through this user subroutine. To distinguish user constraints
from Marc's built-in constraints, those constraints formed by the user in UFORMSN
must be of type less than zero (ISTYP in the user subroutine: first field of data block
3 of the TYING model definition option). The constraint conditions can be supplied
by using the UFORMSN user subroutine. The conventions adopted for these
constraints are:
1. A constraint is defined by:

⎧ ub ⎫
⎪ ⎪
{ ua } = [ S ]⎨ uc ⎬ + { Cn o n }
⎪ ⎪
⎩ etc ⎭

where:
{ ua } The vector of displacement at node a, referred to as the
tied mode.

⎧ ub ⎫
⎪ ⎪
⎨ uc ⎬ Vector of displacements at b, c, etc.; these nodes are referred
⎪ ⎪ to as the retained nodes.
⎩ etc ⎭

{ Cn o n } nonhomogeneous part of tying equation.

2. In the matrix [S], a row of zeros indicates that particular degree of


freedom at node a is not constrained. If you want to enforce a single point
constraint for a particular degree of freedom i, the entire ith row of [ S ] is
set to zero and LM(i) is set to -1.

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3. To apply a constraint between degrees of freedom at the same node, the


node must appear on both sides of the equation, with rows of zeros in [S]
corresponding to the degrees of freedom on the left-hand side, which are
retained on the right-hand side, and columns of zeros in [S]
corresponding to the tied nodes appearing on the left-hand side.
Note: By default, the [ S ] matrix is specified in the local displacement systems.
However, if IFLAG is set to 1, the matrix is specified in the global displacement
system and the program converts it to the local systems.

Format
The user subroutine supplying the [ S ] matrix must have the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFORMSN(S,NDEG,LONGSM,ITI,NRETN,II,ISTYP
1 CNON,LM,INTDATA,REALDATA,XORD,XORDU,
2 NCRD,IFLAG)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION S(NDEG,LONGSM),ITI(*),CNON(NDEG),
$ XORD(NCRD,*),XORDU(NDEG,*),LM(*)
DIMENSION INTDATA(*),REALDATA(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
LONGSM is NDEG*number of retained nodes.
ITI( ) iti(1) = tied node id
iti(2)-iti(1+nretn) = retained nodes id’s
NRETN is the number of retained nodes.
II is the tying number.
ISTYP is the tying type.

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106 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

INTDATA( ) 1increment number


2cycle number
3ipass
1 = stress pass
2= heat pass
3= fluid pass
4=Joule pass
5=diffusion pass
6=electrostatic pass
7=magnetostatic pass
8=electromagnetic pass
REALDATA( ) 1 time at start of increment
2 time increment
XORD( ) are the original coordinates of nodes in ITI( ) in the global system.
XORDU( ) are the total displacements of nodes in ITI( ) in the global system at
the start of the increment.
NCRD is the first dimension of XORD.
Required Output:
S( ) is the tying matrix.
DDUtied = [S]. DDUretained + CNON.
CNON( ) is the nonhomogeneous part in the tying equation.
LM( ) is the flag to force single point constraint.
Note: The ith degree of freedom of the tied node ITI(1) will be tied if one
of the entries in the ith row of S is nonzero. If all entries in the ith row
of S are zero, the ith degree of freedom will not be tied unless LM(I)
is set to -1 in which case DDU(I) of the tied node = CNON(I) which
is equivalent to a single point constraint.
IFLAG 0 S and CON are specified in the local system (default).
1 S and CON are specified in the global system.

Example
Suppose a change from a coarse to a fine mesh of two-dimensional isoparametric
elements is required. For any node in the fine mesh which does not correspond to a
node in the coarse mesh, a constraint is necessary. The displacement at these nodes
can be expressed as a linear combination of the displacements of the two corner
nodes of the coarse mesh since the displacement is linear between these nodes due
to the element formulation.

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In the coarse mesh:

⎧ ⎫
⎪ ui ⎪
⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ uj ⎪ 1–λ 0 λ 0 ⎪ vi ⎪
⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬
⎪ vj ⎪ 0 1–λ 0 λ ⎪ ul ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ vl ⎪
⎩ ⎭

where:

λ = xi j ⁄ xi l

Thus, we supply the following user subroutine:


SUBROUTINE UFORMSN(S,NDEG,LONGSM,ITI,NRETN,II
1 ISTYP,CNON,LM,INTDATA,REALDATA,XORD,XORDU,
2 NCRD,IFLAG)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION S(NDEG,LONGSM),ITI(*),CNON(NDEG),
DIMENSION INTDATA(*),REALDATA(*),
1 XORD(NCRD,LONGTM),
2 XORDU(NDEG,LONGTM)
J=1
I=2
L=3
XIJ = SQRT((XORD(1,I)-XORD(1,J))**2+(XORD(2,I)-
XORD(2,J))**2)
XIL = SQRT((XORD(1,I)-XORD(1,L))**2+(XORD(2,I)-
XORD(2,L))**2)
XLAMBD = XIJ/XIL
S(1,1) = 1. -XLAMBD
S(2,2) = 1. -XLAMBD
S(1,3) = XLAMBD
S(2,4) = XLAMBD
user coding
RETURN
END
Assuming that nodes j and k are located between nodes I and L and nodes m, n
are located between nodes L and P, the constraint is then imposed by specifying j,
k, m, n, etc., on data lines as the tied nodes, and I, L; I, L; L, P; L, P; etc.,
as the corresponding pairs of retained nodes. The TYING option would then become:

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108 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TYING
4,
-1,j,2
i,l,
-1,k,2
i,l,
-1,m,2
l,p,
-1,n,2
l,p,
Note that this coarse to fine mesh tying constraint is in Marc as default tying types
31 and 32 for planar elements and as tying type 33 and 34 for three-dimensional
brick elements. See Marc Volume A: User Information for further details.

n
xij m
l

k
j

i
xil

Figure 2-1 Coarse to Fine Mesh Example

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ CREDE

Input of Pre-specified State Variables


Description
The CREDE user subroutine is available to the user for the input of prespecified
state variables. The simplest option allows the specification of temperature
increments throughout the mesh. Through the use of the STATE VARS parameter,
the number of state variables per point in the structure can be increased. For
example, radiation fluxes (in reactor core problems) can be included. Marc always
assumes temperature is the first state variable given at a particular point, since the
first state variable is used in conjunction with the tables of temperature dependence
input specified in the TEMPERATURE EFFECTS option, and the first state variable
is used to compute thermal strains. All state variables are available to all
constitutive routines.
The CREDE user subroutine is called once per element in a loop over the elements
when the THERMAL LOADS option is used. Any data blocks required should appear
immediately after data block 2 of the THERMAL LOADS option in the input data. If
the first field of data block 2 in the THERMAL LOADS option is a 3, total state
variable values must be provided at all points of all elements at which constitutive
calculations are made. If the first field is a 2, the incremental values are defined.
Depending on the inclusion of the CENTROID or ALL POINTS parameters, centroidal
values or values at all numerical integration points of an element are expected. For
shell elements, the values of state variable increments must be given for each layer
through the thickness at every integration point. For beam elements, the values of
state variable increments must be given at all points used to define the beam section
(16 for default element type 14, 25, 76 or 78; user-defined for element type 13, 77,
or 79).
Format
User subroutine CREDE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE CREDE (DTDL,M,NSTRES,NEQST,NSTATS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DTDL (NSTATS,NEQST,NSTRES)
user coding
RETURN
END

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110 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

where:
Input:
M is the user element number and must remain unchanged in CREDE. The
internal element number is obtained as
mint = ielint(m)
NSTRES is the maximum number of integration points per element, if ALL POINTS
was included in the parameters, and is 1 if the CENTROID parameter is
used.
NEQST is the maximum number of layers per element.
NSTATS is the number of state variables requested by the user in the STATE VARS
parameter. (This number equals 1 if only temperature is required).
Required Output:
DTDL is the array of state variable increments or total values (to be defined here
by the user).

For meshes with several element types, NEQST and NSTRES take on maximum
values, but the DTDL array need only be filled as far as necessary for a particular
element type.

Example
As an example, suppose a linear gradient through the thickness is to be imposed on
a shell with NSTATS = 1. The same gradient is imposed throughout the structure.
The following coding will suffice:
SUBROUTINE CREDE (DTDL,M,NSTRES,NEQST,NSTATS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DTDL (NSTATS,NEQST,NSTRES)
TOUT=500.0
TIN=300.0
T=TIN
DT=(TOUT-TIN)/FLOAT(NEQST-1)
DO 2 I=1, NEQST
DO 1 J=1, NSTRES
1 DTDL (1,I,J)=T
2 T=T+DT
RETURN
END

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ INITSV

Initialize State Variable Values

Description
This user subroutine, allows the user to define initial values of state variables.
When not using the table driven input format, it is called in a loop over all the
elements in the mesh when the INITIAL STATE option appears in the model
definition options with a 2 in the second field of the second data block of that
option. When using the table driven input, it is called for those elements specified
in the INITIAL STATE model definition option if a 7 is given in the second field of
the second data block and the initial condition is activated by the LOADCASE model
definition option.

Format
User subroutine INITSV is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE INITSV(SV,LAYERS,INTPTS,M,ID)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SV(LAYERS,INTPTS)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LAYERS is the number of layers through the thickness if this is a shell element, or the
number of points in the cross-section if this is a beam element. It is 1 for a
continuum element.
INTPTS is the number of integration points in this element if the ALL POINTS
parameter is used. If the CENTROID parameter is used, INTPTS = 1.
M is the user element number. The internal element number is obtained as
mint = ielint(m)
ID is the state variable number (from columns 1-5 of the second data block of
the INITIAL STATE set).

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112 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Required Output:
SV is the array of values of this state variable; to be defined here for this
element by the user.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ NEWSV

Input New State Variable Values

Description
This user subroutine allows the new values of any state variable to be defined at the
end of the current step. When not using the table driven input format, it is called in
a loop over all the elements in the mesh when the CHANGE STATE option appears
in the model definition or the history definition set with a 2 in the second field of
the second data block of that option. When using the table driven input, it is called
for those elements specified in the CHANGE STATE model definition option, if a 7
is given in the second field of the second data block and the boundary condition is
activated by the LOADCASE option.

Format
User subroutine NEWSV is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE NEWSV(SV,LAYERS,INTPTS,M,ID)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SV(LAYERS,INTPTS)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LAYERS is the number of layers through the thickness if this is a shell element, of
the number of points in the cross-section if this is a beam element. It is 1
for a continuum element.
INTPTS is the number of integration points in this element if the ALL POINTS
parameter is used. If the CENTROID parameter is used, INTPTS=1.
M is the user element number. The internal element number is obtained as
mint = ielint(m)
ID is the state variable number (from columns 1-5 of the second data block of
the CHANGE STATE set [model definition or history definition]).

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114 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Required Output:
SV is the array of new values of this state variable; to be defined here for this
element by the user.

Note: If the user wants to define the state variable values as the function of time, the updated
total time is available by adding the include statement in this subroutine. For example:
include ’path/common/creeps’
within ’creeps’:
cptim is the total time at the end of the last step.
timinc is the time increment at the current step.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ USSD

Input of Spectral Response Density

Description
The USSD user subroutine allows the user to input the spectral density function for
the frequencies required in the spectrum response calculation. These frequencies
are obtained by performing a modal analysis.

Format
User subroutine USSD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USSD(SD,OMEG,I)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
OMEG is the frequency in cycles per time unit.
I is the degree of freedom.
Required Output:
SD is the spectral response density for the Ith degree of freedom to be defined
by the user.

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116 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USINC

Input of Initial Conditions

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to input initial displacements, velocities, and
accelerations for dynamic stress analysis, initial temperatures for heat transfer
analysis or thermal stress analysis, temperature history for thermal stress analysis,
or initial pressure. The user must supply the values for all degrees of freedom in
vector F. This user subroutine is used with either the INITIAL DISP, INITIAL VEL,
INITIAL TEMP, or INIT PRESSURE model definition options, or the POINT TEMP
model and history definition options. It is called for every node in the structure if it
is used.

Format
User subroutine USINC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USINC(F,N,NDEG,IFLAG)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION F(NDEG)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
F is the vector of initial conditions or point temperatures to be given by the user.
N is the node number.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
IFLAG is the flag that indicates the type of data that must be supplied.
= 1 initial displacement.
= 2 initial velocities.
= 3 initial temperatures.
= 4 initial accelerations.
= 5 point temperatures (only for thermal stress analysis).
= 7 initial pressure (only for diffusion analysis).

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ USDATA

Input of Initial Data

Description
This user subroutine is a mechanism to allow the user to read data into a user-
defined common block. This common block is stored on the restart file, and
available in subsequent increments. The common block USDACM must be given the
correct length in this user subroutine. This common block can also be used in any
other user subroutine.

Format
User subroutine USDATA is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USDATA(KIN,KOU,IC)
COMMON/USDACM/MYDATA
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
KIN is the unit number for input, usually 5.
IC is the reader flag.
= 1 pre-reader.
= 2 real reader.
Required Output:
KOU is unit number for output, usually 6.

Note that the maximum length of USDACM should be defined here. It should agree in
length in real *4 words as with that given on the USDATA model definition option.

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118 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UTIMESTEP

Input of User-defined Time Step

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to specify the time step when the AUTO STEP
load stepping scheme is used

Format
User subroutine UTIMESTEP is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UTIMESTEP(TIMESTEP,TIMESTEPOLD,ICALL,
$ TIME,TIMELOADCASE)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
TIMESTEP is the current time step as suggested by the program and which can
be modified in this routine.
TIMESTEPOLD is the current time step before it was modified by the program.
ICALL is a flag for when the routine is called.
= 1 for setting the initial time step during the reader phase.
= 2 if this routine is called during an increment
= 3 if this routine is called at the beginning of the increment
TIME time at the start of the current increment
TIMELOADCASE time period of the current load case
Required Output:
TIMESTEP is the current time step as suggested by the program and which can
be modified in this routine.

This routine is called right after the time step has (possibly) been updated by the
program at different stages in the analysis depending on the value of ICALL. It is
allowed, but in general not recommended, to increase the time step during an
increment (ICALL=2). Note that only the variable TIMESTEP should be modified in
this routine.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UVELOC

Generation or Modification of Nodal Velocity Vectors

Description
In heat diffusion-convection, it is sometimes necessary to include a position
dependent velocity field. The UVELOC user subroutine, which is called for each
node, allows the user the specification or redefinition of previously specified nodal
velocity vectors. The inclusion of convection is activated on the HEAT parameter.
This user subroutine should not be used in a coupled fluid-thermal analysis, as the
velocities are calculated by Marc.

Format
User subroutine UVELOC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UVELOC (VELOC,COORD,NCRD,NODE)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION VELOC (NCRD),COORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
COORD is the array of coordinates at this node.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
NODE is the node number.
Required Output:
VELOC is the array of nodal velocity components to be defined.

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120 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ MOTION (2-D)

Definition of Rigid Surface Motion for 2-D Contact

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of nonuniform rigid surface motions, in
conjunction with the CONTACT option. Its call is triggered by the UMOTION model
definition option. This user subroutine should only be used with velocity controlled
rigid surfaces.
The MOTION user subroutine is called during the calculations at the beginning of
each time increment and the user return the surface velocities for that increment.
Imposed displacement increments at nodal points in contact with rigid surfaces are
obtained from the velocity multiplied by the time increment. The surface path
becomes an explicit forward integration of velocities. Therefore, caution should be
taken when there are abrupt changes in surface path direction or abrupt changes in
velocity by
CAUTION: Please note that if the coordinates of the center of rotation are defined
unconditionally in this routine, they will be set to that same value for all increments
of the analysis, causing the rigid surface to rotate around a fixed point in space. On
the other hand, if the position of the center of rotation is defined only once in
increment 0, as in
if(inc.eq.0) then
x(1)=...
etc.
endif
the center of the rotation is updated internally as motion and deformation take
place. Obviously, the results will be different for the two cases.

If, at the start of the analysis, a surface is placed apart from the body to be deformed,
the MOTION user subroutine is also used in the approaching phase.
If two-dimensional elements are being used, the surfaces have rigid body motions
in two dimensions. It is assumed that such motions can be defined by a translation
of a point (the center of rotation), plus a rotation around that point.

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Format
User subroutine MOTION is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE MOTION (X,F,V,TIME,DTIME,NSURF,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION X(*),V(*),F(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
X(3) is the array of current die defining coordinates.
X(1) = first coordinate of center of rotation.
X(2) = second coordinate of center of rotation.
X(3) = angle rotated around z-axis.
F(3) is the array of current surface loads.
F(1) = first component of load.
F(2) = second component of load.
F(3) = moment.
TIME is the time at which data is requested.
DTIME is the current time increment.
NSURF is the surface number for which data is requested.
INC is the increment number.
Required Output:
V(3) is the array of current surface velocities.
V(1) = first component of the velocity at the center of rotation.
V(2) = second component of the velocity at the center of
rotation.
V(3) = angular velocity.

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122 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Example
Assume that a rigid surface is identified as surface number 1, and is moving in the
negative x-direction with a velocity of 1.0. The MOTION user subroutine can be
written as follows:
SUBROUTINE MOTION(X,F,V,TIME,DTIME,NSURF,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION X(*),V(*),F(*)
IF(NSURF.EQ.1) THEN
V(1)=-1.
V(2)=0.
V(3)=0.
ENDIF
RETURN
END

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CHAPTER 2 123
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ MOTION (3-D)

Definition of Rigid Surface Motion for 3-D Contact

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of nonuniform rigid surface motions in
conjunction with the CONTACT option. Its call is triggered by the UMOTION model
definition option. This user subroutine should only be used with velocity controlled
rigid surfaces.
The MOTION user subroutine is called during the calculations at the beginning of
each time increment and the user’s return surface velocities for that increment.
Imposed displacement increments at nodal points in contact with rigid surfaces are
obtained from the velocity multiplied by the time increment. The surface path
becomes an explicit forward integration of velocities. Therefore, caution should be
taken when there are abrupt changes in surface path direction or abrupt changes in
velocity by making time increments as small as necessary.
CAUTION: Please note that if the coordinates of the center of rotation are defined
unconditionally in this routine, they will be set to that same value for all increments
of the analysis, causing the rigid surface to rotate around a fixed point in space. On
the other hand, if the position of the center of rotation is defined only once in
increment 0, as in
if(inc.eq.0) then
x(1)=...
etc.
endif
the center of the rotation is updated internally as motion and deformation take
place. Obviously, the results will be different for the two cases.

If, at the start of the analysis, a rigid surface is placed apart from the deformable
body, the MOTION user subroutine is also used in the approaching phase.
If three-dimensional elements are used, the surfaces have rigid body motions in
three dimensions. It is assumed that such motions can be defined by a translation
of a point (the center of rotation), plus a rotation about the axis of rotation through
that point.

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124 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine MOTION is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE MOTION (X,F,V,TIME,DTIME,NSURF,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION X(*),V(*),F(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
X(6) is the array of current die defining coordinates.
X(1) = first coordinate of center of rotation.
X(2) = second coordinate of center of rotation.
X(3) = third coordinate of center of rotation.
Axis for specifying angular velocity:
X(4) = first component of direction cosine.
X(5) = second component of direction cosine.
X(6) = third component of direction cosine.
F(6) is the array of current surface loads.
F(1) = first component of load.
F(2) = second component of load.
F(3) = third component of load.
F(4) = first component of moment.
F(5) = second component of moment.
F(6) = third component of moment.
TIME is the time at which data is requested.
DTIME is the current time increment.
NSURF is the surface number for which data is requested.
INC is the increment number.
Required Output:
V(4) is the array of current surface velocities.
V(1) = first component of the velocity at the center of rotation.
V(2) = second component of the velocity at the center of rotation.
V(3) = third component of the velocity at the center of radiation.
V(4) = angular velocity around axis defined above with X(4),
X(5), and X(6).

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Example
Assume that a rigid surface is identified as surface number 2 and is moving in the
negative x-direction with a velocity of 1.0. The MOTION user subroutine can be
written as follows:
SUBROUTINE MOTION(X,F,V,TIME,DTIME,NSURF,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION X(*),V(*),F(*)
IF(NSURF.NE.2) THEN
V(1)=-1.
V(2)=0.
V(3)=0.
V(4)=0.0
ENDIF
RETURN
END

Main Index

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126 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UGROWRIGID

Changes the Size of a Rigid Body During the Analysis

Description
This user subroutine is called when the flag on the UMOTION model definition
option is turned on. The user can define the size of the rigid body as a function
of time.

Format
User subroutine UGROWRIGID is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UGROWRIGID(MD,RELX,RELY,RELZ,TIME)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MD is the rigid body number.
TIME is the time at which data is requested.
Required Output:
RELX is the relative size defined by the user in the x-direction with
respect to the original size.
RELY is the relative size defined by the user in the y-direction with
respect to the original size.
RELZ is the relative size defined by the user in the z-direction with
respect to the original size.
Note: (1) RELX, RELY, and RELZ must be equal to one another if a rotation is applied to
the rigid body.
(2) At time = 0, RELX = RELY = RELZ = 1.0.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 127
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UFRIC

Definition of Friction Coefficients

Description
With this user subroutine, the user can define the variable friction coefficients or
friction factors in conjunction with the CONTACT model definition option. Its call
is triggered by the UFRICTION option.
For distributed based friction, the UFRIC user subroutine is called for every element
containing nodes that are in contact with surfaces at the nodes. These calls are made
every iteration both during the assembly phase and during the stress recovery
phase.
In case of the variable IFRIC = 1, 3 or 7, a constant shear friction model is
enacted and the user returns a friction factor m defined in the equation:

ft = -m ky t

where:
ft is the shear friction force being applied.
m is the friction factor.
ky is the shear flow stress of the material being deformed.
t is the tangent unit vector in the direction of relative sliding velocity.

In case the variable IFRIC = 2, 4, 5 or 6, a Coulomb friction model is enacted,


and the user returns a friction coefficient μ defined in the equation:

ft = -μ fn t

where:
μ is the friction coefficient.
fn is the normal stress/force at the point of contact.

IFRICis the friction type based upon the 4th field of the 2nd data block of the
UFRICTION option.

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128 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine UFRIC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFRIC
(MIBODY,X,FN,VREL,TEMP,YIEL,FRIC,TIME,INC,NSURF)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION X(2),MIBODY(4),VREL(1),TEMP(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:

For distributed friction based on nodal stresses:


MIBODY(1) is the user element number.
MIBODY(2) is the side number.
MIBODY(3) is the surface integration point number.
MIBODY(4) is the internal element number.
For nodal friction based on nodal forces:
MIBODY(1) is the user node number.
MIBODY(2) is not used; enter 0.
MIBODY(3) is not used; enter 0.
MIBODY(4) is the internal node number.
X is the updated coordinates of contact point where friction is
being calculated.
FN is the normal stress/force being applied at that point.
VREL is the relative sliding velocity at contact point.
TEMP(1) is the temperature of contact point.
TEMP(2) is the voltage of contact point (Joule heating).
YIEL is the flow stress of workpiece material at contact point.
TIME is the current time.
INC is the increment number.
NSURF is the surface being contacted by the side for which friction calculations
are being made.
Required Output:
FRIC is the friction coefficient or friction factor to be provided by the user.

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CHAPTER 2 129
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UFRICBBC

Definition of Friction Coefficients for


Beam-to-Beam Contact

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define variable friction coefficients for
beam-to-beam contact, similar to the UFRIC user subroutine. Like the UFRIC user
subroutine, UFRICBBC is used in conjunction with the CONTACT model definition
option and its call is triggered by the UFRICTION model definition option . Unlike
the UFRIC user subroutine, however, UFRICBBC is called for every beam or truss
element that is in contact with another beam or truss element. These calls are made
every iteration both during the assembly phase and during the stress recovery
phase. If beam elements contact with other beam elements and some of the nodes
of these beam elements contact with rigid surfaces or with the faces of continuum
or shell elements, the UFRIC user subroutine is called for every node in contact and
the UFRICBBC user subroutine is called for every beam element in contact.
Since only the Coulomb friction model is supported by the beam-to-beam
contact option, the subroutine must return the friction coefficient μ defined by
the equation:

ft = -μ fn t

where:
ft is the friction force at the contact point on the touching element.
μ is the friction coefficient.
fn is the normal force at the contact point on the touching element.
t is -v/|v|, where v is the relative velocity of the contact point on the touching
element with respect to the contact point on the touched element.

Also See
The UFRIC user subroutine.

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130 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine UFRICBBC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFRICBBC(MIBODY1,DPOS1,X1,TEMP1,
MIBODY2,DPOS2,X2,TEMP2,
FN,VREL,TIME,TIMINC,INC,FRIC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY1(3),X1(3),MIBODY2(3),X2(3),VREL(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
Touching point:
MIBODY1(1) is the user number of the touching element.
MIBODY1(2) is the internal number of the touching element.
MIBODY1(3) is the number of the touching body.
DPOS1 is the natural coordinate (between 0 and 1) of the touching point on the
touching element.
X1 are the updated coordinates of the touching point.
TEMP1 is the temperature of the touching point.
Touched point:
MIBODY2(1) is the user number of the touched element.
MIBODY2(2) is the internal number of the touched element.
MIBODY2(3) is the number of the touched body.
DPOS2 is the natural coordinate (between 0 and 1) of the touched point on the
touched element.
X2 are the updated coordinates of the touched point.
TEMP2 is the temperature of the touched point.
Other input:
FN is the normal force being applied at that point.
VREL is the relative sliding velocity of the touching point with respect to the
touched point.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
TIMINC is the current time increment.
INC is the increment number.
FRIC is the friction coefficient.
Required Output:
FRIC is the friction coefficient.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 131
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ DIGEOM

Definition of 3-D Rigid Surface Patch

Description
In three-dimensional problems in which complicated rigid surfaces need to be
entered, it might be easier to define them with other software aids, such as a CAD
system or an FEA preprocessor. In such cases, this user subroutine lets the user
enter the geometry directly. This user subroutine is used in conjunction with the
CONTACT option for three-dimensional problems only.

Rigid surfaces are normally entered by means of several geometrical entities. If the
discrete representation is used these are internally subdivided into 4-point patches.
This user subroutine allows the user to directly enter the coordinates associated
with each patch.
The DIGEOM user subroutine is called for every geometrical entity of type 7 (patch)
for which the Fortran logical unit from where data is read is declared as -1.

Format
User subroutine DIGEOM is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE DIGEOM (IPATCH,NDIE,XYZ,NPATCH)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XYZ(3,4)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
IPATCH is the current patch number of this entity.
NDIE is the surface (body) number.
NPATCH is the total number of patches defining this entity.
Required Output:
XYZ are the three (x, y, z) coordinates of the four points of the patch to be
entered by the user.

Main Index

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132 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ SEPFOR

Definition of Separation Force

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of the separation force in conjunction
with the CONTACT model definition option. The separation forces, FNORM and
FTANG, are either calculated by Marc or entered through the CONTACT option, and
then passed into this user subroutine. The user decides whether these values at the
current increment are appropriate to determine whether separation occurs.
FNORM is the normal reaction force above which a node in contact separates from a
surface. Any compressive or negative value indicates real contact while a positive
reaction force indicates a tendency to separate. The default is taken as the maximum
value of the residual force in the structure for the current increment. This value can
be reset by the user through the input format. Defining a too small value can result
in an increased number of iterations. Defining a very large value eliminates the
possibility of separation. FTANG is the tangential force used to determine whether a
nodal point positioned at a convex corner of surface should be sliding from patch to
patch or remaining on its current patch. The default value is half of FNORM. These
two default reaction forces vary from increment to increment.

Format
User subroutine SEPFOR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE SEPFOR (FNORM,FTANG,IBODY,NNODE,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
IBODY is the current body number the node touched.
NNODE is the current touched external node number.
INC is the current increment number.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Required Output:
FNORM is the normal separation force to be supplied by the user.
FTANG is the tangential separation force to be supplied by the user.

Example
If the user desires the default separation force for surface 2, and does not want any
separation of nodes from surface 3, the user subroutine is written as follows:
SUBROUTINE SEPFOR (FNORM,FTANG,IBODY,NNODE,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
IF(IBODY.NE.3)GO TO 999
C RESET FNORM TO A VERY LARGE VALUE TO ELIMINATE
C POSSIBILITY OF SEPARATION
FNORM=2.E7
C
WRITE(6,101) IBODY,FNORM,NNODE,INC
101 FORMAT(‘THE SEPARATION FORCE OF BODY ‘,15,
*HAS BEEN RESET TO BE ‘,E15.5,
*FOR NODE ‘,15,’ AT INCREMENT ‘,15)
999 CONTINUE
RETURN
END

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134 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ SEPFORBBC

Definition of Separation Force for Beam-to-Beam Contact

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of the separation force for beam-to-beam
contact, similar to the SEPFOR user subroutine. Like SEPFOR, SEPFORBBC is used
in conjunction with the CONTACT model definition option. Unlike the SEPFOR user
subroutine, however, SEPFORBBC is called for every beam or truss element that is
in contact with another beam or truss element. If beam elements contact with other
beam elements and some of the nodes of these beam elements contact with rigid
surfaces or with the faces of continuum or shell elements, then the SEPFOR user
subroutine is called for every node in contact and the SEPFORBBC user subroutine
is called for every beam element in contact.
The FSEP separation force is either calculated by Marc or entered through the
CONTACT or CONTACT TABLE option, and then passed into this user subroutine. It
is the normal reaction force above which a beam element in contact separates from
another beam element. Any compressive or negative value indicates real contact
while a positive force indicates a tendency to separate. The user decides whether
these values at the current increment are appropriate to determine whether
separation occurs. The default separation force calculated by Marc is the maximum
value of the residual force in the structure for the current increment.

Also See
The SEPFOR user subroutine.

Format
User subroutine SEPFORBBC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE SEPFORBBC(MIBODY1,MIBODY2,TIME,TIMINC,INC,FSEP)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY1(3),MIBODY2(3)
user coding
RETURN
END

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

where:
Input:
Touching element:
MIBODY1(1) is the user number of the touching element.
MIBODY1(2) is the internal number of the touching element.
MIBODY1(3) is the number of the touching body.
Touched element:
MIBODY2(1) is the user number of the touched element.
MIBODY2(2) is the internal number of the touched element.
MIBODY2(3) is the number of the touched body.
Other input:
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
TIMINC is the current time increment.
INC is the increment number.
FSEP is the separation force.
Required Output:
FSEP is the separation force.

Main Index

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136 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ SEPSTR

Definition of Separation Stress

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of the separation stress in conjunction
with the CONTACT model definition option. The separation stresses, SNORM and
STANG, are either calculated by Marc or entered through the CONTACT option, and
then passed into this user subroutine. The user decides whether these values at the
current increment are appropriate to determine whether separation occurs.
SNORM is the stress normal to the surface above which a node in contact separates
from another body. Any compressive or negative value indicates real contact while
a positive stress indicates a tendency to separate. The default is taken as the
maximum value of the residual force in the structure for the current increment
divided by an effective area. This value can be reset by the user through the input
format. Defining a too small value can result in an increased number of iterations.
Defining a very large value eliminates the possibility of separation. STANG is the
tangential stress used to determine whether a nodal point positioned at a convex
corner of surface should be sliding from patch to patch or remaining on its current
patch. The default value is half of SNORM. These two default values vary from
increment to increment.

Format
User subroutine SEPSTR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE SEPSTR (SNORM,STANG,IBODY,NNODE,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
IBODY is the current body number the node touched.
NNODE is the current touched external node number.
INC is the current increment number.

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CHAPTER 2 137
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Required Output:
SNORM is the normal separation stress to be supplied by the user.
STANG is the tangential separation stress to be supplied by the user.

Main Index

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138 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UHTCOE

Definition of Environment Film Coefficient

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of variable film coefficients and sink
temperatures on free surfaces, in conjunction with the CONTACT option and the
COUPLE parameter. Its call is triggered by the UHTCOEF option.

The UHTCOE user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a free body boundary and for each surface at the trapezoidal rule
integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every iteration both
during the assembly phase and the recovery phase of the heat transfer pass of a
coupled analysis.
A distributed heat flux is being calculated according to the equation:

q = H(T - TS)

where:
q is the heat flux entering the surface.
T is the surface temperature.
TS is the sink temperature.
H is the film coefficient.

By modifying H and TS, the user can model varying heat transfer conditions along
the boundary. Special attention has been given to provide the user the capability of
simulating radiation heat transfer, by making available the location and
temperatures of all the surfaces in the environment.
The user can either specify H and TS or specify the flux q directly which is treated
strictly as such.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 139
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Format
User subroutine UHTCOE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UHTCOE(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,ICONNO,XORD,XT,DXT,
+ TMPALL,TMPALO,TOTINC,TIMINC,INC,NCRD,
+ NDEGS,NDEGH,NCRDMX,NDEGMX,NBCD,NBCN,TSINK,
+ HTCOEF,IFLAG)
IMPLICIT REAL *8(A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(*),XP(*),ICONNO(*),XORD(*),XT(*),DXT(*),
+ TEMP(*),TMPALL(*),NBCD(*),,TSINK(*),TMPALO(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MIBODY(1) is the element number where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of the element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
MIBODY(4) is the internal element number.
XP(NCRD) are the coordinates of point where calculation is being made; it is
updated to end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the current temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the current voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
ICONNO(*) are the nodal points that make up the boundary of the deformable
surfaces declared in the CONTACT option.
NBCN is the upper bound to the number of nodes on a flexible
surface boundary.
NBCD(*) is the array of actual number of boundary nodes on flexible surfaces.
XORD(*) is the array of original nodal point coordinates.
XT(*) is the array of nodal point displacements.
DXT(*) is the array of nodal displacement increments.
TMPALL(*) is the array of nodal temperatures (current estimate at end of increment).
TMPALO(*) is the array of nodal temperatures (at beginning of increment).
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.

Main Index

Main Index
140 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TIMINC is the time increment.


INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEGS is the number of degrees of freedom per node for the stress part of
the analysis.
NDEGH is the number of degrees of freedom per node for the thermal part of the
analysis (usually 1).
NCRDMX is the maximum number of coordinates per node for the whole model
(can be different from NCRD if different element types are used).
NDEGMX is the maximum number of degrees of freedom per node for the whole
model (can be different from NDEG if different element types are used).
TSINK(4) is the sink voltage declared in the CONTACT option for this
flexible surface.
TSINK(5) is the sink pressure declared in CONTACT option for this
flexible surface.
Required Output:
IFLAG =0 HTCOEF is a heat transfer coefficient
=1 HTCOEF is a flux.
HTCOEF is the heat transfer coefficient between surface and environment, such
that the heat flux per unit area that leaves the surface is:

Q = HTCOEF (TEMP - TSINK)


or
the heat flux per unit area that leaves the surface.
TSINK(2) is the sink temperature declared in the CONTACT option for this
flexible surface.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 141
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UHTCON

Definition of Contact Film Coefficient

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of variable film coefficients of surfaces
that are in contact with other surfaces in conjunction with the CONTACT option and
COUPLE parameter. Its call is triggered by the UHTCON option.

The UHTCON user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a body boundary that is in contact, and for each surface at the trapezoidal
rule integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every iteration
during both the assembly phase and the stress recovery phase of the heat transfer
pass of a coupled analysis.
A distributed heat flux is being calculated according to the equation

q = HD(T - TD)

where:
q is the heat flux entering the surface.
T is the surface temperature.
TD is an interpolated temperature of the body being contacted.
HD is the film coefficient.

By modifying HD, the user can model varying heat transfer conditions along the
contact regions.

Format
User subroutine UHTCON is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UHTCON(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,IOBODY,FN,TOTINC,
+TIMINC,INC,NCRD,NDEG,TSINK,HTCOEF)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(4),XP(*),TMEP(*),TSINK(*)
user coding
RETURN
END

Main Index

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142 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

where:

Input:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
MIBODY(4) is the internal element number.
XP(NCRD) is the coordinates of point where calculation is being made; it is
updated to end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said pointer.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
IOBODY is the surface being contacted.
FN is the contact pressure between contacting surfaces.
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the current increment.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
TSINK(2) is the temperature of surface being contacted.
TSINK(4) is the voltage of surface being contacted.
TSINK(5) is the pressure of surface being contacted.
Required Output:
HTCOEF is the heat transfer coefficient between surfaces in contact, such that
the heat flux per unit area that leaves the surface is:

Q = HTCOEF (TEMP(2) - TSINK(2)).

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 143
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UDAMAGE_INDICATOR

Indicator of Material Damage

Description
Different from UDAMAG, this user subroutine allows you to calculate a damage
indicator to show in postprocessing. The indicator does not affect material
properties but can be used to remove elements to show crack propagation. It is used
only with Cockroft-Latham, Oyane and Principal damage criteria.

Format
User subroutine UDAMAG_INDICATOR is written with the following header lines:
SUBROUTINE UDAMAGE_INDICATOR(DAMDAT,DAMFAC,S,SRATE,
ESTRS,NDI,NSHEAR,M,NN,
KCUS,DTIME,DAMFLAG,IFLAG)
INCLUDE '../COMMON/IMPLICIT'
C* * * * * *
C USER DEFINED DAMAGE INDICATOR
C FOR MODELS USING COCKROFT,OYANE OR PRINCIPAL DAMAGE
CRITERIA
C NOTE:
C IF OTHER STATE VARIABLES ARE NEEDED, USE
C ELMVAR.F
DIMENSION DAMDAT(*),S(*),KCUS(*)
IFLAG=1
USER CODING
RETURN
END
where:

Input:
DAMDAT is the damage model input data
S is the stress array
SRATE is the equivalent plastic strain rate
ESTRS is the equivalent effective stress
M is the element number

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144 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NN is the integration point number


KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
NDI is the number of direct stress components
NSHEAR is the number of shear stress components
DTIME is the time increment
Required Output:
IFLAG is the flag to indicate the user subroutine is used
= 0 not used
= 1 used
DAMDAT(8) is the crack threshold from input (or user entered value)
DAMFLAG is the damage flag for display (post code 80)
DAMFAC is the computed damage value

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 145
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UHTNRC

Definition of Thermal Near Contact Film Coefficient

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of variable film coefficients of surfaces
that are almost in contact with other surfaces in conjuction with the CONTACT
option and COUPLE parameter. Its call is triggered by the UHTCON option.
The UHTNRC user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a body boundary that is almost in contact, and for each surface at the
trapezoidal rule integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every
iteration both during the assembly phase and the recovery phase of the heat transfer
pass of a coupled analysis.
A distributed heat flux is being calculated according to the equation:

HE X 4 4
q = HD ( T – TD ) + HDN ( T – TD ) + EMS ( T – TD )

⎛ HDC – ( HDC – HDD ) ------------


d ⎞
- ( T – TD )
⎝ d n e a r⎠

where:
q is the heat flux entering the surface.
T is the surface temperature.
TD is the interpolated temperature of the body being contacted.
HD is the heat transfer coefficient between surfaces.
HDN is the heat transfer coefficient of natural convection between surfaces.
HEX is the exponent associated with natural convection between surfaces.
EMS is the emissivity for radiation calculation between surfaces.
HDC is the upper bound in distance dependent heat transfer coefficient.
HDD is the lower bound in distance dependent heat transfer coefficient.
d is the distance between the surfaces.
dn e a r is the upper limit of the near contact distance.

Main Index

Main Index
146 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

By modifying HD, HDN, HEX, EMS, HDC, and HDD, the user can model varying heat transfer
conditions along the boundary, which are dependent of the distance between the
contacting surfaces.

Format
User subroutine UHTNRC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UHTNRC(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,IOBODY,FN,TOTINC,
+ TIMINC,INC,NCRD,NDEG,TSINK,HTCOEF,
+ HTNAT,EXPNAT,EMIS,HDD,HC,D)
IMPLICIT REAL*8(A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(4),XP(*),TEMP(*),TSINK(*)
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
XP(NCRD) is the coordinates of point where calculation is being made; it is updated
to end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
IOBODY is the surface being contacted.
FN is the contact pressure between contacting surfaces.
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the current increment.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
TSINK(2) is the temperature of surface being contacted.
TSINK(4) is the voltage of surface being contacted.
TSINK(5) is the pressure of surface being contacted.

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User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

D is the distance between the surfaces.


Required Output:
HTCOEF is the heat transfer coefficient between surfaces almost in contact.
HTNAT is the heat transfer coefficient of natural convection between surfaces
almost in contact.
EXPNAT is the exponent associated with natural convection between surfaces
almost in contact.
EMIS is the emissivity for radiation calculation between surfaces almost in
contact.
HDD is the lower bound of the distance dependent heat transfer coefficient.
HC is the upper bound of the distance dependent heat transfer coefficient,
such that the heat flux per unit area that leaves the surface is

Q = HTCOEF (TEMP(2) - TSINK(2) ) +


HTNAT * (TEMP(2) - TSINK(2)) ** EXPNAT +
SIGMA * EMIS * (TEMP(2) ** 4 - TSINK(2) ** 4) +
(HC - (HC - HDD) * d/dnear) * (TEMP(2) - TSINK(2))

Main Index

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148 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UVTCOE

Definition of Environment Electrical Film Coefficient

Description
This subroutine allows the definition of variable electrical film coefficients and sink
voltage of free surfaces, in conjunction with the CONTACT option and JOULE
parameter. Its call is triggered by the UHTCOEF option.
The UVTCOE user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a free body boundary and for each surface at the trapezoidal rule
integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every iteration both
during the assembly phase and the recovery phase of the electrical pass of a coupled
structural-Joule heating analysis.
A distributed electrical heat flux is being calculated according to the equation:

q = H ( V – VS )

where:
q is the electrical flux entering the surface.
V is the surface voltage.
VS is the sink voltage.
H is the film coefficient.

By modifying H and VS, the user can model varying electrical transfer conditions
along the boundary. Special attention has been given to provide the user the
capability of simulating complex behavior, by making available the location and
temperatures of all the surfaces in the environment.
The user can either specify H or VS or specify the flux q directly which is treated
strictly as such.

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CHAPTER 2 149
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Format
User subroutine UVTCOE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UVTCOE(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,ICONNO,XORD,XT,DXT,
+ TMPALL,TMPALO,TOTINC,TIMINC,INC,NCRD,
+ NDEGS,NDEGH,NCRDMX,NDEGMX,NBCD,NBCN,TSINK,
+ ETCOEF,IFLAG)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(*),XP(*),ICONNO(*),XORD(*),XT(*),DXT(*),
+ TEMP(*),TMPALL(*),NBCD(*),TSINK(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
MIBODY(4) is the internal element number.
XP(NCRD) is the coordinates of point where calculation is being made; it is updated
to end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
ICONNO(*) are the nodal points that make the boundary of deformable surfaces
declared in option contact.
NBCN is the upper bound to the number on nodes on a flexible
surface boundary.
NBCD(*) is the array of actual number of boundary nodes on flexible surfaces.
XORD(*) is the array of original nodal point coordinates.
XT(*) is the array of nodal point displacements.
DXT(*) is the array of nodal displacement increments.
TMPALL(*) is the array of nodal voltage (current estimate at end of increment).
TMPALO(*) is the array of nodal voltage (at beginning of increment).

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150 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TOTINC is the current accumulated time.


TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the current increment.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEGS is the number of degrees of freedom per node for the stress part of
the analysis.
NDEGH is the number of degrees of freedom per node for voltage (usually 1).
NCRDMX is the maximum number of coordinates per node for the whole model
(can be different from NCRD if different element types are used).
NDEGMX is the maximum number of degrees of freedom per node for the
whole model (can be different from NDEG if different element types are
used).
TSINK(2) is the sink temperature declared in CONTACT option for this
flexible surface.
TSINK(4) is the sink voltage declared in CONTACT option for this flexible surface.
TSINK(5) is the sink pressure declared in CONTACT option for this
flexible surface.
Required Output:
IFLAG = 0 ETCOEF is a electrical transfer coefficient.
= 1 ETCOEF is a flux.
ETCOEF is the electrical transfer coefficient between surface and environment,
such that the heat flux per unit area that leaves the surface is:
q = ETCOEF (VOLT - VSINK)
or
the electrical flux per unit area that leaves the surface.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 151
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UVTCON

Definition of Electrical Film Coefficient

Description
This subroutine allows the definition of variable electrical film coefficients of
surfaces that are in contact with other surfaces in conjunction with the CONTACT
option and the JOULE parameter. Its call is triggered by the UHTCON option.
The UVTCON user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a body boundary that is in contact, and for each surface at the trapezoidal
rule integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every iteration
during both the assembly phase and the recovery phase of the electrical pass of a
coupled structural-Joule heating analysis.
A distributed heat flux is being calculated according to the equation:

q = HD ( V – VD )

where:
q is the electrical flux entering the surface.
V is the surface voltage.
VD is the interpolated voltage of the body being contacted.
HD is the film coefficient.

By modifying HD and VD, the user can model varying electrical transfer conditions
along the boundary.

Format
User subroutine UVTCON is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UVTCON(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,IOBODY,FN,TOTINC,
+ TIMINC,INC,NCRD,NDEG,TSINK,ETCOEF)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(4),XP(*),TEMP(*),TSINK(*)
RETURN
END

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152 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

where:
Input:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
XP(NCRD) are the coordinates of point where calculation is being made; it is
updated to end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
IOBODY is the surface being contacted.
FN is the contact pressure between contacting surfaces.
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the current increment.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
TSINK(2) is the temperature of surface being contacted.
TSINK(4) is the voltage of surface being contacted.
TSINK(5) is the pressure of surface being contacted.
ETCOEF is the electrical transfer coefficient between surfaces in contact, such
that the electrical flux per unit area that leaves the surface is
TSINK(2) is the temperature of surface being contacted.
TSINK(4) is the voltage of surface being contacted.
TSINK(5) is the pressure of surface being contacted.
Required Output:
ETCOEF is the electrical transfer coefficient between surfaces in contact, such
that the electrical flux per unit area that leaves the surface is:

Q = ETCOEF (TEMP(4) - TSINK(4))

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 153
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UVTNRC

Definition of Electrical Near Contact Film Coefficient

Description
This subroutine allows the definition of variable electrical film coefficients of
surfaces that are almost in contact with other surfaces in conjuction with the
CONTACT option and the JOULE parameter. Its call is triggered by the UHTCON
option.
The UVTNRC user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a body boundary that is almost in contact, and for each surface at the
trapezoidal rule integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every
iteration both during the assembly phase and the recovery phase of the electrical
pass of a coupled structural-Joule heating analysis.
A distributed electrical flux is being calculated according to the equation:

q = ET ( V – VD ) + ⎛ ETC – ( ETC – EDD ) -------------⎞ ( V – VD )


d
⎝ d n e a r⎠

where:
q is the electrical flux entering the surface.
V is the surface voltage.
VD is the interpolated voltage of the body being contacted.
ET is the electrical transfer coefficient between surfaces.
ETC is the upper bound in distance dependent electrical transfer coefficient.
EDD is the lower bound in distance dependent electrical transfer coefficient.
d is the distance between the surfaces.
dn e a r is the upper limit of the near contact distance.

By modifying ET, ETC and EDD, the user can model varying electrical transfer
conditions along the boundary, which are dependent of the distance between the
contacting surfaces.

Main Index

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154 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine UVTNRC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UVTNRC(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,IOBODY,FN,TOTINC,
+ TIMINC,INC,NCRD,NDEG,TEMPO,ETCOEF,ETDD,ETC,D)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(4),XP(*),TEMP(*),TEMPO(*)
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
XP(NCRD) is the coordinates of point where calculation is being made; it is updated
to end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
IOBODY is the surface being contacted.
FN is the contact pressure between contacting surfaces.
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the current increment.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
TEMPO(2) is the temperature of surface being contacted.
TEMPO(4) is the voltage of surface being contacted.
TEMPO(5) is the pressure of surface being contacted.
D is the distance between the surfaces.

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CHAPTER 2 155
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Required Output:
ETCOEF is the electrical transfer coefficient between surfaces in contact.
ETDD is the lower bound of the distance dependent electrical
transfer coefficient.
ETC is the upper bound of the distance dependent electrical transfer
coefficient, such that the electrical flux per unit area that leaves the
surface is

Q = ETCOEF (TEMP(4) - TEMPO(4)) +


(ETC - (ETC - ETDD) * d/dnear) * (TEMP(4) -
TEMPO(4))

Main Index

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156 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UMDCOE

Definition of Environment Mass Diffusion Coefficient


Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of variable mass diffusion coefficients
and sink pressure on free surfaces, in conjunction with the CONTACT option and
DIFFUSION or PYROLYSIS parameter. Its call is triggered by the UHTCOEF option.
The UMDCOE user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a free body boundary and for each surface at the trapezoidal rule
integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every iteration both
during the assembly phase and the recovery phase of the mass diffusion pass of an
analysis.
A distributed mass flux is being calculated according to the equation:

q = H(P - PS)

where:
q is the mass flux entering the surface.
P is the surface pressure.
PS is the sink pressure.
H is the film coefficient.

By modifying H and PS, the user can model varying mass diffusion conditions along
the boundary.
The user can either specify H and PS or specify the flux q directly which is treated
strictly as such.

Format
User subroutine UMDCOE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UMDCOE(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,NF,XORD,XT,DXT,
+PRSALL,PRSALO,TOTINC,TIMINC,INC,NCRD,NDEGS,NDEGH,NCRDMX,
+NDEGMX,NBCD,NBCN,TSINK,PRCOEF,IFLAG)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(4),XP(1),NF(NBCN,1),XORD(NCRDMX,*),
+XT(NDEGMX,*),DXT(NDEGMX,*),TMPALL(1),NBCD(1),PRSPALO(1),
+TEMP(*),TSINK(*)

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CHAPTER 2 157
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

user coding
RETURN
END
where:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
MIBODY(4) is the internal element number.
XP(NCRD) are the coordinates of point where calculation is being made, updated to
end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
NF(NBCN,1) are the nodal points that make the boundary of deformable surfaces
declared in the CONTACT option.
NBCN is the upper bound to the number of nodes on a flexible surface
boundary.
NBCD(1) is the array of actual number of boundary nodes on flexible surfaces.
XORD(1) is the array of original nodal point coordinates.
XT(1) is the array of nodal point displacements.
DXT(1) is the array of nodal displacement increments.
PRSALL(1) is the array of nodal pressure (current estimate at end of increment).
PRSALO(1) is the array of nodal pressure (at beginning of increment).
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node of this element.
NDEGS is the number of degrees of freedom per node for structural (stress) part
of the analysis.
NDEGH is the number of heat transfer degrees of freedom.
NCRDMX is the maximum number of coordinate per node in this model.
NDEGMX is the maximum number of structural degrees of freedom per node in
this model.
TSINK(2) is the sink temperature declared in contact option for this flexible surface.

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158 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TSINK(4) is the sink voltage declared in contact option for this flexible surface.
TSINK(5) is the sink pressure declared in contact option for this flexible surface.
IFLAG =0 PRCOEF is a heat transfer coefficient
=1 PRCOEF is a flux.
PRCOEF is the mass diffusion coefficient between surface and environment, such
that the mass flux per unit area that leaves the surface is:
Q = PRCOEF (TEMP(5) - TSINK(5))
or
the mass flux per unit area that leaves the surface.
PRCOEF is to be defined here.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 159
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UMDCON

Definition of Contact Mass Diffusion Coefficient

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of variable mass diffusion coefficients of
surfaces that are in contact with other surfaces in conjunction with the CONTACT
option and DIFFUSION or PYROLYSIS parameter. Its call is triggered by the
UHTCON option.

The UMDCON user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on a body boundary that is in contact, and for each surface at the trapezoidal
rule integration points (that is, the nodes). These calls are made every iteration both
during the assembly phase and the stress recovery phase of the mass diffusion pass
of an analysis.
A distributed mass flux is being calculated according to the equation:
q = PC(P - PD)
where:
q is the mass flux entering the surface.
P is the surface pressure.
PD is an interpolated pressure of the body being contacted
PC is the film coefficient.

By modifying HPD, the user can model varying heat transfer conditions along the
contact regions.

Format
User subroutine UMDCON is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE
UMDCON(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,IOBODY,FN,TOTINC,TIMINC,
+INC,NCRD,NDEG,TSINK,PC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(4),XP(1),TEMP(*),TSINK(*)
user coding
RETURN
END

Main Index

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160 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

where:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
MIBODY(4) is the internal element number.
XP(NCRD) are the coordinates of point where calculation is being made, updated to
end of increment.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
IOBODY is the surface being contacted.
FN is the contact pressure between contacting surfaces.
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
TSINK(2) is the temperature of surface being contacted.
TSINK(4) is the voltage of surface being contacted.
TSINK(5) is the pressure of surface being contacted.
PC is the heat transfer coefficient between surface in contact, such that the
heat flux per unit area that leaves the surface is:
Q = PC (P-PD)

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 2 161
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UMDNRC

Definition of Mass Diffusion Coefficients between Surfaces


almost in Contact

Description
The UMDNRC user subroutine allows the definition of the convection between
surfaces that are nearly in contact. If the surfaces are not close to one another, the
convective coefficients defined by the UMDCOE user subroutine will be used. If the
surfaces are in contact, then the values from UHTCON will be used. The CONTACT
option and UHTCON option must be included.
The UMDNRC user subroutine is called at every element surface containing nodes
that are on the boundary that are also close to contact. These calls are made every
iteration during both the assembly phase and the recovery phase of the mass
diffusion pass of an analysis.
A distributed heat flux is being calculated according to the equation

Q = PRCOEF * ( P2 – P1 ) + PRDD * ( P2 – P1 )

where:
PRCOEF are provided by the user.
P2, P1 are the pressure on the contacted surface and contacting surface respectively.

DN
PRDD = PRC – ( PRC – PRDD ) * ---------------------------
DQNEAR

DN is the normal distance between the current point and the closest surface.
DQNEAR is the distance at which bodies are considered to be near one another,
defined by user in the CONTACT TABLE option.

Main Index

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162 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine UMDNRC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UMDNRC(MIBODY,XP,TEMP,IBODY,IOBODY,FN,TOTINC,
* TIMINC,INC,NCRD,NDEG,TEMPO,PRCOEF,PRDD,PRC,DN)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION MIBODY(4),XP(*),TEMP(*),TEMPO(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MIBODY(1) is the element where the surface flux is being calculated.
MIBODY(2) is the side of said element.
MIBODY(3) is the integration point of said side.
TEMP(2) is the temperature of said point.
TEMP(4) is the voltage of said point.
TEMP(5) is the pressure of said point.
IBODY is the flexible surface to which point belongs.
IOBODY is the surface being contacted.
FN is the contact pressure between contacting surfaces.
TOTINC is the current accumulated time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
INC is the current increment.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
TEMPO(2) is the temperature of surface being contacted.
TEMPO(4) is the voltage of surface being contacted.
TEMPO(5) is the pressure of surface being contacted.
DN is the distance to the contact surface.
Required Output:
PRCOEF is the mass diffusion coefficient between surfaces almost in contact
PRDD is the lower bound on the distance dependent mass diffusion coefficient
PRC is the upper bound on the distance dependent mass diffusion coefficient,
usually equal to the contact mass diffusion coefficient

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 2 163
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UNORST

Definition of Normal Stress, Flow Stress and Temperature at


Contact Node

Description
With this user subroutine, The user can define the normal stress at each node in
contact instead of using the extrapolated value from the integration points. It is only
called for user-defined elements and is used in the calculation of Coulomb friction
for contact analysis. The magnitude of the user-defined normal stress must be in the
local system of the patch to which the nodal point is in contact with.

Format
User subroutine UNORST is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UNORST(STRINT,USTR,TRANS,NODE,IBODY,KCUS,
+ NDIE,NODCLS,LMM,NOD,M,N,TIMINC,NDIM,NDEG,NSTRMX,
NNODE,INTEL)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
C
DIMENSION STRINT(8,INTEL),USTR(NDIM,1)
DIMENSION LMM(1),NODCLS(1),TRANS(3,3),KCUS(2)
user coding
C
C
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
STRINT (1-NSTRMX,INTEL) are the stresses at all integration points.
STRINT (NSTRMX+1,INTEL) is the temperature at all integration points.
STRINT (NSTRMX+2,INTEL) is the flow stress at all integration points.
USTR (2,NODE) is the current sliding velocity in the first local direction.
USTR(NSTRMX+1, NNODE) is the temperature at node.
USTR(NSTRMX+2, NNODE) is the flow stress at node.

Main Index

Main Index
164 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

USTR(NSTRMX+3, NNODE) is the previous sliding velocity 1.


USTR(NSTRMX+4, NNODE) is the previous sliding velocity 2.
USTR (2,NODE) is the current sliding velocity in the first local direction.
USTR (3,NODE) (in 3-D contact) current sliding velocity in the second
local direction.
TRANS local transformation matrix at the node.
For 3-D contact:
TRANS(1-3,1) three components of local x-direction.
TRANS(1-3,2) three components of local y-direction.
TRANS(1-3,3) three components of local z-direction.
For 2-D contact:
TRANS(1,1) and is the directional cosine.
TRANS(2,2)
TRANS(1,2) -sine, TRANS(2,1) is the directional cosine.
TRANS(3,3) = 1.
NODE is the current local node number belonging to the
element face (it is neither a Marc internal node number
nor an external user node number).
IBODY the element side or face number that the node belongs
to.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for
continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for
continuum element).
NDIE is the die number that the current node touches.
NODCLS is the node array to indicate if the nodes on the
IBODY are currently in contact. Zero value indicates
no contact and nonzero value is the die number it
currently touches.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 165
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

LMM is the connectivity array for current element side or face


(local node number).
for 2-D contact it contains IBODY and IBODY+1
for 3-D contact it stores 1,2,3,4,
for 3-D shell element:
IBODY=1 it stores 1,2,3,4, and 9,10,11,12 if
20-node element.
IBODY=2 it stores 6,5,8,7, and 13,14,15,16 if
20-node element.
IBODY=3 it stores 2,1,5,6, and 9,17,13,18 if
20-node element.
IBODY=4 it stores 3,2,6,7, and 10,18,14,19 if
20-node element.
IBODY=5 it stores 4,3,7,8, and 11,19,15,20 if
20-node element.
IBODY=6 it stores 1,4,8,5, and 12,20,16,17 if
20-node element.
NOD is the external user node number.
M is the element number.
N is the elsto buffer number.
TIMINC is the time increment.
NDIM is the NSTRMX+4 for 3-D contact.
NDIM is the NSTRMX+3 for 2-D contact.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
NSTRMX is the maximum number of stress components.
NNODE is the maximum number of nodes per element.
INTEL is the number of integration points at which stresses
are stored.
Required Output:
USTR (NSTRMX1,NODE) is the normal stress at current node.
USTR (NSTRMX+1,NODE) is the temperature at current node.
USTR (NSTRMX+2,NODE) is the flow stress at current node.

Main Index

Main Index
166 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Example
SUBROUTINE UNORST(STRINT,USTR,TRANS,NODE,IBODY,KCUS,
+ NDIE,NODCLS,LMM,NOD,M,N,TIMINC,NDIM,NDEG,NSTRMX,NNODE,
INTEL)
INCLUDE ’../COMMON/IMPLICIT
DIMENSION
STRNOD(NDIM,NNODE),STRINT(8,INTEL),USTR(NDIM,1)
DIMENSION LMM(1),NODCLS(1),TRANS(3,3),KCUS(2)
RETURN
END

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 2 167
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ INITPL

Initialize Equivalent Plastic Strain Values

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define initial values of equivalent plastic
strain. It is often necessary to enter the amount of previously accumulated plastic
strain. This initial value is only used in the work (strain) hardening calculation
when not using table driven input format it is called in a loop over all the elements
in the mesh when the INITIAL PLASTIC STRAIN option appears in the model
definition options with a two in the second field of the second data block of that
option. When using the table driven input, it is called for those elements specified
in the INITIAL PLASTIC STRAIN model definition option, if a 7 is given in the second
field of the second data block and the initial condition is activated by the
LOADCASE model definition option.

Format
User subroutine INITPL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE INITPL(SV,LAYERS,INTPTS,M)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SV(LAYERS,INTPTS)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LAYERS is the number of layers through the thickness if this is a shell element, or
the number of points in the cross section if this is a beam element. It is 1
for a continuum element.
INTPTS is the number of integration points in this element. It is 1 if the CENTROID
parameter is used.
M is the element number.
Required Output:
SV is the array of equivalent plastic strains, to be defined here for this
element by the user.

Main Index

Main Index
168 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ INITPO

Initialize Pore Pressure in an Uncoupled Fluid-Soil Analysis

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to prescribe the initial pore pressure in an
uncoupled fluid-soil analysis. This user subroutine can only be used if an uncoupled
analysis is chosen on the PORE parameter, and the user subroutine is activated using
the INITIAL PORE model definition option.

Format
User subroutine INITPO is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE INITPO(POREP,INTPTS,M)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION POREP(INTPTS)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
INTPTS is the number of integration points associated with this element.
M is the user’s element number.
Required Output:
POREP is the array of pore pressures to be defined for this element.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 2 169
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ NEWPO

Modify Pore Pressure in an Uncoupled Fluid-Soil Analysis

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to modify the pore pressure in an uncoupled
fluid-soil analysis. This user subroutine can only be used if a coupled analysis is
chosen on the PORE parameter, and the user subroutine is activated using the
CHANGE PORE model definition option.

Format
User subroutine NEWPO is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE NEWPO(POREP,INTPTS,M)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION POREP(INTPTS)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
INTPTS is the number of integration points associated with this element.
M is the user’s element number.
Required Output:
POREP is the array of pore pressures to be defined for this element.

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170 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UREACB

Definition of Reactive Boundary Coefficients in an Acoustic


Harmonic Analysis

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to redefine the reactive boundary coefficients
as a function of the frequency in a harmonic acoustic analysis. This data is normally
entered through the CONTACT (2-D) or (3-D) model definition option.

Format
User subroutine UREACB is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UREACB(OXK1,OC1,FREQC,IBODYT,IBODYR)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
FREQC is the frequency in cycles per time.
IBODYT is the number of the acoustic body.
IBODYR is the number of the boundary body.
Required Output:
OXK1 = 1./k1 where k1 is the coefficient of reactive boundary.
OC1 = 1./c1 where c1 is the coefficient reactive boundary.

1 1 1 iω
Note that the complex admittance -------------
Z(ω)
is defined as ------------- = ----- + ------ ,
Z(ω) c1 k1
with ω the
frequency in radians per time and Z(ω) the complex impedance.

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CHAPTER 2 171
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UCAV

Input of Volume-Dependant Pressure Load for Cavities

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the pressure load for internal cavities.
It is called in every load increment of the analysis for every element in every cavity
in the model, allowing flexibility in the specification of new relations for cavity
pressure loads. This routine is only called if icavity-type = 9. See the DIST LOAD
model definition or Cavity Pressure Loading in Marc Volume A: Theory and User
Information.

Format
User subroutine UCAV is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCAV(ICAV,INC,NCYCLE,M,IBODY,VOL,VOLP,AMBPRES,
& GAMGAS,RPRESS,RTEMP,RDENS,CMASS,CTEMP,
PRESS)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
User coding
RETURN
END

Note: AMBPRES, GAMGAS, RPRESS, RTEMP, and RDENS are from the CAVITY model
definition option.

where:
Input:
ICAV is the cavity id.
INC is the increment number.
NCYCLE is the cycle number.
M is the element number.
IBODY is the load type.
VOL is the cavity volume at the beginning of the increment.
VOLP is the cavity volume at beginning of previous increment.

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172 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

AMBPRES is the ambient pressure.


GAMGAS is the Polytropic process exponent.
RPRESS is the gas reference pressure.
RTEMP is the gas reference temperature.
RDENS is the gas reference density.
CMASS is the gas mass at the beginning of the increment.
CTEMP is the gas temperature at the beginning of the increment.
PRESS is the cavity pressure as based upon input data.
Required Output:
PRESS is the total pressure to be applied in this increment.
Optional Output:
CMASS is the current gas mass (for post processing only).
CTEMP is the current gas temperature (for post processing only).

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CHAPTER 2 173
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UOBJFN

Definition of Objective Function and its Gradient

Description
This user subroutine allows The user to define the objective function and its
gradient for design optimization analysis using the current values of the design
variables.

Format
User subroutine UOBJFN is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UOBJFN(OBJFN,DVVECT,GRADOF)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION DVVECT(*),GRADOF(*)

User coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
DVVECT is the array of current values of design variables.
Required Output:
OBJFN is the objective function.
GRADOF is the gradient vector of the objective function with respect to the
design variables.

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174 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Example
SUBROUTINE UOBJFN(OBJFN,DVVECT,GRADOF)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION DVVECT(*),GRADOF(*)
C
OBJFN=2.5D00*DVVECT(1)+0.3D00*DVVECT(2)/DVVECT(3)
GRADOF(1)=2.5D00
GRADOF(2)=0.3D00/DVVECT(3)
GRADOF(3)=-0.3D00*DVVECT(2)/DVVECT(3)**2
C
RETURN
END

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CHAPTER 2 175
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UPRFILM

Input of Nonuniform Pressure Film Coefficients

This user subroutine is used when the table input format is used;
otherwise, use the USPRNG user subroutine.

Description
In diffusion or soil analysis, it is often necessary to include nonuniform pressure
films. The UPRFILM user subroutine facilitates this. It is called at each time step for
each integration point on each element surface given in the PRESS FILM model
definition set, and allows the user to modify the pressure film coefficient and
ambient temperature that is input through the data lines.

Format
User subroutine UPRFILM is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPRFILM(UPFILM,PA,TS,N,TIME,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION TS(*),N(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
TS(1) estimated surface pressure at the end of increment.
TS(2) surface pressure at the beginning of increment.
TS(3) not used.
TS(4) integration point 1st coordinate.
TS(5) integration point 2nd coordinate.
TS(6) integration point 3rd coordinate.

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176 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TS(7) first component of direction cosine of surface normal.


TS(8) second component of direction cosine of surface normal.
TS(9) third component of direction cosine of surface normal.
N(1) element number.
N(2) ibody number.
N(3) integration point number.
N(4) boundary condition id.
N(5) boundary condition id.
N(6) not used.
N(7) internal element number.
TIME time.
INC increment number.
Required Output:
UPFILM pressure film coefficient.
PA Ambient pressure.

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CHAPTER 2 177
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UFAH

Define Correction Factor for Convection Coefficient αH

Description
This subroutine allows the user to apply a correction factor to the convection
coefficient. This routine is used in conjunction with the SURFACE ENERGY option.
T
The flux is calculated as q = α H ⋅ f c ⎛⎝ H r e c – H e ; S⎞⎠ ,

where:
αH is the heat transfer coefficient.

fc is the correction factor, entered here.

Hr e c is the specific recovery of the external flow.

TS is the specific enthalpy of the external flow, calculated for the frozen chemical
He ; composition existing at the edge of the boundary layer, but evaluated at the
surface temperature T s f e

Format
User subroutine UFAH is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFAH(M,NN,ISFENID,INC,NCRD,COORD,TEMP,DTEMP,
* TIME,DTIME,LINRIZE,KUPSTRM,ALPHAH0,ALPHAM0,BPRIMEC,
* TRANSH,RHOCURI,FAHN,FAHN1)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,0-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element ID.
NN is the integration point number.
ISFENID is the surface energy ID.
INC is the increment number

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178 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NCRD is the number of coordinates


COORD is the integration point coordinates
TEMP is the temperature at beginning of increment
DTEMP is the increment of temperature
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment
DTIME is the increment of time
LINRIZE is the flag to indicate linearization: 1 if linear, 2 if constant.
if LINRIZE = 2, then BPRIMEC = TBPRIMEC
if LINRIZE = 1, then BPRIMEC = CBPRIMEC
KUPSTRM = 1 for upstream data (z < z_throat)
= 2 for downstream data (z > z_throat)
ALPHAH0 is the convection coefficient (without correction)
ALPHAM0 is the diffusion coefficient (without correction)
BPRIMEC is the mass flow rate of solid due to ablation by gases
TRANSH is the transpiration factor for alphaH (convection)
transh=0.5 for laminar flow
transh=0.4 for turbulent flow
RHOCURI is the mass density at the current point
FAHN is the correction factor of alphaH - at beginning of increment
Required Output:
FAHN1 is the correction factor of alphaH - at end of increment

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CHAPTER 2 179
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UFLUXMEC

Determine the Rate of Ablation due to Mechanical Erosion


from Sources other than Particle Impact

Description
This subroutine allows the user to add an additional term to the rate of recession
which is not due to particle impact. This allows recession to occur based upon
phenomena which cannot be readily expressed. This option is used in conjunction
with the ABLATION parameter and the RECEDING SURFACE option.

Format
User subroutine UFLUXMEC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFLUXMEC(M,NN,IREG,ISFENID,INC,NCRD,COORD,TEMP,
* DTEMP,TIME,DTIME,FLUXMEC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element ID.
NN is the integration point number.
IREG is the receding surface input ID.
ISFENID is the surface energy ID.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
COORD is the integration point coordinates.
TEMP is the temperature at beginning of increment.
DTEMP is the increment of temperature.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
DTIME is the increment of time.
Required Output:
FLUXMEC is the rate of recession due to mechanical erosion

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180 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFTHP

Define Empirical Correction for the Effect of


Surface Temperature

Description
This option allows the user to include a correction effect when calculating the flux
due to ablation by liquid particles.

q = f t h, p ⋅ Σ G t h, p, j ( V p, j , D p, j , α p, t ) ⋅ m· p, j ⋅ ΔH r, p, j

f t h, p is defined in this routine.


For each family of liquid particles:

m· p, j = m· p, j ( x, t )

surface mass flow rate of particles for the ’j’ family ( [ k ( gm – 2 s 1 ) ] ) .

G t h, p, j = G t h, p, j ( V p, j ( x, t ), D p, j , α p, j ( x, t ), ... )

empirical law for thermochemical ablation by impacting particles (without unit).

ΔH r, p, j = ΔH r, p, j ( T s, j )

specific enthalpy of reaction for the interaction between the surface material and the
’j’ family of particles ( [ Jkg – 1 ] ) .

f t h, p = f t h, p ( T s )

empirical correction for the effect of surface temperature (without unit).


This UFTHP subroutine is used in conjunction with the SURFACE ENERGY option.

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CHAPTER 2 181
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

Format
User subroutine UFTHP is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFTHP(M,NN,ISFENID,INC,NCRD,COORD,TEMP,DTEMP,
* TIME,DTIME,TEMP1,TEMP2,FTHP)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element ID.
NN is the integration point number.
ISFENID is the surface energy ID.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
COORD is the integration point coordinates.
TEMP is the temperature at beginning of increment.
DTEMP is the increment of temperature.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
DTIME is the increment of time.
TEMP1 is the first temperature for empirical correction for thermochemical ablation
by impacting particles.
TEMP2 is the second temperature for empirical correction for thermochemical
ablation by impacting particles.
Required Output:
FTHP is the correction factor for thermochemical ablation by impacting particles.

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182 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UGLAW

Determine the Empirical Correlation G for Flux Calculation

Description
This subroutine allows the user to define the correlation factor between the liquid
particle velocity, diameter, and angle of incidence with the resultant flux due to the
thermochemical ablation by liquid particles. This subroutine is used in conjunction
with the SURFACE ENERGY option. See also UFTHP.

Format
User subroutine UGLAW is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UGLAW(ILP,M,NN,ISFENID,INC,NCRD,COORD,TEMP,
* DTEMP,TIME,DTIME,TVLP,TDIAMLP,TANGLP,TGLP)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ILP is the liquid particle family ID.
M is the element id.
NN is the integration point number.
ISFENID is the surface energy ID.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
COORD is the integration point coordinates.
TEMP is the temperature at beginning of increment.
DTEMP is the increment of temperature.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
DTIME is the increment of time.
TVLP is the velocity of liquid particles.
TDIAMLP is the diameter of liquid particles

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CHAPTER 2 183
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

TANGLP is the angle of impact of liquid particles


Required Output:
TGLP correlation factor between momentum of particles and flux

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184 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UTIMP

Define Thermal Effects of Particle Impact

Description
This routine allows the user to define an additional flux due to impacting particles.
This option is used in conjunction with the SURFACE ENERGY option.

Format
User subroutine UTIMP is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UTIMP(NLP,M,NN,ISFENID,INC,NCRD,COORD,TEMP,
* DTEMP,TIME,DTIME,LINRIZE,MDOTLP,IDMDOTLP,VLP,IDVLP,
* DIAMLP,IDDIAMLP,ANGLP,IDANGLP,FLUXIMP,AMSTHP)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
REAL*8 MDOTLP(*)
DIMENSION IDMDOTLP(*),VLP(NCRD,*),IDVLP(NCRD,*),ANGLP(*),
* IDANGLP(*),DIAMLP(*), IDDIAMLP(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NLP is the number of liquid particle families.
M is the element ID.
NN is the integration point number.
ISFENID is the surface energy ID.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
COORD is the integration point coordinates.
TEMP is the temperature at beginning of increment.
DTEMP is the increment of temperature.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
DTIME is the increment of time.
LINRIZE is the flag to indicate linearization: 1 if linear, 2 if constant.

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CHAPTER 2 185
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

MDOTLP is the rate of change of mass of liquid particles.


IDMDOTLP is the table ID for rate of change of mass of liquid particles.
VLP is the velocity of liquid particles.
IDVLP is the table ID for velocity of liquid particles.
DIAMLP is the diameter of liquid particles.
IDDIAMLP is the table ID for diameter of liquid particles.
ANGLP is the angle of impact of liquid particles.
IDANGLP is the table ID for angle of impact of liquid particles.
Required Output:
FLUXIMP is the flux added due to thermal effects of impacting particles.
AMSTHP is the mass flow rate of the surface material ablated by impacting particles.

Main Index

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186 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFMEC

Define Empirical Correction Factor for Mechanical Erosion


by Particles

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to include a correction factor when calculating
the recession rate by liquid particles.

r· = f m, p ⋅ ΣG m, p, j ( V p, j, D p, j, α p, j ) ⋅ m· p, j

f m, p is defined in this subroutine.


G m, p , j may be defined in the UGMEC user subroutine.
This subroutine is used in conjunction with the ABLATION parameter and the
RECEDING SURFACE option.

Format
User subroutine UFMEC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFMEC(M,NN,IREG,ISFENID,INC,NCRD,COORD,TEMP,
* DTEMP,TIME,DTIME,TEMP1,TEMP2,FMEC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element ID.
NN is the integration point number.
IREG is the receding surface input ID.
ISFENID is the surface energy ID.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.

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CHAPTER 2 187
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

COORD is the integration point coordinates.


TEMP is the temperature at beginning of increment.
DTEMP is the increment of temperature.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
DTIME is the increment of time.
TEMP1 is the first temperature for empirical model A.
TEMP2 is the second temperature for empirical model A.
Required Output:
FMEC is the factor correction for erosion by impacting particles.

Main Index

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188 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UGMEC

Determine the Empirical Correlation G for


Recession Calculation

Description
This subroutine allows the user to define the correlation factor between the liquid
particle velocity, diameter and angle of incidence with the rate of recession.
This subroutine is used in conjunction with the ABLATION parameter and the
RECEDING SURFACE option. Also see the UFMEC user subroutine

Format
User subroutine UGMEC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UGMEC(ILP,M,NN,IREG,ISFENID,INC,NCRD,COORD,
* TEMP,DTEMP,TIME,DTIME,LINRIZE,VLP,IDVLP,DIAMLP,IDDIAMLP,
* ANGLP,IDANGLP,TGMEC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ILP is the liquid particle family ID.
M is the element ID.
NN is the integration point number.
IREG is the receding surface input ID.
ISFENID is the surface energy ID.
INC is the increment number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
COORD is the integration point coordinates.
TEMP is the temperature at beginning of increment.
DTEMP is the increment of temperature.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.

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CHAPTER 2 189
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

DTIME is the increment of time.


LINRIZE is the flag to indicate linearization: 1 if linear, 2 if constant.
VLP is the velocity of liquid particles.
IDVLP is the table ID for velocity of liquid particles.
DIAMLP is the diameter of liquid particles
IDDIAMLP is the table ID for diameter of liquid particles.
ANGLP is the angle of impact of liquid particles.
IDANGLP is the table ID for angle of impact of liquid particles.
Required Output:
TGMEC is the correlation factor between momentum of particles and flux.

Main Index

Main Index
190 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UABLATE

Definition of Surface Recession Rate

Description
This subroutine allows the user to define the surface recession rate. This user
routine is only active if it is requested through the RECEDING SURFACE option.

Format
User subroutine UABLATE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UABLATE(M,N,NN,IREG,INC,TEMP,DTEMP,AMDOTP,ARCL,
*CPTIM,TIMINC,XORD,NCRD,RHOCURI,RECRATE)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION ARCL(2), XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
If recession calculated at surface integration points, see the ABLATION parameter
M is the element number.
N is the elsto number.
NN is the surface integration point number.
If recession calculated at surface nodal points, see the ABLATION parameter
M is the internal node number.
N is the user node number.
NN is not used = 0.
IREG is the receding surface input ID.
INC is the increment number.
TEMP is the temperature at the beginning of the increment.
DTEMP is the incremental temperature.
AMDOTP is the mass flow rate if pyrolysis calculation.
ARCL(1) is the arc length.

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CHAPTER 2 191
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

ARCL(2) is the normalized arc length.


CPTIM is the time at the beginning of the increment.
TIMINC is the time increment.
XORD is the integration point coordinate.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
RHOCURI is the effective material density.
Required Output:
RECRATE is the recession rate.

Main Index

Main Index
192 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UABLTNORM

Definition of Direction of Recession

Description
This subroutine allows the user to redefine the direction of recession/ablation. The
default direction is prescribed by the ABLATION parameter. This routine is often
used at the corners of the model to give the user additional control.

Format
User subroutine UABLTNORM is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE UABLTNORM(N,UNORM,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION UNORM(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
N is the user node number.
NCRD is the number of directions (2 or 3).
Required Output:
UNORM is the normal - enters as Marc defined normal may be redefined by user.
This is the direction of the recession that is pointing into the material.

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 2 193
User-defined Loading, Boundary Conditions, and State Variables User Subroutines

■ UWEAR

Define the Rate of Mechanical Wear on a Surface

Description
This user subroutine is used to control the amount of mechanical wear that occurs
at a surface as an alternative to the Archard model. The wear may be used as an
indicator to determine the failure of the part or may be applied to the nodal
coordinates of the surface nodes. This capability is activated through the
RECEDING SURFACE option.

Format
User subroutine UWEAR is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE UWEAR(WRND,N,NUSER,IREG,MATS,INC,
* TIME,TIMINC,COORD,I2OR3,DIRCOS,COFORND,FRFORND,
* COSTRS,FRSTRS,IDIERE,WEARCF,TEMPI,RELVELND,ET,YD,
* COEF)
INTEGER N,NUSER,IREG,MATS,INC,I2OR3,IDIERE
REAL*8 WRND,TIME,TIMINC,COORD,DIRCOS,COFORND,
* FRFORND,COSTRS,FRSTRS,WEARCF,TEMPI,RELVELND,
* ET,YD,COEF
DIMENSION DIRCOS(I2OR3)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
N is the internal node id.
NUSER is the user node id.
IREG is the recession id.
MATS is the material id.
INC is the increment number.
TIME is the time at begining of increment.

Main Index

Main Index
194 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TIMINC is the incremental time.


COORD is the coordinate position of the node.
I2OR3 is 2 or 3 based upon dimension.
DIRCOS is the direction cosine of the surface at this point.
COFORND is the contact force.
FRFORND is the friction force.
COSTRS is the contact stress.
FRSTRS is the friction stress.
IDIERE is the body number to which this node belongs.
WEARCF is the wear coefficient including any table effects.
TEMPI is the temperature.
RELVELND is the relative velocity at the node.
ET is the Young's modulus.
YD is the yield stress including temperature effects;note this is not current flow
stress, no plasticity is included.
COEF is the coefficient of friction.
Required Output:
WRND is the rate of wear (wear divided by time).

Main Index

Main Index
Chapter 3 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines
List

3 User-defined Anisotropy and


Constitutive Relations User
Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

ANELAS . ......................................................... 205


ANEXP . . ......................................................... 230
ANKOND ......................................................... 232
ANPLAS . ......................................................... 221

CRPLAW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

GAPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
GENSTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

HOOKLW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
HYPELA2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

ORIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

Main Index

Main Index
196 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

User Subroutine Page

TENSOF ......................................................... 263

UACOUS . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 323


UARRBO . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 320
UBEAM . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 301
UCOHESIVE . . . . . . . . .............................................. 304
UCOKSL . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 328
UCOMPL . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 308
UCRACK . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 261
UCRPLW (Viscoplastic) .............................................. 244
UCURE . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 240
UDAMAG . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 273
UELASTOMER . . . . . . .............................................. 294
UELDAM . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 283
UENERG . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 279
UEPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 234
UFAIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 223
UFINITE . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 291
UGASKET . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 312
UGENT . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 321
UGRAIN . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 271
UMOONY . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 278
UMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 235
UNEWTN . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 317
UOGDEN . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 281
UPERM . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 277
UPHI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 306
UPOWDR . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 275
UPROGFAIL . . . . . . . . .............................................. 225
UPYROLEFF . . . . . . . . .............................................. 332
UPYROLSL . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 326
URPFLO . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 318
USELEM . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 313
USHRET . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 265
USHRINKAGE . . . . . . . .............................................. 242
USIGMA . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 237
USPCHT . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. 238

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

USPCHTAB . ....................................................... 335


USPRNG . . ....................................................... 257
USSUBS . . . ....................................................... 324
UVOID . . . . ....................................................... 266
UVOIDN . . . ....................................................... 267
UVOIDRT . . ....................................................... 269
UWATERSL ....................................................... 330

VSWELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

WKSLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

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198 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Main Index

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Chapter 3 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

3 User-defined Anisotropy and


Constitutive Relations
User Subroutines

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200 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

This chapter describes the user subroutines available to allow you to provide
material data to standard Marc constitutive relations, or for the user to create his
own model. The routines in this chapter cover the spectrum of anisotropic elasticity
and plasticity, creep, plasticity, rate independent nonlinear elasticity, cracking,
electrical, and magnetic materials among others. These routines are, in general,
called for each integration point for each element they have been invoked. This
provides a powerful method to provide nonhomogeneous, nonlinear material
behavior. Table 3-1 summarizes these routines and indicates what parameters or
model definition options are required to invoke the user subroutine.

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CHAPTER 3 201
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Table 3-1 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutine Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options
ANELAS ORTHOTROPIC or Definition of factors to scale elastic stress strain law.
ANISOTROPIC
ANEXP ORTHOTROPIC or Definition of thermal strain increment.
ANISOTROPIC
ANKOND ORTHOTROPIC or Definition of thermal conductivity or electrical resistance
ANISOTROPIC in Joule heating.
ANPLAS ORTHOTROPIC or Definition of parameters for Hill yield criteria
ANISOTROPIC
CRPLAW CREEP Definition of function to describe creep strain rate.
GAPU GAP DATA Definition of contact gap closure distance
GENSTR SHELL SECT Definition of generalized stress-strain law for shells.
HOOKLW ORTHOTROPIC or Definition of elastic stress-strain or compliance relation.
ANISOTROPIC
HYPELA2 HYPOELASTIC Definition of nonlinear stress-strain relationship.
ORIENT ORIENTATION Definition of preferred material orientation for orthotropic
or anisotropic behavior.
TENSOF ISOTROPIC Definition of tension softening modulus.
CRACK DATA
UACOUS ACOUSTIC Definition of material properties for an acoustic medium.
CONTACT (2-D)
CONTACT (3-D)
UARRBO ARRUDBOYCE Definition of constants in strain energy function.
UBEAM HYPOELASTIC Definition of nonlinear generalized stress-strain law for
element types 52 or 98.
UCOHESIVE COHESIVE Definition of material behavior for interface modeling
using element types 186, 188, 190 or 192.
UCOKSL PYROLYSIS Definition of mass fraction of carbon in pyrolysis gas
THERMO-PORE
UCOMPL HARMONIC Definition of stress-strain rate relationship for
harmonic analysis.
UCRACK ISOTROPIC Definition of ultimate stress for cracking analysis.
CRACK DATA
UCRPLW CREEP Definition of complex relationships for the factors in the
power law expression for the creep strain rate.

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202 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 3-1 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutine Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options
UCURE CURING Definition of the cure kinetics models and calculation of
CURE RATE the degree of cure.
UDAMAG DAMAGE Definition of the Kachanov damage factor to be applied
to the material properties
UELASTOMER LARGE STRAIN Allows definition of the user’s own hyperelastic models.
FOAM or
MOONEY or
ARRUDBOYCE or
GENT or
OGDEN
UELDAM OGDEN Definition of damage parameters for Ogden
DAMAGE rubber model.
UENERG MOONEY Definition of strain energy function.
UEPS ELECTRO or Definition of anisotropic electrical permittivity.
EL-MA
ORTHOTROPIC
UFAIL FAIL DATA Definition of composite failure criteria.
UPROGFAIL Definition of the stiffness reduction factors for a
progressive failure analysis
UFINITE LARGE STRAIN Definition of finite deformation isotropic material models.
UGASKET GASKET Definition of initial gasket gap distance.
UGENT ARRUDBOYCE Definition of constants in strain energy function.
UGRAIN GRAIN SIZE Definition of typical grain size calculation based upon the
state of material
UMOONY MOONEY Definition of temperature dependent
Mooney-Rivlin constants.
UMU MAGNETO or Definition of anisotropic magnetic permeability.
EL-MA
ORTHOTROPIC
UNEWTN R-P FLOW or Definition of material viscosity.
FLUID
UOGDEN OGDEN Definition of Ogden material parameters.
UPERM PORE Definition of soil permeability.

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CHAPTER 3 203
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Table 3-1 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutine Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options
UPHI HARMONIC Definition of phi coefficients for rubber-viscoelastic
MOONEY harmonic analysis.
PHI-COEFFICIENTS
UPOWDR POWDER Definition of powder material data.
UPYROLEFF THERMO-PORE Definition of effective conductivity.
UPYROLSL THERMO-PORE Definition of the rate of decomposition along
a streamline.
URPFLO R-P FLOW Definition of yield surface for rigid plastic flow.
USELEM USER Definition of consistent nodal loads, mass matrix,
stiffness matrix, and residuals for user-defined element.
USHRET ISOTROPIC Definition of shear retention factor for elements that have
CRACK DATA cracks.
USHRINKAGE CURING Definition of the volumetric cure shrinkage models and
CURE RATE calculates the degree of cure shrinkage, the volumetric
CURE SHRINKAGE cure shrinkage strain, and the directional Cure Shrinkage
Coefficient matrix (CSC)
USIGMA EL-MA Definition of anisotropic electrical conductivity.
USPCHT HEAT or Definition of specific heat.
COUPLE or
FLUID
USPCHTAB THERMO-PORE Definition of specific heat for simplified pyrolysis model.
USPRNG SPRINGS or Definition of nonlinear spring or foundation stiffness.
FOUNDATION
USSUBS SUPER Definition of superelements not generated by Marc.
SUPERINPUT
UWATERSL THERMO-PORE Definition of rate of water evaporation.
UVOID DAMAGE Definition of initial void fraction for Gurson
damage model.
UVOIDN DAMAGE Definition of void nucleation for Gurson damage model.
UVOIDRT TABLE Definition of the Initial Void Ratio or Initial Porosity
INITIAL VOID RATIO
INITIAL POROSITY
VSWELL CREEP Definition of volumetric swelling.

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204 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 3-1 User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutine Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options
WKSLP ISOTROPIC or Definition of work hardening or strain hardening data.
ORTHOTROPIC or
ANISOTROPIC
WORK HARD

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CHAPTER 3 205
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ ANELAS

Elastic Anisotropy

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the anisotropic elastic law. In the
most generally allowed case, the isothermal stress-strain law in the preferred
orientation is:

⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫
⎪ σ 11 ⎪ r 11 D 11 r 12 D 12 r 13 D 13 0 0 0 ⎪ ε 11 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ σ 22 ⎪ r 22 D 22 r 23 D 23 0 0 0 ⎪ ε 22 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ σ 33 ⎪ r 33 D 33 0 0 0 ⎪ ε 33 ⎪
⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬
⎪ τ 12 ⎪ Symmetric r 44 D 44 0 0 ⎪ γ 12 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ τ 23 ⎪ r 55 D 55 0 ⎪ γ 23 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ τ 31 ⎪ r 66 D 66 ⎪ γ 31 ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

The arrangement of the {σ},{ε} vectors is defined for each element type in Marc
Volume B: Element Library. Dij are the incremental elastic stress-strain relation
calculated by Marc based on material data given through input data. The rij are
supplied by the user in the ANELAS user subroutine. It is often easier to directly
specify the stress-strain for compliance relationship in the HOOKLW user
subroutine.
This routine is only available for the additive elastic-plastic formulation or small
strain incompressible elasticity. It is not available for the FeFp formulation.

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206 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine ANELAS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ANELAS (N,NN,KCUS,R,IRDIM,NDI,NSHEAR,MATUS,DT,
+DTDL,D,RPROPS,IPROPS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION R (IRDIM,IRDIM),DT(1),DTDL(1),D(IRDIM,IRDIM),
+N(2),RPROPS(1),IPROPS(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N(1) is your element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
IRDIM is the dimension of the R array for the current element.
NDI is the number of direct components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components.
MATUS(1) is the user material id.
MATUS(2) is the internal material id.
DT is the array of state variables.
DTDL is the array of increments of state variables.
D is the stress-strain law as calculated by Marc using input data. To modify
this matrix directly, use user subroutine HOOKLW instead of ANELAS.
RPROPS is the array of real properties, see introduction.
IPROPS is the array of integer properties, see introduction.
Required Output:
R is the r to be defined by you; the number of allowable r being given in
Table 3-2.

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CHAPTER 3 207
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

1 None 1 2 1
2 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
3 Orthogonal in x-y plane 3 2 1
4 Any in θ1 - θ2 surface 3 2 1

5 None 1 1 0
6 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
7 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
8 Any in θ1 - θ2 surface 6 2 1

9 None 1 1 0
10 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 2 1
11 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
12 None 1 0 0
13 None 1 1 0
14 None 1 1 1
15 None 1 2 0
16 None 1 1 0
17 None 1 2 0
18 Any in surface 3 2 1
19 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 4 2 1
20 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
21 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
22 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 5 2 3
23 None 1 1 0

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208 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

24 Any in θ1 - θ2 surface 3 2 1

25 None 1 1 1
26 Orthogonal in x-y plane 3 2 1
27 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
28 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
29 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
30 Any in surface 3 2 1
31 Not available — — —
32 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
33 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 2
34 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
35 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
36, 37, 38, Use the ANKOND user — — —
39, 40, 41, subroutine to supply
42, 43, 44 anisotropic conductivity
45 None 1 1 1
46, 47, 48 None — — —
49 Any in V1 - V2 3 2 1

50 Use the ANKOND user — — —


subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
51 None 1 1 0
52 None 1 1 0
53 Orthogonal in x-y plane 3 2 1
54 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1

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CHAPTER 3 209
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

55 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1


56 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
57 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
58 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
59 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
60 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
61 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
62 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3
63 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3
64 None 1 1 0
65 None 1 0 0
66 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3
67 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3
68 None 1 0 1
69 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
70 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply anisotropic
conductivity
71 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
72 Orthogonal in V1 - V2 3 2 1

73 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3


74 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3

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210 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

75 Orthogonal in V1 - V2 5 2 3

76 None 1 1 1
77 None 1 1 0
78 None 1 1 1
79 None 1 1 0
80 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
81 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
82 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
83 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
84 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
85 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
86 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
87 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
88 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
89 None 1 2 1
90 None 1 2 3
91 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 2
92 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
93 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1

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CHAPTER 3 211
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

94 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1


95 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3
96 Orthogonal in z-r plane 6 3 3
97 None 1 0 0
98 None 1 1 2
99 None — — —
100 None — — —
101 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
102 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
103 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
104 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
105 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
106 Use the ANKOND user — — —
subroutine to supply
anisotropic conductivity
107 Orthogonal in (x,y,z) space 6 3 3
108 Orthogonal in (x, y, z) space 6 3 3
109 Use the UMU user subroutine — — —

Main Index

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212 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

110 Use the UMU user subroutine — — —


111 Use the UEPS, UMU, USIGMA — — —
user subroutines
112 Use the UEPS, UMU, USIGMA — — —
user subroutines
113 Use the UEPS, UMU, USIGMA — — —
user subroutines
114 Orthogonal in x-y plane 3 2 1
115 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
116 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
117 Orthogonal in x,y,z space 6 3 3
118 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
119 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
120 Orthogonal in x,y,z space 6 3 3
121 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
122 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
123 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
124 Orthogonal in x-y plane 3 2 1
125 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
126 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
127 Orthogonal in x,y,z space 6 3 3
128 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
129 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1

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CHAPTER 3 213
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

130 Orthogonal in x,y,z, space 6 3 3


131 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
132 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
133 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
134 Orthogonal in x,y,z space 6 3 3
135 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
138 Orthogonal in V1-V2 3 2 1

139 Orthogonal in V1-V2 3 2 1

140 Orthogonal in V1-V2 5 2 3

141 None — 1 0
142 None — 1 0
143 None — 1 0
144 None — 1 0
145 None — 1 0
146 None — 1 0
147 None — 1 0
148 None — 1 0
149 Orthogonal in (x, y, z) space 6 3 3
150 Orthogonal in (x, y, z) space 6 3 3
151 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
152 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1

Main Index

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214 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

153 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1


154 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
155 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
156 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
157 Orthogonal in (x, y, z) space 6 3 3
158 None — — —
159 None — — —
160 Orthogonal in x-y plane 3 2 1
161 Orthogonal in x-y plane 4 3 1
162 Orthogonal in z-r plane 4 3 1
163 Orthogonal in x-y-z space 6 3 3
164 Orthogonal in x-y-z space 6 3 3
165 None 1 1 0
166 None 1 1 0
167 None 1 1 0
168 None 1 1 0
169 None 1 1 0
170 None 1 1 0
171 None 1 0 0
172 None 1 0 0
173 None 1 0 0
174 None 1 0 0
175 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine

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CHAPTER 3 215
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

176 Use the ANKOND — — —


user subroutine
177 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
178 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
179 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
180 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
181 Use the UMU user subroutine — — —
182 Use the UMU user subroutine — — —
183 None — — —
184 Orthogonal in x-y-z plane 6 3 3
185 Orthogonal in x-y-z plane 6 3 3
186 Use the UCOHESIVE 2 1 1
user subroutine
187 Use the UCOHESIVE 2 1 1
user subroutine
188 Use the UCOHESIVE 3 1 2
user subroutine
189 Use the UCOHESIVE 3 1 2
user subroutine
190 Use the UCOHESIVE 2 1 1
user subroutine
191 Use the UCOHESIVE 2 1 1
user subroutine

Main Index

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216 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Table 3-2 Allowable Anisotropy (continued)

Size of R. Matrix
(IRDIM) for Number Number of
Library IRDIM=1 No of Direct Shear
Element Allowable Transformations Anisotropy Stresses Stresses
Number to Preferred Operation Possible (NDI) (NSHEAR)

192 Use the UCOHESIVE 3 1 2


user subroutine
193 Use the UCOHESIVE 3 1 2
user subroutine
194 None — — —
195 None — — —
196 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
197 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
198 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
199 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
200 Any in surface 3 2 1
201 Orthogonal in x-y plane 3 2 1
202 Orthogonal in x, y, z space 6 3 3
203 Use the ANKOND — — —
user subroutine
204 Use the UMU user subroutine — — —
205 Use the UMU user subroutine — — —
206 Use the UMU user subroutine — — —

All parameters except the R array are defined by Marc. R must be defined by the user
in this user subroutine.

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CHAPTER 3 217
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Note that the R and D matrices have the dimension appropriate for the number of
stress components associated with the particular element (see Table 3-2). Thus, for
example, in elements 3 or 18, the R matrix would be of size 3 by 3, and the stress
strain law would take the form:

⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫
⎪ σ1 ⎪ r 11 D 11 r 12 D 12 0 ⎪ ε 11 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎨ σ2 ⎬ = r 22 D 22 0 ⎨ ε 22 ⎬
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ σ 12 ⎪ Symmetric r 33 D 33 ⎪ γ 12 ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

To define an anisotropic stress-strain relation for the Herrmann incompressible


elements in Marc, the ANELAS user subroutine is used in a slightly different manner.
The compliance strain-stress relation is given directly in the fourth argument R and
is not used in the last argument D. For example, in the most generally allowed case,
the compliance relation in the preferred orientation is:

⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫
⎪ ε 11 ⎪ R 11 R 12 R 13 0 0 0 ⎪ σ 11 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ ε 22 ⎪ R 22 R 23 0 0 0 ⎪ σ 22 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ ε 33 ⎪ R 33 0 0 0 ⎪ σ 33 ⎪
⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬
⎪ γ 12 ⎪ R 44 0 0 ⎪ τ 12 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ γ 23 ⎪ R 55 0 ⎪ τ 23 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ γ 31 ⎪ R 66 ⎪ τ 31 ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

Note: This user subroutine should not be used if you desire that the material constants should
be design variables. Use the ORTHOTROPIC option instead.

Main Index

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218 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ HOOKLW

Anisotropic Elastic Law

Description
The HOOKLW user subroutine is an alternative mechanism to the ANELAS user
subroutine. In this user subroutine, the elastic stress-strain law is supplied by the
user. A maximum of 21 terms are necessary for a three-dimensional body. This law
is given in terms of the coordinate system defined in the ORIENTATION option. The
user should insure that the stress-strain law is symmetric. Note that this user
subroutine is called for each integration point of those elements that have
anisotropic properties. The user can define either the stress-strain relation or the
compliance strain-stress relation. The returned value of argument IMOD must be set
accordingly. For example, if IMOD=1, the stress-strain law is given and the user
returns to the array B such that:

⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫
⎪ σ 11 ⎪ ⎪ ε 11 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ B11 B12 B13 B14 B15 B16 ⎪ ⎪
⎪ σ 22 ⎪ ⎪ ε 22 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ B21 B22 B23 B24 B25 B26 ⎪ ⎪
⎪ σ 33 ⎪ B31 B32 B33 B34 B35 B36 ⎪ ε 33 ⎪
⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬
⎪ τ 12 ⎪ B41 B42 B43 B44 B45 B46 ⎪ γ 12 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ B51 B52 B53 B54 B55 B56 ⎪ ⎪
⎪ τ 23 ⎪ ⎪ γ 23 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ B61 B62 B63 B64 B65 B66 ⎪ ⎪
⎪ τ 31 ⎪ ⎪ γ 31 ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

The arrangement of {s}, {ε} vectors are defined for each element type in Marc
Volume B: Element Library.
This routine is only available for the additive elastic-plastic formulation or small
strain incompressible elasticity. It is not available for the FeFp formulation.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 3 219
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Format
User subroutine HOOKLW is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE HOOKLW(M,NN,KCUS,B,NGENS,DT,DTDL,E,PR,NDI,
+NSHEAR,IMOD,RPROPS,IPROPS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION B(NGENS,NGENS),DT(1),DTDL(1),RPROPS(1),IPROPS(1),
+M(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
NGENS is the number of stresses and strain components.
DT is the state variables at the beginning of the increment (temperature first).
DTDL is the increment of state variables.
E is the Young’s modulus including temperature effects.
PR is the Poisson’s ratio including temperature effects.
NDI number of direct components of stress.
NSHEAR number of shear components of stress.
RPROPS array of real properties; see Chapter 1 Introduction.
IPROPS array of integer properties; see Chapter 1 Introduction.
Required Output:
B is the user-defined stress-strain law if IMOD=1; or the user-defined
compliance relation if IMOD=2 to be defined here.
IMOD Set to 0 if the ANELAS user subroutine is used.
Set to 1 to indicate that the stress-strain law has been given.
Set to 2 to indicate that the compliance strain-stress, relation has
been given.

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220 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Note that for temperature dependent properties, this user subroutine is called twice
for each integration point. The first time to evaluate the stress-strain law at the
beginning of the increment; the second time at the end of the increment.

Note: This user subroutine should not be used if the user desires that the material constants
should be design variables. Use the ORTHOTROPIC option instead.

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■ ANPLAS

Anisotropic Yield Surface and Creep Potential

Description
The anisotropic yield function and stress potential are assumed as:
2 2 2 2
a 1 ( σ y – σ z ) + a 2 ( σ z – σ x ) + a 3 ( σ x – σ y ) + 3a 4 τ y2z + 3a 6 τ x2y = 2σ

(R. Hill - Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford, 1950)


where: σ is the equivalent tensile yield stress for isotropic behavior: σ = σ ( ε P, T )
x y z σ +σ +σ
and, for Mohr-Coulomb behavior: σ = σ ( J 1 ) ; J 1 = --------------------------------
-
3

The user defines ratios of actual to isotropic yield (in the preferred orientation) in
the array YRDIR for direct tension yielding, and YRSHR for yield in shear (ratio of
actual shear yield to σ ⁄ 3 = isotropic shear yield). Then the a1 above are derived
as (Hill):

1 1 1
a 1 = ------------------------------- + ------------------------------- – -------------------------------
YRDIR ( 2 ) 2 YRDIR ( 3 ) 2 YRDIR ( 2 ) 2

1 1 1
a 2 = ------------------------------- + ------------------------------- – -------------------------------
YRDIR ( 3 ) 2 YRDIR ( 1 ) 2 YRDIR ( 2 ) 2

1 1
a 3 = ------------------------------- + ------------------------------- – -------------------------------
YRDIR ( 1 ) 2 YRDIR ( 2 ) 2 YRDIR ( 3 ) 2

2
a 4 = ---------------------------------
YRSHR ( 3 ) 2

2
a 5 = ---------------------------------
YRSHR ( 2 ) 2

2
a 6 = ---------------------------------
YRSHR ( 1 ) 2

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222 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Note that YRDIR and YRSHR should be given in the order appropriate for the element
(see Library Element description).
On the output, the von Mises intensity is not affected by these material parameters.

Format
User subroutine ANPLAS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ANPLAS(N,NN,KCUS,NDI,NSHEAR,MATUS,YRDIR,YRSHR)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION YRDIR (1),YRSHR(1),N(2),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N(1) is your element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
NDI is the number of direct stresses.
NSHEAR is the number of shear stresses.
MATUS(1) is the user material id.
MATUS(2) is the internal material id
Required Output:
YRDIR is the array of tensile yield ratios to be defined here.
YRSHR is the array of shear yield ratios to be defined here.

All parameters except YRDIR and YRSHR are defined by Marc. YRDIR and YRSHR are
defined by the user in this user subroutine.

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■ UFAIL

User-defined Failure Criterion

Description
The UFAIL user subroutine is provided to allow the user to calculate his own scalar
failure criterion. To call the UFAIL user subroutine, the user must specify failure
criterion type UFAIL in the FAIL DATA model definition option. UFAIL is then called
for every integration point associated with the material id specified in the
FAIL DATA option.

This routine may be used with all elastic-plastic materials. Progressive cracking is
only available with the additive elastic-plastic model.

Format
User subroutine UFAIL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFAIL (N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,
1 STRESS,STRAIN,NDI,NSHEAR,FAILCR)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION STRESS(1),STRAIN(1),N(2),MATUS(2),KCUS(2),FAILCR(2)
user coding
RETURN
END

where:
Input:
N(1) is the user element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
STRESS is the current total stress state.
STRAIN is the current total strain.
NDI is the number of direct stresses.

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224 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NSHEAR is the number of shear stresses.


Required Output:
FAILCR (1) is user-defined failure criteria.
FAILCR (2) is user-defined strength ratio (allowable stress/actual stress)

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■ UPROGFAIL

Definition of Material Stiffness Reduction Factors for


Progressive Failure Analysis

C-44 Description
This user subroutine allows users to define the stiffness reduction factors for a
progressive failure analysis.
The routine is called for an element integration point whenever failure occurs.
The failure criteria can be defined on the FAIL DATA option, or via the UFAIL
user subroutine.

Format
User subroutine UPROGFAIL is written with the following header lines:
SUBROUTINE UPROGFAIL(NELEM,NINT,KCUS,MATUS,STRESS,STRAIN,
& ICRIT,FI,REDFAC0,REDFAC,IDEACT,DT,DTDL,
& TIME,TIMEINC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H, O-Z)
REAL*8 FI,REDFAC0,REDFAC,TIME,TIMEINC
INTEGER KCUS, MATUS, N, NELEM, NINT, ICRIT,IDEACT
REAL*8 STRAIN, STRESS,DT,DTDL
DIMENSION STRESS(*),STRAIN(*),N(2),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
DIMENSION FI(*),REDFAC0(6),REDFAC(6),DT(*),DTDL(*)
USER CODING
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NELEM is the user element number
NINT is the integration point number
KCUS is the layer number
kcus(1) – user layer number
kcus(2) – internal layer number

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226 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

MATUS is the material id


matus(1) – user material id
matus(2) – internal material id
STRESS is the current total stresses in preferred system,
in full tensor format ( σ 11 , σ 22 , σ 33 , σ 12 , σ 23 , σ 13 )
STRAIN is the current total strains in preferred system,
in full tensor format ( ε 11 , ε 22 , ε 33 , ε 12 , ε 23 , ε 13 )
ICRIT is the current failure criterion:
1 – maximum stress
2 – maximum strain
3 – Tsai-Wu
4 – Hoffman
5 – Hill
6 – not used
7 – user
8 – Hashin
9 – Hashin Fabric
10 – not used
11 – not used
12 – Hashin Tape
13 – puck
FI is the array of current failure indices
REDFAC0 is the array of current reduction factors
REDFAC is the array of reduction factors to be updated.
upon entry it contains the values calculated by the program.
IDEACT is the deactivation flag. Set to 1 to flag that the element should be
deactivated. If all integration points of the element have this flag set, it is
deactivated at the end of the current increment. Upon entry, it contains
the value calculated by the program.
DT is the array of state variables at the beginning of the current increment;
dt(1) is the temperature
DTDL is the array of increment of state variables;
dtdl(1) is the incremental temperature.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the current increment
TIMEINC is the time increment

The six components of redfac will be used for scaling the material moduli of an
orthotropic material according to
new orig
E 11 = redfac ( 1 ) × E 11

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new orig
E 22 = redfac ( 2 ) × E 22

new orig
E 33 = redfac ( 3 ) × E 33

new orig
G 12 = redfac ( 4 ) × G 12

new orig
G 23 = redfac ( 5 ) × G 23

new orig
G 31 = redfac ( 6 ) × G 31

The Poisson’s ratios are scaled the same way as the corresponding shear modulus.
For an isotropic material, the Young’s modulus is scaled with the smallest of the
components of redfac and the shear modulus is calculated using the updated
Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio.
The case of general anisotropy is not supported.

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228 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ ORIENT

Specification of Preferred Orientation

Description
The ORIENT user subroutine is used to supply a preferred orientation so that
ANELAS, HOOKLW, ANKOND, and ANPLAS can supply anisotropic material
constants in this orientation. This user subroutine can be activated by anisotropic
material definition options, and/or the ORIENTATION option and/or the
HYPOELASTIC option.

Format
User subroutine ORIENT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ORIENT (N,NN,KCUS,G)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION G(3,3),N(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:

Input:
N(1) is the user element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
Required Output:
G is the transformation matrix to be defined here.

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

All parameters except G are passed in by Marc – the user must supply the G matrix. G
is the transformation to the preferred orientation from the usual Marc orientation:

⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫
⎪ v' 1 ⎪ G 11 G 12 G 13 ⎪ v 1 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎨ v' 2 ⎬ = G 21 G 22 G 23 ⎨ v 2 ⎬
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ v' 3 ⎪ G 31 G 32 G 33 ⎪ v 3 ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

where:
v is the vector in the Marc system.
v' is the vector in the preferred system.

For curvilinear systems (for example, element types 4, 8, and 24), G is defined by
G(I,J) = g ij . For planar transformations, G(3,I) = G(I,3) = 0; G(3,3) = 1.0; I = 1,2
must be given.

Note: This user subroutine should not be used if the user desires that the material orientation
be a design variable. Use the COMPOSITE option instead.

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230 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ ANEXP

Anisotropic Thermal Expansion

Description
The ANEXP user subroutine is used to specify anisotropic thermal strain increments
in the orientation defined by the ORIENTATION option. The user is given the
temperature at the beginning of the increment, the temperature increment, and the
base value of the thermal expansion coefficients given on the ISOTROPIC or
ORTHOTROPIC options. The user must supply the incremental thermal strain vector
j
Δε itjh ( Δε t h i
for doubly curved shell elements 4, 8, and 24) in the user subroutine.
Any components of the incremental thermal strain vector not defined in the user
subroutine assume their default program calculated values.
The ANEXP user subroutine is called for all elements at all integration points if the
temperature is nonzero for all material models.
If the HYPELA2 user subroutine is used, enter 1 to activate ANEXP in the second field
of the third data block of the HYPOELASTIC model definition option.

Format
User subroutine ANEXP is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ANEXP (N,NN,KCUS,T,TINC,COED,NDI,NSHEAR,EQEXP)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION EQEXP(1),TINC(1),T(1),COED(NDI),N(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N(1) is the user element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).

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T(1) is the total temperature at the beginning of the increment.


T(2) is the total values of other state variables at the beginning of the increment.
TINC(1) is the temperature increment.
TINC(2) are the increments of other state variables.
etc.
COED(I) is the base value of the Ith coefficient of thermal expansion as given
through the input data. There are NDI coefficients for each element.
NDI is the number of direct components of strain at this point.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components of strain at this point.
Required Output:
EQEXP is the thermal strain increment vector, to be defined by the user in this
user subroutine.

Note: For the curvilinear coordinate elements (doubly curved shell elements 4,
8, 24) the mixed strain tensor shear components, ε12, ε21, are stored.
Otherwise, shear components are engineering shear strain.

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232 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ ANKOND

Input of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity Matrix

Description
For anisotropic heat transfer analysis, this user subroutine allows the user to define
an anisotropic conductivity matrix at each integration point in each element. The
anisotropic conductivity matrix is defined with respect to the preferred orientation
specified in the ORIENTATION option. This user subroutine is also used for
anisotropic electrical resistance in a Joule heating analysis.

Format
User subroutine ANKOND is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ANKOND
(COND,CANISO,N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,ID,T,DT,TIME,
* DELTME,JOULHT)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION COND(ID,ID),CANISO(3),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
CANISO are the anisotropic conductivities kij (T) established by the user via
data blocks.
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
ID ∂T
is the size of the COND matrix; that is, the number of derivatives. --------
∂x j

T is the temperature at the beginning of the time increment.

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DT is the estimated temperature increment.


TIME is the transient time at the beginning of the increment.
DELTME is the increment of time.
JOULHT = 0 return thermal conductivity.
= 1 return electrical conductivity.
Required Output:
COND is the conductivity matrix, kij:

∂T
q i = k i j --------
∂x j

This is to be re-defined as necessary by the user.


This matrix is passed in as set-up for anisotropic conductivity. If the user
does not re-define it, it remains anisotropic according to kij (T) given on the
ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC, and TEMPERATURE EFFECTS or
TABLE options.

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234 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UEPS

Input of Anisotropic Permittivity Matrix

Description
For anisotropic electrostatic or electromagnetic analysis, this user subroutine allows
the user to define an anisotropic permittivity matrix at each integration point in each
element. The anisotropic permittivity matrix is defined with respect to the preferred
orientation specified in the ORIENTATION option.

Format
User subroutine UEPS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UEPS (EPS,M,NN,MATUS,ID)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION EPS(ID,ID),M(2),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
ID is the size of the matrix.
Required Output:
EPS is the permittivity matrix, [ε] (D = [ε]E).
This is to be re-defined as necessary by the user.
This matrix is passed in as set-up for anisotropic permittivity. If the user
does not redefine it, it remains as given through the ISOTROPIC or
ORTHOTROPIC options.

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■ UMU

Input of Anisotropic Permeability Matrix

Description
For anisotropic magnetostatic or electromagnetic analysis, this user subroutine
allows the user to define an anisotropic permeability matrix at each integration
point in each element. The anisotropic permeability matrix is defined with respect
to the preferred orientation specified in the ORIENTATION option.
The permeability μ is used in the relation:
B=μH + Br

where:
B is the magnetic induction.
H is the magnetic field intensity.
μ is the permeability.
Br is the remanence.

Note: B is complex in a harmonic analysis.

Format
User subroutine UMU is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UMU (XMU,M,NN,MATUS,ID,CPTIM,DTIME,B)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XMU(ID,ID),B(3),M(2),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is your element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.

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236 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

ID is the size of the matrix.


CPTIM is the frequency in a harmonic analysis.
DTIME is the increment of time.
B is the magnetic flux density in a transient analysis, or is zero in a
harmonic analysis.
Required Output:

XMU
1
is the reluctivity matrix --- ⎛ H = --1- ( B – B )⎞ .
μ ⎝ μ r ⎠

This is to be re-defined as necessary by the user.


This matrix is passed in as set-up for anisotropic permeability. If the user does
not re-define it, it remains anisotropic according to μ (T) given on the
ISOTROPIC or ORTHOTROPIC options.

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ USIGMA

Input of Anisotropic Electric Conductivity Matrix

Description
For anisotropic electromagnetic analysis, this user subroutine allows the user to
define an anisotropic conductivity matrix at each integration point in each element.
The anisotropic permittivity matrix is defined with respect to the preferred
orientation specified in the ORIENTATION option.

Format
User subroutine USIGMA is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USIGMA (SIGMA,M,NN,MATUS,ID,CPTIM,DTIME)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SIGMA(3,3),M(2),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
CPTIM is the transient time at the beginning of the increment; in a harmonic
analysis, it is the frequency.
DTIME is the increment of time.
ID is the size of the matrix.
Required Output:
SIGMA is the electric conductivity matrix, [σ] (J = [σ]E).
This is to be re-defined as necessary by the user.
This matrix is passed in as set-up for anisotropic conductivity. If the user
does not re-define it, it remains as given through the ISOTROPIC or
ORTHOTROPIC options.

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238 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USPCHT

Definition of Specific Heat

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the specific heat in a heat transfer or
coupled analysis. This is an alternative to the use of the ISOTROPIC or
ORTHOTROPIC and TEMPERATURE EFFECTS or TABLE options. This user
subroutine is called at each increment for every element in the mesh, hence,
allowing the user to specify a nonlinear relationship. This is often useful in welding
or casting analyses.

Format
User subroutine USPCHT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USPCHT (SPHEAT,M,NN,KCUS,INC,NCYCLE,MATUS,
+NSTATS,DT,DTDL,CPTIM,TIMINC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION M(2),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
INC is the increment number.
NCYCLE is the cycle number.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
NSTATS is the number of state variables.

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DT is the temperature at the start of the increment.


DTDL is the estimated increment of temperature.
CPTIM is the time at the beginning of the increment.
TIMINC is the increment of time.
Required Output:
SPHEAT is the specific heat per unit mass. This is to be defined by the user.

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240 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UCURE

Define the Cure Kinetics

Description
This subroutine allows you to define the cure kinetics models and calculation of the
degree of cure. This subroutine is activated if the cure kinetics model number is
given as –1 in the first field of the second data block under the CURE RATE model
definition option. This subroutine can be used for heat transfer or the cure-thermal-
mechanical coupled analysis of resin or composite that has resin inside. For details
of the usage of cure rate, refer to the CURING parameter and the CURE RATE model
definition option.

Format
User subroutine UCURE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCURE(M,N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,DT,AK,DENSITY,VOLUMI,
*CUREDAT,TEMPBEG,TEMPEND,DELTIME,TIME,CURERATE)
INCLUDE '../COMMON/IMPLICIT'
INCLUDE '../COMMON/MRCPARM'
DIMENSION CUREDAT(*),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element number.
N is the elsto number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
DT is the degree of cure at the beginning of the increment.
AK is the degree of cure at the end of the increment.
DENSITY is the density of the material at the initial point.

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VOLUMI is the volume at the initial point.


If the material has both fiber and resin, then volumi should be multiplied
by vsfact (0 vsfact 1) which is the volume fraction of resin in the element
which is equivalent to the porosity vsfact = void/(1 + void) where void is
the void ratio.
CUREDAT is the material data.
curedat (9) is the total reaction heat of the cure.
TEMPBEG is the temperature at the beginning of the increment.
TEMPEND is the temperature at the end of the increment.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
DELTIME is the incremental time.
Required Output:
AK is the degree of cure at the end of the increment.
CUREDAT(9) is the total resin reaction heat of curing.
CURERATE is the cure rate.
VOLUMI is used if the resin volume fraction is smaller than 1 (optional).

Notes: UNVGAS is the universal gas constant used by Marc. The default value of UNVGAS is
(except when input by you):
UNVGAS = 8.134 (J/mol/K) with SI-m unit (N, m, S, C);
UNVGAS = 8314. (J/mol/K) with SI-mm unit (N, mm, S, C);
UNVGAS = 1.986 (Btu/lbMol/R) with US (British) unit (lbf, inch, S, F)
UNVGAS is already defined by Marc and saved in common block mrcparm. You do not
need to define UNVGAS.

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242 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USHRINKAGE

Define Volumetric Cure Shrinkage

Description
This user subroutine allows you to define the volumetric cure shrinkage models and
calculates the degree of cure shrinkage, the volumetric cure shrinkage strain, and
the directional Cure Shrinkage Coefficient matrix (CSC). This subroutine is
activated if the cure shrinkage model number is given as –1 in the first field of first
data block under the CURE SHRINKAGE model definition option. This subroutine
can be used for heat transfer or the cure-thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of
resin or composite that includes resin. For details of the usage of cure shrinkage,
refer to the CURING parameter and the CURE RATE and CURE SHRINKAGE model
definition options.

Format
User subroutine UCURE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USHRINKAGE(M,N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,AK,AKCBEG,
*AKCDEG,VOLFACT,SHRKDAT(1),TEMPBEG,
*TEMPEND,TIME,DELTIME,AKINC,VLMSTR)
INCLUDE '../COMMON/IMPLICIT'
DIMENSION SHRKDAT(*),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element number.
N is the elsto number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
AK is the degree of cure at the end of the increment.

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AKCBEG is the degree of cure shrinkage at the beginning of the increment.


TEMPBEG is the temperature at the beginning of the increment.
TEMPEND is the temperature at the end of the increment.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
DELTIME is the incremental time.
Required Output:
VLMSTR is the volume shrinkage strain increment.
AKCDEG is the degree of cure shrinkage at the end of the increment.
AKINC is the increment of the degree of cure of shrinkage for the
current increment.
SHRKDAT(1) is the maximum volumetric shrinkage.
SHRKDAT(5-10) are the directional Cure Shrinkage Coefficients of material (CSC)
that you should define at this time:
shrkdat (5) CSC 11
shrkdat (6) CSC 22
shrkdat (7) CSC 33
shrkdat (8) CSC 12
shrkdat (9) CSC 23
shrkdat (10) CSC 31

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244 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UCRPLW (Viscoplastic)

Input of Creep Factors for Power Law Implicit Creep

Description
The UCRPLW user subroutine can be used for defining complex relationships for the
factors in the power law expression for the creep strain rate. This user subroutine is
called automatically when the implicit creep option is used in Marc. Note that the
latter is implemented for isotropic materials exhibiting power law creep. For more
complex implicit creep behavior, use the UVSCPL user subroutine.

Format
UCRPLW is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCRPLW(CPA,CFT,CFE,CFTI,CFSTRE,CPTIM,TIMINC,
* EQCP,DT,DTDL,MDUM,NN,KCUS,MATUS)
C CREEP STRAIN RATE = CPA*CFT*CFE*CFTI*(STRESS**CFSTRE)

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)


DIMENSION MDUM(*),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
CPTIM time at the beginning of the increment.
TIMINC time Increment.
EQCP creep strain at the beginning of the increment.
DT temperature at the beginning of the increment.
DTDL incremental temperature.
MDUM(1) user element number.
MDUM(2) internal element number.
NN integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).

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KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).


MAT material number.
Required Output:
CPA is the creep constant.
CFT is the temperature factor.
CFE is the creep strain factor.
CFTI is the time factor.
CFSTRE is the stress exponent.

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246 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ CRPLAW

Input of Special Creep Law

Description
The CRPLAW user subroutine allows the user to specify the increment of
creep strain.
The use of such a user subroutine is flagged by setting the fifth field of the second
block in the CREEP model definition option to zero. This user subroutine is called
as required during the analysis because of possible re-cycling due to
nonconvergence. The number of times the user subroutine is called in each
increment is not fixed.
Marc allows the user to input his own creep law through the CRPLAW
user subroutine.
The assumed form of the law is:

ε· c = f ( σ, T, t, ε c, p, α 1, α 2, etc )

where:
ε· c is the equivalent creep strain rate, in uniaxial tension.

σ is the current equivalent (J) stress, normalized for uniaxial tension.

T is the current total temperature.


t is the current total time.
εc is the current total equivalent creep strain, normalized for uniaxial tension.

p is the hydrostatic stress.


α 1, α 2, etc. are the state variables. Marc requires the user to program his creep law so
that an equivalent creep strain increment is defined.

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Format
User subroutine CRPLAW is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE CRPLAW(EQCP,EQCPNC,STR,CRPE,T,DT,TIMINC,CPTIM,M,
+NN,KCUS,MATUS,NDI,NSHEAR)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION T(3),DT(1),STR(1),CRPE(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
EQCP Passed in as total equivalent creep strain.

1⁄2
ε c = Σ ⎛ --- Δε c i j Δε c i j⎞
2
⎝3 ⎠

or, for ORNL Constitutive Theory, equivalent total creep strain,

1⁄2
ε c = ⎛ --- ΣΔε c i j ΣΔε c i j⎞
2
⎝3 ⎠

to be re-defined as equivalent primary creep strain increment.


STR is the stress array.
CRPE is the incremental creep strain array. If you want to define a creep
strain law not following the normality condition, the creep strain
increment can be defined here.
T(1) is the current total equivalent (J2) stress.
T(2) is the current total hydrostatic stress.
T(3) is the current total swelling strain (from the VSWELL
user subroutine).
DT(1) is the current total temperature.
DT(2),DT(3) are the additional state variables read in the CREDE
user subroutine.
TIMINC is the current time increment.
CPTIM is the current total time.
M is the current element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).

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248 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

MATUS(1) is the user material id.


MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
NDI is the number of direct components of strain.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components of strain.
Required Output:
EQCPNC is the equivalent creep strain increment; to be defined by the user
in this user subroutine. For ORNL Constitutive Theory, passed in
as equivalent total primary creep strain. Otherwise undefined when
passed in.
Must be redefined by the user as equivalent creep strain increment.
The simplest way to define a creep strain increment from a given rate law
·
ε c = f ( σ, etc ) is to multiply by Δt, the time increment:

Δε c = Δt ⋅ f ( σ, etc )

As an example, suppose we wish to use the creep law (where A and B


are constants):

σ
ε c = A sinh ⎛ ----⎞
·
⎝ B⎠

This would be programmed as follows:


SUBROUTINE CRPLAW(EQCP,EQCPNC,STR,CRPE,T,DT,TIMINC,
+CPTIM,M,NN,KCUS,MATUS,NDI,NSHEAR)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION T(1),DT(1),STR(1),CRPE(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
C DEFINE A AND B
A = CONSTANT1
B = CONSTANT2
C OBTAIN SINH (T/B)
S = T(1)
IF (S.EQ.0.) GO TO 1
SINHT = .5*(EXP(S/B)-EXP(-S/B))
GO TO 2
1 SINHT = 0.
2 CONTINUE
C NON DEFINE EQCPNC
EQCPNC = TIMINC*A*SINHT
RETURN
END

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The ORNL recommendations include the use of a strain hardening creep


formulation. The following example of the CRPLAW user subroutine shows a
simple technique of numerical solution for a strain hardening formulation based on
equivalent total creep strain. The example is based on a Blackburn formulation with
a single primary term, but the technique is general and can be used for more
complex formulations. The numerical inversion of the total creep equation for
equivalent time is achieved by Newton’s method:
t n + 1 = t n + Δt

– ε c + f ( T, σ, t n )
t = -------------------------------------------
– f′ ( T, σ, t n )

tn is the solution for equivalent time at the nth iteration.


Δt is the correction to t at the nth iteration, and the total creep equation is

ε c = f ( T, σ, t )

with
∂f
f′ = -----
∂t

A tolerance of 10-6 has been placed on Δt


----- .
tn

Practical experience shows this needs about four or five iterations for the creep law
in the example. The listing of CRPLAW follows:
SUBROUTINE CRPLAW(EQCP,EQCPNC,STR,CRPE,T,DT,TIMINC,
+CPTIM,M,NN,DC,MATUS,NDI,NSHEAR)
IMPILCIT *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION T(1),DT(1),STR(1),CRPE(1),MATUS(2)
C THIS ROUTINE FORMULATES THE STRAIN HARDENING FORMULATION OF
C THE BLACKBURN CREEP LAW.
C EPSILON
C DOT=1/TIME SUB CAP T * (EPSILON SUR T - EPSILON SUSUPER T)
C + EPSILON DOT SUB M
C THE FOLLOWING DEFINITION APPLIES TO THE FUNCTION CODED
BELOW
C A IS LN(A)
C B IS ALPHA*SIGMA
C E IS N

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250 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

C C IS Q
C C IS T
C EPSILON SUB T, T, SUB T AND EPSILON SUB M DOT ARE GIVEN BY
A CURVE
C FUN + A*SINH TO N OF ALPHA SIGMA TIMES E TO Q/T EXP
C IHARD=0 USES STRAIN HARDENING
C STRAIN NOW DIMENSIONAL
C TEMPERATURE IN FAHRENHEIT
C STRESS IN PSI
C TIME IN HOURS
FTN(A,B,C,D,E)=EXP(A)*(.5*(EXP(B)-EXP(-
B))**)E*EXP(C/D))
IHARD=0
IHARD=1
EQCPNC=0
IF(T(1).LT.25.)GO TO 1
TRANK=DT(1)+459.67
ET=FTN(2.76,1.976E-3*T(1),-1,03E4,TRANK,.08778)
TT=FTN(-21.38,.09546E-3*T(1),4.54E4,TRANK,-2.31)
EDOT=FTN(57.2,.02345E-3*T(1),-9.98E4,TRANK,6.933)
C THE FOLLOWING IS A NEWTON METHOD TO EXPRESS T IN TERMS OF
KNOWN
C QUANTITIES. INITIAL GUESS IS T= (F SUB C- ET) / E DOT M
IF(IHARD.EQ.1) GO TO 10
TIME=CPTIM GO TO 2
10 CONTINUE
TIME=(100.*EQCP-ET)/EDOT
FT=ET/TT
IF(EQCP.EQ.0.) GO TO 4
2 EFT=EXP (-TIME/TT)
FT=FT*EFT/TT
4 ST=EDOT
EQCPNC=(FT+ST)*TININC*0.01
1 RETURN
END

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ VSWELL

Input of Special Swelling Law

Description
The VSWELL user subroutine allows the user to include pure swelling (dilatational)
creep in Marc.

Format
User subroutine VSWELL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE VSWELL(SWELL,SIG,TEMP,N,NN,KCUS,CPTIM,TIMINC,
+MATUS,DTEMP)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SIG(3),TEMP(1),DTEMP(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
SIG(1) is the uniaxial equivalent of J2 stress.
SIG(2) is the hydrostatic stress.
SIG(3) is the current total swelling strain (accumulated from this
user subroutine).

1 DV
Note: This is a uniaxial component; that is, --- ---------
3 V
TEMP(1) is the temperature.
TEMP(2),TEMP(3), etc. are the additional state variables read in through the
CREDE user subroutine.
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum
element).
CPTIM is the total creep time.

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252 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TIMINC is the current time increment.


MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
DTEMP(1) is the temperature increment.
DTEMP(2), etc. are the increments of additional state variables.
Required Output:
SWELL is the user-defined increment of volumetric swelling
⎛ = DV -⎞ .
⎝ --------
V⎠

The user defines the increment of dilatational creep by this user subroutine, which
is called at each integration point where constitutive calculations are being
performed by Marc. It is called automatically when any CREEP incremental option
is used (AUTO CREEP, CREEP INCREMENT, etc.) and can be used alone or in
combination with a Mises type creep law (CRPLAW user subroutine). This user
subroutine is called as required during the analysis, so that, because of possible re-
cycling due to nonconvergence, the number of times the user subroutine is called in
each increment is not fixed.

Example
The following is a typical irradiation swelling formulation:
b b
⎛ DV
--------
- ⎞ = c ( q ⋅ t ) a exp ⎛ b + -----1- + -----2-⎞
⎝ V⎠ ⎝ 0
T 1 T 2⎠

where:
a, b0, b1, b2, c are numerical constants, q is flux, t is time and T is
temperature.
Differentiating with respect to time,
b1 b2
----- ⎛⎝ ---------⎞⎠ = acq a t a – 1 exp ⎛⎝ b 0 + -----1- + -----2-⎞⎠
d DV
dt V T T

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so that user subroutine VSWELL becomes:


SUBROUTINE VSWELL(SWELL,SIG,TEMP,N,NN,KCUS,CPTIM,TIMINC,
+MATUS,DTEMP)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SIG(3),TEMP(1),DTEMP(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
C=
Q=TEMP(2)
A=
B0=
B1=
B2=
SWELL=A*C*Q**A*CPTIM**(A-1.)
SWELL=SWELL*EXP(B0+B1/TEMP+B2/TEMP**2)
SWELL=SWELL*TIMINC
RETURN
END
This assumes flux increments q are entered into the second state variable
using CREDE.

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254 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ WKSLP

Work-hardening Slope Definition

Description
This user subroutine makes it possible for the user to program the yield stress and
the corresponding work-hardening slope directly as a function of equivalent plastic
strain and temperature. See the WORK HARD model definition option. The user
needs to define the value of the slope of the equivalent stress vs. equivalent
plastic strain. The current yield stress can be defined also. The specification of
the latter is optional. If the value of the current yield is not given here, Marc
calculates it from the initial yield value and the work-hardening slopes defined in
this user subroutine.
In order to use this user subroutine instead of the slope-break point data, the user
should set the number of work-hardening slopes equal to -1. No work-hardening
slope break point data blocks should be included. The user subroutine is called as
required by Marc during the elastic-plastic calculations. The number of times it is
called per increment depends on the number of points going plastic, on the
nonlinearity of the work-hardening curve, and on temperature dependence.

Format
User subroutine WKSLP is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE WKSLP(M,NN,KCUS,MATUS,SLOPE,EBARP,ERAT,STRYT,DT,
+IFIRST)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the current user element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).

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KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).


MATUS(1) is the user material id.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
p
is the current total equivalent plastic strain, ε
EBARP
ε p = Σdε p

2 p p
dε ρ = --- dε i j dε i j
3
·p
ERAT is the equivalent plastic strain rate, ε
DT is the current total temperature.
IFIRST is passed in as 1 for initial yield curve; is passed in as 2 for the tenth cycle
yield curve when ORNL constitutive theory is flagged.
Required Output:
SLOPE is the work-hardening slope to be defined by the user as:

p ·p p
dσ σ ( ε , ε ) – ( ε , 0 )
--------p + ----------------------------------------------
-
·p
dε ε Δt

3
σ = equivalent tensile stress = --- S i j S i j
2

1
S i j = σ i j – --- δ i j σ k k
3

is the current yield stress σ .


STRYT

dσ dσ
Note: --------- is not the slope of the tensile stress-strain curve, which is ------- with:
dε P dε

dε = dε e + dε p

The time increment, Δt, is given by variable TIMINC in common block CREEPS. The
user must take care to provide rate of change of stress with respect to plastic strain,
not total strain. The second term in the SLOPE expression allows the user to include
strain-rate effect if desired. The user must define SLOPE and STRYT in this user
subroutine. EBARP, DT, and IFIRST should not be changed.

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256 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Note: If the UPDATE or LARGE STRAIN parameter is used, the stresses are Cauchy (true)
stress and the strains are logarithmic strains.

Example
Let us assume that yield surface can be expressed as:

σy = A ( 1 + εp ) n

then,

∂σ y
--------- = nA ( 1 + ε p ) n – 1
∂ε p

the user subroutine would look like:


SUBROUTINE WKSLP(M,NN,KCUS,MATUS,SLOPE,EBARP,ERAT,STRYT,DT,
+IFIRST)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
A=
N=
N1=n-1
SLOPE=n*A*(1.+EBARP)**N1
STRYT=A*(1.+EBARP)**N
RETURN
END

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■ USPRNG

Input of Nonlinear Spring, Dashpot and


Foundation Stiffness

Description
The USPRNG user subroutine permits the introduction of further modification of
nonlinear spring constants for use with the SPRINGS and/or FOUNDATION options
and input of nonlinear damping. For linear springs, your coding must supply both
the ratio of the current value of spring stiffness to the reference data input value and
the total spring force. For dynamic analysis, the ratio of damping coefficient can
also be provided. For nonlinear springs that have already been defined using the
TABLE option in the data input, your coding must supply both the ratio of the user-
defined spring stiffness to the current tabular stiffness and the spring force. The
value of the spring/dashpot constant, total time, and the element or spring number
are made available to the user subroutine. For harmonic analysis, the
spring/dashpot constants can be a function of the frequency. The USPRNG user
subroutine is accessible whenever either the SPRINGS or the FOUNDATION option
is used. USPRNG can also be used for defining spring stiffnesses in thermal analysis
(regular heat transfer analysis or thermal part of a thermo-mechanical coupled
analysis), and in Joule heating analysis.

Format
User subroutine USPRNG is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USPRNG(RATK,F,DATAK,U,TIME,N,NN,NSPRNG)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION RATK(*),DATAK(*),U(*),TIME(*),N(*),F(*),NSPRNG(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:

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258 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Input:
DATAK(1) is the data value of spring constant (or foundation stiffness) as defined
by the user in SPRINGS/FOUNDATION options data input. For
previously defined nonlinear springs, it is the current nonlinear data
value calculated from input tables. This is input to the program.
(a) For springs: DATAK(1) = mechanical stiffness
(b) For thermal links: DATAK(1) = thermal conduction
(c) For electrical links: DATAK(1) = electrical conduction
DATAK(2) is the data value of the damping constant as defined by you in the
SPRINGS option data input. For previously defined nonlinear dashpots,
it is the current nonlinear data value calculated from input tables. It is
only used for transient mechanical analysis. This is input to the program.
For Elastic Foundation (Only Static Contribution):
U(1) For elastic foundation: U(1) = Un.

(positive in the direction specified by face identification given in the


FOUNDATION option).
U(2)-U(4) not used
For Springs/Dashpots (Static and/or Dynamic Contribution):
For mechanical springs: U ( 1 ) = U 2 – U 1 .
U(1)
For thermal links: U ( 1 ) = T 2 – T 1
For electrical links: U ( 1 ) = V 2 – V 1

U(2)
For dynamic spring/dashpot U ( 2 ) = U· 2 – U· 1 .
U(3) For mechanical springs in coupled analysis and for electrical links in
Joule heating analysis: U ( 3 ) = Average Temperature of Spring or it is
not used.
U(4)
Not used
For springs/dashpots (harmonic analysis):
U(1) U ( 1 ) = U 2 – U 1 static predeformation

U(2) not used


U(3) U ( 3 ) = U 2 – U 1 real part of harmonic deformation.

U(4) U ( 4 ) = U 2 – U 1 imaginary part of harmonic deformation

TIME(1) is the total time (for dynamic or creep analysis).

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TIME(2) is the frequency (for harmonic analysis with spring/dashpot).


N(1) is the element number (for elastic foundation).
is the first user-node number (for spring)
N(2) is the face number (for elastic foundation).
is the second user-node number (for spring)
NN is the integration point number (only for elastic foundation).
NSPRNG(1) is the spring number, the position of the spring in the input data list (only
for springs).
NSPRNG(2) = 1mechanical analysis or stress part of coupled analysis (only
for springs)
= 2heat transfer analysis or thermal part of coupled analysis (only
for springs)
= 4electrical analysis (only for springs)
NSPRING(3) is the spring ID given on the SPRINGS model definition option.
Required Output:
RATK(1) is the ratio of the present value of spring stiffness to the data value given
in the option input; to be defined by the user.
RATK(2) is the ratio of the present value of the damping coefficient to the data
value given in the input; to be defined by the user. This applies to
SPRINGS in dynamic analysis only.
F(1) is the force to be defined by the user (only needed for
mechanical analysis).
(a) For springs: F(1) = spring force.
(b) For elastic foundation: F(1) = pressure per unit area.
(c) For harmonics: F(1) = real part of harmonic force.
F(2) is the force to be defined by the user (only needed for
mechanical analysis).
(a) For springs: F(2) = the damping force.
(b) For harmonics: F(2) = imaginary part of harmonic force.

If the user subroutine is called for an elastic foundation point, NSPRNG(1) and
NSPRNG(2) are zero.

If the user subroutine is called for a spring, NN is zero.


Note that if the user prefers to give the absolute value of the spring constant rather
than a ratio, the corresponding value in the SPRINGS or FOUNDATION option should
be set to 1. The same applies for a damping constant.
Note that for fixed degrees of freedom springs, U(1), U(2), U(3), and U(4) are
positive if the motion of the degrees of freedom associated with node 2 is greater
than the motion of the degrees of freedom associated with node 1. So, to ensure

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260 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

physically consistent forces, care should be exercised on defining node 1 and node
2 correctly. For true direction springs, U(1), U(2), U(3), and U(4) are positive if
the spring is in tension and negative if the spring is in compression.
During a heat transfer run or electrical run (NSPRNG(2) = 2 or 4), springs simply act
as links. Only the user-input conduction DATAK(1) comes into the routine and the
user needs to return the modified ratio RATK(1). The dashpot is not active. The
spring force F the gradient across the spring, U, is not needed and does not need to
be defined.

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UCRACK

Input of Ultimate Stress for Cracking Analysis

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to input a constant or a temperature dependent
ultimate stress at each integration point of an element for cracking analysis. In
addition, the user can define the strain softening modulus and the crushing strain.

Format
User subroutine UCRACK is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCRACK (SCRACK,ESOFT,ECRUSH,ECP,DT,DTDL,N,NN,
1 KCUS, INC, NDI, NSHEAR, SHRFAC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION ECP(1), DT(1), DTDL(1),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ECP is the array of crack strains.
DT is the array of state variables, temperature first.
DTDL is the array of incremental state variables, temperature first.
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
INC is the increment number.
NDI is the number of direct components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components.
SHRFAC is the user-defined shear retention factor.

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262 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Required Output:
SCRACK is the user-defined ultimate cracking stress.
ESOFT is the user-defined strain softening moduli.
ECRUSH is the user-defined strain at which crushing occurs.

Let us assume that the ultimate stress looks like

σ C R = A ( 1 – e–R T )

The user subroutine would look like


SUBROUTINE UCRACK(SCRACK,ESOFT,ECRUSH,ECP,DT,DTDL,N,NN,
1 KCUS,INC,NDI,NSHEAR, SHRFAC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION ECP(1),DT(1),DTDL(1),KCUS(2)
A=
R=
TT=DT(1)+DTDL(1)+473.0
SCRACK=A*(1.0D0-EXP(-R*TT))
RETURN
END

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■ TENSOF

Input of Tension Softening Modulus for Cracking Analysis

Description
The tension softening modulus defines the post-failure behavior at an integration
point. By default in Marc, the reduction of the cracking stress to zero is a linear
function of the crack strain. This user subroutine allows the user to define for
instance a nonlinear behavior. The user subroutine is automatically called for every
crack in the analysis.

Format
User subroutine TENSOF is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE TENSOF (D,SP,GFP,DEP,ECP,SCRACK,SOSTR,ETSNEW,
ETSOFT,XH,SPECLN,JSOFT)
where:
Input:
GFP is the change in stress due to incremental crack growth.
DEP is the current strain increment.
ECP is the crack strain at end of increment.
SCRACK is the critical cracking stress given in input.
SOSTR is the current cracking stress based on previous softening.
ETSNEW is the current value of temperature dependent Young’s modulus.
ESOFT is the tension softening modulus given in input.
XH is the characteristic element length.
SPECLN is the test specimen length.
Required Output:
D is the stiffness in the crack direction term to be defined by you.
SP is the stress at end of increment as function of crack strain to be defined
by the user.
JSOFT is the status indicator for softening. Used for plotting only.
= 1 inside softening range.
= 2 outside softening range.

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264 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Note that the definition of the stiffness D does not need to be exact. The correct
definition of the stiffness only determines the speed of the convergence. In fact, in
the above user subroutine, a large negative value of the stiffness term should never
be used as this would result in convergence problems. The stress definition,
however, must be exact; otherwise, the wrong solution is obtained.

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CHAPTER 3 265
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ USHRET

Input of Shear Retention Factor for Cracking Analysis

Description
The shear retention factor is used to define the residual shear stiffness for a cracked
integration point in a cracking analysis. The shear retention factor is defined as the
factor with which the initial shear stiffness is multiplied. With this user subroutine,
the user can define the shear retention factor to be, for instance, a function of the
crack strain. The user subroutine is automatically called for each existing crack.

Format
User subroutine USHRET is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USHRET (FACTOR,ECRA1,ECRA2,ECRA12)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ECRA1 is the crack strain in the first crack direction.
ECRA2 is the crack strain in the second crack direction.
ECRA12 is the shear strain over the crack.
Required Output:
FACTOR is a user-defined shear retention factor to be defined here.

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266 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UVOID

Definition of the Initial Void Volume Fraction

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of the initial void fraction in an elastic
plastic material when the damage model is being used. This user subroutine is
automatically called if the Gurson damage model is specified for a specific material.

Format
User subroutine UVOID is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE UVOID(VOIDFI,M,NN,KCUS,MATUS,X)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION M(2),X(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
X is the coordinate position of integration point.
Required Output:
VOIDFI is the initial void fraction to be defined here.

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CHAPTER 3 267
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UVOIDN

Definition of the Void Nucleation Rate

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of the void nucleation rate in a material
using the Gurson model. This user subroutine is called if the void nucleation
method under the DAMAGE model definition option is set to 3.
In this model, the yield surface is given as:

σ e2 q 2 σ KK
F = -------- + 2q 1 f cosh ⎛ -----------------⎞ – [ 1 + ( q 1 f ) ] = 0
2
σm 2 ⎝ 2σ m

where:

σe is the effective stress.


σm is the equivalent tensile stress.
f is the void ratio.

Format
User subroutine UVOIDN is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UVOIDN(A,B,M,NN,KCUS,MATUS,EPL,EPLAS,S,NDI,
+NSHEAR,DT,DTDL)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION M(2),DT(1),DTDL(1),EPL(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.

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268 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NN is the integration point number.


KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
EPL is the plastic strain components.
EPLAS is the equivalent plastic strain.
S is the stress array.
NDI is the number of direct components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components.
DT is the array of state variables, temperature first.
DTDL is the array of increment of state variables.
Required Output:
A is the multiplier as shown below.
B is the multiplier as shown below.

In this user subroutine, the following type of stress controlled nucleation rate can
be specified:
·
· · σk k
f = Aσ + B ---------
3

·
where σ is the von Mises equivalent stress rate, and σ· k k is the hydrostatic
stress rate.

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CHAPTER 3 269
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UVOIDRT

Definition of the Initial Void Ratio or Initial Porosity

Description
The UVOIDRT user subroutine allows the user to define either the initial void ratio
or the initial porosity in a soil analysis or a mass diffusion analysis. It may also be
used to define a nonhomogeneous distribution of these variables, which in turn are
used as independent variables to define other variables through the TABLE option.
Whether the void ratio or the porosity is defined is based upon whether the INITIAL
VOID RATIO or INITIAL POROSITY option.

Format
User subroutine UVOIDRT is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE UVOIDRT(M,N,NN,KCUS,MATS,COORD,NCRD,INC,CPTIM,
*TIMINC,VALUE,IFLAG)
INCLUDE '../COMMON/IMPLICIT'
DIMENSION MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where
Input:
M element number.
N elsto number.
NN integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) user material id.
MATUS(2) internal material id.
COORD coordinate of integration point.
NCRD number of coordinates.
INC increment number.

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270 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

CPTIM time at the beginning of the increment.


TIMINC time increment.
VALUE if iflag = 1 define void ratio.
if iflag = 2 define porosity.
IFLAG 1 or 2.

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CHAPTER 3 271
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UGRAIN

Calculation of Grain Size

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to calculate the typical grain size based upon
the state of material. The UGRAIN user subroutine is used in conjunction with the
GRAIN SIZE option where the initial grain size is prescribed. This user subroutine is
called at each integration point.
The calculation of grain size may be performed with all constitutive models.

Format
User subroutine UGRAIN is written with the following header lines:
SUBROUTINE UGRAIN(M,N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,EPLAS,ERATE,DT,DTDl,
* IGNMOD,GRNDAT,GRNSIZ,TIME,DELTIME)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION DT(*),GRNDAT(*),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element number
N is the elsto number
NN is the integration point number
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
EPLAS is the equivalent plastic strain
ERATE is the equivalent plastic strain rate
DT is the state variables at beginning of increment
DTDL is the incremental state variables

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272 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

GRNDAT is the material data, GRNDAT (1) is the initial grain size
TIME is the time - beginning of increment
DELTIME is the incremental time
IGNMOD is the input mode for different model (-1 for user-defined)
Required Output:
GRNSIZ is the current grain size

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UDAMAG

Prediction of Material Damage

Description
This user subroutine provides the user with the mechanism for providing a
Kachanov damage factor to be applied to the material properties. The UDAMAG user
subroutine is used in conjunction with the DAMAGE model definition option. The
user defines the damage factor (df). 0 ≤ df ≤ 1 where df = 0 implies a fully damaged
material. If model 9 is used, then:

p ·p
σ y = σ y ( ε , ε , T )* ( 1.0 – df )

If model 10 is used, then:

p ·p
σ y = σ y ( ε , ε , T )* ( 1.0 – df ) and E = E ( T )* ( 1.0 – df )

This model is only applied to elastic-plastic materials using the additive procedure;
it does not work with the FeFp procedure.

Format
User subroutine UDAMAG is written with the following header lines:
SUBROUTINE UDAMAG(M,N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,EPLAS,ERATE,DT,DTDL,
*DAMDAT,DAMFAC,TIME,DELTIME)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION DT (*),DAMDAT(*),DTDL(*),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the user element number.
N is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.

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274 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).


KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
EPLAS is the equivalent plastic strain.
ERATE is the equivalent plastic strain rate.
DT is the state variables at beginning of increment.
DTDL is the state variables increment.
DAMDAT is the material data, DAMDAT (1) is the initial damage factor.
TIME is the time at the beginning of increment.
DELTIME is the time increment.
Required Output:
DAMFAC is the current damage factor.

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CHAPTER 3 275
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UPOWDR

Definition of Material Data for Powder Metallurgy Model

Description
Material properties of powder metals which are used in Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
are typically dependent upon both the temperature and the relative density of the
material. This user subroutine provides an alternative mechanism to enter this data.
This user subroutine is called for all elements for which the POWDER option is
used. The elastic, plastic, and thermal properties can be defined in this user
subroutine. In this model, the yield function, F, is defined as:

P2 1 ⁄ 2
F = --- ⎛ --- S i j S i j + ------⎞
1 3
– σy
γ ⎝2 β 2⎠

where:
γ and β are material parameters to be entered here.
S is the deviatoric stress.
P is the hydrostatic stress.
σy is the equivalent tensile stress.

The equivalent inelastic strain rate, ε· , is defined as:

ε = --- ⎛ ------⎞
· 1 F
μ ⎝ σ y⎠

where:
μ is the viscosity.

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276 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine UPOWDR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPOWDR(E,G,POISS,GAMMA,BETA,VISC,SIGY,AMB,COMPF,
+REDENS,DT,DTDL,DET,IHEAT,IHCPS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION POWDAT(32)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
E is the Young’s moduli.
G is the shear moduli.
POISS is the Poisson’s ratio.
REDENS is the relative density.
DT is the array of state variables, temperature first.
DTDT is the array of increment of state variables.
DET is the determinant which gives the change in volume.
IHEAT is the indicates if this is the heat transfer calculation in a coupled analysis.
= 0 stress pass.
= 1 heat pass.
Required Output:
GAMMA is the parameter γ in the yield function.
BETA is the parameter β in the yield function.
VISC is the viscosity μ.
SIGY is the temperature-dependent equivalent tensile stress σy
AMB is the conductivity in a coupled analysis.
COMPF is the specific heat in a coupled analysis.

In the stress pass, you should define E, G, POISS, GAMMA, VISC, and SIGY.
In the heat transfer pass, the user should define AMB and COMPF.
The values of E, G, POISS, GAMMA, BETA, VISC, AMB, COMPF upon entrance are the values
calculated by Marc based upon user input.

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CHAPTER 3 277
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UPERM

Definition of Permeability

Description
In a diffusion or soil analysis, it might be necessary to define the permeability as a
function of the porosity or other variables. This user subroutine allows the user to
enter a general nonlinear relationship. It is called during any coupled diffusion
analysis or fluid-soil analysis.

Format
User subroutine UPERM is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPERM(PERMEA,M,NN,DT,POROP,POROS,X,
+K,STRESS,NGENS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION PERMEA(K,K),X(1),STRESS (*)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
DT is the temperature.
POREP is the pore pressure.
POROS is the porosity.
X is the array of integration point coordinates.
K is the dimension of the permeability matrix
STRESS is the effective stress matrix.
(in a soil analysis. In a pure diffusion analysis, stress is not used.)
NGENS is the number of stress components.
Required Output:
PERMEA is the permeability matrix.

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278 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UMOONY

Mooney-Rivlin Material

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to redefine the constants used in the strain
energy function. This data is normally entered through the MOONEY model
definition option.
The form of the strain energy function is:

W = C 10 ( I 1 – 3 ) + C 01 ( I 2 – 3 ) + C 11 ( I 1 – 3 ) ( I 2 – 3 ) + C 20 ( I 1 – 3 ) 2 + C 30 ( I 1 – 3 ) 3

Format
User subroutine UMOONY is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UMOONY(C10,C01,C11,C20,C30,T,N,NN,MATUS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION N(2),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
T is the temperature.
N(1) is your element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
Required Output:
C10,C01,C11,C20,C30 are the values used in the strain energy function to be
defined by the user.

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CHAPTER 3 279
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UENERG

Strain Energy Function

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define his own elastic strain energy function
for incompressible materials. Normally, the five constant second-order model is
entered using the MOONEY model definition option. This option must still be used
to invoke this user subroutine. This user subroutine can be used when either the
total Lagrange or updated Lagrange procedure is used. The five material
parameters, C10, C01, C11, C20, and C30 must be correctly defined with the MOONEY
option for energy calculation.

Format
User subroutine UENERG is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UENERG(W,W1,W2,W11,W12,W22,WI1,WI2,
$ C10,C01,C11,C20,C30,N,NN)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION N(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
WI1 is I 1 – 3 , with I 1 the first deviatoric invariant of the
right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor.
WI2 is I 2 – 3 , with I 2 the second deviatoric invariant of
the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor.
C10, C01, C11, C20, C30 are the five material parameters of the
Mooney formulation.
N(1) is the user element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.

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280 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Required Output:
W is the strain energy density.
W1 is ∂W ⁄ ∂I 1 .

W2 is ∂W ⁄ ∂I 2 .

2
W11 is ∂ 2 W ⁄ ∂I .
1

W12 is ∂ 2 W ⁄ ∂I 1 ∂I 2 .

2
W22 is ∂ 2 W ⁄ ∂I .
2

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CHAPTER 3 281
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UOGDEN

Definition of Ogden Material Parameters

Description
This user subroutine allows the definition of the Ogden material parameters.
Additionally, any temperature dependence of these properties can be entered here.
The OGDEN option must be used to indicate that the element uses this material law,
and the number of terms in the series must be entered through the model definition
option. When the Ogden model is used in the updated Lagrange formulation, this
user subroutine is called twice per integration point. The first time for the bulk
modulus; the second time for the μ and λ coefficients.
The strain energy function for this material is written as:
n
μi α α α
W = ∑ ----- ( λ 1 i + λ 2 i + λ 3 i – 3 ) + 4.5K ( J 1 / 3 – 1 ) 2
αi
i = 1

Format
User subroutine UOGDEN is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UOGDEN(MATUS,NSER,M,NN,KCUS,INC,CPTIM,TIMINC,
+XMTDAT,BULK,DT,DTDT)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION
XMTDAT(2,NSER),M(2),DT(1),DTDL(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
NSER is the number of terms in the series.

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282 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

M(1) is the user element number.


M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
INC is the increment number.
CPTIM is the time at the beginning of the increment.
TIMINC is the time step.
DT is the array of state variables, temperature first.
DTDT is the array of increments of state variables.
Required Output:
XMTDAT(1,i) is the value of μi.
XMTDAT(2,i) is the value of αi.
BULK is the bulk modulus.

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CHAPTER 3 283
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UELDAM

Definition of Damage Parameters in Ogden Model

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the damage parameters for the Ogden
model. There are two types of damage: one is associated with the deviatoric (shear)
behavior, and one is associated with the dilatational (volumetric) behavior
(additional details can be found in Marc Volume A: User Information). This user
subroutine is, therefore, called twice per integration point, once for deviatoric
behavior and once for volumetric behavior. This user subroutine is called only if the
damage type is set to 6 through the DAMAGE model definition option.

Format
User subroutine UELDAM is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UELDAM(M,N,NN,KCUS,INC,LOVL,MATUS,TIMINC,CPTIM,
2 TOTEN,DEVEN,TOTEND,TOTENV,SURFC,SURFD,DT,
3 DTDL,DAMD,DDAMD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DT(1),DTDL(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the user element number.
N is the internal element/elsto number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
INC is the increment number.
LOVL is 4 for assembly phase.
is 6 for stress recovery phase.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.

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284 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.


TIMINC is the time increment.
CPTIM is the time at the beginning of the increment.
TOTEN is the total instantaneous strain energy at the end of the current step
excluding damage.
DEVEN is the deviatoric part of the instantaneous strain energy at the end of the
current step excluding damage.
TOTEND is the stored deviatoric energy at previous step (including damage).
TOTENV is the stored volumetric energy at previous step (including damage).
SURFC is the current radius of continuous damage surface.
SURFD is the current radius of discontinuous damage surface.
DT is the temperature.
DTDL is the incremental temperature.
Required Output:
DAMD is the value of Kachanov deviatoric damage parameter.
DDAMD is the derivative of the damage parameter with respect to the maximum
total strain energy.

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CHAPTER 3 285
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ HYPELA2

User-defined Material Behavior

Description
This user subroutine gives the user the ability to implement arbitrary material
models in conjunction with the HYPOELASTIC model definition option (see Marc
Volume C: Program Input). Marc supplies the user with the total displacement,
incremental displacement, total mechanical strain (mechanical strain = total strain
– thermal strain), the increment of mechanical strain, and other information. Stress,
total strain, and state variable arrays at the beginning of the increment ( t = n ) are
passed to HYPELA2. The user is expected to calculate stresses S, tangent stiffness D,
and state variables (if present) that correspond to the current strain at the end of the
increment ( t = n + 1 ).

Format
User subroutine HYPELA2 is written with the following headers
SUBROUTINE HYPELA2(D,G,E,DE,S,T,DT,NGENS,N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,
2 NDI,NSHEAR,DISP,DISPT,COORD,FFN,FROTN,STRECHN,EIGVN,FFN1,
3 FROTN1,STRECHN1,EIGVN1,NCRD,ITEL,NDEG,NDM,NNODE,
4 JTYPE,LCLASS,IFR,IFU)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION E(1),DE(1),T(1),DT(1),G(1),D(NGENS,NGENS),S(1)
DIMENSION N(2),COORD(NCRD,NNODE),DISP(NDEG,NNODE),
2 DISPT(NDEG,NNODE),FFN(ITEL,ITEL),FROTN(ITEL,ITEL)
3 STRECHN(ITEL),EIGVN(ITEL,ITEL),FFN1(ITEL,ITEL)
4 FROTN1(ITEL,ITEL),STRECHN1(ITEL),EIGVN1(ITEL,ITEL)
DIMENSION MATUS(2),KCUS(2),LCLASS(2)

user coding

RETURN
END
where:
Input:
E is the total elastic mechanical strain.
DE is the increment of mechanical strain.

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286 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

T is the state variables (comes in at t = n; must be updated to have state


variables at t = n +1).
DT is the increment of state variables.
NGENS is the size of the stress-strain law.
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
NDI is the number of direct components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components.
DISP is the incremental displacements.
DISPT is the displacements at t = n (at assembly lovl = 4) and the
displacements at t = n +1 (at stress recovery lovl = 6).
COORD is the coordinates.
NCRD Is the number of coordinates.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom.
ITEL is the dimension of F and R; 2 for plane-stress and 3 for the rest of
the cases.
NNODE is the number of nodes per element.
JTYPE is the element type.
LCLASS(1) is the element class.
LCLASS(2) is 0 for displacement element.
is 1 for lower-order Herrmann element.
is 2 for higher-order Herrmann element.
IFR is set to 1 if R has been calculated.
IFU is set to 1 if STRECH has been calculated.
At t = n (or the beginning of the increment):
FFN is the deformation gradient.
FROTN is the rotation tensor.
STRECHN is the square of principal stretch ratios, lambda (i).
EIGVN (I,J) I principal direction components for J eigenvalues.
At t = n +1 (or the current time step):
FFN1 is the deformation gradient.
FROTN1 is the rotation tensor.
STRECHN1 is the square of principal stretch ratios, lambda (i).
EIGVN1(I,J) is the I principal direction components for J eigenvalues.

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CHAPTER 3 287
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

Required Output:
D is the stress strain law to be formed.
G is the change in stress due to temperature effects.
S is the stress to be updated by you.

Parameter
Without a specific parameter, engineering strain and stress are passed.
With the LARGE DISP parameter, Green-Lagrange strains and second Piola-
Kirchhott stresses are passed.
With LARGE STRAIN parameter, logarithmic strains and Cauchy stresses are passed.
For large strain rubber elasticity, the UELASTOMER user subroutine is
recommended.
For large strain inelasticity, the LARGE STRAIN parameter must be used. With the
parameter, strain and stress components are rotated by Marc to account for rigid-
body motion before HYPELA2 is called; so, the stress integration for the
co-rotational part is performed in HYPELA2 based on rotation neutralized values.
The user is required to pass back the updated rotation neutralized stress based
on the co-rotational system. The shell thickness is only updated with the LARGE
STRAIN parameter.

Strains
E ( ) and DE( ), which are passed to HYPELA2, are the elastic mechanical strain and
the increment of mechanical strain, respectively. Here, mechanical strain is defined
by “total strain – thermal strain”. Note that for the first iteration (NCYCLE = 0) during
assembly (LOVL = 4), DE is an estimate of the strain change. The variables NCYCLE
and LOVL can be obtained from common block CONCOM.
The total strain etotl(*) can be obtained using:
include’array2’
include ’heat’
include ’ngenel’
include ’space’
dinension etotl(6)
1a4=ietota+lofr+(nn-1)*ngenel-1
do i=1,ngenel
etotl(i)=varselem(1a4+i)
enddo

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288 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Coordinate System
Continuum (3-D-Solid, plane strain, axisymmetric and 2-D plane stress) elements
use the global Cartesian coordinate system for the base vectors of stress and strain
components. Also, membranes, shells and beams usually use the local Cartesian
systems defined in Marc Volume B: Element Library (please check this volume for
the element used). However, if the LARGE STRAIN parameter is used, strain
and stress components are rotated to account of rigid-body motion before HYPELA2
is called. So, local Cartesian coordinate system is used based on rotation-
neutralized values
If the ORIENTATION model definition option is used, the stress and strain
components are stored in the local orientation axis. The basis vectors rotate with the
material by rotation tensor (R) and, so the stress and strain are already stored in the
rotated orientation axis before HYPELA2 is called.

Stress and Strain Components Order of Storage


The number of strain and stress components is composed of “number of direct
components” (NDI) and “number of shear components” (NSHEAR). NDI and NSHEAR
are defined in Table 3-2 for each element. For example, 3-D solid elements: ndi=3
and nshear=3, thick shells: ndi=2 and nshear=3, thin shells and membranes: ndi=2
and nshear=1, plane strain and axisymmetric elements: ndi=3 and nshear=1, beams:
ndi=1 and shear=0 to 2. The stress and strain are first stored direct components
followed by shear components. For full components, (ndi=3, nshear=3), S(11),
S(22), S(33), S(12), S(23), S(31) is the right order to store. For Herrmann
formulation of elements, the last strain component is the volumetric strain and the
last stress component is the mean pressure constant. Thus, in the Herrmann
formulation, NGENS = NDI + NSHEAR + 1.

State Variables
If there are any state variables (other than temperature) in the problem, the user can
use the array T( ) to update and return these state variables. The increments of the
state variables should be calculated and returned as the array DT ( ). T( ) and DT( )
have the size of NSTATS if NSTATS is the number of state variables defined in the
PARAMETERS model definition option in the input file. T(1) and DT(1) are reserved
for the temperature and the temperature increment, respectively, and calculated by
Marc. You must not change the values of T(1) and DT(1) even in isothermal
problems with state variables. All variables T(2) to T(NSTATS) and DT(2) to

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DT(NSTATS) are accessible to you. If the LARGE STRAIN parameter is used, any
nonscalar state variables (vector or tensor values) need to be rotated by using the
rotation tensor (R) provided.

Tangent Stiffness
The user also needs to provide the tangent stiffness D based on the updated stress.

∂ ( Δσ i )
D i j = -----------------
∂ ( Δε j )

The rate of convergence or a nonlinear problem depends critically on the user


supplied tangent stiffness D . Before using this user subroutine for large problems,
it is recommended that the user check the user subroutine with one-element
problems under displacement and load control boundary conditions. The
displacement controlled boundary condition problem checks the accuracy of the
stress update procedure while the load controlled problem checks the accuracy of
the tangent stiffness. A fully consistent exact tangent stiffness provides quadratic
convergence of the displacement or residual norm.
3 Thermal Stress Problems
User- For thermal stress problems, the user needs to calculate and return the change in
defined stress G i due to temperature dependent material properties.
Anisotro
py and θ θ
G i = ( D n + 1 – D n ) i j ( Δε ) j
Constitut
ive where θ n and θ n + 1 are the temperatures at time t = n and t = n + 1, respectively
Relation
s User and ( Δε ) j is strain increment which is passed to HYPELA2.
Subrouti
nes Deformation Gradient (F), Rotation Tensor (R) and Stretch Tensor (U)
HYP For continuum (3-D solid, plane strain, axisymmetric and 2-D plane stress)
elements and membranes, the deformation gradient and rotation tensor are passed.
ELA2 For those elements, principal stretch ratio and eigenvectors are also passed to
HYPELA2. Based on the information, the user can calculate stretch tensor (U)
as follows:
CALL SCLA (UN1, 0.d0, ITEL, ITEL, 1)
DO I=1,3

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290 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

DO J=1,3
DO K=1,3
UN1 (I,J) = UN1 (I,J)+DSQRT (STRETCH1(K)*EIGVN1(I,K)*EIGVN1(J,K))
ENDDO
ENDDO
ENDDO

In this case, STRECHN1 stores the value of the squares of the stretches, and
EIGVN1(I,J) stores the I-th eigenvector component corresponding to the J-th
eigenvalue of C, where C is the right Cauchy-Green Tensor at t = n + 1 .
For shells and beams, kinematic variables are not available.
The total strain etotl(*) can be obtained using:
include’array2’
include ’heat’
include ’ngenel’
include ’space’
dinension etotl(6)
1a4=ietota+lofr+(nn-1)*ngenel-1
do i=1,ngenel
etotl(i)=varselem(1a4+i)
enddo

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■ UFINITE

Finite Deformation Isotropic Material Models

Description
This user subroutine is used for finite deformation isotropic material models based
on principal stretches. Both nonlinear elasticity and large strain plasticity models
can be implemented using this user subroutine. This user subroutine requires the
use of the LARGE STRAIN, 2 parameter. The UFINITE user subroutine is available for
plane strain, generalized plane strain, axisymmetric, axisymmetric with twist, and
3-D elements.

Format
User subroutine UFINITE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFINITE(STRECH,EIGV,DETFE,DETFT,DEFGR,DT,
1 DTDL,STRESS,TANGENT,M,NN,GF,D)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION STRECH(3),STRESS(3),TANGENT(3,3),EIGV(3,3),
2 DEFGR(3,3),DIMENSION N(2),COORD(NCRD,NNODE),
3 DISP(NDEG,NNODE),BEN(6),DT(1),DTDL(1),GF(1),D(1)

user coding

RETURN
END
where
Input:
STRECH is the squares of deviatoric trial elastic principal stretch ratios.
EIGV(I,J) is the I principal direction components for J eigenvalues of the trial
elastic left Cauchy-Green tensor (Finger tensor).
DEFGR is the total deformation gradient for continuum elements.
DETFE is the elastic part of the Jacobian.
DETFT is the total Jacobian.
DT is the array of the total state variables (temperature is first).
DTDL is the array of the incremental state variables.

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292 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

M is the user element number.


D is the array for material properties defined as
D(1) = bulk modulus at (DT + DTDL)
D(2) = shear modulus at (DT +DTDL)
D(3) = initial yield stress (at zero effective plastic strain)
D(4) = kinematic hardening modulus at (DT + DTDL)
D(5) = portion of isotropic hardening
D(6) = portion of kinematic hardening
D(7) = coefficient of linear thermal expansion
D(8) = bulk modulus at DT
D(9) = shear modulus at DT.
NN is the integration point number.
Required Output:
STRESS is the principal deviatoric Kirchhoff stress at the end of the increment.
TANGENT is the elasto-plastic material tangent in the principal space; relating the
total deviatoric Kirchhoff stress in principal space to the total principal
deviatoric logarithmic strains.
GF is the stress change due to temperature dependent properties.

This user subroutine allows the user to implement arbitrary finite elasticity and
large strain plasticity models. The user does not need to be concerned with
preserving objectivity under large rotations in large strain problems, but must only
deal with the small strain problem. The user needs to update principal deviatoric
Kirchhoff stresses and provide a consistent deviatoric part of tangent in principal
space and calculate any change in stresses due to temperature dependent thermal
properties. Marc calculates the kinematic large strain contributions to the tangent
automatically. The user does not need to calculate the pressure or the volumetric
part of the tangent. Also, transformation from the principal to global space for both
stresses and the tangent is done automatically by Marc.
If there are any state variables in the problem, you can use the array DT() to update
and return these state variables. The increments of the state variables must be
calculated and returned as the array DTDL(). DT() and DTDL() are the size NSTATS
where NSTATS is the number of state variables and is set in the PARAMETERS option
in the input file. It must be remembered that DT(1) and DTDL(1) are reserved for
the temperature and the temperature increment, respectively and are supplied to you
by Marc. The user must not change the values of DT(1) and DTDL(1) even in
isothermal problems. All variables DT(2) to DT(NSTATS) and DTDL(2) to
DTDL(NSTATS) are accessible to the user.

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The framework used in this user subroutine is based on principal stretches of the
trial left Cauchy-Green tensor. For more details, please refer to the work of Simo
and coworkers.
The rate of convergence of the global residual in this approach is critically
dependent on the accuracy of the consistent tangent and the accuracy of the
stress update procedure.

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294 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UELASTOMER

Generalized Strain Energy Function

3 Description
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive
Relations User Subroutines
This user subroutine allows definition of the user’s own hyperelastic models. The
subroutine is activated by one of the following model definition options: FOAM,
MOONEY, ARRUDBOYCE, GENT, and OGDEN. The UELASTOMER user subroutine
must be used with the LARGE STRAIN,2 parameter.
Foam Models
For compressible foam materials, four types of strain energy functions can be
defined using the UELASTOMER user subroutine, depending on the iflag entered in
the 4th field of the 3rd data block of the FOAM model definition option:
1. iflag = 1, Invariant-based model
W = W ( I 1, I 2, I 3 )

2. iflag = 2, Principal-stretch-based model


W = W ( λ 1, λ 2, λ 3 )

3. iflag = 3, Invariant-based model with volumetric and deviatoric split

W = W d e v ( I 1, I 2 ) + U ( J )

4. iflag = 4, Principal-stretch-based model with volumetric and deviatoric split

W = W d e v ( λ 1, λ 2, λ 3 ) + U ( J )

I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 ( λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 ) are strain invariants (principal stretches), and I 1 and


I2 ( λ1 , λ2 , and λ 3 ) are their deviatoric parts, defined by I 1 = J – 2 / 3 I 1 and
I 2 = J – 4 / 3 I 2 ( λ i = J – 1 / 3 λ i , i = 1, 2, 3 ) ; J is the determinant of the
deformation gradient.

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Marc uses conventional displacement elements for user-defined compressible foam


models (iflag from 1 to 4). No volumetric constraints are taken into account. For
incompressible or nearly incompressible rubber-like materials, rubber model with
iflag equal to 5 or 6 should be used. When using FEATURE,3401, iflag=7 also needs
to be used to define the volumetric strain energy.
Rubber Models
Because rubber-like materials are nearly incompressible, it is numerically more
efficient to split the energy function into a volumetric part and a deviatoric part. A
mixed formulation, which treats hydrostatic pressure as an independent variable, is
used in Marc to overcome the numerical difficulties coming from the volumetric
constraints. A linear relationship between pressure and volumetric strain is a
presupposition in the mixed formulation. Therefore, requiring only the deviatoric
part of energy function needs to be defined in the user subroutine for rubber-like
materials.
However, in many cases, the pressure-volumetric strain relationship is nonlinear.
For such cases, a new three-field formulation with pressure, volume ratio, and
displacement is available. Currently, the FEATURE,3402 parameter must be used in
order to activate this formulation. Also, in this case, both deviatoric and volumetric
strain energies must be defined.
Invariant-based rubber models can be defined using the UELASTOMER user
subroutine if the MOONEY, ARRUDBOYCE, or GENT model definition option is used.
5. iflag = 5, Invariant-based model, deviatoric part only

W = W d e v ( I 1, I 2 )

Principal-stretch-based rubber models can be defined using the UELASTOMER user


subroutine if a 3 is entered in the 3rd field of the 3rd data block of OGDEN model
definition option.
6. iflag = 6, Principal-stretch-based model, deviatoric part only

W = W d e v ( λ 1, λ 2, λ 3 )

Note: If iflag=5 or iflag=6, only the deviatoric part of the energy function is defined via the user
subroutine UELASTOMER. The volumetric part is calculated internally by Marc. For this
purpose, the bulk modulus MUST be defined with either MOONEY, or ARRUDBOYCE,
or GENT, or OGDEN model definition option.

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296 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

In case of the direct definition of material properties through input deck, if no bulk
modulus is given, the default bulk modulus is calculated as 5000 times initial shear
modulus. However, if UELASTOMER is used, the initial shear modulus is not explicitly
available and the bulk modulus must be directly defined.

7. iflag=7, Volumetric part of the strain energy (applicable to both,


invarinent as well as principal stretch-based, models)
W = U( J ))

Compared to the foam models (iflag from 1 to 4), working only for compressible
materials, the rubber-like model (iflag equal to 5 or 6) can be used for both
compressible and incompressible materials. The foam and rubber models (when
using FEATURE,3402 parameter with iflag=7) allow the user to define a general
nonlinear volumetric energy function.

Format
User subroutine UELASTOMER is written with the following headers:
subroutine (iflag,m,nn,matus,be,x1,x2,x3,detft,
$ enerd,w1,w2,w3,w11,w22,w33,w12,w23,w31,
$ dudj,du2dj,dt,dtdl,iarray,array)
c
c user defined, generalized strain energy function
c implemented in the framework of updated Lagrange
c
implicit real*8 (a-h,o-z)
dimension m(2),be(6),dt(*),dtdl(*),iarray(*),array(*)
dimension matus(2)
c
return
end
where:

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Input:
iflag Activated by FOAM model definition option:
= 1 energy function in terms of invariants
= 2 energy function in terms of principal stretches
= 3 energy function in terms of invariants with deviatoric split
= 4 energy function in terms of principal stretches with deviatoric split
Activated by MOONEY, or ARRUDBOYCE, or GENT model
definition option:
= 5 energy function in terms of invariants deviatoric part only. The bulk
modulus MUST be defined with either MOONEY, ARRUDBOYCE, or
GENT model definition option (except when using FEATURE,3402
where the bulk modulus must be defined as =-1; in which case, the
routine is called twice with iflag=6 and 7.)
Activated by OGDEN model definition option
= 6 energy function in terms of principal stretches deviatoric part only.
The bulk modulus MUST be defined with OGDEN model
definition option
= 7 energy function in terms of volumetric ratio only. This is possible with
FEATURE,3402 and the bulk modulus must be defined as -1
m(1) user element number
m(2) internal element number
nn integration point number
mats(1) user material identification number
mats(2) internal material identification number
be left Cauchy Green deformation tensor
x1,x2,x3 if iflag = 1: invariants of be
if iflag = 2: principal stretches
if iflag = 3: deviatoric part of invariants of be
if iflag = 4: deviatoric principal stretches
if iflag = 5: deviatoric part of invariants of be
if iflag = 6: deviatoric principal stretches
detft determinate of deformation gradient
dt array of state variables (temperature at first) at t n

dtdl incremental state variables


iarray not used

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298 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

array not used


Required Output:
enerd energy density at t n + 1

Foam Rubber
iflag = 1 iflag = 2 iflag = 3 iflag = 4 iflag = 5 iflag = 6 iflag = 7
W1 ∂W ∂W ∂W ∂W ∂W ∂W N/A
--------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
∂I 1 ∂λ 1 ∂I 1 ∂λ 1 ∂I 1 ∂λ 1
W2 ∂W ∂W ∂W ∂W ∂W ∂W N/A
--------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
∂I 2 ∂λ 2 ∂I 2 ∂λ 2 ∂I 2 ∂λ 2
W3 ∂W ∂W ∂W ∂W N/A
--------- --------- N/A --------- N/A ---------
∂I 3 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 3
W11 ∂2W ∂2W ∂2 W ∂2W ∂2 W ∂2W N/A
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
∂I 1 ∂λ 1 ∂I 1 ∂λ 1 ∂I 1 ∂λ 1
W22 ∂2W ∂2W ∂2 W ∂2W ∂2 W ∂2W N/A
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
-----------
2
∂I 2 ∂λ 2 ∂I 2 ∂λ 2 ∂I 2 ∂λ 2
W33 ∂2W ∂2W ∂2W ∂2W N/A
----------- ----------- N/A ----------- N/A -----------
2 2 2 2
∂I 3 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 3
W12 ∂2W ∂2W ∂2 W ∂2W ∂2 W ∂2W N/A
---------------- ------------------- ---------------- ------------------- ---------------- -------------------
∂I 1 ∂I 2 ∂λ 1 ∂λ 2 ∂I 1 ∂I 2 ∂λ 1 ∂λ 2 ∂I 1 ∂I 2 ∂λ 1 ∂λ 2
W23 ∂2W ∂2W ∂2W ∂2W N/A
---------------- ------------------- N/A ------------------- N/A -------------------
∂I 2 ∂I 3 ∂λ 2 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 2 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 2 ∂λ 3
W31 ∂2W ∂2W ∂2W ∂2W N/A
---------------- ------------------- N/A ------------------- N/A -------------------
∂I 3 ∂I 1 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 1 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 1 ∂λ 3 ∂λ 1
dudj ∂U ∂U ∂W
N/A N/A ------- ------- N/A N/A ---------
∂J ∂J ∂J
du2dj ∂2 U ∂2U ∂2 W
N/A N/A ---------2- ---------2- N/A N/A -----------
∂J ∂J ∂J 2

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ GENSTR

Generalized Stress Strain Law (Shells & Beams)

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to enter the generalized stress-strain law for
shells and beams which are conventionally integrated through their thickness. This
is often convenient in composite analysis where the experimental information is for
the total material, not individual plies. This option is activated using the SHELL
SECT parameter. As no layer integration is performed, the number of layers can be
set to one.
The user needs to provide the generalized stress-strain law D and the total
generalized stress at the end of the increment.

Format
User subroutine GENSTR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE GENSTR(D,DC,FCRP,ETOTA,DE,HT,S,T,DT,ER,EC,
* SR,SC,NGENS,M,N,NN,MATUS,IHRESP,ICRESP)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION D(NGENS,NGENS),DC(NGENS,NGENS),FCRP(1),ETOTA(1),
*
DE(1),S(1),T(1),DT(1),ER(1),EC(1),SR(1),SC(1),N(2),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ETOTA is the total strain array.
DE is the increment of strain array.
HT is the shell thickness.
S is the stress array.
T are the state variables (temperature).
DT are the increments of state variables.
ER is the real strain array during harmonic sub-increment.

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300 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

EC is the imaginary strain array during harmonic sub-increment.


NGENS is the number of generalized stress.
M is the internal element number.
N is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
IHRESP is the flag to indicate harmonic sub-increment.
IHRESP=0 during a transient analysis.
IHRESP=1 during a harmonic sub-increment.
ICRESP indicates complex harmonic sub-increment.
Required Output:
D is the generalized real stress-strain law to be defined here.
DC is the generalized imaginary stress-strain law.
FCRP is the change in stress due to ‘temperature effects’ to be defined here.
SR is the real harmonic stress.
SC is the imaginary harmonic stress.

During transient increments, the user defines D, S, and FCRP.


During harmonic subincrements the user defines D, DC, SR, and SC.
For thick shell elements (types 22, 75, and 140):
Components Description
1, 2, and 3 are membrane strains
4 and 5 are transverse shear strains
6, 7, and 8 are curvatures (correspond to 1, 2, and 3)
9 and 10 are physically undefined (correspond to 4 and 5)
11 and 12 are inplane rotation terms related to drilling degrees of freedom (only
element 22 has component 12)

For thin shell elements (types 4, 8, 24, 49, 72, 138, and 139):
Components Description
1, 2, and 3 are membrane strains
4, 5, and 6 are curvatures (correspond to 1, 2, and 3)
7 is an inplane rotation term related to drilling degrees of freedom (only
elements 138 and 139 have component 7)

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ UBEAM

Input for Nonlinear Beam

Description
The UBEAM user subroutine allows the user to define nonlinear elastic cross-section
properties as a function of generalized elastic strains and state variables for beam
element 52 or beam element 98:
This is used in conjunction with the hypoelastic option. The user must use the
HYPOELASTIC model definition option.

Note: This user subroutine should not be used if the material properties or the beam cross-
section data are design variables. Use the ISOTROPIC and GEOMETRY option instead.

Format
User subroutine UBEAM is written with the following headers.
SUBROUTINE UBEAM(D,FCRP,DF,DFI,ETOT,DE,DEI,S,SI,GS,GSI,
+TEMP,DTEMP,NGENS,N,NN,MATUS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSIOND(NGENS,NGENS),DF(1),S(1),GS(NGENS),DE(NGENS),
+TEMP(1),DTEMP(1),FCRP(1),ETOT(1),DFI(1),DEI(NGENS),SI(1),
GSI(1),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ETOT are the total generalized strains.
DE are the increments of generalized strain.
DEI are the increments of imaginary generalized strain, if complex
harmonic analysis.
S is not used.
SI is not used.

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302 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

GS is passed in as the total generalized stress at the beginning of the


increment, and must be redefined as the total stress generalized at the
end of the increment.
GSI are the increments of generalized harmonic stress, if complex
harmonic analysis.
TEMP are the total state variables at the beginning of the increment.
DTEMP are the increments of state variables.
NGENS is the number of generalized stress.
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
Required Output:
D is the matrix of cross-section stiffness properties (to be defined in this
user subroutine).
FCRP is the generalized stress increment caused by change in state variables (to
be defined in this user subroutine).
DF are the increments of generalized stress (to be defined in this user
subroutine).
DFI are the increments of imaginary generalized stress, if complex
harmonic analysis.

The components of generalized strain and stress for element 52 are:


ETOT(1) Axial strain
ETOT(2) Curvature change in first bending direction
ETOT(3) Curvature change in second bending direction
ETOT(4) Twist of the beam
GS(1) Axial force
GS(2) Bending moment in first bending direction
GS(3) Bending moment in second bending direction
GS(4) Twisting moment
The components of generalized strain and stress for element 98 are:
ETOT(1) Axial strain
ETOT(2) Local γxy shear
ETOT(3) Local γyz shear

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ETOT(4) Curvature change in first bending direction


ETOT(5) Curvature change in second bending direction
ETOT(6) Twist of the beam
GS(1) Axial force
GS(2) Local τxy shear
GS(3) Local τyz shear
GS(4) Bending moment in the first bending direction
GS(5) Bending moment in the second bending direction
GS(6) Twisting moment

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304 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UCOHESIVE

Interface Material Model


Description
The UCOHESIVE user subroutine is provided to allow the user to enter a material
model used by the interface elements 186 to 192. The call to this user subroutine is
triggered by the COHESIVE model definition option, where the cohesive material
type has to be set to -1. Material data entered on the COHESIVE option is available
within this user subroutine.
Unlike conventional stress elements, the material behavior of the interface elements
is defined in terms of stresses and relative displacements instead of stresses and
strains. The element stresses are the so-called tractions and consist of one normal
and one shear stress component for 2-D elements (186, 187, 190, and 191) and one
normal and two shear components for 3-D elements (188, 189, 192, and 193). The
stress and relative displacement components are given in the local element
coordinate system (see Marc Volume B: Element Library).
In order to cope with multi-axial stress states, the equivalent relative opening
displacement can be used. When UCOHESIVE is used, this variable can be set by the
user to, for example, keep track of the loading history at the element integration
point. The use of this variable is optional. For postprocessing purposes, one can
define a damage parameter (corresponding to post code 80).

Format
The UCOHESIVE user subroutine is written with the following headers:

SUBROUTINE UCOHESIVE(D,ETOT,E,S,SEND,NGENS,RELOP,DT,DTDL,
NCYCLE,MDUM,NN,KCUS,MATUS,COHPROP)
INCLUDE ’../COMMON/IMPLICIT’
DIMENSION D(NGENS,NGENS),ETOT(*),E(*),S(*),SEND(*),
$ RELOP(*),DT(*),DTDL(*),KCUS(*),MATUS(*),COHPROP(*)

user coding

RETURN
END

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User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

where:
Required Input:
ETOT is the accumulated total relative displacements at beginning of increment
E is the current incremental relative displacements
S is the accumulated stress at beginning of increment
NGENS is the number of stress components
DT is the state variables
DTDL is the incremental state variables
NCYCLE is the current cycle number
MDUM(1) is the user element number
MDUM(2) is the internal element number
NN is the integration point number
KCUS(1) is the user layer number
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier
COHPROP is the cohesive material properties defined via the COHESIVE model
definition option
Required Output:
D is the matrix defining the relation between the stresses and the
relative displacements
SEND is the total stress at end of increment
Optional Output:
RELOP(1) is the equivalent relative opening displacement
RELOP(2) is the damage parameter

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306 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UPHI

Input of PHI Function in Harmonic Analysis

Description
This user subroutine allows the input of PHI functions to be expressed analytically.
The values of PHI are then passed into a Marc user subroutine where they are used
in calculation of the Laplace transform for harmonic analysis.

Format
User subroutine UPHI is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPHI(ELCG,FREQ,WI1,WI2,C10,C01,C11,C20,C30,NDI,
*NSHEAR,FI0,FI1,FI2,FI11,FI12,FI21,FI22,IFLAG,DERIVS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION ELCG(1),DERIVS(1)

user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ELCG is the left Cauchy-Green strain vector.
FREQ is the excitation frequency in radians/ time unit.
WI1,WI2 are the first and second invariants of ELCG.
C10,C01,C11,C20,C30 are the five material parameters of the Mooney formulation.
NDI is the number of direct strain components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear strain components.
IFLAG = 1: The sine PHI functions should be defined.
IFLAG = 2: The cosine PHI functions should be defined.
DERIVS is the array which contains the variables W, W1, W2, W11,
W12, W21, and W22.
Required Output:
FI0,FI1,FI2,FI11,FI1 are the seven PHI functions which should be defined in this
2,FI21,FI22 user subroutine by the user.

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where:
W is the strain energy density.
W1 is ∂W ⁄ ∂I 1 .

W2 is ∂W ⁄ ∂I 2 .

W11 2 2
is ∂ W ⁄ ∂I .
1
W12 is ∂ 2 W ⁄ ∂I 1 ∂I 2 .

W21 2
is ∂ W ⁄ ∂I 2 ∂I 1 .

W22 2 2
is ∂ W ⁄ ∂I 2 .

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308 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UCOMPL

Input of Viscous Stress Strain Relationship

Description
The UCOMPL user subroutine allows the user to input a real (elastic) and imaginary
(damping) stress-strain relation for complex harmonic analysis. If not used, only the
real portion is formed in the conventional manner. This user subroutine is called for
all elements, integration points, and layers in a harmonic subincrement. the user
specifies the C matrix and can alter the existing B matrix if necessary. The stress is
then calculated from σ = Bε + Cε· where ε, ε· are the harmonic strain and strain
rate, respectively.

Format
User subroutine UCOMPL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCOMPL(C,B,ETOT,EELAS,EPLAS,S,T,XINTP,COORD,
2 DISPT,FREQ,N,NN,KCUS,NGENS,INC,INCSUB,NDEG,NCRD,NDI,
NSHEAR)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION C(NGENS,NGENS),B(NGENS,NGENS),ETOT(1),
2 EELAS(1),EPLAS(1),T(1),XINTP(NCRD),COORD(NCRD,1),
2 DISPT(NDEG,1),N(2),KCUS(2)
C USER SUBROUTINE TO INPUT A COMPLEX STRESS STRAIN LAW
C FOR HARMONIC ANALYSIS C IS IMAGINARY PART
C B IS REAL PART

user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
ETOT are the total strains.
EELAS are the total elastic strains.
EPLAS are the plastic strains.
S are the stresses.

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T are the total state variables (temperature first).


XINTP are the coordinates of this integration point.
COORD are the coordinates of the nodes of this element.
DISPT are the total displacements of the nodes of this element.
FREQ is the harmonic frequency in radians/time unit.
N(1) is the user’s element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
NGENS is the number of stress-strain components; for Herrmann elements, this
includes the Herrmann variable.
INC is the increment number.
INCSUB is the subincrement number.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node.
NDI is the number of direct component of stress.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components of stress.
Required Output:
C is the imaginary damping part of the stress-strain law.
B is the real elastic part of the stress-strain law.

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310 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ GAPU

Input of Gap Direction And Closure Distance

Description
This user subroutine allows input or modification of the direction and closure
distance of gap element type 12 and 97 based on the current position of the end
nodes of the element. This makes it possible to model contact sliding along curved
surfaces which can occur in the analysis of metal forming problems. Although the
gap direction and closing distance can be changed, this user subroutine does not
allow for finite sliding of two meshes with respect to each other, since the load
transfer path is unchanged. In addition, it allows for specification of a nonlinear
relationship between the normal force and the maximum friction force instead of the
regular linear Coulomb relation.
Note: If this user subroutine is used to change the direction of the gap, friction should not
be included.

The user subroutine also allows the user to specify certain tolerances to control gap
closure and friction iterations. This last feature is not generally used.

Format
User subroutine GAPU calls for the following headers:
SUBROUTINE GAPU(DIR,DIST,X1,X4,TOL1,TOL2,TOL3,M,MSUB,INC,
+NCR,FN,FF)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DIR(3),X1(3),X4(3),M(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
X1 is the current array of coordinates of the first node of the element.
X4 is the current array of coordinates of the fourth node of the element.
TOL1 is the tolerance on gap overclosure. Default is 0.

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TOL2 is the tolerance on gap force which allows the gap to remain closed even if
small negative force.
TOL3 is the tolerance on frictional force. Default is 0.
M(1) is your element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
MSUB is the subelement number (only for Marc element type 97).
INC is the current increment number.
NCR is the dimension of the gap.
2 for 2-D problems.
3 for 3-D problems.
FN is the current gap force.
Required Output:
DIR is the array of direction cosines of the current gap direction. This can be
modified by the user.
DIST is the current closure distance (distance that the nodes must travel to obtain
closure), which is to be defined by the user.
FF is the frictional force limit, to be specified by the user.

In two dimensional problems, DIR, X1, and X4 have two components; otherwise,
DIR, X1, and X4 have three components.

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312 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UGASKET

Define the Initial Gasket Gap Distance

Description
In modeling gaskets, it is often easiest to specify a uniform gasket thickness and
define an initial gap distance. This gap distance is a reflection that the gap does not
fill the complete region. This user subroutine provides a mechanism to define a
nonuniform gap distance.

Format
The UGASKET User subroutine calls for the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UGASKET(MDUM,NN,XINTP,NCRD,NGASK,GASGAP)
REAL*8 GASGAP,XINTP
INTEGER MDUM, NCRD, NGASK, NN
DIMENSION XINTP(NCRDS),MDUM(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MDUM(1) is the element id.
MDUM(2) is the internal element storage number.
NN is the integration point number.
XINTP is the array with integration point coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
NGASK is the gasket material number.
Required Output:
GASGAP is the initial gap distance (to be defined).

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■ USELEM

User-defined Element

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to calculate his own finite element stiffness or
mass matrix. This can also be used as interface with other numerical techniques. In
general, in the finite element calculation, several matrices are required; hence, for
a particular element, this user subroutine is called a multiple number of times. The
calls and the user’s requirements are defined as follows:

IFLAG=1 Return the equivalent nodal loads (F) given distributed surface or body
loads. If the ELASTIC, FOLLOW FOR parameters or the AUTO STEP,
AUTO TIME, AUTO INCREMENT options are used, these are total loads or
else incremental loads. In a heat transfer analysis, this is the total
flux vector.
IFLAG=2 Return the element tangent stiffness matrix (K). For an elastic analysis, this
is the usual stiffness. For a heat transfer matrix analysis, this is the
conductivity matrix. Also calculate the total internal forces (R). This is not
necessary in a linear elastic analysis if the LOAD COR parameter has been
turned off.
IFLAG=3 Return the mass matrix (M) for a dynamic analysis or specific heat matrix for
a heat transfer problem.
IFLAG=4 Calculate the incremental strains (DE), generalized stresses (GSIGS) and
the internal force (R). For a linear elastic solution, if only displacements are
required, the user does not need to return any values. In a heat transfer
analysis, the thermal gradient and the heat fluxes (both stored via SIGXX)
and the internal flux vector (R) need to be calculated.
IFLAG=5 Output element results if so desired.

To use this option, the USER parameter must be included to define the size of the
element stiffness matrix and other critical dimensions and the element type given
on the connectivity must be a negative number.

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314 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine USELEM calls for the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USELEM(M,XK,XM,NNODE,NDEG,F,R,
* JTYPE,DISPT,DISP,NDI,NSHEAR,IPASS,NSTATS,NGENEL,
* INTEL,COORD,NCRD,IFLAG,IDSS,T,DT,ETOTA,GSIGS,DE,
* GEOM,JGEOM,SIGXX,NSTRMU)

IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)

DIMENSION
XK(IDSS,IDSS),XM(IDSS,IDSS),DISPT(NDEG,*),DISP(NDEG,*)
DIMENSION T(NSTATS,*),DT(NSTATS,*),COORD(NCRD,*)
DIMENSION ETOTA(NGENEL,*),GSIGS(NGENEL,*),DE(NGENEL,*)
DIMENSION F(NDEG,*),R(NDEG,*),SIGXX(NSTRMU,*),GEOM(*),
JGEOM(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the user element number.
NNODE is the number of nodes per element.
NDEG is the maximum number of degrees of freedom per node.
JTYPE is the user element type (negative).
DISPT is the total nodal displacements array of this element.
In heat transfer, DISPT is the temperature array at which material
properties were last calculated.
DISP is the incremental nodal displacements of this element.
In heat transfer, DISP is the total current nodal temperatures of
this element.
NDI is the number of direct components of stress/internal heat flux.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components of stress.
In heat transfer, NSHEAR is zero.

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IPASS Flag to indicate which pass for coupled analysis.


= 1 during a stress analysis pass.
= 2 during a heat transfer pass.
= 3 during a fluid pass.
= 4 during a Joule heating pass.
= 5 during a pore pressure pass.
= 6 during an electrostatic pass.
= 7 during a magnetostatic pass.
= 8 during an electromagnetic pass.
NSTATS is the number of state variables.
NGENEL is the number of generalized strains.
INTEL is the number of integration points.
COORD is the original nodal coordinates array.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
IFLAG indicates what is to be returned by the user.
= 1 Called by OPRESS during formation of load vector.
You return F.
= 2 Called by OASEMB during formation of stiffness matrix.
You return XK,R.
= 3 Called by OASMAS during formation of mass matrix.
The user returns XM.
= 4 Called by OGETST during stress recovery.
The user returns R,GSIGS,DE,ETOTA,SIGXX for stress
analysis pass.
The user returns R, SIGXX for heat transfer pass.
= 5 Called by SCIMP during output phase.
The user prints the results.
IDSS is the size of element stiffness matrix.
T is the state variables.
DT is the increment of state variables.
GEOM is the array of the geometric parameters.
JGEOM is the array of table ids for the geometric parameters.
NSTRMU is the number of stresses/heat fluxes per integration points.
Required Output:
XK is the stiffness matrix or conductivity matrix.
XM is the mass matrix or specific heat matrix.
F is the externally applied equivalent nodal loads/nodal fluxes array.
R is the internal forces/fluxes array.

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316 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

ETOTA is the total strain array.


Not used in heat transfer.
GSIGS is the generalized stress array.
Not used in heat transfer.
DE is the increment of strain array.
Not used in heat transfer.
SIGXX is layer stresses for shell elements and is equal to GSIGS for
continuum element.
In the heat transfer pass, SIGXX contains the thermal gradients and the
heat fluxes.

Note that the stiffness matrix is normally symmetric. If a nonsymmetric formulation


is used, the SOLVER option should be used to indicate this.

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■ UNEWTN

Input of Viscosity in Flow Analysis

Description
It is possible to solve Newtonian and non-Newtonian laminar incompressible
steady state fluid analyses using the R-P FLOW parameter in Marc. The UNEWTN
user subroutine is used to define the viscosity at a particular spatial location. An
Eulerian approach is then used to solve for the nodal velocities. This user
subroutine can also be used to define the nonlinear viscosity in Navier Stokes fluid
analysis when the FLUID parameter is used.

Format
User subroutine UNEWTN is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UNEWTN (N,NN,V,E,NGENS,DT,DTDL)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION E(NGENS),N(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N(1) is the user’s element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
E are the components of the strain rate.
NGENS is the number of components.
DT is the temperature at the beginning of the increment.
DTDL is the increment of temperature.
Required Output:
V is the viscosity to be defined here.

Note: If Herrmann elements are used, the last component of E represents a rate of change of
volumetric strain.

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318 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ URPFLO

Rigid-Plastic Flow

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the current yield stress as a function
of the equivalent strain rate, equivalent strain, temperature, and user-defined
state variables. This user subroutine is used in conjunction with the transient
R-P FLOW parameter.

Format
User subroutine URPFLO is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE URPFLO(MDUM,NN,KCUS,MATUS,INC,NDI,NGENS,NCRD,
+NSTAT,CPTIM,TIMINC,EBAR,ERATE,DT,DTDL,STATS,DSTATS,
+COORD,YD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION MDUM(2),STATS(NSTAT),DSTATS(NSTAT),COORD(NCRD)
DIMENSION MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MDUM(1) element number.
MDUM(2) internal element/elsto number.
NN integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) user material identification number.
MATUS(2) internal material identification number.
INC increment number.
NDI number of direct components.
NGENS total number of components.
NCRD number of coordinates.

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NSTAT number of state variables excluding temperature.


CPTIM time at beginning of increment.
TIMINC incremental time.
DT temperature at beginning of increment.
DTDL incremental temperature.
EBAR total equivalent strain at beginning of increment.
STATS values of state variables excluding temperature at beginning of
increment.
ERATE equivalent strain rate.
COORD integration point coordinates.
Required Output:
YD equivalent stress; if not calculated here, Marc finds the value of yd from
the input data.
DSTATS incremental state variables (excluding temperature).

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320 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UARRBO

Arruda-Boyce Material Model

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to redefine the constants used in the strain
energy function. This data is normally entered through the ARRUDBOYCE model
definition option.
The form of the strain energy function is:

2 3 4 5
W = n k θ --- ( I 1 – 3 ) + ---------- ⎛ I – 9⎞ + ------------------2- ⎛ I – 27⎞ + ------------------3- ⎛ I – 81⎞ + ------------------------4- ⎛ I – 243⎞ + …
1 1 11 19 519
2 20 N ⎝ 1 ⎠
1050 N 1
⎝ ⎠
7000 N 1
⎝ ⎠
673750 N 1
⎝ ⎠

Format
User subroutine UARRBO is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UARRBO(A1,A2,T,N,NN,MATUS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION N(2),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
T is the temperature.
N(1) is your element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
Required Output:
A1 = nkθ is the linear term (in the strain energy function) to be defined by the user.
A2 = N is the number of statistical links of length l in the chain between chemical
crosslinks (in the strain energy function) to be defined by the user.

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■ UGENT

Gent Material Model

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to redefine the constants used in the strain
energy function. This data is normally entered through the GENT model
definition option.
The form of the strain energy function is:

E ⎛ I1 – 3 ⎞
W = – --- ( I m – 3 ) log ⎜ 1 – ---------------⎟
6 ⎝ I m – 3⎠

Format
User subroutine UGENT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UGENT(E,AI,T,N,NN,MATUS,BUKLM)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION N(2),MATUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
T is the temperature.
N(1) is the user’s element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
MATUS(1) is the user’s material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.

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322 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Required Output:
E = E is the modulus (used in the strain energy function) to be defined by
the user.
AI = Im is the maximum value of first invariant (used in the strain energy function)
to be defined by the user.
BUKLM is the bulk modulus K (to be defined); if not defined, BULKM = 10000.*E/6

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■ UACOUS

Definition of Material Properties for Acoustic Analysis

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to redefine the material constants of an
acoustic medium (fluid) as a function of the frequency in an acoustic harmonic
analysis. This data is normally entered through the ACOUSTIC model
definition option.

Format
User subroutine UACOUS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UACOUS(MDUM,FREQC,XKF,DRAG,RHOHT)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION MDUM(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MDUM(1) is the user’s element number.
MDUM(2) is the Marc element storage number.
FREQC is the frequency in cycles per time.
Required Output:
XKF is the fluid bulk modulus to be defined by the user.
DRAG is the fluid volumetric drag to be defined by the user.
RHOHT is the fluid density to be defined by the user.

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324 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USSUBS

Superelements Not Generated by Marc


Description
This user subroutine allows you to enter stiffness matrix, mass matrix, conductivity
matrix, capacity matrix, load vector, internal force vector, or output for
superelements not generated by Marc.
The number of superelements and the dimension are given via SUPER parameter
and the connectivity of the superelements is given via the SUPERINPUT model
definition option.

Format
User subroutine USSUBS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USSUBS(NLEV,NSS,IC,NODSUB,NDEG,LMI,LM,
* TIME,TIMINC,INC,IPASS,
* XLOAD,XDISP,XRESI,XMAT)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION LMI(NODSUB),LM(NODSUB)
DIMENSION XLOAD(NDEG,NODSUB),XDISP(NDEG,NODSUB),
* XRESI(NDEG,NODSUB)
DIMENSION XMAT(NDEG*NODSUB,NDEG*NODSUB)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NLEV is the superelement level = 1.
NSS is the superelement number.

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IC = 1: return XLOAD (XDISP,XRESI,XMAT not filled)


= 2: return XMAT (stiffness matrix) (XLOAD,XDISP,XRESI not filled)
= 3: return XRESI or if IC is reset to -3 return XMAT, the program will
calculate XRESI=XMAT*XDISP
XLOAD,MXAT not filled XDISP filled
= 4: output phase
XLOAD,XRESI,XMAT not filled XDISP filled
= 5: return Xmat (mass matrix) XLOAD,XDISP,XRESI not filled
= 6: return XMAT (damping matrix) XLOAD,XDISP,XRESI not filled
NODSUB is the number of nodes in the superelement.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node in the superelement.
LIM( ) is the node id’s of the superelement.
LM() is the future expansion.
TIME is the transient time at the start of the increment.
TIMINC is the incremental time period.
INC is the increment number.
IPASS Flag to indicate which pass for coupled analysis.
= 1 during a stress analysis pass.
= 2 during a heat transfer pass.
= 3 during a fluid pass - not supported.
= 4 during a Joule heating pass.
= 5 during a pore pressure pass.
= 6 during an electrostatic pass.
= 7 during a magnetostatic pass.
= 8 during an electromagnetic pass.
XDISP( ) is the displacement of the superelement.
Required Output:
XLOAD( ) is the external load vector on the superelement; this is total external force.
XRESI( ) in the internal force vector for the superelement
XRESI=XMAT*XDISP (if linear)
XMAT( ) is the stiffness, mass, damping matrix of the superelement.

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326 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UPYROLSL

Calculate the Rate of Decomposition

Description
This user subroutine allows you to define the rate of decomposition due to pyrolysis
as an alternative to the Arrhenius law. This routine is called at Streamline
Integration Point during pyrolysis if requested or at each conventional integration
point if D’Arcy law model is used.

Format
User subroutine UPYROLSL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPYROLSL(IREG,ISTL,MATE,IEND,NCRD,XSIP,CPTIM,
* DELTIM,ND,ARRPRY,PHIJN,PHIJN1,XSIPN,TEMPE,DRODT)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION ARRPY(6,ND),PHIJN(ND),PHIJN1(ND)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
IREG is the region ID (Streamline model).
is the element number (D’Arcy flow).
ISTL is the streamline ID (Streamline flow).
is the integration point number (D’Arcy flow).
MATE is the material ID.
IEND is the flag indicating if end SIP on streamline:
= -1 first point (interior)
= 0 point along streamline
= +1 last point (exterior)
= 0 for D’Arcy flow
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
XSID is the coordinate of streamline integration point, or conventional integration
point for D’Arcy flow.
CPTIM is the time at beginning of increment.

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DELTIM is the increment in time.


ARRPRY is the coefficients.
TEMPE is the current temperature.
ND is the number of terms in Arrhenius series.
ARRPRY is the Arrhenius coefficients.
PHIJN is φ j at beginning of the increment.

XSIPN is the rate of pyrolysis.


Required Output:
DRODT is the time gradient of solid density due to pyrolysis.
PHJN1 is φ j at end of the increment.

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328 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UCOKSL

Calculate the Mass Fraction of Carbon in Pyrolysis Gas

Description
This user subroutine allows you to define the mass fraction of carbon in the
pyrolysis gas as an alternative to the Arrhenius law. This routine is called at each
Stream Integration Point, while coking, for coking model if requested or at each
conventional integration point if D’Arcy law model is used.

Format
User subroutine UCOKSL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCOKSL(IREG,ISTL,MATE,IEND,NCRD,XXSIP,CPTIM,
* DELTIM,AKCGN,AKCGN1,XSICN,NC,ARRCOK,PRESSURE,TEMPE)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION ARRCOK(4,NC),XXSIP(NCRD)
C USER RETURNS AKCGN1
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
IREG is the region ID (Streamline model).
is the element number (D’Arcy flow).
ISTL is the streamline id (Streamline flow).
is the integration point number (D’Arcy flow).
MATE is the material ID.
IEND is the flag indicating if end SIP on streamline:
= -1 first point (interior)
= 0 point along streamline
= +1 last point (exterior)
= 0 for D’Arcy flow
NCRD number of coordinates.

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XXSIP is the coordinate of streamline integration point or conventional integration


point for D’Arcy flow.
CPTIM is the time at beginning of increment.
DELTIM is the increment in time.
AKCGN is the mass fraction of carbon in pyrolysis gases at previous time.
XSICN is the fraction of coking.
NC is the number of Arrhenius coefficients.
ARRCOK is the coefficients.
PRESSURE is the pressure.
TEMPE is the current temperature.
Required Output:
AKCGN1 is the mass fraction of carbon in pyrolysis gases at current time.

Example
C
C EXAMPLE : THE ARRHENIUS MODEL
C
INCLUDE '../COMMON/MRCPARM'
PRESSURE=1.0D0
DKCG=-1.D0*ARRCOK(1,1)*EXP(-
1.D0*ARRCOK(2,1)/(UNVGAS*TEMPE))
* *(PRESSURE*(AKCG-ARRCOK(4,1)))**ARRCOK(3,1)
AKCGN1=AKCGN+DKCG*DELTIM

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330 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UWATERSL

Calculate the Rate of Water Evaporation

Description
This user subroutine allows you to define the rate of evaporation of the water
component in the pyrolysis analysis. The water vapor created contributes to the
pyrolysis gas. This user routine is an alternative to the Arrhenius law or the Sullivan
and Stokes model. This routine is called at each Stream Integration Point or each
conventional integration point if D’Arcy law is used, and the water drying state is
less than 0.98.

Format
User subroutine UWATERSL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCOKSL(IREG,ISTL,MATE,IEND,NCRD,XSIP,CPTIM,
* DELTIM,ARRWVP,PHIWN,RHOL0,TEMPE,DRODT)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION ARRWVP(4),XSIP(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
IREG is the region ID (Streamline model).
is the element number (D’Arcy flow).
ISTL is the streamline ID (Streamline flow).
is the integration point number (D’Arcy flow).
MATE is the material ID.
IEND is the flag indicating if end SIP on streamline:
= -1 first point (interior)
= 0 point along streamline
= +1 last point (exterior)
= 0 for D’Arcy flow
NCRD is the number of coordinates.

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CHAPTER 3 331
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

XSIP is the coordinate of streamline integration point.


CPTIM is the time at beginning of increment.
DELTIM increment in time.
ARRWVP(4) is the coefficients.
PHIWN is the φ j (advancement variable of water drying) at current point, at
previous time step.
RHO10 is the initial mass density of liquid water.
TEMPE is the current temperature.
Required Output:
DRODT is the time gradient of liquid density due to water drying.

It may be useful to obtain the universal gas constant which is available in


variable UNVGAS in COMMON MRCPARM.

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332 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UPYROLEFF

Define the Effective Conductivity

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the effective conductivity for a
material subjected to pyrolysis. This may be used as an alternative to the ATAS
(linear) model or the CMA-PTIMAD (weighted average) model. This routine is
called at all integration points for those materials identified on the THERMO-PORE
option. The number of effective conductivities that must be defined is one for
isotropic materials or between 1 and 6 depending on the level of anisotropy desired.
The values of the conductivity (virgin, charred, and coked) provided already include
the effects of tables, so the temperature dependence, and/or nonhomogeneous
behavior is already accounted for.

Format
User subroutine UPYROLSL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPYROLEFF(M,N,NN,KC,IFLAG,INEED,MATE,IP,IC,IW,
*
XDP,XDC,PHIW,CONDEFF,ECONDVR,ECONDC,ECONDCK,ECONDL,RHO,RHON,
* DT,TEE,CPTIM,DELTIM)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION CONDEFF(*),ECONDVR(*),ECONDC(*),ECONDCK(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the user element number.
N is the elsto number.
NN is the integration point number.
KC is the layer number (always 1).
IFLAG 1 return conductivity - called by konduc.f.

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INEED is the number of components to be returned:


- 1 return 11
- 2 return 11 and 22
- 3 return 11, 12, and 22
- 4 return 11, 22, and 33
- 5 return 11, 12, 13, 22, 23 and 33
MATE is the material ID.
IP is ne.0 - pyrolysis allowed.
IC is ne.0 - coking allowed.
IW is the water model/drying allowed
XDF is the fraction charred (0 to 1)
XDC is the fraction coked (0 to 1)
PHIW is the water drying state
CONDEFF is the effective conductivity to be returned by user
ECONDVR is the virgin conductivity, evaluated at the current temperature, etc.
ECONDC is the charred conductivity, evaluated at the current temperature, etc.
ECONDK is the coked conductivity, evaluated at the current temperature, etc.
ECOND1 is the coked conductivity, evaluated at the current temperature, etc.
RHO is the array of material densities
RHON is the material density at the beginning of the increment
DT is the temperature at the beginning of the increment
TEE is the temperature at the end of the increment
CPTIM is the time at the beginning of the increment
DELTIM is the increment of time

The conductivity in ECONDVR, ECONDC, and ECONDK is stored as follows:


k11 1st component
k22 2nd component
k33 3rd component
k12 4th component
k13 5th component
k23 6th component

For ρ :
1 virgin material
2 charred material

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334 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

3 not used
4 not used
5 not used
6 liquid data
7 coke data

The conductivity in CONDEFF is output as follows:


k11 1st component
k12 2nd component
k13 3rd component
k22 4th component
k23 5th component
k33 6th component

For isotropic material INEED=1, and only the 1st component CONDEFF(1) needs to
be returned.

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CHAPTER 3 335
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

■ USPCHTAB

Define Specific Heat for Simplified Pyrolysis Model

Description
This USPCHTAB user subroutine would allow the user to specify the specific heat
for the simplified pyrolysis model. This routine is called at every integration point
when the THERMO-PORE option indicates that the simplified model is to be used.

Format
The USPCHTAB user subroutine is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USPCHTAB(SPHEAT,M,NN,KC,INC,NCYCLE,MATS,NSTATS,
* TEMP0,DTEMP,TIME,DTIME,RANGE,IFIRST,TPYRBEG,TCOMBEND)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:

Input:
M element number
NN integration point number
KC layer number
ING increment
NCYCLE current cycle number
MATS material id
NSTATS number of state variables
TEMP0 temperature at beginning of increment
DTEMP estimated temperature increment
TIME time at beginning of increment
DTIME time increment
RANGE lowest and highest previous temperature
IFIRST flag to indicate which curve - either 1 or 2

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336 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TPYRBEG temperature when pyrolysis begins


TCOMBEND temperature when combustion ends
Required Output
SPHEAT specific heat on input set to standard value from input cards

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CHAPTER 3 337
User-defined Anisotropy and Constitutive Relations User Subroutines

References
1. Simo, J. C. and Taylor, R. L., “Quasi incompressible finite elasticity in
principal stretches. Continuum basis and numerical algorithms”, Comp.
Meth. App. Mech. Engrg., 85, pp. 273-310, 1991.
2. Simo, J. C., “Algorithms for static and dynamic multiplicative plasticity
that preserve the classical return mapping schemes of the infinitesimal
theory”, Comp. Meth. App. Mech. Engrg., 99, pp. 61-112, 1992.

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338 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

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Chapter 4 Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines List

4 Viscoplasticity and
Generalized Plasticity User
Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

ASSOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

CRPLAW (Viscoplastic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

NASSOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

SINCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

UCRPLW (Viscoplastic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346


UVSCPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

YIEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

ZERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

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340 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

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Chapter 4 Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines

4 Viscoplasticity and
Generalized Plasticity
User Subroutines

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342 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

The user subroutines in this chapter are used to describe viscoplastic materials or a
user-defined general plasticity model. There are two numeric procedures for
viscoplasticity: implicit and explicit. This is activated on the CREEP parameter. The
implicit method is preferred. The generalized plasticity allows the user to develop
a yield surface, equivalent stress, and flow rate that is different from one provided
by Marc. Table 4-1 summarizes these routines and indicates what parameters or
model definition options are required to invoke the user subroutine.
Table 4-1 Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutine Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options
ASSOC ISOTROPIC – GEN-PLAST Definition of the direction of incremental plastic strain
in generalized plasticity model.
CRPLAW CREEP Definition of inelastic strain rate for explicit
viscoplasticity model.
NASSOC CREEP Definition of direction of incremental viscoplastic
strain for explicit viscoplasticity model.
SINCER ISOTROPIC – GEN-PLAST Definition of fraction of increment which is elastic for
generalized plasticity model.
UCRPLW CREEP Definition of complex relationships for the
factors in the power law expression for the creep
strain rate
UVSCPL CREEP Definition of inelastic strain rate for implicit
ISOTROPIC – VISCO-PLASTIC viscoplastic model.
YIEL ISOTROPIC, Definition of yield stress.
ORTHOTROPIC or
ANISOTROPIC
ZERO ISOTROPIC, Definition of equivalent stress.
ORTHOTROPIC or
ANISOTROPIC

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CHAPTER 4 343
Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines

■ UVSCPL

Definition of the Inelastic Strain Rate

Description
This user subroutine is used for computing the inelastic strain increment for an
elastic-viscoplastic material. This routine allows very general material laws to be
entered. The user must define the inelastic strain and the stress increment.
This user subroutine is activated when the implicit creep procedure is used, and
VISCO PLAS material is selected on the ISOTROPIC or ORTHOTROPIC option.

Format
User subroutine UVSCPL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UVSCPL(YOUNG,POISS,SHEAR,B,USTRRT,ETOT,E,
1 THMSTI,EELAS,S,SINC,GF,EPL,AVGINE,EQCRP,EQCPNC,YD,YD1,
2 VSCPAR,DT,DTDL,CPTIM,TIMINC,XINTP,NGENS,M,NN,KCUS,MATUS,
3 NDI,NSHEAR,NCRD,IANISO,NSTATS,INC,NCYCLE,LOVL,NVSPLM)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION POISS(3,2),YOUNG(3,2),B(NGENS,NGENS),
1 USTRRT(NGENS),ETOT(NGENS),E(NGENS),THMSTI(NGENS),
2 EELAS(NGENS),S(NGENS),SINC(NGENS),GF(NGENS),EPL(NGENS),
3 AVGINE(NGENS),DT(NSTATS),DTDL(NSTATS),XINTP(NCRD),
SHEAR(3,2),VSCPAR(NVSPLM),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
YOUNG is the Young’s modulus.
POISS is the Poisson’s modulus.
SHEAR is the shear modulus.
B is the tangent elastic matrix.
ETOT is the accumulated total strain at beginning of increment.
E is the current strain increment.

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344 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

THMSTI is the thermal strain increment.


EELAS is the accumulated elastic strain at beginning of increment.
S is the accumulated stress at beginning of increment.
EPL is the accumulated inelastic strain at beginning of increment.
EQRCP is the equivalent inelastic strain at beginning of increment.
EQCPNC is the increment equivalent inelastic strain.
YD is the flow stress at temperature t.
YDL is the flow stress at temperature t + dt.
VSCPAR is the viscoplastic data read off isotropic or orthotropic option.
DT is the state variables at beginning of increment.
DTDL is the incremental state variables.
CPTIM is the elapsed time at beginning of increment.
TIMINC is the time increment.
XINTP is the integration point coordinates.
NGENS is the number of strain components.
M is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
NDI is the number of direct components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components.
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions.
IANISO is the flag to indicate nonisotropic elasticity.
NSTATS is the number of state variables.
INC is the increment number.
NCYCLE is the cycle number.
LOVL = 4 during stiffness formation.
= 6 during residual calculation.
NVSPLM is the number of viscoplastic data read from input.
Required Output:
USTRRT is the inelastic strain rate.
SINC is the stress increment.

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CHAPTER 4 345
Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines

GF is the change in stress due to change in elastic material properties


associated with DT.
AVGINE is the inelastic strain increment.

Note: To ensure convergence, it should be noted that the returned values of these quantities
must be mutually compatible; that is, they simultaneously must satisfy within tolerance:
1. SINC = B*(E - AVGINE - THMSTI) + GF
2. the creep law employed.
The tolerance should be at least one order of magnitude smaller than the global
Newton-Raphson tolerance. The values of USTRRT, AVGINE, and SINC are
expected to be returned from the routine for both LOVL=4 and LOVL=6.

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346 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UCRPLW (Viscoplastic)

Input of Creep Factors for Power Law Implicit Creep

Description
The UCRPLW user subroutine can be used for defining complex relationships for the
factors in the power law expression for the creep strain rate. This user subroutine is
automatically called when the implicit creep option is used in Marc. Note that the
latter is implemented for isotropic materials exhibiting power law creep. For more
complex implicit creep behavior, use the UVSCPL user subroutine.

Format
User subroutine UCRPLW is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCRPLW(CPA,CFT,CFE,CFTI,CFSTRE,CPTIM,TIMINC,
* EQCP,DT,DTDL,MDUM,NN,KCUS,MATUS)
C CREEP STRAIN RATE = CPA*CFT*CFE*CFTI*(STRESS**CFSTRE)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION MDUM(*),MATUS(2), KCUS(2)

user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
CPTIM time at the beginning of the increment
TIMINC time Increment
EQCP creep strain at the beginning of the increment
DT temperature at the beginning of the increment
DTDL incremental temperature
MDUM(1) user element number
MDUM(2) internal element number
NN integration point number
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).

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CHAPTER 4 347
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MATUS(1) user material identifier.


MATUS(2) internal material identifier.
Required Output
CPA creep constant
CFT temperature factor
CFE creep strain factor
CFTI time factor
CFSTRE stress exponent

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348 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ CRPLAW (Viscoplastic)

Input of Explicit Viscoplastic Strain Rate Law

Description
The CRPLAW user subroutine can also be used for calculating the viscoplastic
behavior. All the creep quantities are treated as viscoplastic strain quantities when
the appropriate flag is set on the CREEP parameter.
The basic information on the use of this subroutine can be found in Chapter 3 of this
manual. Additionally, the user can use common block VISCPL.
The variables in common block VISCPL are:

YD is the equivalent stress at first yield.


YD1 is the equivalent yield stress including current work hardening and temperature
effects.
YD2 is the equivalent stress for ORNL tenth cycle yield.
YD21 is the equivalent stress including current work hardening and temperature
effects for ORNL tenth cycle yield.
YDZER is the equivalent yield stress including Mohr-Coulomb terms (defaults to YD1).

Example
The following is a simple viscoplastic strain rate law that depends on the differences
between the current stress state and the static yield stress, raised to the nth power.
(Note that T(1), the current equivalent stress also includes Mohr-Coulomb terms
when the option is flagged.)
·
ε = c ( σ – σy ) n

where:
σ is the current total equivalent stress.

σy is the current equivalent yield stress including workhardening, temperature effects


and Mohr-Coulomb terms.

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CHAPTER 4 349
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n is the index of the power law.

c is the constant that depends on the index n. Here the strain rate equation is made.
dimensionless in stress by setting c = 0.01 ⁄ σ n y o where σ y o is the equivalent
stress at first yield.

This is programmed as follows; for n=2


SUBROUTINE CRPLAW(EQCP,EQCPNC,STR,CRPE,T,DT,TIMINC,CPTIM,M,
+NN,KCUS,MATUS,NDI,NSHEAR)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION T(1),DT(1),STR(1),CRPE(1),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
C = 0.01/(YD*YD)
S = T(1) - YDZER
EQCPNC = 0.0
IF(S.LT.0.0)RETURN
S=S*S
EQCPNC=C*S*TIMINC
RETURN
END

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350 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ NASSOC

Input of a Nonassociated Flow Law

Description
The NASSOC user subroutine allows the user to calculate a strain increment with a
flow rule differing from the normality rule of plasticity, which is the default used by
Marc. This must be activated by the CREEP parameter.

Format
User subroutine NASSOC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE NASSOC(EQCPNC,STOT,SINC,E,
1 AMOHR,NGENS,NDI,T,TZERO)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION STOT(NGENS),SINC(NGENS),E(NGENS),T(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
EQCPNC is the increment of the equivalent viscoplastic strain.
STOT is the current stress array.
E(I) is the Ith viscoplastic strain increment. It is later set equal to
EQCPNC*SINC(I) in Marc; thus, it is not set in this subroutine.
AMOHR is the Mohr-Coulomb parameter entered in the ISOTROPIC option
(third field).
NGENS is the number of stresses or strains.
NDI is the number of direct stresses.
T(1) is the current equivalent stress.
T(2) is the current mean hydrostatic stress.
TZERO is the equivalent stress including Mohr-Coulomb terms, temperature and
work hardening effects.

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CHAPTER 4 351
Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines

Required Output:

∂σ
SINC is the dimensionless flow directions ------- . The current values in this subroutine
∂σ
are associated with the yield criterion used. The user are free to vary the flow
rule in NASSOC by changing SINC.

It is often useful to have the information regarding the yield surface. This can be
obtained from common block VISCPL
yd, yd1, yd2, yd21, ydzer
where:
YD is the equivalent stress at first yield.
YD1 is the equivalent yield stress including current work hardening and
temperature effects.
YD2 is the equivalent stress for ORNL tenth cycle yield.
YD21 is the equivalent stress including current work hardening and temperature
effects for ORNL tenth cycle yield.
YDZER is the equivalent yield stress including Mohr-Coulomb terms
(defaults to YD1).

Example
The following example calculates a nonassociated flow rule for a Mohr-Coulomb
problem. The default flow rule is the one associated with the von Mises yield
criterion.
SUBROUTINE NASSOC(EQCPNC,STOT,SINC,E,
+ AMOHR,NGENS,NDI,T,TZERO)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION STOT(1),SINC(1),E(1),T(1)
NSHEAR=NGENS-NDI
DO 1 I=1,NDI
1 SINC(I)=0.5*3.0*(STOT(1)-T(2))
TR=1./TZERO
DO 2 I=1,NDI
2 SINC(I)=SINC(I)*TR
RETURN
END

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352 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ ZERO

Calculation of Equivalent Stress

Description
The ZERO user subroutine is used to calculate the equivalent yield stress based on
the current total stresses. The ZERO user subroutine in Marc applies the von Mises
yield criterion as a default. The user can substitute another yield criterion by writing
a new ZERO user subroutine. Mohr-Coulomb models specified in the ISOTROPIC
option should not be used when ZERO user subroutine is used because of the danger
of taking into account the effects of hydrostatic pressure twice.

Format
User subroutine ZERO is written with the following headers:
REAL*8 FUNCTION ZERO(NDI,NSHEAR,T,IORT,IANISO,YRDIR,YRSHR,
* AMM,AO)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION T(1),YRDIR(3),YRSHR(3),AMM(3)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NDI is the number of direct components of stress.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components of stress.
T(I) is the Ith component of stress.
IORT is the flag indicating if curvilinear coordinates are used.
This is 1 for element types 4, 8, and 24.
IANISO is the flag indicating if anisotropy is used.
YRDIR are the components for Hill’s anisotropic plasticity.
YRSHR are the shear components for Hill’s anisotropic plasticity.
AMM is the metric if curvilinear coordinates are used.
AO is the metric scale factor if curvilinear coordinates are used.
Required Output:
ZERO is the equivalent yield stress.

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CHAPTER 4 353
Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines

■ YIEL

Calculation of Current Yield

Description
The YIEL user subroutine is used to define the yield stress based on the current work
hardening and other state variables.

Format
User subroutine YIEL is written with the following headers:
REAL*8 FUNCTION YIEL(M,NN,KCUS,YIELD,IFIRST,DT,EPLAS,ERATE,
MATS,JPROPS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element numbers.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
YIELD is the yield stress entered as data in the ISOTROPIC option.
IFIRST =1 Calculate yield stress.
=2 Calculate 10th cycle yield stress (ORNL only).
=3 Calculate 100th cycle yield stress (ORNL only).
DT is the current temperature
EPLAS is the total equivalent plastic strain. Note that this is implied by the yield
criterion used in the ZERO user subroutine (or the Mohr-Coulomb yield
criterion, if that is used).
ERATE is the equivalent plastic strain rate. Not available for viscoplasticity.
MATS is the material id.
JPROPS is the table id associated with the yield.
Required Output:
YIEL is the current magnitude of the yield stress.

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354 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ ASSOC

Input of Associated Flow Law

Description
When used in conjunction with the generalized plasticity option (defined in the
ISOTROPIC option), the ASSOC user subroutine can be used to define the flow
direction for plasticity. The default is the associated flow law with the von Mises
(J2) yield surface.

Format
User subroutine ASSOC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ASSOC(STOT,SINC,SC,T,NGENS,NDI,NSHEAR,N,NN,KCUS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION STOT(NGENS),SINC(NGENS),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
STOT is the current stress array.
SC is the trace of stress tensor (three times hydrostatic pressure).
T is the equivalent stress.
NGENS is the number of stress components.
NDI is the number of shear stress components.
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
Required Output:

∂σ
is the flow direction ------- ⋅ σ to be defined by the user, where σ is the
SINC ∂σ
equivalent stress T.

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CHAPTER 4 355
Viscoplasticity and Generalized Plasticity User Subroutines

■ SINCER

User Subroutine for Improving Accuracy

Description
The SINCER user subroutine can be used to define how much an “elastic” stress
increment exceeds the yield stress. This allows Marc to accurately take large
increments such that the material goes from elastic to elastic-plastic. The user
returns the value of FPLAS, which is the fraction of the stress increment beyond the
yield surface. This routine should only be used if a yield surface other than the von
Mises (J2) is used in conjunction with the generalized plasticity option (defined in
the ISOTROPIC option).

Format
User subroutine SINCER is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE SINCER(FPLAS,SINC,STOT,NGENS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION SINC(NGENS), STOT(NGENS)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
SINC is the estimated elastic increment of stress.
STOT is the stress at the beginning of the increment.
NGENS is the number of stress components.
Required Output:

FPLAS is the fraction of stress increment beyond the yield stress to be defined
the user.

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356 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Main Index

Main Index
Chapter 5 Viscoelasticity User Subroutines List

5 Viscoelasticity User
Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

CRPVIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

HOOKVI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

TRSFAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

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358 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Main Index

Main Index
Chapter 5 Viscoelasticity User Subroutines

5 Viscoelasticity User
Subroutines

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360 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

This chapter describes user subroutines used for viscoelastic analysis. There are two
procedures available. The explicit procedure uses the CRPVIS user subroutine to
describe a generalized Kelvin model. The implicit procedure uses a hereditary
integral approach and is the preferred choice. Table 5-1 summarizes these routines
and indicates what parameters or model definition options are required to invoke the
user subroutine.
Table 5-1 Viscoplasticity User Subroutines Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options

CRPVIS VISCO ELAS Definition of generalized Kelvin model using


explicit procedure.
HOOKVI VISCELORTH Definition of anisotropic viscoelastic material law for a
particular relaxation time.
TRSFAC VISCELPROP or Definition of shift function for thermo-rheologically
VISCELORTH or simple material.
VISCELMOON or
VISCELOGDEN and
SHIFT FUNCTION

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CHAPTER 5 361
Viscoelasticity User Subroutines

■ CRPVIS

Viscoelasticity – Generalized Kelvin Material Behavior

Description
In addition to the nonlinear Maxwell type model allowed in the CREEP option, a
general Kelvin model can be included by requesting it on the CREEP parameter. In
this case, Marc assumes an additional creep strain ε iKj , governed by
d
----- ε iKj = A i j k l S k l – B i j k l ε kKl
dt

where:
[A] and [B] are defined by the user in the user subroutine described below,
si j σk k
are the deviatoric stress components s i j = σ i j – δ i j ---------
3

and the total strain is: ε i j = ε iej + ε ipj + ε icj + ε iKj + ε itjh
where:
ε itjh are the thermal strain components.

ε iej are the elastic strain components (instantaneous response).

ε ipj are the plastic strain components.

ε icj are the creep strains defined via CRPLAW and VSWELL user subroutines and
using the CREEP option.
ε iKj are the Kelvin model strain components as defined above.

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362 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format
User subroutine CRPVIS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE CRPVIS(CRPR,TSIG,SINC,AE,BE,NGENS,
1 DT,DTDL,N,NN,KCUS,MATUS,NDI,NSHEAR,TIME,TIMINC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION CRPR(1),TSIG(1),SINC(1),AE(NGENS,NGENS),
1 BE(NGENS,NGENS),DT(1),DTDL(1),N(2),MATUS(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
CRPR are the Kelvin creep strain components.
1⁄2
is the second invariant of the deviatoric stress = ⎛ --- s i j s i j⎞
3
.
TSIG(1) ⎝2 ⎠

1
TSIG(2) is the hydrostatic stress = --- σ k k .
3

SINC are the deviatoric stress components ( s i j ) .

NGENS is the number of stress (strain) components.


DT are the total state variables at this point (temperature first).
DTDL are the increments of state variables at this point during this step of the
solution.
N(1) is the user’s element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
MATUS(1) is the user’s material identifier.
MATUS(2) is the internal material identifier.
NDI is the number of direct components.
NSHEAR is the number of shear components.
TIME is the total time.
TIMINC is the time increment.

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CHAPTER 5 363
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Required Output:

AE is the matrix A i j k l above, to be defined here by the user.

BE is the matrix B i j k l above, to be defined here by the user.

Only AE and BE are to be defined by the user – the other variables are provided to
assist in calculations, for example when a nonlinear Kelvin model is used.
This user subroutine is called at each integration point of each element when
necessary, when the VISCO ELAS parameter is present. Note that the use of the
VISCO ELAS parameter also requires the use of the CREEP option in the model
definition data as well. The CREEP option is required to set the tolerance control for
the maximum strain in any increment. In viscoelastic two-dimensional analysis, the
stress does not change appreciably so that all time steps are controlled by the
maximum increment in strain. The recommended and default value of this strain
increment is 0.005 of the total maximum strain. Note that this value is ten times
smaller than the default value for normal creep problems. Because of the use of the
CREEP option, Maxwell models can be included in series with the Kelvin model.
The ordering of stress and strain components is given in Marc Volume B: Element
Library for each element type.
When used with doubly curved shell elements (shell elements 4, 8, and 24), the
above relation is written in a mixed formulation:

----- (ε α β K) = A α β γ δ S γ δ - B α β γ δ ε γd Kα,β etc. = 1,2


d
dt

with two shear components stored, ε 1 2 , then ε 2 1 .

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364 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ TRSFAC

Define a Shift Function for Thermo-Rheologically Simple


(T.R.S.) Material Behavior

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the shift function for the
relaxation function.
A description of T.R.S. material behavior is given in Marc Volume A: User
Information. The user is reminded that this option is only available in conjunction
with the hereditary integral form of viscoelastic constitutive representation. The use
of this user subroutine to define a shift function for a particular viscoelastic material
group is indicated by inserting a negative value in the first field of block 2 in the
SHIFT FUNCTION model definition option.

Marc proceeds to compute the increment of pseudo- or reduced time Δε (x, t)


according to the relationship:
(t + Δt) 1)]
Δε ( x, t ) = ∫t 10 B [ T ( x, t dt 1

where the shift factor, B, is a function of the spatially and time dependent
temperature, T(x, t). A five-point Simpson’s rule is used to numerically integrate
this expression.
In this subroutine, the user is expected to define the shift function, φ, which is the
logarithm of the shift factor: that is,

[ φ ( x, t ) ] = – Log 10 { B [ T ( x, t ) ] }

The user subroutine is called five times at each point. These points can be the
centroids of the elements or each integrating point if the ALL POINTS parameter has
been invoked.

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CHAPTER 5 365
Viscoelasticity User Subroutines

Format
User subroutine TRSFAC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE
TRSFAC(SHFTLG,MATV,NSHFT,N,NN,KCUS,DT,DTDL,TGLASS,
*CPTIM,HXITOT,TIMINC,TINT)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DT(1),DTDL(1),N(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
The following parameters are passed into this user subroutine and must not
be redefined:
Input:
MATV is the viscoelastic material group identifier or number associated with the
point, x, currently being considered.
NSHFT is the negative number associated with the particular user-defined shift
function for the viscoelastic material group, MATV. This number was
specified in the first field of the second data line in the SHIFT FUNCTION
model definition option.
N(1) is the user’s element number.
N(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the current integrating point number (or centroidal point if the ALL
POINTS parameter is not used).
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
DT is the total temperature at this point corresponding to the beginning of the
current increment.
DTDL is the current incremental change in temperature for this point.
TGLASS is the reference or glassy transition temperature used in defining the
shift function.
CPTIM is the total creep or viscoelastic time up to the beginning of this increment.
HXITOT is the total pseudo- or reduced-time at this point, corresponding to the
beginning of the increment.
TIMINC is the increment of real time.

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366 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

TINT is a linearly interpolated value of the total temperature at one of the five
integrating stations between the beginning and end of the increment.
This is the variable which should be used in computing the value of the
shift function.
Required Output:
SHFTLG is the logarithm of the shift factor, φ, which must be defined by the user.

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CHAPTER 5 367
Viscoelasticity User Subroutines

■ HOOKVI

User-defined Anisotropic Viscoelasticity

Description
The user can specify the time dependent properties of an orthotropic material
through the VISCELORTH model definition option. The user can then modify this
data by use of the HOOKVI user subroutine which is automatically called for every
material defined in that option.

Format
User subroutine HOOKVI is called with the following header codes:
SUBROUTINE HOOKVI (M,NN,KCUS,ITERM,B,DT,DTDL,E,PR,G)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION B(6,6),DT(1),DTDL(1),E(3),PR(3),G(3),M(2)
DIMENSION KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user’s element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
ITERM is the viscoelastic series number.
DT is the current temperature.
DTDL is the current increment in temperature.
E is vector of time dependent Young’s moduli input in the
VISCELORTH option.
PR is the vector of time dependent Poisson’s ratios input in the
VISCELORTH option.
G is the vector of time dependent shear moduli given in the
VISCELORTH option.
Required Output:
B is the user-defined 6 x 6 matrix of viscoelastic time dependent constants
for this element and series number.

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368 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

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Chapter 6 Geometry Modifications User Subroutines List

6 Geometry Modifications User


Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

MAP2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

REBAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

UACTIVE . . . . . . ................................................... 387


UACTUAT . . . . . . ................................................... 408
UADAP . . . . . . . . ................................................... 394
UADAP2 . . . . . . . ................................................... 399
UADAPBOX . . . . ................................................... 400
UCOORD . . . . . . ................................................... 393
UCRACK_PARIS . ................................................... 403
UCRACKGROW . ................................................... 395
UFCONN . . . . . . ................................................... 375
UFRORD . . . . . . ................................................... 390
UFXORD . . . . . . . ................................................... 374
UMAKNET . . . . . ................................................... 380
UPNOD . . . . . . . . ................................................... 385

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370 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

User Subroutine Page

URCONN . . . . . .................................................... 391


USHELL . . . . . .................................................... 406
USIZEOUTL. . . .................................................... 378
USPLIT . . . . . . .................................................... 392
USPLIT_MESH .................................................... 397
UTHICK . . . . . . .................................................... 407
UTRANS . . . . . .................................................... 405

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Chapter 6 Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

6 Geometry Modifications
User Subroutines

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372 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

The user subroutines described in this section are provided to allow the user to
define the initial geometry of the finite element mesh, or to change the mesh due to
rezoning or rigid plastic analyses. Often these user subroutines are used to
customize already existing meshes. The UTRANS user subroutine is a powerful way
to provide transformations to the degrees of freedom of a node. Table 6-1
summarizes these routines and indicates what parameters or model definition
options are required to invoke the user subroutine.
Table 6-1 Geometry Modifications User Subroutines Requirements

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options
MAP2D MESH2D Define the coordinates of key boundary nodes for
MAPPER mesh generation.
REBAR ELEMENTS Define the orientation and effective thickness of
(rebar element types) the elements.
UACTIVE Activate or deactivate elements.
UACTUAT GEOMETRY Define the length of the actuator element.
UADAP ADAPTIVE (parameter) Define a user-defined error criterion for
ADAPTIVE (model definition adaptive meshing.
option)
UADAP2 ADAPTIVE (parameter) Define unrefinement for adaptive meshing.
ADAPTIVE (model definition
option)
UADAPBOX ADAPTIVE (parameter) User-defined region for local adaptive meshing.
ADAPTIVE (model definition
option)
UCOORD ADAPTIVE (parameter) Describe of the location of newly created nodes.
ADAPTIVE (model definition
option)
UCRACK_PARIS VCCT Defines the increment of crack growth.
UFCONN UFCONN Modifies the connectivity of an element.
UCRACKGROW VCCT Allows definition of the crack growth direction and
crack growth increment.
UFRORD REZONING Modify the coordinates of a node during rezoning.
REZONE
UFRORD
UFXORD UFXORD Modify the initial nodal coordinates.
UMAKNET ADAPT GLOBAL User-defined standalone mesher

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Table 6-1 Geometry Modifications User Subroutines Requirements (continued)

Required Parameters or
User Subroutine Purpose
Model Definition Options
UPNOD R-P FLOW Update the nodal coordinates in a rigid plastic
analysis using the Eulerian procedure.
URCONN UFCONN Modify the connectivity of an element
during rezoning.
USHELL GEOMETRY Define the integration point thickness for
shell elements.
USIZEOUTL ADAPT GLOBAL Define refinement boxes with different element
edge length on the 2-D outlines for remeshing.
USPLIT ADAPT GLOBAL Define where to split a continuous deformable body
into two separate parts.
USPLIT_MESH ADAPT GLOBAL Define edges, nodes, or faces to split up a mesh.
UTHICK NODAL THICKNESS Define the initial thickness at the nodes for
shell elements.
UTRANS UTRANFORM Define a transformation to be applied to the
degrees of freedom at a node.

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374 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFXORD

Coordinate Generation or Modification

Description
The UFXORD user subroutine can be used to modify (or expand) coordinates input
through use of the COORDINATES option, or as an internal coordinate generator. The
user must input the UFXORD model definition option, followed by a block giving
the nodes for which UFXORD is used. Marc calls UFXORD for each node in the list,
so that the coordinates of that node can be modified or generated. The UFXORD
option can be repeated as many times as necessary.

Format
User subroutine UFXORD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFXORD (XORD, NCRD, N)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD (NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
N is the node number.
Required Output:
XORD is the array of coordinates in the Nth node and is passed in containing
coordinates previously generated at the Nth node by COORDINATES,
FXORD or UFXORD options.

This user subroutine is most commonly used with shell or beam elements (for
example, elements 4, 8, 13, 15) where the full coordinate set is usually generated on
the basis of reduced set of coordinates. See, for example, the description of the
FXORD option in Marc Volume A: User Information. The user can also use this
routine to generate special coordinate systems (for example, cylindrical or
spherical) or to convert from special coordinate systems to a rectangular system.

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■ UFCONN

Connectivity Generation or Modification

Description
The UFCONN user subroutine can be used to modify (or expand) input given
through use of the CONNECTIVITY option, or as an internal connectivity generator.
The user must input the UFCONN model definition option, followed by a block
giving the elements for which UFCONN is used. Marc calls UFCONN for each
element in the series, so that the connectivity of that element can be modified or
generated. The UFCONN option can be repeated as many times as necessary.

Format
User subroutine UFCONN is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFCONN(J,ITYPE,LM,NNODMX)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION LM(1)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
J is the element number.
ITYPE is the element type.
LM is the array of nodes making up the element.
NNODMX is the maximum number of nodes in an element.
Required Output:
ITYPE is the element type.
LM is the array of nodes making up the element.

LM is passed in containing the connectivity of the Jth element already generated by


previous CONNECTIVITY, UFCONN, or other generators. Similarly, ITYPE is the
element type if previously defined. The user can modify or define ITYPE or LM in

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376 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

this routine. Note there is no checking to determine if ITYPE has been defined on
the SIZING or ELEMENTS parameter, or if node numbers are in the range
1 ≤ N ≤ NUMNP .

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■ MAP2D

Boundary Node Coordinates Modification in Mesh2D

Description
The MAP2D user subroutine can be used to modify coordinates input for the
boundary nodes in MESH2D by the BOUNDARY option. The user must input the
MAPPER option as part of the two-dimensional mesh generation. Marc calls MAP2D
once, so that the coordinates of all the boundary nodes can be modified
or generated.

Format
User subroutine MAP2D is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE MAP2D(NNO,X,Y)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION X(NNO),Y(NNO)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NNO is the number of boundary nodes.
Required Output:
X and Y are the user-defined coordinates of the boundary nodes.

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378 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USIZEOUTL

Local Refinement Definition for 2-D Remeshing with


Advancing Front Mesher

C-44 Description
This user subroutine allows users to define refinement boxes with different
element edge length on the 2-D outlines for remeshing. The position of the
refinement box can be attached to the current reference center of any rigid body.
Therefore, if the body is moving, the box can move along with it. The position of
the refinement box can be attached to a nodal position as long as the node number
does not change during the analysis.

Format
User subroutine USIZEOUTL is written with the following header lines:
SUBROUTINE USIZEOUTL(NBODY,IDIERE,XCENT,YCENT,INC,CPTIM,
& ELLEN,ESIZE,XYZ,NUMOUT)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION ESIZE(*),XYZ(2,*),XCENT(NBODY),YCENT(NBODY)
DIMENSION POS(5)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:

Input:
NBODY is the number of contact bodies (= 0, if there is no contact).
IDIERE is the current body number for remeshing.
XCENT is the x reference center of rigid contact bodies.
YCENT is the y reference center of rigid contact bodies.
INC is the current increment number.
CPTIM is the current analysis time.
ELLEN is the input element length for remeshing.

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Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

XZY is the outline point coordinates.


NUMOUT is the number of the outline points.
Required Output:
ESIZE is the edge length array on the outline.

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380 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UMAKNET

User-defined Remeshing Routine

Description
This subroutine is used as user-defined standalone mesher. It cannot be used to
replace the internal 2-D overlay mesher. The routine can be used to generate 2-D
(quad) and 3-D (hexahedral). For 2-D, the correct t18 file needs to be output. For
3-D, the correct feb file needs to be output.

Examples
Userguide_auto/user_extru2d.mfd and user_extru3d.mfd. The user
subroutines are user_extru2d.f and user_extru3d.f, respectively.

Format
SUBROUTINE
UMAKNET(IDO,IFLAG,NCRDMX,NDEGMX,NUMNP,NUMEL,NDEG,
& NCRD,IEL_TYPE,NNODMX,NUMELMX,NELTEAB,
& XORD,DISP,IELCON,IELTAB,FILENAME)
INCLUDE '../COMMON/IMPLICIT'
DIMENSION xord(ncrdmx,*),disp(ndegmx,*),ieltab(neltab,*)
DIMENSION ielcon(nnodmx,*)
IFLAG=1
user coding
RETURN
END
where:

Input:
ido=2 is the 2-D remeshing.
ido=3 is the 3-D remeshing.
iel_type is the element type.
nnodmx is the maximum number of nodes per element.
ncrdmx is the maximum number of coordinate components.
ndegmx is the maximum number of degrees of freedom per node.

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numnp is the total number of nodes.


numel is the total number of elements.
numelmx is the maximum number of elements.
neltab is the size of the array ieltab.
ndeg is the number of degrees of freedom.
ncrd is the number of coordinate components (2d=2, 3d=3).
xord(ncrdmx,*) is the nodal coordinates.
disp(ndegmx,*) is the nodal displacement.
ieltab(neltab,*) is the element group information.
ielcon(nnodmx,*) is the current element connectivity.
filename is the remeshing filename.
Output:
iflag if return 0, no user subroutine not used
if 1, user subroutine is used.
t18 file with filename if 2-D.
feb file with filename if 3-D.

t18 file for 2-D or Axisymmetric - Fixed Format

Format
Format Data
Fixed Free Type Entry

1st data block


1-10 A Enter the word "extended".

2nd data block


1-20 A Enter the words "connectivity change".

3rd data block


1-10 I Enter 0.

4th data block


1-10 I Enter element number.
11-20 I Enter 11.

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382 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format Data
Fixed Free Type Entry

21-30 I First node number of element.


31-40 I Second node number of element.
41-50 I Third node number of element.
51-60 I Fourth node number of element.

5th data block


1-20 A Enter the words "coordinate change".

6th data block


1-10 I Enter 0.
Repeat the 7th data block for each node.
7th data block
1-10 I Enter node number.
11-30 E Enter:
x-coordinate for 2-D
z-coordinate for axisymmetric.
31-50 E Enter:
y-coordinate for 2-D
r-coordinate for axisymmetric.

8th data block


1-10 A Enter the word "exit".

9th data block


1-10 A Enter the word "usdata".

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CHAPTER 6 383
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feb file format - fixed format

Format
Format Data
Fixed Free Type Entry

1st data block


1-10 A Enter the word "extended".

2nd data block


1-10 A Enter the words “connectivity change”.

3rd data block


1-10 I Enter 0.
Repeat the 4th data block for each element.
4th data block
1-10 I Enter element number.
11-20 I Enter 7.
21-30 I First node number of element.
31-40 I Second node number of element.
41-50 I Third node number of element.
51-60 I Fourth node number of element.
61-70 I Fifth node number of element.
71-80 I Sixth node number of element.
81-90 I Seventh node number of element.
91-100 I Eighth node number of element.

5th data block


1-20 A Enter the words "coordinate change".

6th data block


1-10 I Enter 0.
Repeat the 7th data block for each node.

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384 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Format Data
Fixed Free Type Entry

7th data block


1-10 I Enter node number.
11-30 E Enter x-coordinate.
31-50 E Enter y-coordinate.
51-70 E Enter z-coordinate.

8th data block


1-10 A Enter the words "end option".

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CHAPTER 6 385
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UPNOD

Update Nodal Positions in Flow Solutions

Description
This user subroutine is used in conjunction with Eulerian flow solutions (for
example, R-P FLOW parameter) to update the mesh after a velocity field has been
found. The user can access the velocity field and re-define the nodal coordinates.
The user subroutine is called in a loop over all the nodes in the mesh at the end of
convergent step of the flow calculation. This user subroutine should not be used in
conjunction with the CONTACT option.

Format
User subroutine UPNOD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPNOD (XORD,VEL,NCRD,NDEG,NODE)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSIONAL XORD (NCRD), VEL(NDEG)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
VEL is the array of current velocities at this node.
NCRD is the size of the XORD array (number of coordinates per node).
NDEG is the size of the VEL array (number of velocity components per node).
NODE is the node number.
Required Output:
XORD is the array of coordinates at this node, to be redefined in this routine
as required.

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386 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Example
A typical user subroutine UPNOD for use with higher order elements would be:
SUBROUTINE UPNOD(XORD,VEL,NCRD,NODE)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRD),VEL(NDEG)
TIME=
DO 5 I=1,NCRD
XORD(I)=XORD(I)+VEL(I)*TIME
5 CONTINUE
RETURN
END

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CHAPTER 6 387
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UACTIVE

Activate or Deactivate Elements

Description
The UACTIVE user subroutine can be used to either activate or deactivate elements
in the model. The user subroutine is called at the beginning of the analysis and at
the end of each increment. A deactivated element does not contribute to the load,
mass, stiffness, or internal force calculation. If an element is activated after
previously being deactivated, the user can specify if the material is to come back in
its previous state or in a modified state.

Format
User subroutine UACTIVE is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UACTIVE(M,N,MODE,IRSTSTR,IRSTSTN,INC,TIME,TIMINC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION MODE(3)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the element number.
M(2) is the master element number in an adaptive analysis.
N is the internal elsto number.
NN is the internal element number.
INC is the increment number.
TIME is the time at the beginning of the increment.
TIMINC is the incremental time.
Required Output:
MODE(1) -1 deactivate element and remove element from post file.
-11 deactivate element and keep element on post file
2 leave in current status.

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388 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

1 activate element and add element to post file


11 activate element and keep status on post file.
MODE(2) 1 only activate/deactivate mechanical part in coupled
2 only activate/deactivate at the thermal part in coupled
MODE(3) 0 activation/deactivation at the end of increment
1 activation/deactivation at the beginning of increment
IRSTSTR set to 1 to reset stresses to zero.
IRSTSTN set to 1 to reset strains to zero.

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CHAPTER 6 389
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■ REBAR

Input of Rebar Positions, Areas and Orientations

Description
This user subroutine is used in conjunction with the single strain rebar elements (23,
46, 47, 48, 142-148, 165-170). See the description of these elements for details of
the use of this user subroutine. Any nonzero value defined in the this subroutine
overwrites the corresponding value defined by the REBAR model definition option
if it is used with this user subroutine.

Format
User subroutine REBAR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE REBAR (N,NN,T,PR,TR,A)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION A(3),NN(3)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N is the element number.
NN(1) is the integration point number.
NN(2) is the layer number.
NN(3) is the integration point number in this layer.
T,PR,TR,A are to be defined by the user.
Required Output:
T is the nominal size in thickness direction.
PR is the relative position of rebar layer with respect to T.
Marc uses the ratio PR/T to position the rebar layer in the
thickness direction.
TR is the equivalent thickness of rebar.
A is the direction cosines of the rebar.

Note: Three entries are to be defined in A in all cases.

Main Index

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390 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UFRORD

Rezoning Coordinate Generation or Modification

Description
The UFRORD user subroutine can be used to modify (or expand) coordinate change
input in a rezoning analysis. The user must input the UFRORD rezoning option,
followed by a block giving a list of nodes for which UFRORD is used. Marc
calls UFRORD for each node in the list, so that the coordinates for that node can be
modified or generated. The UFRORD rezoning option can be repeated as many times
as necessary.

Format
User subroutine UFRORD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UFRORD(XORD,NCRD,DISPT,NDEG,N)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRD),DISPT(NDEG)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
DISPT is the total displacements of node N.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
N is the node number.
Required Output:
XORD is the coordinates of node N which should be generated or modified in this
user subroutine.

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CHAPTER 6 391
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ URCONN

Rezoning Connectivity Generation or Modification

Description
The URCONN user subroutine can be used to modify (or expand) input given
through use of the CONNECTIVITY CHANGE option, or as an internal connectivity
generator. The user must input the URCONN rezoning option, followed by a block
giving the elements for which URCONN is used. Marc calls URCONN for each
element in the series, so that the connectivity of that element can be modified or
generated.

Format
User subroutine URCONN is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE URCONN(J,ITYPE,LM,NNODMX)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION LM(1)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
J is the element number.
NNODMX is the maximum number of nodes in an element.
Required Output:
ITYPE is the element type.
LM is the array of nodes making up the element.

LM is passed in containing the connectivity of the Jth element already generated by


previous CONNECTIVITY, UFCONN, CONNECTIVITY CHANGE, or other generators.
Similarly, ITYPE is the element type if previously defined. The user can modify or
define ITYPE or LM in this routine. Note there is no checking to determine if ITYPE
has been defined on the SIZING or ELEMENTS parameter, or if node numbers are in
the range 1 ≤ N ≤ NUMNP .

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392 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USPLIT

User-defined Criterion to Split a Two-dimensional Body

C-45 Description
This subroutine is used to split a continuous deformable body into two separate
parts. Currently, the criterion for splitting the body is defined by the thickness and
the splitting is done through global remeshing. When the thickness of the body is
less than the value given in the subroutine, the body is split into two parts and
remeshed. This user subroutine can only be used with 2-D Advancing Front and
Delaunay meshers.

Format
User subroutine USPLIT is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USPLIT (IDIERE,IFLAG,SPLIT0)
implicit real*8 (a-h,o-z)
C THIS ROUTINE DEFINES MATERIAL SPLIT USER CONTROL
C METHOD 1:
C IFLAG=1 : BODY SPLIT DUE TO THIN SECTION
C SPLIT0 - MINIMUM THICKNESS TO AVOID SPLIT
C IF SPLIT0=0, NO BODY SPLIT CHECK
RETURN
END
where:

Input:
IDIERE is the body number.
Required Output:
IFLAG=1 a body is split by checking the thickness or distance of any pair of the
opposite segments.
SPLIT0 the distance value at which the body will be split.

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CHAPTER 6 393
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UCOORD

Relocate Nodes Created During Adaptive Meshing

Description
The UCOORD user subroutine can be used to define the location of a new node
created due to local adaptive meshing. The default if this routine is not used is to
put the newly created node geometrically half way between the old nodes. This user
subroutine is called for each new node created.

Format
User subroutine UCOORD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UCOORD(XORD, NCRD, INOD, LM, NNOD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRD,1),LM(1)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
INOD is the node number of new node.
LM(I) is the nodes on which INOD is depending.
NNOD is the number of nodes on which INOD is depending.
= 2 middle of edge between LM(1) and LM(2).
= 3 center of triangle LM(1), LM(2), LM(3).
= 4 center of plane LM(1), LM(2), LM(3), LM(4).
= 4 center of tetrahedral 4 LM(1), LM(2), LM(3), LM(4).
= 8 center of brick LM(1), LM(2), LM(3), LM(4), LM(5), LM(6),
LM(7), LM(8).
Required Output:
XORD(J,I) is the current coordinate j of node i.

Update XORD(J,INOD) if desired.

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394 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UADAP

User-defined Error Criterion

Description
The UADAP user subroutine can be used to define an error criterion for local
adaptive meshing. The value of USERCR must be returned. It is a measure of the
quality of this element. If the value of USERCR is greater than f1 * user_max or
greater than f2, the element refines.
Note that the f1 and f2 must be specified on the ADAPTIVE model definition option.
User_max is the largest value of USERCR over all of the elements.

Format
User subroutine UADAP is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UADAP(MM,XORD,DSXT,NCRDMX,NDEGMX,LM,NNODE,USERCR)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRDMX,*),DSXT(NDEGMX,*),LM(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MM is the user’s element number.
XORD is the original coordinates.
DSXT is the total displacements.
NCRDMX is the maximum number of coordinates per node.
NDEGMX is the maximum number of degrees of freedom per node.
LM is the node numbers of this element.
NNODE is the number of nodes per element.
Required Output:
USERCR is the user error criteria to be defined here.

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CHAPTER 6 395
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UCRACKGROW

Definition of Crack Growth Direction and Crack Growth


Increment for the VCCT Option

Description
This user subroutine allows you to define the crack growth direction and crack
growth increment when using the VCCT model definition option. The routine is
called at the end of each increment if the VCCT option is used. The crack growth
direction can be defined both for 2-D and 3-D and is available on the post file.
Both the crack growth direction and the crack growth increment are used for
crack propagation if this option is flagged in the VCCT option.
The routine is called once for each crack tip node of each crack.

Format
User subroutine UCRACKGROW is written with the following header lines:
SUBROUTINE UCRACKGROW(G1,G2,G3,DIR,CTOD,TRANSF,GROWINC,
& NODE,LCRACK,ICFN,INC,TIME, TIMEINC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION DIR(3),CTOD(3),TRANSF(3,3)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
G1,G2,G3 are the three modes of the energy release rate
Gtot=abs(G1)+abs(G2)+abs(G3)
DIR is the estimated growth direction in the local crack tip system calculated
by Marc. Can be modified in this routine.
CTOD is the crack tip opening displacement in the local crack tip system.
TRANSF is transformation matrix between the local crack tip system and the
global system.
GROWINC is the initial crack growth increment given in the VCCT input option.
NODE is the user node number of the current crack tip.

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396 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

LCRACK is current crack number.


ICFN is index of the crack tip node in the current crack front. For 2-D and 3-D,
shells always equal to 1.
INC is the current increment number.
TIME is the current analysis time.
TIMEINC is the current time increment.
Required Output:
DIR is the estimated crack growth direction.
GROWINC is the crack growth increment.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 6 397
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ USPLIT_MESH

User Subroutine for Splitting Up a Mesh

Description
For 2-D and shells: enter a list of edges where the mesh should be split. The mesh
is only be split where it is possible to do so. For example, the internal end point of
an edge is not split.
For 3-D solids: enter a list of faces similar to 2-D and shells.
A list of nodes can also be given to specify which nodes are candidates for a split.
If this list is given, only these nodes may be split. If this list is empty, all nodes of
the edges or faces are candidates for a split. For 2-D and shells, a sequence of edges
can be given in the node list. If no edges are given in iedgelist, it is filled up from
the list of nodes. For 3-D solids, one must give a list of faces.

Format
The USPLIT-MESH user subroutine is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USPLIT_MESH(ICALL,NODELIST,NLIST,IEDGELIST,
$ NEDGELIST,IFACELIST,NFACELIST,INC,TIME,TIMEINC)
INTEGER NODELIST,NLIST,IEDGELIST,NEDGELIST,IFACELIST,
INTEGER NFACELIST,ICALL,INC
REAL*8 TIME,TIMEINC
DIMENSION NODELIST(*),IEDGELIST(2,*),IFACELIST(4,*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:

Input:
ICALL =1 is called before the analysis begins.
=2 is called during recycles of increment inc after convergence is
obtained (including contact separation). If a split occurs, more
recycles are forced.
=3 is called at the end of increment INC.

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398 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NLIST is the number of nodes specified in list. If nlist = 0, all nodes in the
specified edges or faces are used.
IEDGELIST is the list of edges given as node pairs where the mesh should be split.
NEDGELIST is the number of edges given in iedgelist.
IFACELIST is the list of faces where the mesh should be split. For triangular faces,
set the fourth face node to zero. For higher order, elements only
specify the corner nodes of the face.
NFACELIST is the number of faces given in ifacelist.
INC is the current increment number.
TIME is the current solution time at the start of increment INC.
TIMEINC is the current time increment.
Required Output
NODELIST is the array of nodes defining where the mesh is to be split.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 6 399
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UADAP2

User-defined Unrefinement

Description
The UADAP2 user subroutine can be used to define unrefinement for local
adaptive meshing.
A refined element is unrefined if all its slave elements are marked for unrefine. An
element is marked for unrefine if USERCR specified in this routine is larger than
f1 * user_max or f2.

Note that f1 and f2 must be specified on the ADAPTIVE model definition option.
User_max is the largest value of USERCR over all of the elements.

This routine is only called for active elements.

Format
User subroutine UADAP2 is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UADAP2(MM,XORD,DSXT,NCRDMX,NDEGMX,LM,NNODE,
USERCR)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRDMX,*),DSXT(NDEGMX,*),LM(*)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
MM is the internal element number.
ielext (mm) gives the user element number.
XORD contains the original coordinates.
DSXT contains the total displacements.
NCRDMX is the maximum number of coordinates per node.
NDEGMX is the maximum number of degrees of freedom per node.
LM contains the node numbers of this element.
NNODE is the number of nodes of this element.
Required Output:
USERCR is the criterion is to be defined in this routine.

Main Index

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400 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UADAPBOX

User-defined Region For Local Adaptive Meshing

Description
The UADAPBOX user subroutine can be used to define and move the region used
with either the adaptive criteria node within a box, cylinder, or sphere for local
adaptive meshing.
The position and latest motion of rigid contact bodies are provided in this routine;
the numbering used is the same as in the input file. Please note that the values of
position and motion of deformable bodies will be zero.

Format
User subroutine UADAPBOX is written with the following. headers:
SUBROUTINE UADAPBOX(REGCOORD,ICRITERION,TIME,DTIME,
$ BODYCOORD,BODYMOTION,NBODIES,NFIRSTRIGID)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
REAL*8 REGCOORD(*),BODYCOORD(3,*),BODYMOTION(3,*),TIME,DTIME
INTEGER ICRITERION(2),NBODIES,NFIRSTRIGID
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input
REGCOORD(*) are the region coordinates (see below).
ICRITERION(1) is the adaptive criterion number (from input).
ICRITERION(2) is the adaptive criterion type.
TIME is the time at the end of the previous increment.
DTIME is the time increment of the previous increment.
BODYCOORD(I,J) are the current coordinates of the reference point of contact
body j

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CHAPTER 6 401
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

BODYMOTION(I,J) are the displacements of the reference point of contact body j


NBODIES are the total number of contact bodies in the model
NFIRSTRIGID is the the number of the first rigid contact body (= 0 if none
are present)
Required Output:
For Box Criteria - Type 4
REGCOORD(1) = Xmin
REGCOORD(2) = Ymin
REGCOORD(3) = Zmin
REGCOORD(4) = Xmax
REGCOORD(5) = Ymax
REGCOORD(6) = Zmax
For Cylindrical Region Criteria - Type 19
REGCOORD(1) = Radius
REGCOORD(2) = X coordinate of 1st point on axis.
REGCOORD(3) = Y coordinate of 1st point on axis.
REGCOORD(4) = Z coordinate of 1st point on axis.
REGCOORD(5) = X coordinate of 2nd point on axis.
REGCOORD(6) = Y coordinate of 2nd point on axis.
REGCOORD(7) = Z coordinate of 2nd point on axis.
For Spherical Region Criteria - Type 20
REGCOORD(1) = Radius
REGCOORD(2) = X coordinate of center.
REGCOORD(3) = Y coordinate of center.
REGCOORD(4) = Z coordinate of center.

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402 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Example
The following code lets the box defined in adaptive criterion 1 follow the motion of
rigid body number 2.
IF (ICRITERION.EQ.1) THEN
REGCOORD(1)=REGCOORD(1)+BODYMOTION(1,2)
REGCOORD(4)=REGCOORD(4)+BODYMOTION(1,2)
REGCOORD(2)=REGCOORD(2)+BODYMOTION(2,2)
REGCOORD(5)=REGCOORD(5)+BODYMOTION(2,2)
REGCOORD(3)=REGCOORD(3)+BODYMOTION(3,2)
REGCOORD(6)=REGCOORD(6)+BODYMOTION(3,2)
ENDIF

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CHAPTER 6 403
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UCRACK_PARIS

Define the Crack Growth Increment

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to define the increment of crack growth for
VCCT or crack propagation.

Format
The UCRACK_PARIS user subroutine is written with the following header:
SUBROUTINE UCRACK_PARIS(GMAX,GMIN,GTHRESH,C,EXPON,GROWINCMIN,
* GROWINC,NODE,LCRACK,NAME,ICFN,INC,
* TIME,TIMEINC)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 )A-H,O-Z)
CHARACTER*(*) NAME
USER CODING
RETURN
END

where:
Required Input
GMIN, GMAX are the max and min values of the energy release rate during the
load sequence.
GTHRESH is the threshold value for the energy release rate, from input. Possibly
scaled by table.
C is the user input C parameter for Paris law possibly scaled by table.
EXPON is the user input m parameter (exponent) for Paris law possibly scaled
by table.
GROWINCMI is the minimum growth increment, from input possibly scaled by table.
N
NODE is the user node number of the current crack tip node.
LCRACK is the crack number.
NAME is the name of the crack, from input.
ICFN is the index of the crack tip node in the crack front. For 2-D and shells, it
is always equal to 1.

Main Index

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404 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

INC is the increment number.


TIME is the time.
TIMEINC is the time increment.
Required Output
GROWINC is the crack growth increment to be specified in this routine; initially
contains the value determined by the program based upon Paris’s law
which is:
growinc = C [ ( G m a x – G m i n ) exp o n – G t h exp o n ]

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 6 405
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UTRANS

Implement Local Coordinate System

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to specify a local coordinate system for
user-specified nodes. The node numbers are given in the UTRANFORM model
definition option. This user subroutine is called a multiple number of times for each
increment of analysis. The local coordinate system can be modified (updated) at
each increment to facilitate the input of complex boundary conditions. Incremental
nodal displacements and reaction forces are output in both the local and global
coordinate system. All total nodal quantities are output in the global system.

Format
User subroutine UTRANS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UTRANS (DICOS, NDEG, XORD, NCRD, I, N)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DICOS (NDEG, NDEG), XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom.
XORD is the coordinates of the node updated if either the LARGE STRAIN or
FOLLOW FOR parameter is used.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
I is the user’s node number.
N is the transformation number.
Required Output:
DICOS is the user-defined rotation matrix from the local to global coordinate
system. Note that this matrix must be proper orthogonal.

Main Index

Main Index
406 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ USHELL

Modify Thickness of Shell Elements

Description
This user subroutine allows the user to specify the thickness of shell elements for
each integration point. This user subroutine is called twice for each increment of
analysis. It is not advisable to change the thickness during an analysis.
Note: This user subroutine should not be used if the thickness is to be considered a design
variable. Use the GEOMETRY option instead.

Format
User subroutine USHELL is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE USHELL (THICK,XINTP,NCRD,M,NN)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
DIMENSION XINTP(NCRD),M(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
XINTP is the integration point coordinates.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per point.
M(1) is the user’s element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
Required Output:
THICK is the thickness of shell, to be modified by the user.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 6 407
Geometry Modifications User Subroutines

■ UTHICK

User-specified Nodal Thicknesses

Description
The UTHICK user subroutine is called automatically by the NODAL THICKNESS
model definition block. The value of the THICK argument upon input is the value
for nodal thickness entered by the user. If this user subroutine is not used, the nodal
thickness data entered through the NODAL THICKNESS block are used.

Note: This user subroutine should not be used if the thickness is to be considered a design
variable. Use the GEOMETRY option instead.

Format
User subroutine UTHICK is called with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UTHICK (THICK,COORD,NCRD,NOD,BEARC,NBEARF,INC,
INCSUB)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION COORD (NCRD), BEARC(6, NBEARF)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
COORD is the array of coordinates for this node. This array is only available if the
COORDINATES option (and UFXORD option, if used) precedes the
NODAL THICKNESS option.
NCRD is the maximum number of coordinates per node.
NOD is the node number.
BEARC is not used.
NBEARF is not used.
INC is not used.
INCSUB is not used.
Required Output:
THICK is the user-defined nodal thickness of node NOD. Upon input, THICK takes
the value input through the NODAL THICKNESS option.

Main Index

Main Index
408 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UACTUAT

Prescribe the Length of an Actuator

Description
The UACTUAT user subroutine allows the user to control the length of an actuator in
an incremental analysis. This is often useful in mechanism analyses, where the
kinematics are prescribed. This is used with the truss element type 9, when an initial
length is given in the fourth field of the GEOMETRY option.

Format
User subroutine UACTUAT is called with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UATUAT (M,INC,CPTIM,TIMINC,XLNGTH,OLNGTH)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION M(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M(1) is the user’s element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
INC is the increment number.
CPTIM is the time.
TIMINC is the time increment.
OLNGTH is the current length of actuator.
Required Output:
XLNGTH is the length of actuator to be set by the user.

Main Index

Main Index
Chapter 7 Output Quantities User Subroutines List

7 Output Quantities User


Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

ELEVAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
ELEVEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

IMPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

INTCRD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

PLOTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

UBGINC . . ........................................................ 433


UBGITR . . ........................................................ 435
UBGPASS . ........................................................ 436
UEDINC . . ........................................................ 434
UELOOP . . ........................................................ 437
UPOSTV . . ........................................................ 415
UPSTNO . . ........................................................ 418

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410 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Main Index

Main Index
Chapter 7 Output Quantities User Subroutines

7 Output Quantities
User Subroutines

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412 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

This chapter describes user subroutines which can be used to obtain results from the
analysis and manipulate it for postprocessing. There are also four dummy user
subroutines that can be used to set parameters for the advanced user. Table 7-1
summarizes these user subroutines and indicates what parameters or model
definition options are required to invoke the user subroutine.
Table 7-1 Output Quantities User Subroutines Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options
ELEVAR UDUMP Allows postprocessing of element results.
ELEVEC UDUMP Allows postprocessing of element results in
harmonic analysis.
INTCRD Makes available integration point coordinates.
IMPD UDUMP Allows postprocessing of nodal vector results.
PLOTV POST Defines element quantity to be written to post file.
ORIENTATION
UBGINC Dummy routine available at the beginning of
each increment.
UBGITR Dummy routine available at the beginning of
each iteration.
UBGPASS Dummy routine available at the beginning of each pass in
coupled analyses.
UEDINC Dummy routine available at the end of each increment.
UELOOP Dummy routine available during major element loops.
UPOSTV POST Defines nodal vectors to be written to a post file.
UPSTNO POST Defines nodal quantities to be written to a post file

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CHAPTER 7 413
Output Quantities User Subroutines

■ PLOTV

User-selected Postprocessing of Element Variables

Description
The PLOTV user subroutine is used in conjunction with either element code 19 or a
negative code entered in the POST option. This allows the user to define an element
variable to be written to the post file.

Format
User subroutine PLOTV is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE PLOTV(V,S,SP,ETOT,EPLAS,ECREEP,T,M,NN,KCUS,NDI,
+ NSHEAR,JPLTCD)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION S(*),SP(*),ETOT(*),EPLAS(*),ECREEP(*),T(*),
+ M(2),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
S is the array of stresses at this integration point. For heat transfer analysis, S
contains ∂T ⁄ ∂ X i and K i ∂ T ⁄ ∂X i . For a magnetostatic analysis, S contains the
magnetic induction (B) (positions 1, 2, 3 for x, y, z) and the magnetic field
intensity (H) (positions 5, 6, 7 for x, y, z).
SP is the array of stresses in the preferred direction if ORIENTATION is used.
ETOT is the total strain (generalized) at this integration point.
EPLAS is the total plastic strain at this integration point.
ECREEP is the total creep strain at this integration point.
T is the array of state variables at this integration point (temperature first).
M(1) is the user’s element number.
M(2) is the internal element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).

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414 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NDI is the number of direct stresses.


NSHEAR is the number of shear stresses.
JPLTCD is the absolute value of the user’s entered code.
Required Output:
V is the variable to be plotted or put onto the post file, to be defined in
this routine.

Example
For example, suppose the user wishes to output the sum of the squares of the two
shear stresses in the friction theory. These are S(2) and S(3), so the user subroutine
would appear as:
SUBROUTINE PLOTV(V,S,SP,ETOT,EPLAS,ECREEP,T,M,NN,KCUS,NDI,
+ NSHEAR,JPLTCD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION S(*),SP(*),ETOT(*),EPLAS(*),ECREEP(*), T(*)
+ M(2),KCUS(2)
V=SQRT(S(2)**2 + S(3)**2)
RETURN
END
This quantity could then be postprocessed using Marc Mentat or MD Patran.
For electromagnetics, the PLOTV variables are:
V is the variable.
ERI is the real and imaginary components of the electric field intensity.
DRI is the real and imaginary components of the electric displacement.
BRI is the real and imaginary components of the magnetic induction.
HRI is the real and imaginary components of the magnetic field intensity.
CRI is the real and imaginary components of the current density.
T is the current temperature; not used.
M(1) is the user’s element number.
M(2) is the internal element number
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is not used (always 1).
KCUS(2) is not used (always 1).
NDI is the number of components = 3
NSHEAR is not used.
JPLTCD is the absolute value of the user’s post code.

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CHAPTER 7 415
Output Quantities User Subroutines

■ UPOSTV

User-selected Postprocessing of Nodal Variables

Description
The UPOSTV user subroutine is used in conjunction with the POST option to define
a vector quantity that is to be written to the post file. This routine should only be
used with post revision formats 8 or earlier. For later post revisions, use the
UPSTNO user subroutine.

Format
User subroutine UPOSTV is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE
UPOSTV(N,NDEG,NCRD,NUMNP,IANTYP,JNODE,IUID,UPOST,
* XORD,VECTOR,INC,CPTIM)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION UPOST(NDEG),XORD(NCRD),VECTOR(NDEG,JNODE)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N is the user’s node number.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
NUMNP is the number of nodes in the mesh.
IANTYP is the analysis type – see PLDUMP in Chapter 9.
JNODE is the number of vector quantities already defined – see PLDUMP in
Chapter 9.
IUID is the user’s vector number.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
VECTOR is the displacement, etc. of this node. See PLDUMP in Chapter 9.
INC is the increment number.
CPTIM is the total time.
Required Output:
UPOST is user-defined components of vector for this node.

Main Index

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416 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Example
For example, the user would like to postprocess the relative displacement of all
nodes with respect to his node 5 for all time. The user would need to obtain the
displacement of node 5 and subtract this from the other displacements. This is done
as follows:
SUBROUTINE UPOSTV(N,NDEG,NCRD,NUMNP,IANTYP,JNODE,IUID,
* UPOST,XORD,VECTOR,INC,CPTIM)
implicit real*8 (a-h,o-z)
c
c user subroutine to define nodal post variables
c
c n user node number
c ndeg number of degrees of freedom per node
c ncrd number of coordinates per node
c numnp number of nodes in mesh
c iantyp analysis type - see PLDUMP in volume D
c jnode number of vector quantities already defined
c - see PLDUMP in volume D
c iuid user vector number
c upost user defined components of vector for this
node
c xord coordinates of this node
c vectors displacement, etc of this node.
c see iantyp/jnode table in PLDUMP section in
volume D
c inc increment number
c cptim total time
c
dimension upost(ndeg),xord(ncrd),vector(ndeg,jnode)
include 'space'
include 'array2'
dimension disp5(12)
c set reference node lext=5
lext=5
c get internal node number

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Output Quantities User Subroutines

lint=nodint (lext)
c get reference displacement and store into disp5
la3=idsxt+(lint-1)*ndeg
call mcpy(vars(la3),disp5,ndeg,1,0)
c
c get displacement of current node from vector and
c subtract off reference displacement and store back into
upost
c
do i=1,ndeg
upost(i)=vector(i,1)-disp5(i)
enddo
c
return
end

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418 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UPSTNO

User-selected Postprocessing of Nodal Variables

Description
The UPSTNO user subroutine is used in conjunction with the POST option to define
nodal quantities to be written on the post file. This routine is called for post revision
nine and higher. For 7- and 8-style post files, the UPOSTV user subroutine should
be used.

Format
User subroutine UPSTNO is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UPSTNO(NQCODE,NODEID,VALNO,NQNCOMP,NQTYPE,
* NQAVER,NQCOMPTYPE,NQDATATYPE,NQCOMPNAME)
IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
c
DIMENSION VALNO(*)
CHARACTER*24 NQCOMPNAME(*)

user coding

RETURN
END
where
Input:
NQCODE User nodal post code, defined on the POST option
NODEID Node number
NQCOMPNAME Not used (reserved for future expansion)
Required Output:
VALNO() Nodal values:
real/imaginary VALNO( 1: NQNCOMP) real
VALNO(NQNCOMP+1:2*NQNCOMP) imagaginary
magnitude/phase VALNO( 1: NQNCOMP) magnitude
VALNO(NQNCOMP+1:2*NQNCOMP) phase

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CHAPTER 7 419
Output Quantities User Subroutines

NQNCOMP Number of values in VALNO


NQTYPE 0 = scalar
1 = vector
NQAVER Only for DDM: 0 = sum over domains
1 = average over domains
NQCOMPTYPE Used by Marc Mentat: 0 = global coordinate system (X,Y,Z)
1 = shell (Top, Bottom, Middle)
2 = order (First, Second, Third)
NQDATATYPE 0 = default
1 = modal
2 = buckle
3 = harmonic real
4 = harmonic real/imaginary
5 = harmonic magnitude/phase

Example
For example, the user would like to vector plot the total contact force on nodes
whereby the total contact force is the vector sum of the normal and friction force
vectors. The UPSTNO user subroutine can be selected to perform the vector addition
and place the sum on the post file. This is done as follows:
subroutine upstno(nqcode,nodeid,valno,nqncomp,nqtype,
* nqaver,nqcomptype,nqdatatype,
* nqcompname)
implicit real*8 (a-h,o-z)
dimension valno(*)
character*24 nqcompname(*)
c......................................... Begin User Coding
dimension valno1(3),valno2(3)
if (nqcode.eq.-1) then
c... pick up contact normal force and store in valno1
call nodvar(35,nodeid,valno1,nqncomp,nqdatatype)
c... pick up contact friction force and store in valno2
call nodvar(37,nodeid,valno2,nqncomp,nqdatatype)
c... add normal and friction force
do 1 i = 1, nqncomp
valno(i)=valno1(i)+valno2(i)
1 continue
c... indicate that valno represents a vector
nqtype=1
end if
c......................................... End User Coding
return
end

Main Index

Main Index
420 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ IMPD

Output of Nodal Quantities

Description
The IMPD user subroutine makes the displacements, coordinates, reaction forces,
velocities, and accelerations available at the end of each increment so that the user
can save them in any form convenient for postprocessing. During harmonic
subincrements, IMPD allows the user to obtain the complex displacements and
reactions. In heat transfer (or Joule heating) analysis, this user subroutine allows the
user to obtain nodal temperatures, fluxes, and voltages for his postprocessing. This
user subroutine is used in conjunction with the UDUMP option.

Stress Analysis
Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DD (NDEG), TD (NDEG), XORD
(NCRD),F(NDEG),V(NDEG),A(NDEG), LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) =1
DD is the array of displacement increments at this node.
TD is the array of total displacements at this node.
XORD are the coordinates of this node.
F are the reaction forces at prescribed boundary conditions; residual load
correction elsewhere at this node.
V is the total velocity at this node.
A is the total acceleration at this node.

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CHAPTER 7 421
Output Quantities User Subroutines

NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node (that is, the size of the DD,
TD, V, and A arrays).
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the
XORD array).
During harmonic subincrements:
Input:
DD is the array of real displacements.
TD is the array of imaginary displacements.
F is the array of real reaction forces.
V is the array of imaginary reaction forces.

Example
For example, suppose the user wishes to write on a file the displaced position of a
three-dimensional solid structure for subsequent plotting. A scale factor of 5 is
used on the displacements.
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DD(NDEG), TD(NDEG),XORD(NCRD),F(NDEG),
1 V(NDEG), A(NDEG), LNODE(2)
DIMENSION TXORD(3)
C TXORD WILL BE THE COORDS + 5X TOTAL DISPLACEMENTS
DO 1 I = 1,3
1 TXORD(I) = XORD(I) + 5.0*TD(I)
C WRITE OUT DISPLACED POSITIONS ON TAPE 20.
WRITE (20) LNODE(1), TXORD
RETURN
END
After each increment, there are NUMNP records (number of nodal points) on logical
unit 20; each contains a node number and three adjusted coordinates. Note that
any additional file unit must be taken care of with the appropriate machine
dependent JCL.
Note: In a coupled thermal-stress analysis, IMPD is called at the end of the stress pass of an
increment. If one then wants to have the temperature of a node (or the top, bottom, and
middle temperature in the case of shell elements), use can be made of the NODVAR
user subroutine as follows:
DIMENSION TXORD(3)
C
CALL NODVAR (14, N, DDTEMP, N1DUM,N2DUM)
Now DDTEMP contains the temperature(s) of node n.

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422 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Heat Transfer Analysis

Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (N,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DD (NDEG),TD(NDEG),XORD(NCRD),F(NDEG),V(NDEG),A(NDEG),LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END

where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) = 2
DD is the array of temperatures at this node.
TD is the array of reaction fluxes at this node.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
F is not used.
V is not used.
A is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node (that is, the size of the DD, TD,
V, and A arrays).
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the
XORD array).

Joule Heating (Current Pass) Analysis


Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (N,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DD
(NDEG),TD(NDEG),XORD(NCRD),F(NDEG),V(NDEG),A(NDEG), LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END

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CHAPTER 7 423
Output Quantities User Subroutines

where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) = 4
DD is the array of voltages at this node.
TD is the array of reaction currents at this node.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
F is not used.
V is not used.
A is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node (that is, the size of the DD,
TD, V, and A arrays).
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the XORD
array).

Electrostatic Analysis
Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) = 6.
DD is the potential at this node.
TD is the reaction charge at this node.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
F is not used.

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424 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

V is not used.
A is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node = 1.
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the
XORD array).

Magnetostatic Analysis

Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRD),LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) = 7
DD is the potential at this node.
TD is the reaction current at this node.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
F is not used.
V is not used.
A is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node = 1.
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the
XORD array).

Main Index

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CHAPTER 7 425
Output Quantities User Subroutines

Harmonic Electromagnetic Analysis

Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DD
(NDEG),TD(NDEG),XORD(NCRD),F(NDEG),V(NDEG),A(NDEG), LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) = 8
DD is the array of real component of potential at this node.
TD is the array of imaginary component of potential at this node.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
F is the real component of the reaction.
V is the imaginary component of the reaction.
A is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node = 1.
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the
XORD array).

Transient Electromagnetic Analysis


Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DD (NDEG),TD(NDEG),XORD(NCRD),F(NDEG),LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END

Main Index

Main Index
426 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) = 8
DD is the array of incremental potential at this node.
TD is the array of total potential at this node.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
F is the reaction forces at applied boundary conditions.
V is not used.
A is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node (that is, the size of the DD,
TD, and F arrays).
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the
XORD array).

Acoustic Analysis
Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRD),LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number.
LNODE(2) = 10
DD is the real displacements (nodes of structural elements).
is the real pressure (nodes of acoustic medium).
TD is the imaginary displacements (nodes of acoustic medium).
is the imaginary pressure (nodes of acoustic medium).
XORD is the coordinates.

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CHAPTER 7 427
Output Quantities User Subroutines

F is the real reaction forces (nodes of structural elements).


is the real reaction sound source (nodes of acoustic medium).
V is the imaginary reaction forces (nodes of structural elements).
is the imaginary reaction sound source (nodes of structural elements).
A is not used.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node.
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node.

Fluid or Fluid-Thermal Analysis

Format
User subroutine IMPD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE IMPD (LNODE,DD,TD,XORD,F,V,A,NDEG,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION DD
(NDEG),TD(NDEG),XORD(NCRD),F(NDEG),V(1),A(1),LNODE(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
LNODE(1) is the node number (the user subroutine is called once per node
per increment).
LNODE(2) = 3.
DD is not used.
TD is the array of velocities at this node.
XORD is the coordinates of this node.
F is the array of forces.
V is the temperature at this node in a fluid-thermal analysis.
A is the flux at this node in a fluid-thermal analysis.
NDEG is the number of degrees of freedom per node (that is, the size of the DD,
TD, and F arrays).
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions per node (equals the size of the
XORD array).

Main Index

Main Index
428 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ ELEVAR

Output of Element Quantities

Description
The ELEVAR user subroutine makes element (integration point) quantities available
at the end of each increment so that the user can save them in any form convenient
for postprocessing. This user subroutine is used in conjunction with the UDUMP
option.

Format
User subroutine ELEVAR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ELEVAR(N,NN,KCUS,GSTRAN,GSTRES,STRESS,PSTRAN,
1 CSTRAN,VSTRAN,CAUCHY,EPLAS,EQUIVC,SWELL,KRTYP,PRANG,DT,
2 GSV,NGENS,NGEN1,NSTATS,NSTASS,THERM)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION GSTRAN(NGENS),GSTRES(NGENS),
1 STRESS(NGEN1),PSTRAN(NGEN1),CSTRAN(NGEN1),VSTRAN(NGEN1),
2 CAUCHY(NGEN1),DT(NSTATS),GSV(1),THERM(NGEN1),KRTYP(4),
3 PRANG(3,2),KCUS(2)
User Coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
GSTRAN is the total strain array.
GSTRES is the generalized force array.
STRESS is the total stresses array.
PSTRAN is the plastic strain array.
CSTRAN is the creep strain array.

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 7 429
Output Quantities User Subroutines

VSTRAN is the viscoelastic strain array.


CAUCHY is the Cauchy stress array.
EPLAS is the equivalent plastic strain.
EQUIVC is the equivalent creep strain.
SWELL is the swelling strain.
KRTYP(1) is the crack indicator for the first crack direction:
0 = no crack in this direction.
1 = open crack, developed in this increment.
2 = open crack, developed in previous increment.
3 = closed crack.
KRTYP(2) is the crack indicator for the second crack direction.
KRTYP(3) is the crack indicator for the third crack direction.
KRTYP(4) is the crushing indicator:
0 = no crushing.
1 = crushing occurring in this increment.
2 = crushing occurred in previous increment.
PRANG (i,1) = components of normal to the first crack plane.
(i,2) = components of normal to the second crack plane (3-D only).
DT is the state variables array, temperature first.
GSV is the global state variable array.
NGENS is the number of generalized strains.
NGEN1 is the number of physical components.
NSTATS is the number of state variables.
NSTASS is the number of global state variables.
THERM is the total thermal strain array.

Main Index

Main Index
430 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ ELEVEC

Output of Element Quantities in Harmonic Analysis

Description
The ELEVEC user subroutine makes element (integration point) quantities available
at the end of each harmonic subincrement so that the user can save them in any form
convenient for his postprocessing. This user subroutine is used in conjunction with
the UDUMP option.

Format
User subroutine ELEVEC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE ELEVEC(N,NN,KCUS,GSTRAN,GSTRES,STRESS,PSTRAN,
1 CSTRAN,VSTRAN,CAUCHY,EPLAS,EQUIVC,SWELL,KRTYP,PRANG,DT,
2 GSV,NGENS,NGEN1,NSTATS,NSTASS,STSRE,STSIM,STNRE,STNIM)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION GSTRAN(NGENS),GSTRES(NGENS),
1 STRESS(NGEN1),PSTRAN(NGEN1),CSTRAN(NGEN1),VSTRAN(NGEN1),
2 CAUCHY(NGEN1),DT(NSTATS),GSV(NSTASS),
3
STSRE(NGEN1),STSIM(NGEN1),STNRE(NGEN1),STNIM(NGEN1),KCUS(2)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
N is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
KCUS(1) is your layer number (always 1 for continuum elements).
KCUS(2) is the internal layer number (always 1 for continuum element).
GSTRAN is the total strain array.
GSTRES is the generalized force array.
STRESS is the total stresses array.
PSTRAN is the plastic strain array.

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 7 431
Output Quantities User Subroutines

CSTRAN is the creep strain array.


VSTRAN is the viscoelastic strain array.
CAUCHY is the Cauchy stress array.
EPLAS is the equivalent plastic strain.
EQUIVC is the equivalent stress.
SWELL is the swelling strain.
KRTYP is the cracking type.
PRANG is the crack angle.
DT is the state variables array, temperature first.
GSV is the global state variable array.
NGENS is the number of generalized strains.
NGEN1 is the number of physical components.
NSTATS is the number of state variables.
NSTASS is the number of global state variables.
STSRE is the real harmonic stress.
STSIM is the imaginary harmonic stress.
STNRE is the real harmonic strain.
STNIN is the imaginary harmonic strain.

Main Index

Main Index
432 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ INTCRD

Output of Integration Point Coordinates

Description
The INTCRD user subroutine makes the integration point coordinates for the
stiffness matrix available at each increment. The user can save them in any form
convenient for postprocessing.

Format
User subroutine INTCRD is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE INTCRD(M,NN,XORD,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION XORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
XORD is the coordinates of this integration point.
NCRD is the number of coordinate directions.

Main Index

Main Index
CHAPTER 7 433
Output Quantities User Subroutines

■ UBGINC

Beginning of Increment

Description
The UBGINC user subroutine is called at the beginning of each new increment. It
can be used to define or modify data variables stored in common blocks.

Note: No special flag is required in the input file.

Format
User subroutine UBGINC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UBGINC(INC,INCSUB)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
INC is the increment number.
INCSUB is the subincrement number.

Main Index

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434 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UEDINC

End of Increment

Description
The UEDINC user subroutine is called at the end of each increment. It can be used to
define or modify data variables stored in common blocks.

Note: No special flag is required in the input file.

Format
User subroutine UEDINC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UEDINC(INC,INCSUB)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
INC is the increment number.
INCSUB is the subincrement number.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 7 435
Output Quantities User Subroutines

■ UBGITR

Beginning of Iteration

Description
The UBGITR user subroutine is called at the beginning of each iteration in the
solution of the nonlinear problem. It can be used to define or modify data variables
stored in common blocks.

Note: No special flag is required in the input file.

Format
User subroutine UBGITR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UBGITR(INC,INCSUB,NCYCLE)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
INC is the increment number.
INCSUB is the subincrement number.
NCYCLE is the iteration number (the first is labeled zero).

Main Index

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436 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UBGPASS

Beginning of Pass in Coupled Analyses

Description
The UBGPASS user subroutine is called at the beginning of each pass of coupled
analyses. It can be used to define or modify data variables stored in common blocks.

Note: No special flag is required in the input file.

Format
User subroutine UBGPASS is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UBGPASS (INC,INCSUB,IPASS)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
INC is the increment number.
INCSUB is the subincrement number.
IPASS is the pass identifier:
IPASS = 1 - stress pass
IPASS = 2 - thermal pass
IPASS = 3 - fluid pass
IPASS = 4 - Joule heating pass
IPASS = 5 - pore pressure pass
IPASS = 6 - electrostatics pass
IPASS = 7 - magnetostatics pass
IPASS = 8 - electromagnetics pass

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CHAPTER 7 437
Output Quantities User Subroutines

■ UELOOP

Beginning of Element Loop

Description
The UELOOP user subroutine is called in a loop over the elements. It can be used to
define or modify data variables stored in common blocks.

Note: No special flag is required in the input file.

Format
User subroutine UELOOP is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UELOOP(M,N,IL)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
M is the user’s element number.
N is the internal element number.
IL is the loop flag.
= 1 form consistent nodal loads from distributed loads.
= 2 stiffness matrix formation.
= 3 mass matrix formation.
= 4 stress recovery.

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438 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

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Chapter 8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines List

8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication
User Subroutines List

User Subroutine Page

UBEAR . . ...................................................... 443


UGROOV ...................................................... 444
URESTR . ...................................................... 445
UTHICK . ...................................................... 447
UVELOC . ...................................................... 449

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440 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

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Chapter 8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutine

8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication
User Subroutines

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442 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

This chapter describes user subroutines that can be used to customize a


hydrodynamic bearing analysis. In such problems, the geometry can be complicated
by grooves in the bearing surface or nonuniform lubricant. The user subroutines
provided here facilitate the input of this data. Table 8-1 summarizes these user
subroutines and indicates what parameters or model definition options are required
to invoke the user subroutine.

Table 8-1 Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines Requirements

User Required Parameters or


Purpose
Subroutine Model Definition Options

UBEAR BEARING Define the orientation of the film surface.

UGROOV BEARING Define the groove depth.

URESTR BEARING Define the nonuniform restrictor coefficient and


RESTRICTOR pump pressures.
UTHICK BEARING Define the lubricant thickness.
NODAL THICKNESS
THICKNS CHANGE

UVELOC BEARING Define the nodal velocity of bearing surface.


VELOCITY

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CHAPTER 8 443
Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines

■ UBEAR

Input of Spatial Orientation of Lubricant Thickness

Description
In bearing analysis, the lubricant is modeled by a planar mesh due to the absence
of pressure gradients across the film height. Marc integrates the obtained pressure
distribution over the entire mesh. This yields a set of equivalent consistent nodal
forces perpendicular to the lubricant. In order to calculate the load capacity of a
particular bearing system, these forces must be transformed to the global coordinate
system. For this purpose, information is required about the direction cosines of the
lubricant normal. This can be done in the UBEAR user subroutine which is called for
each node.

Format
User subroutine UBEAR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UBEAR (COORD,DIRCOS,NODE,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION COORD (NCRD), COS(3)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
COORD is the array of coordinates at this node.
NODE is the node number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
Required Output:
DIRCOS is the array of direction cosines of the vector perpendicular to the lubricant;
to be defined in this user subroutine. A default vector (0,0,1) is assumed if
not specified.

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444 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

■ UGROOV

Input of Groove Depths

Description
In bearing analysis, discontinuous film thicknesses are often applied to increase the
load carrying capacity. This is usually done by grooves, which can be defined in the
GEOMETRY option. However, this is not possible if position dependent groove
depths have to be included. In such situations, the UGROOV user subroutine must be
used. It is called at each integration point and allows the user to specify the groove
depth at these points. In addition, this user subroutine can be used for selecting
elements which are located at grooves if complex groove patterns have to
be modeled.

Format
User subroutine UGROOV is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UGROOV (THICK,COORD,M,NN,NCRD)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION COORD (NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
COORD is the array of coordinates at this integration point.
M is the element number.
NN is the integration point number.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
Required Output:
THICK is the groove depth magnitude to be specified.

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CHAPTER 8 445
Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines

■ URESTR

Input of Nonuniform Restrictor Coefficients

Description
In bearing analysis, it is often necessary to include nonuniform restrictor
coefficients and pump pressures. The URESTR user subroutine allows this. It is
called at each increment for each integration point on each element surface given
in the RESTRICTOR model definition set, and allows the user to modify the
restrictor coefficient and pump pressure input on the data blocks.

Format
User subroutine URESTR is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE URESTR (CR,PP,PS,N,INC)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION N(3)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
PS is the surface pressure at the beginning of the increment.
N(1) is the element number.
N(2) is the face number.
N(3) is the integration point number.
INC is the current increment number.
Required Output:
CR is the ratio of the desired restrictor coefficient to that given on the
RESTRICTOR data set for this element to be defined by the user (preset to 1).
PP is the ratio of the desired pump pressure to that given on the RESTRICTOR
data set for this element to be defined by the user (preset to 1).

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446 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

Note that since CR and PP are defined as ratios, if the user does not re-define them
in this user subroutine, the data block values are used. If the user wishes to give
absolute values here, the corresponding values on the RESTRICTOR data set can be
conveniently set to 1.

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CHAPTER 8 447
Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines

■ UTHICK (Hydrodynamic Lubrication)

Generation or Modification of Nodal Thickness or


Thickness Change Field
Description
In bearing analysis, the film height usually varies over the entire lubricant region.
The UTHICK user subroutine allows the user to define, or to redefine previously
specified, nodal thicknesses. It is called for each node in the mesh.
In addition, this user subroutine can be used to define thickness increments in
incremental analysis or within subincrements when evaluating damping and/or
stiffness coefficients. In order to enable the specification of thickness increments as
function of previously calculated bearing properties, the user has access to the latter
quantities in this user subroutine.

Format
User subroutine UTHICK is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UTHICK (THICK,COORD,NCRD,NOD,BEARC,NBEARF,INC,
INCSUB)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION COORD (NCRD), BEARC (6,NBEARF)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
COORD is the array of coordinates for this node.
NCRD is the number of coordinates per node.
NOD is the node number.
BEARC is the matrix of previously calculated bearing properties. Each column
contains three bearing force and three bearing moment components. The
quantities calculated in the previous increment are stored in the first column.
Each subsequent column contains the properties pertaining to the previous
set of subincrements.

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448 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

NBEARF is the maximum number of subincrements as given on the


BEARING parameter.
INC is the increment number.
INCSUB is the subincrement number.
Required Output:
THICK is the lubricant thickness or incremental lubricant thickness magnitude to be
specified for this node.

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CHAPTER 8 449
Hydrodynamic Lubrication User Subroutines

■ UVELOC (Hydrodynamic Lubrication)

Generation or Modification of Nodal Velocity Vectors

Description
In bearing analysis, it is sometimes necessary to include a position dependent
velocity field. The UVELOC user subroutine, which is called for each node, allows
the user the specification or re-definition of previously specified nodal velocity
vectors.

Note: No special flag is required in the input file.

Format
User subroutine UVELOC is written with the following headers:
SUBROUTINE UVELOC (VELOC,COORD,NCRD,NODE)
IMPLICIT REAL *8 (A-H, O-Z)
DIMENSION VELOC (NCRD),COORD(NCRD)
user coding
RETURN
END
where:
Input:
COORD is the array of coordinates at this node.
NCRD is the number of coordinates.
NODE is the node number.
Required Output:
VELOC is the array of nodal velocity components to be defined.

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450 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

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Chapter 9 Special Routines — Marc Post File Processor List

9 Special Routines User — Marc


Post File Processor List

Special Subroutine Page

PLDUMP13/PLDUMP2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455

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452 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

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Chapter 9 Special Routines — Marc Post File Processor

9 Special Routines User — Marc


Post File Processor

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454 Marc Volume D: User Subroutines and Special Routines

This chapter discusses a stand-alone program that provides examination of the


postprocessing file created by the POST option. This allows the user to perform
additional calculations based upon results calculated in Marc and to create a post
file. These results can then be viewed with Marc Mentat or MD Patran.

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CHAPTER 9 455
Special Routines User — Marc Post File Processor

■ PLDUMP13/PLDUMP2000

Marc Post File Processor


PLDUMP13/PLDUMP2000 is a small utility program which can be used to access,
analyze, convert, and process Marc binary and formatted post files. PLDUMP13
should be used for post files with revision 13 or greater written by MSC.Marc
2005r3 and newer versions. The source is supplied at no additional charge to Marc
customers and is available on the Marc installation media. The user can modify this
source as necessary to suit his requirements.
When PLDUMP13/PLDUMP2000 is executed, the user is asked several questions, as
follows (the example answers given in italics show the conversion of 12 increments
of a binary post file jobname.t16 into a formatted post file newpost.t19):
1. Dump output file name: for example, post.txt.
The amount of data written into this file depends on the answer to
question 2.
2. Write post data to output option: for example, p.
Valid responses are:
n or none – do not write post file to output
p or partial – write analysis control data to output
f or full – write entire post file to output

3. Type of post file to read: for example, b.


Valid responses are:
b or binary – to read a binary file
f or formatted – to read a formatted file
4. Name of post file to read: for example, jobname.t16.
5. Type of post file to write: for example, f.
Valid responses are:
n or none – do not write a new post file
b or binary – write a new binary file
f or formatted – write a new formatted file

6. New post file name: for example, newpost.t19.