The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

A Report on Research Conducted from 2001 through 2013

Thomas Kohn1 2013.11.04
In November 2003, I had found information about my second-great-grandfather (2GF) John Reinert and his family. Soon after I began to research my Kohn grandparents in Tipton KS, Irene Streit-Keller contacted me. She is a researcher of the Streit family, who had also settled in the Tipton area. She sent a wealth of information, including a large section of Reinert and Simeon Family by Margaret Reinert (1922-1994)2 and William H. Engelbert (1927-)3. Irene’s large pack of materials included corrections to RSF from Andrina Kohn-Ringquist (1947-)4, a photocopied page that recorded the baptism of my great-grandfather John M. Kohn (1839-1919)5, some isolated pages from a history of the St. Boniface parish in Tipton, an extract of a canvass of the St. Boniface Cemetery, and some perhaps unrelated information from an LDS online source called the International Genealogical Index (IGI). Researchers of the Reinert family had often asked me, “Do you know anything more about the parents of John Reinert, the father ‘Tervis Reinert’ and his wife ‘Mary’?” But I had only the same information as they. I suspected that the name ‘Tervis’ was unreliable. I had not come across such a name in any previous research or while I lived in Germany around 1976. Nonetheless, my data included this name, since I lacked any substantiation for my doubt. This report increases the substantiated information and provides primary sources for the data that existed already among the family. The data documents marriages and births among the parents of John Reinert and the parents of Katherine Blasius (1824-1891)—my third-great-grandparents (3GP)—and, as much as possible, the brothers and sisters of John Reinert and Katherine Blasius—my second-great-granduncles and -grandaunts. My connection to John Reinert comes through his first child, Susanna Reinert (1848-1887)6. Over years of research, I came to believe that Susanna had met John M. Kohn in Germany. Their home towns
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. © Thomas Kohn, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2013. All rights reserved. Contact information: 1455 Cory Drive, Dayton OH 454065912 and 608 South El Cielo Road, Palm Springs CA 92264.1028; home phones 937-277-5125 and 760-322-4176; cellular phone 937-271-1484; home e-mail tgkohn@aol.com; work e-mail TKohn@Documentorium.com. Reinert-Engelbert, Margaret and Engelbert, William H.: Reinert and Simeon Family (abbreviated as RSF). 1985; self-published in Beloit, Kansas. RSF, pp. 92 and 99. RSF, pp. 94 and 99. RSF, p. 57. RSF, p. 9. RSF, p. 9.

The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Igel and Wasserliesch sit opposite each other on the banks of the Mosel River. The parish registers document much interaction between the town residents. Further, the Blasius and Kohn families were distantly related. More than a dozen members of the Blasius, Kohn, and Reinert families emigrated from Germany to the U.S. • • • • • • • • • Mathias Kohn III (1829-1888) emigrated between 1849 and 1855. Anna Catharina Blasius-Schmitz (1826-aft 1869), who was recently widowed, emigrated in April 1863, with her daughter Gertrude (1859-abt 1920). Nicholas Blasius III (1835-1912), brother to Anna Catharina, emigrated 1863, likely at the same time as Anna Catharina. Johann Blasius VIII (1833-1878), another brother, emigrated before 1864. Johann Kohn V (1834-1902), brother to Mathias, considered emigrating around 1864, but he apparently decided against the journey. John M. Kohn (who was baptized Johann Mathias Kohn VIII, 1839-1919), also a brother to Mathias, emigrated in June 1865 and joined his brother Mathias in La Crosse, Wisconsin (WI). John Reinert (who was born Johann Reinert VIII, 1822-1871), his wife Katherine Blasius-Reinert (1824-1891), and five children emigrated June 1867. Katherine was a sister to Anna Catharina, Nicholas, and Johann Blasius. Michael Kohn V (1844-1905), also a brother to Mathias, emigrated in June 1871, also joining his brother Mathias in La Crosse WI. Other, more distant Reinert family emigrated around the same time.

Of my great-grandparents, John M. emigrated first, in 18657, and he settled in La Crosse WI, where his brother Mathias Kohn (1829-1888) had settled, married, and become a successful saloon- and innkeeper. Susanna and her parents and siblings emigrated in 18678. The Reinerts visited relatives in Chicago and continued on to settle in Houston County MN. The Reinert home in southeastern Minnesota was no more than 30 miles from Mathias Kohn’s saloon in La Crosse. I believe that that proximity was planned. Perhaps John Reinert knew of available land in Houston County, and could not find affordable land closer to La Crosse. Perhaps the towns were close enough for an occasional visit, for example when the farming needed less attention. Perhaps, even, Susanna and John M. were making plans to marry when it was suitable for Susanna—1868 was the year of her 20th birthday. Whatever their plans, her father’s death in March 1871 caused upheaval in the Reinert family. The next year, Katherine Reinert decided to join other German families and resettle to Tipton KS by wagon train. Apparently, John M. knew about the wagon train, and he arrived in Mitchell County KS sometime in the next two years. Susanna and John M. Kohn were married in 1874 at the Waconda Hotel near Cawker City KS. The U.S. Census of 1880 located them in Carr Creek Township, as a family of John age 41, Susan age 32, Peter age 3, and John M. age 1. The younger child would become my grandfather, John Michael Kohn. »»‡««

7. 8.

Mergen, Josef, Amerika-Auswanderungen aus den Regierungsbezirken Bitburg und Trier im 19. Jahrhundert (Emigrations to America from the Regions of Bitburg and Trier in the 19th Century) (Mergen in following footnotes), available on microfilm FHC Film 0232839, number 1401, p. 197. Mergen, number 851, p. 124.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

It was my partner, Charles Derry, who inspired a driving interest in my family’s history. Around 1998, he showed me a family tree he had researched for his Derry, Hoon, and Iacano ancestors. Amazed that one of the branches reached to his fourth-great-grandfather (4GF), I showed him the trees I had drawn up years earlier. My information, though, went back only to my great-grandparents. I set a goal then: to research the family at least to my 4GP. I soon found that much work had already been done for my father’s ancestors, after a first contact from Irene Streit-Keller. Irene’s unstinting support continued, and I received great support from other family researchers, including Sr. Edna Louise Kohn, M. Suzanne (Sue) Alskog, Mildred (Millie) Corbett-Fink, Andrina (Andy) Kohn-Ringquist, Patricia (Pat) Duncan-Thummel, Cynthia Ann (Cindy) King-Bistodeau, Sr. Anne Martin Reinert, Theresa Matchie, James Heinrich, Jamie Ruitcel, Scott Warner, Hugh and Marian Zorger, Darrell Schmitz, Dennis Kohn, Kay Thull, and Carol Raburn. This report is published in acknowledgement of their assistance and in the same spirit of supporting other researchers of the Reinert family history. The information here is based in large part on original records that come from the towns where the Reinert family lived: • • • • Wasserbillig, Luxembourg Igel, Filzen, and Hamm, in what is today Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany) Caledonia, Minnesota, USA Tipton, Kansas, USA.

Many important records of these communities have been microfilmed, usually with the support of the Roman Catholic diocese or the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS). If the microfilms were made by the LDS, they are available for rental at local Family History Centers (FHC) that are supported by local LDS congregations. Of the eight LDS churches in the towns around my home in Dayton, three of them house an FHC. The records of Tipton, Kansas are available through specific requests made to the offices of Mitchell county, Osborne county, the North Central Kansas Historical Society, and the Catholic Church of St. Boniface (Tipton). The description of recent research covers these topics. • • • • • • • “Research Objectives” on page 49 “Background on Sources” on page 5 “Background on Geography” on page 6 “Research Techniques” on page 69 “Conclusions” on page 77 “Future Research” on page 86 Appendices on sources

9.

Text in this color indicates a clickable link to another location in this document. If a “back” button is available, you can select it to return to the page that contained the link. Text in this underlined color indicates a link to a website.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Research Objectives
The first few pages of RSF present the genealogy of John Reinert and Katherine Blasius. Those pages are duplicated in “Genealogy of Johann Reinert and Katherine Blasius” on page 229. Based on these assertions, I developed seven goals for my research. “Conclusions” on page 77 documents the results of research for each goal. First, the marriage of John Reinert to Katherine Blasius10 (1824-1891) was not known to be documented in the Kirchenbuch11 (Parish Register) of the Catholic parishes of Igel or any parish in that area; nor was the marriage given as an exact date in RSF. I hope to find the marriage record, or a similar record that provides the couple’s names and the names of their parents. Such a record of the parents’ names then provides a more reliable link to the preceding generation. Second, John Reinert’s parentage asserted in RSF offers the name of John’s father as “Tervis” Reinert and the name of his mother as “Mary” without a family name. I hope to document 1) his parent’s marriage, 2) their exact names, and 3) the names and births of John Reinert’s siblings. Third, several assumptions about the family into which John Reinert was born are asserted in RSF, and I hope to substantiate or correct the following assertions: • • • Paul Reinert, godfather to John’s and Katherine’s daughter, Susanna (1848-1887),12 is a brother to John Reinert. Nicholas Reinert, godfather to John’s and Katherine’s son, Nicholas Matthias (1851-1933),13 is a brother to John Reinert. No other near relatives can be determined from the baptismal records of John’s other children, Peter (1853-1934),14 Maria (1860-1939),15 and Gertrude (1864-1913).16

Fourth, RSF ignores the other names provided in the baptismal records of the children of John Reinert and Katherine Blasius-Reinert. I hope to document the relationships of the other sponsors in these five baptisms: • • Susanna Blasius from Igel, the godmother of Susanna Reinert in 1848 Anna Catherina Blasius from Igel, a godmother of Nicolas Reinert in 1851

10. A note on names: I aim to use consistently the American spellings of “John Reinert, Katherine Blasius-Reinert, and John M. Kohn,” except when citing the text of original sources. 11. A Kirchenbuch (plural Kirchenbücher, typical abbreviation KB) is a record of sacramental events in a parish, mostly in chronological order. Such books are usually divided into separate sections for 1) baptisms (the Liber Baptizatum or with a similar title) with often the dates of the birth and the baptism of each person, as well as the parents and sponsors; 2) marriages (the Liber Matrimonialum or similar) with the date of the ceremony, and the names of the married persons, as well as parents and witnesses; and 3) burials (the Liber Mortuorum or similar) with the funeral date and sometimes the relationship to living or deceased family members. Occasionally sacramental entries may be found for confirmations and first communions. The range of the entries depends on the habits of the responsible minister and his level of knowledge of the persons. Because the Kirchenbücher deal primarily with sacramental events, one may see only the date and location of the baptism or funeral, and not the data for birth or death. Often additional data, such as residence or occupation, may be mentioned. In Catholic parishes of Rheinland-Pfalz through the late Twentieth Century, the text is usually written in Latin that follows a formula established by each priest. In records of other regions and from modern times, the text may be written in the dominant language of the parishioners. 12. RSF, p. 5. 13. RSF, pp. 5, 67. 14. RSF, pp. 5, 103. 15. RSF, pp. 5, 175. 16. RSF, pp. 5, 177.

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• • •

Peter Blasius from Igel and Catharina Reinert from Wasserbillig, godparents of Peter Reinert in 1853 Nicolas Blasius from Igel and Maria Weis from Wasserbillig, godparents of Maria Reinert in 1860 Johannes Wollscheid and Gertrude Blasius from Igel, godparents of Gertrude Reinert in 1864.

Knowing the relationships of these sponsors can expand our knowledge of the family and assist further research of our direct ancestors and the indirect ancestors as well. Fifth, since RSF provided so little historical information other than the birth dates, marriage dates, and death dates, I hope to provide substantial background information for the communities in which the family lived. Sixth, the most beguiling part of genealogical research is that it evokes additional questions to be answered. This report seeks to pose follow-on questions, and “Future Research” on page 86 lists questions with proposed sources for their answers. Seventh, I hope to document information about the parents and siblings of John Reinert and Katherine Blasius. I also document information about the children of John and Katherine and the families that they established before Katherine’s death in 1891.

Background on Sources
The following information had been asserted about the John Reinert family in RSF or in less formal research by family members. John Reinert was probably born on 12 June 182217 to Tervis Reinert and Maria of Wasserbillig. Wasserbillig is in current-day Grevenmacher canton (county), Luxembourg (as mapped in Figure 2). His mother’s family name was not known. John was a linen weaver. He married Katherine Blasius (latin name Catharina) probably before January 1848,18 and became the father of a family with five children who resided in Katherine’s hometown Igel. Igel is in current-day Kreis (county) Trier-Land, Bundesland (state) Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland19 (as mapped in Figure 18). They resided there for more than 19 years. The family emigrated from Germany in 1867. After arriving at the port of New York, the family continued their journey and settled in Caledonia township. Caledonia township is near the center of Houston county, in the extreme southeast corner of Minnesota, USA before 1870. (Maps, Figure 31 and Figure 32.) En route, they visited Katherine’s brothers, one of them identified by name as John Blasius, who had immigrated to Chicago some years before. John Reinert died in Houston county on 10 March 1871 of cancer of the neck or throat.

17. RSF, pp. 4, 5. 18. St. Dionysius Catholic Church Igel, Kirchenbuch Igel: Tote 1818-1868, Taufen 1818-1860, Konf. 1867-1895, Heiraten 18181908, Tote 1818-1868, Taufen 1861-1907 (KBI 1818-1908), (FHL INTL Film 0464782 items 1, 2; Microfilm created from manuscripts in the Bistumsarchiv Trier), item 1, p 83. Assumption based on the baptism registry of their first-born child Susanna, who was recorded as a legitimate daughter. 19. Deutschland, Rheinland-Pfalz, and Kreis Trier are present-day names of the country, state, and county. Contemporary names to the records would have been Preußen, Rheinland, and Trier-Land. The actual boundaries differed from the boundaries of present-day political entities, although the exact differences have not been included in this research. In the data I have amassed, my preference is to indicate the locations by today’s political boundaries, which may ease a comparison to maps and names that are readily at hand to the reader.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

By about October 1872, Katherine Blasius-Reinert and her family of five children relocated to Tipton, Kansas, a developing community that included former residents of the middle Mosel River valley. Katherine Blasius-Reinert died on 8 February 1891,20 after all her children had married and begun families. This information generally has only one source, the RSF. Research needs to document at least one other source for corroborating each assertion. If the RSF is called in question, a third source can resolve the disparity. Other family documents, civil records, and parish records are available for the other source material. In addition, online sources provide a large amount of secondary and background documentation. These other sources are available for research. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reinert and Simeon Family, 1985 (See page 89 for a description of the source and a critical discussion of its content.) About Our Great Grandfather and Great Grandmother in the Kohn Family, 1974 (See page 94.) History of the Nicholas Reinert Family, 1983 (See page 113.) History of the Peter Reinert Family, 1983 (See page 114.) History of the Maria Gillen Family, 1985 (See page 115.) History of the Gertrude Schandler Family, 1984 (See page 116.) Familienbücher of Igel and surrounding communities The Kirchenbuch of Igel, 1818-1908, which includes separate volumes for baptisms, marriages, and burials (See page 117.) Civil registers for the administrative district that includes Igel (See page 148 for Wasserbillig and page 148 for Igel.) Amerikaauswanderungen aus dem Landkreise Trier Rheinland 1855-1910, Josef Mergen 1952 (See page 148.) Other Kirchenbücher from parishes near Wasserbillig and Igel (See page 148.) Censuses of the United States in 1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930 (See page 148.) Censuses of Minnesota and Kansas in 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, 1905, 1915, 1925, and 1935 (See page 148.) County registers of births, marriages, and deaths (See page 148.) Parish registers of baptisms, marriages, and funerals (See page 149.)

Background on Geography
Understanding a family begins with understanding their home. John Reinert and his parents had several homes in central-western Germany and across the Luxembourg border. Katherine Blasius’s family resided
20. RSF, p. 3.

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many generations in Igel, Germany. After arriving in the United States, the immigrant family had several homes. After visiting Katherine’s brothers in Chicago, their first home was in Houston county, Caledonia township, Minnesota. They soon resettled to the Tipton, Kansas area. From there, Susanna relocated to La Crosse WI after her marriage to John M. Kohn, and Peter Reinert relocated his family to Sheridan county, Kansas around 1906.

Towns near the Mosel River
The towns near the Mosel River lie in the valleys formed by the Mosel River21 and its tributaries, the Saar River and the Sauer River. The Mosel originates in the French Vosges mountains southwest of Strasbourg. The river flows north-northwest through France, then forms a small part of the west boundary of Germany with Luxembourg. At Wasserbillig, Luxembourg, the river flows northeast through Trier and the German state of Rheinland-Pfalz (Figure 1). After 330 miles (544 km) of flow, the Mosel joins the Rhein River at Koblenz.22

21. Spelled in French as “Moselle.” 22. An appendix includes maps of these larger areas, marked with the position of the map shown here.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 1. Rheinland-Pfalz in Europe

Members of our extended family come from towns in the Mosel valley (Figure 2). • • Wasserliesch,23 Igel,24 Konz,25 and Zerf26 downstream from Wasserbillig Langsur27 and Mesenich28 up the Sauer River

23. Wasserliesch, the home of the Kohn brothers, including Johann Mathias (John M.) Kohn, who would emigrate separately between about 1855 through 1871. Wasserliesch was the home parish for these heads of the Blasius family: Heinrich (1780-1855), Johann (1823-1874), Johann (1860-1899), Mathias IV (1852-1915?); for these married daughters of the Blasius family: Margareta Blasius-Breser (18161892),.Katharina Blasius-Kessler (1765-1836), Katharina Blasius-Musty (1826-), Maria Blasius-Philippi (1856-), Katharina Blasius-Rausch (1858-1940), and Anna Maria Blasius-Wirtz (1829-); and at least Susanna Giwer (1795-), who married into the Blasius family. 24. Igel, the home of the Blasius family, including Katherine, Anna Catharina, Nicholas III, and Johann V, who would emigrate separately between about 1855 through 1865. 25. Konz, the home of Barbara Wagner-Blasius (1875?-1940?). 26. Zerf, the home of Katharina Schoemann (1685?-1786).

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• •

Könen,29 Filzen,30 and Hamm31 up the Saar River Temmels,32 Grevenich,33 Mertert,34 Nittel35 and Remich36 further upstream on the Mosel

Figure 2. Towns near the Mosel River, Germany

Hamm-Filzen, Germany
Research has placed Paulus Reinert I (1784-1868?) in Hamm, Germany at his birth on 13 Apr 1784. His father Nikolaus (1741-1817), grandfather Peter (1687-), and great grandfather Georg (abt 1660-) also lived in Hamm or Filzen. On 3 Feb 1812 Paulus Reinert married Angela Lambert (1792-1813) in Hamm. However, they moved to Wasserbillig, Angela’s home of birth, before their only child Nicholas was born 3 Oct 1812. Angela died there on 20 Dec 1813.
27. Langsur, the home of Angela Bamberg-Giwer (1795-1856), Michael Roos (1780?-1812), and Anna Maria Blasius-Roos (1784-). 28. Mesenich, the home of several more distant relatives. 29. Könen, the home of many godparents in the Giwer, Kohn, and Schuh (Schu) families. 30. Filzen, the home of many Reinert (Reiner) and Luy (Lay, Luis) family members. 31. Hamm, the home of Paulus Reinert and many Reinert (Reiner) and Luy (Lay, Luis) family members. 32. Temmels, the home of Peter Kohn I (1810?-1870?, m. 1831), Johann Kohn (1780-1841), as well as many godparents in the Kohn family. 33. Grevenich Luxembourg, the home of Eva Lorich-Kohn (1772-1820), and Anna Schu (1830?-1890?). 34. Mertert Luxembourg, the home of Johann Giwer (1735-1814), Johann Giwer (1745?-1805?), and Mathias Giwer (17411825). 35. Nittel, the home of Anna Vietor (1735?-1780?), Katharina Kohn (1887-1955) and members of the Görgen (Görges) family. 36. Remich, the home of a Junk family.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Geography — Hamm (population 111 in 2008) is on the right bank of the Saar River, and Filzen (population 356 in 2008) is downstream on the same side. Hamm and Filzen were distinct communities in the 18th and 19th centuries, though they are less than a kilometer (half a mile) apart. Hamm is only 4 km (2.5 miles) from Konz.

Hamm lies in a bow of the Saar, right on the river, and it was long renowned as a ferry location. Just outside of Hamm is a group of buildings for the Hamm ferry (Hammerfähre) that were used in previous centuries to shelter the ferryman, the crossing skiff, and other utensils.

Figure 3. St. Marien und St. Luzig over the Saar River, Hamm.

A bit downstream from Hamm, Filzen lies in a flat river-side plain underneath vineyards that rise to the top of Filzer Berg. For many centuries, viniculture had a strong influence on the town. Although earlier settling is beyond doubt, still extant Roman ruins establish the community founding to be close to the first century.
Parish — Although a small church named Sankt Marien und Sankt Luzia was established as early as 1140 in Hamm, the town lacked a parish rectory until 1613. The church belonged to the nearby Sankt Maximin zu Trier Abbey. The church tower is a notable example of masonry using local stones. In the 19th century the church was affiliated with Sankt Lambert und Sankt Laurentius in Saarburg, and the rectory is now a youth home.37

In 1030 the Sancta Maria ad Martyres Abbey owned a farmyard in Filzen (written then as Velse). In the Twelfth Century, the Sankt Maximin zu Trier Abbey maintained a loading station on the Saar for the transportation of fruit and Figure 4. St. Maximin Abbey, Filzen. wine to Trier. By then, the name had become Vilcine—on its way to the modern spelling of Filzen first documented in 1490. The St. Joseph parish church was in Filzen for a long time, and the parish included Könen and Hamm.38 The parish priest answered through the Bernkastel Dekanat to the Trier diocese. Its records from

37. Revised from the source http://www.konz.eu/vg_konz/Leben%20in%20Konz/Kirchen%20und%20Religionsgemeinschaften. 38. Primary information in this section comes from a 2013.07.30 access of http://www.konz.eu/vg_konz/Tourismus/Stadtteile/ Konz%20-%20Filzen%20-%20Hamm., http://www.konz.eu/vg_konz/Tourismus/Stadtteile/Konz%20-%20Filzen%20%20Hamm, and http://www.konz.eu/vg_konz/Tourismus/Stadtteile/Konz%20-%20Filzen%20-%20Hamm/ Chronik%20Filzen..

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1700 through 1897 and a Familienbuch are available on microfilm through the LDS39 and diocesan archives in Germany. The pastor is unknown.40 The community celebrates its annual Kirmes (wine festival) on the first weekend of July.
Local Development — As of 1969, Filzen41 and Hamm were brought into the Verbandsgemeinde Konz, to consolidate functions of municipal government and administer the towns centrally from a larger town. The individual municipalities (Ortsgemeinden) still maintain a limited degree of local autonomy. Other towns in the Verbandsgemeinde are Karthaus, Könen, Krettnach, Kommlingen, Niedermennig, Oberemmel, Obermennig, and Roscheid.

Both Filzen and Hamm experienced the lowest population during the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648, a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe).42 Filzen was left with only eight households after the war, and Hamm with two. Together they had 21 households at the war’s start. Thereafter, Verbandsgemeinde Konz has had a growing population over the past two centuries.
Year 1815 1835 1871 1905 1939 1950 1961 1970 1987 2005 Population 2002 2979 3806 8790 10,617 10,047 10,838 12,510 15,433 17,821

39. Filzen: Pastors of Katholische Kirche Filzen—Kirchenbuch, 1700-1964 (two 35 mm microfilm rolls). 1. Family History Library INTL Film 584963. 2. Family History Library INTL Film 463566. Könen: Pastors of Katholische Kirche Könen—Kirchenbuch, 1798-1890 (one 35 mm microfilm roll). Family History Library INTL Film 466481 “Taufen 1798-1873 Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1874-1890 Heiraten 1798-1873 Tote 1798-1876.” Saarburg: Pastors of Katholische Kirche Saarburg—Kirchenbuch, 1581-1798 (three 35 mm microfilm rolls). 1. Family History Library INTL Film 530320. 2. Family History Library INTL Film 530321. Pastors of Katholische Kirche Saarburg—Kirchenbuch, 1600-1910 (seven 35 mm microfilm rolls). 1. Family History Library INTL Film 1336867. 2. Family History Library INTL Film 596105 Item 2. 3. Family History Library INTL Film 556224. 4. Family History Library INTL Film 556225. 5. Family History Library INTL Film 556226. 6. Family History Library INTL Film 556227. 7. Family History Library INTL Film 556228. Tapp, Alfons—Die katholischen Pfarreien Sankt Lambert und Sankt Laurentius in Saarburg 1581-1899: mit den Filialen Ayle-Biebelhausen 1584-1843, Krutweiler 1628-1899, Niederleuken 1584-1899, Trassem 1805-1899, Perdenbach 18051899: Familienbuch. Publication: Köln: Westdeutsche Gesellschaft für Familienkunde, c2007. (2 v.: geneal. tables, map.; ISBN: 3865790380). 40. Perhaps this is contact information for the parish. Pfarrer Thomas Schneider; Bernkasteler Str. 52, 54518 OSANN-Monzel; Telephone 06535-943309; E-Mail: thomas.schneider@bgv-trier.de; Pfarrbüro Sekretärin Hildegard Hoffmann; Bernkasteler Str. 52, 54518 OSANN-Monzel; Telephone 06535-325; E-Mail: pfarramt.osann@web.de. 41. Information came also from the source https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konz. 42. See Thirty Years’ War on wikipedia for a concise history.

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In 1976 to 1980, the school house in Filzen was torn down and replaced by a village square, wine pavilion, and fountain. In Hamm, the development of a canal that bypassed Kanzem and a broad bend of the Saar made a set of locks necessary. Thus the former importance of the Hammerfähre was transferred to the sluice operations. Wine from the Saar district depends on warm growing seasons. Typically only 4 out of every 10 years produce a quality vintage. These vintages are noted for their applelike freshness and steely mineral notes. An ideal vintage is Figure 5. Vineyard hills above Filzen. harvested between late October and mid-November, after the grapes have developed the sugar to produce floral and honeyed notes. At least these wines come from the Hamm-Filzen vineyards: Filzener Herrenberg, Filzener Pulchen, Filzener Steinberger, and Filzener Urbelt.43
Figure 6. Hamm and the locks on the Saar

Wasserbillig, Luxembourg
Research has placed Paulus Reinert (1784-1868?) in Wasserbillig, Luxembourg at the birth of his child Nicholas on 3 Oct 1812. His wife Angela Lambert (1792-1813) came from Wasserbillig to marry in Hamm, his birthplace. However, they located to Wasserbillig before their first child was born. Angela died there on 20 Dec 1813. Paulus married again in Wasserbillig on 3 May 1814, to Anna Maria Weis (17841866) from Kümmern, Germany. They raised ten children in addition to Nicholas from Paulus’ first wife. Their sixth child Johann (1822-1871) is my 2GGF, John Reinert.

43. The local vintners include Weingut Dieter Schafhausen, Kirchstrasse 9, 54441 Kanzem; Telephone 06501/602014; E-Mail: info@weingutschafhausen.de Wein- und Sektgut Reverchon KG, Saartalstraße 2-3, D-54329 Konz-Filzen; Tel. 06501- 923500; email: kontakt@weingut-reverchon.de; http://www.weingut-reverchon Claus Piedmont, Saartalstraße 1, 54329 Konz-Filzen/Saar; Telephone: +49 (0)6501/99009; piedmont-weingut@t-online.de; http:// www.piedmont.de Weingut König Johann im Saartal, Saartalstr. 9 a, 54329 Konz-Filzen| Mosel; Telephone +49 (6501) 969810; email: info@wgschmitt.de; http://www.koenig-johann.de Weingut Johann Peter Reinert, Alter Weg 7a, 54441 Kanzem| Mosel; Telephone +49 (6501) 13277; http://www.weingut-reinert.de; http://www.weingut-reinert.de

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Geography — Wasserbillig44 (2,186 inhabitants in 2005) covers a plain on the left bank of the Mosel, directly across from Oberbillig, Germany and just upstream of the mouth of the Sauer River (in French, Sûre). For generations, a bridge crossed the Sauer River to a small community in Germany named Wasserbilligerbrücke. This bridge is prominent in the foreground in Figure 7, taken from the hills over Wasserbilligerbrücke. However, there were no bridges before the 19th Century.

Then, as well as today, a ferry was available Wasserbilligerbrücke, 1940. to cross the Mosel between Wasserbillig and Oberbillig. Then the ferry was not a large one. It was a simple craft that could navigate the crossing with the help of a guide line, with just enough room for a family or for a few livestock. Ferries on the Mosel have become much less common today, due to the relative ease of driving to some bridge and then doubling back. The Wasserbillig ferry today can carry a few autos and several pedestrians.
Parish — The Wasserbillig parish church of St. Martin is part of the community of Mertert and of the Grevenmacher Deaconry. From the 12th Century, the parish also included Oberbillig, which was annexed to the Prussian Empire in 1871 along with other parts of the Rheinland and separated from the Wasserbillig parish. Similarly, the parish had other secondary churches in Manternach until 1685 and Lellig until 1844. Roger Geimer is the pastor, and his rectory is in Mertert.45

Figure 7. Wasserbillig and bridges over the Sauer River to

The original church stood on property owned by the Sankt Maximin zu Trier Abbey, located at the elbow formed by the Sauer river’s mouth at the Mosel, which was called Spatz (sparrow). However, since the church was fre- Figure 8. 1792 St. Martin church, Wasserbillig. quently flooded, in 1792 a new church was built at a higher location.46 When France annexed Luxembourg in 1795, all the properties of the abbey were confiscated and sold at auction. The mayor of Wasserbillig then, Valère de Seyl (served 1797-1807), purchased the church and allowed its building to continue. The first services were held in 1808, and the year is inscribed over the main entrance. Two years later, de Seyl exchanged his deed for the church and graveyard at Spatz. The church ruins at Spatz were destroyed.

44. Wasserbillig is in the present-day jurisdictions of Luxembourg, district et canton de Grevenmacher, commune de Mertert, ville de Wasserbillig and formerly, in the times of Paulus Reinert, in the jurisdictions of Duchy de Luxembourg, canton de Fôret, ville de Wasserbillig. The area has shifted in control since at least the 17th Century. France controlled the duchy between 1808 to 1810, and returned control to Luxembourg by 1820. During the time of the Reinert families under discussion, the town was just inside the eastern border of Luxembourg. 45. Most information is translated from https://lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kierch_Waasserb%C3%ABlleg, which was accessed 2013.08.18. Translation from the Letzebürgish was provided by Barbara Schuh, of Trier. 46. The new church is at the corner of Rue des Bergers and Grand Rue (Route 1).

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In 1834, the main altar and two side altars were brought from the Capuchin cloister at Bernkastel 48 mi (75 km) up the Mosel to Wasserbillig on a barge. The two towers were not built until 1934, when a sacristy and interior arcades were added and the Nicolas bells (Letzebürgisch: Niklosklack, made in 1771) and Martin’s bells (Martinusklack, 1844) were moved from the small tower over the main entrance. The windows were completely destroyed near the end of World War II, and a temporary repair with plain glass was replaced with stained glass throughout the 1950s. The stained glass is the work of the Luxembourg artists Gustave Zanter, Emile Probst, Joseph Probst, François Gillen, and Julien Lefèvre. In 1981 the new main altar and the side altars were carved by Jean Haler, all in the style of the high altar after a draft of Pastor Figure 9. St. Martin altars, Wasserbillig. Bellwald. The Pietà Verticale. an important example of 18th C. religious woodcarving, is by an unknown artist. The 98-cm height depicts a standing Holy Mother. The church records from 1708 through 1900 and an index of civil entries are available on microfilm through the LDS47 and diocesan archives in Trier, Germany. The civil registers of Mertert 1813-1923 are online at https://familysearch.org/search/collection/1709358.48
Local Development — Wasserbillig is part of the commune of Mertert, and Wasserbillig is home for the administrative offices of the commune. Mertert is the only river port of Luxembourg, and it was officially designated so in 1966.49

Although population figures are not available until more than 150 years afterward, it’s likely that the area of Wasserbillig reached its smallest size at the end of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648). Census information begins in 1796 for Commue Mertert-Wasserbillig. Then, Wasserbillig was 40% of the total population. However, in 1890, the population of Wasserbillig surpassed Mertert, and soon doubled its rel-

47. Wasserbillig: Bob Calmes—Fichier des mariages, 1708-1802, Wasserbillig (one 35 mm microfilm roll) Card index to marriages at Wasserbillig, Luxembourg. Arranged by husband's (époux) and wife's (épouse) names. 1. Family History Library INTL Film 1981101. Pastors of Katholische Kirche Wasserbillig—Kirchenbuch, 1708-1900 (three 35 mm microfilm rolls) Parish register of baptisms, marriages, deaths and family book for Wasserbillig, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg. Includes Langsur and Wasserbilligerbrücke, Rheinland, Germany. Text in German and Latin. 1. Family History Library INTL Film 1336883 Items 6-7 “Taufen 1708-1794 Heiraten 1708-1794 Tote 1792-1794, 1708-1792.” 2. Family History Library INTL Film 585899 Items 13 “Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1781-1793, 1780, 1779.” 3. Family History Library INTL Film 467994 “Taufen 1758-1772, 18031900 Heiraten 1758-1771, 1798, 1803-1899 Tote 1803-1900 Konfirm. 1804-1829, 1832-1879 Kommun. 1804-1831, 18691871.” 4. Family History Library INTL Film 1336849 Item 3 “Familienbuch 1758-1831 (nur Langsur).” Pastors of Katholische Kirche Langsur—Kirchenbuch, 1779-1793 (one 35 mm microfilm roll) Parish register baptisms, marriages and deaths for Langsur, Rheinland, Germany. Includes Wasserbilligerbrücke, and Wasserbillig, now in Luxembourg. Text in German and Latin. 1. Family History Library INTL Film 530208 Items 3-4 “Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1779-1793.” Pastors of Eglise catholique. Paroisse de Wasserbillig (Grevenmacher)—Registres paroissiaux, 1708-1820 (one 35 mm microfilm roll) Parish register baptisms, marriages and deaths for Langsur, Rheinland, Germany. Includes Wasserbilligerbrücke, and Wasserbillig, now in Luxembourg. Text in German and Latin. 1. Family History Library INTL Film 425134 “Registres paroissiaux.” 48. The civil registers include inhabitants of Mertert and Wasserbillig, and the online source divides the registers into ten parts: 1. Décès 1860-1890, 2. Décès 1913-1923, 3. Naissances 1813-1851, 4. Naissances 1852-1890 Mariages 1813-1890 Décès 1813-1859, 5. Naissances 1895-1912, 6. Naissances 1913-1923 Mariages 1895-1923 Décès 1895-1912, 7. Naissances, Mariages, Décès 1891-1894, 8. Tables décennales 1802-1892, 9. Tables décennales 1893-1902, 10. Tables décennales 19031922. The Tables décennales are indices for each type of record (birth (Naissances), marriage (Mariages), death (Décès)) grouped in periods of about ten years, with the family names in alphabetic order. 49. The official website of Mertert http://www.mertert.lu/accueil includes more historical information.

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ative size. Overall, except for World War I, Commue Mertert-Wasserbillig has had a growing population over two centuries.
Year 1796 1815 1839 1890 1900 1935 1945 1960 1970 1988 1993 2008 Mertert 320 429 543 720 790 872 768 888 926 904 938 1207 Wasserbillig 190 257 452 865 1098 1887 1695 1925 2113 1980 2091 2548

History — In 1288 the Battle of Worringen was fought near Köln to decide the possession of the Duchies of Luxembourg and Limburg. Worringen was to be known as one of the largest European battles in the Middle Ages. That May, Henry VI, Count of Luxembourg, led his army 185 miles (296 km) into the Köln region to force Reinoud of Guelders to relinquish his rights to Limburg. This capitulation angered John of Brabant, who started a campaign against Reinoud. Both sides met at Schloß Worringen on the Rhine, which was held by the Archbishop Siegfried of Köln. John laid siege to the fortress, supported by the Cologne citizens, who were eager to emancipate themselves from the Archbishop's rule.

On 5 June 1288, Siegfried marched toward Worringen at the head of his troops. Soon after the start of battle, John and Henry met in a fierce fight, in which Henry and two of his brothers were killed. Siegfried entered the battle and fended off the troops and the Köln citizen’s militia. However, Siegfried had too little support from his rear army and was taken prisoner. The battle ended in a victory for Brabant when Reinoud of Guelders was captured. The toll on the house of Luxembourg was high: most of the male relatives of Henry VI perished. John of Brabant imprisoned Siegfried for over a year at Schloß Burg, before he paid a ransom and agreed to demands. Schloß Worringen and several other fortresses of the bishop were demolished. Reinoud of Guelders was released after he renounced all claims to the Duchy of Limburg. The 17th Century saw great upheaval in the region of Luxembourg and the middle Mosel. The Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648) marked the beginning of more than two centuries of warfare. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 restored Charles Louis, a son of the French king Frederick V, with a new title, “Elector Palatine,” though the Duchy of Luxembourg was still under control of the Spanish Netherlands. The Nine Years’ War (1688 to 1697, often called the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Palatine Succession, or the War of the League of Augsburg) had its focus on Trier and the middle Mosel parts of Luxembourg. Marshal Duras, Vauban, and 30,000 men—all under the nominal command of the Dauphin of France— besieged the Elector of Trier’s fortress of Philippsburg on 27 September 1688. After a vigorous defence, Philippsburg fell on 30 October. However, the French had not planned on the quick coalition of several German princes. By 1690 the Spanish Netherlands had become the main seat of the war, where the French formed two armies: Boufflers’ force on the Mosel, and a larger force to the west under Humières’ successor and Louis XIV’s greatest general of the period—Marshal Luxembourg. Realizing that the war in Germany was not going to end quickly and that the Rheinland campaign would not be a brief and decisive parade of French glory, Louis XIV and Louvois resolved upon a scorched-earth policy in the Palatinate, as well as in Baden and Württemberg. Louis’ plan was intent on denying local resources to enemy troops and preventing the invasion of French territory. In all, French troops burned over 20 substantial towns as well as numerous villages. Nearly all castles were blown up, and the only bridge across the Mosel in Trier was
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burned. As the French Army retreated from Trier in 1698, it left a starving city without walls and only 2,500 inhabitants. The 18th Century also marked the Duchy of Luxembourg and the Electorate of Trier with battle scars. An alliance of Britain and Netherlands left its mark in 1704, though the French regained Trier from 1705 to 1714, then again from 1735 to 1737, after beating back periodic resurgences of the Elector. Then in 1742 the newly installed elector Charles Theodore of Sulzbach merged Trier with Bavaria. After forty years of control, the last Prince-Elector of Trier, Clement Wenceslaus of Saxony, relocated to Koblenz, and French Republican troops took Trier in August 1794. This date marked the end of the era of the old electorate. Churches, abbeys, and clerical possessions were sold or the buildings put to secular use. In 1795, France annexed the Duchy of Luxembourg. At the beginning of the 19th Century, in 1803, the French diocese of Metz assumed control of the whole diocese of Trier and of Luxembourg. Many civil and religious registers in the middle Mosel were required to be recorded in French. After Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat, the Treaty of Paris (30 May 1814, sometimes referred to as the First Peace of Paris) ended the war between France and Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Peace talks reduced France to her 1792 borders and restored the independence of her neighbors. France was allowed to retain Saarbrücken and Saarlouis, among other areas. Luxembourg was reunified to Belgium and the Netherlands in a constitutional monarchy through the Treaty of Vienna (9 June 1815), which also awarded the Rheinland to Prussia. In 1830, Belgium and Luxembourg revolted against the Netherlands, and in 1839 Luxembourg separated from Belgium. In 1914, the Prussian Empire invaded Luxembourg, in an opening conflict of World War I. In November 1918, the U.S. Third Army liberated Luxembourg as part of its march into Germany and occupation of the Rheinland. The U.S. occupation ended in 1923, and control was assumed by the French with up to 40,000 French colonial soldiers based in the Rheinland. With the rise of Adolph Hitler and his repudiation of the Treaty of Versailles in 1935, the occupying French forces were pushed out. Hitler defied the Versailles and Locarno treaties by remilitarising the Rheinland in March 1936. On 10 May 1940, Germany launched an offensive against France and, for reasons of military strategy, also invaded the neutral nations of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Netherlands and Belgium were overrun using Blitzkrieg tactics through the thickly wooded Ardennes region. Four years later, the Ardennes and the Sauer river would be the stage for the Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945), a major German offensive campaign launched toward the end of World War II in Europe. The German failed offense marked the start of the American-French rush to the Rhein and liberation of Germany.

The Mosel River today appears to be quite wide and deep. In some places the current seems swift. But the river had a much different character before the Twentieth Century. Before the 1960s, the Mosel river alternated seasonally between very shallow to wide-ranging floods. Only very small craft could navigate the channel during most parts of the year. Occasional winters were harsh enough to freeze the entire breadth of the river.50 An agreement between Germany, France and Luxembourg signed in the 1950s provided for making the Mosel navigable.51 Fourteen dams and locks were built, and the river was inaugurated as a Großschifffahrtsstraße (trading lane for large ships) in 1964. The average height of the dams is 19.6 feet (5.99 m), dropping a total of

Figure 10. Wasserbillig viewed from above Mertert.

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275 feet (83.9 m) from the first dam to the last. The nearest dams and locks are at Grevenmacher and Trier.52 Over geologic times, the Mosel River sliced through sandstone, limestone, and slate rock to form a deep, fairly narrow Mosel Valley. The Mosel meanders through hills of slate and other sedimentary rock in its path from France to the Rhein, cutting broad arcs through the terrain. Wasserbillig and its neighbor Oberbillig across the river sit on a pair of narrow flood plains at the apex of such an arc. The areas set back a quarter mile to half a mile from the rivers are hilly, often very steep grades.

50. Letters from Werner Winkler, 2004.08.31 and 2004.09.10. “Die Mosel hat sehr sehr schlimme Hochwasser, in manchen Orte mit sehr sehr hohen Schäden an den Häusern, es wurden schon Existenzen zerstört durch solche Hochwasser.” und “Es war in den Jahren 1963-65 ...(ich war ca. 4 oder 5 Jahre alt), es war ein sehr sehr kalter Winter. Die Mosel war schon aufgestaut (Staustufe), das Wasser war somit flach wie ein See, die Mosel war sehr dick mit Eis zugefrohren. Die Schiffe konnten nicht mehr fahren. Meine Mutter hat mich an der Hand genommen und wir sind beide über die Mosel gegangen. Dort in Wasserliesch muß es einen guten Bäcker gegeben haben, denn dort haben wir Brot gekauft und sind wieder zurück. Der Weg über das Eis war ja nicht weit nach Wasserliesch. “Wir mußten uns aber sehr beeilen, von Wasserbillig sahen wir einen Eisbrecher...der das Eis aufgebrochen hat. Wenn wir nicht mehr über das Eis noch Igel gekommen wären, so hätten wir einen sehr sehr weiten Rückweg gehabt, und das nur für ein Brot. Wir sind aber noch über die Mosel gekommen.” 51. Letter from Werner Winkler, 2004.08.31. “Die Mosel ist ca. in den Jahren 1955-58 erst schiffbar gemacht worden (für 1500t Schiffe) nach einem Vertrag zwischen Deutschland, Frankreich und Luxemburg. Für dieses schiffbar machen wurden, ich glaube 20 Staustufen errichtet an der gesamten Mosel errichtet, ich denke so alle 10-15km. So konnten aus der Ferne aus Frankreich Güter bis noch Europa-Mitte (oder Duisburg, größter Binnenhafen Europas oder Holland) und zurück per Schiff transportiert werden.” 52. These statistics were compiled with the assistance of work by Andreas Wagner of Trier and Gitte Herden, available on their web page titled “Moselhochwasser Statistik Geschichte des Flusses Mosel ‘Mosella’” URL http://www.moselwetter.de/ hochw2.html.

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On the sunnier northern walls of the valley are vineyards that have produced wine for more than 2000 years, since the Romans vanquished the Teutonic tribes. The nearest vineyards to Wasserbillig are in Grevenmacher, Luxembourg and across the Mosel in Temmels and Oberbillig, Germany. On the plateaus above the valley on either side are grazing areas and fields.53 The areas for fields can be noted on the map where there are few roads, in the southeast and northern corners. In the 19th Century, flax fields covered much of the plains above the valley, from which Paulus Reinert and his son John harvested the crops, processed the flax fiber, made linen thread and cloth, and sold the seed for making linseed oil. John Reinert stated he was a linen weaver when he applied for emigration in 1867. We can imagine the whole Reinert family involved in harvesting, processing, spinning, and looming the linen. Likely the family work paid off only once a year, when John could sell bolts of finished linen cloth in the winter or early spring, just in time to begin the cycle again by sowing flax seeds in the fields. Additional information about the trade of a Leinweber is provided in “The Trade of Leinweber” on page 363.
Figure 11. Weingebiete upstream from Igel.

Igel, Germany
At an unknown date, John Reinert developed a connection to Igel, Germany. The connection may have resulted from John’s work in linen manufacture, but the only documentation of the connection occurs with his marriage to Katherine Blasius on 5 Mar 1847. As for the Reinert family, Paulus still lived in Wasserbillig, along with several of his children. For that matter, the civil marriage record gives John’s residence also as Wasserbillig. On the other hand, the Blasius family had lived in Igel likely since the birth of Mathias Blasius I (1721/ 1722-1782), or perhaps for generations earlier. The burial notation for Mathias I reads, “On the twenty-first [no month cited] 1782 around ten in the morning, all sacramental preparations were made for the deceased Mathias Blasius, an adult of sixty years, and the next day was buried in the cemetery. Christoph Junck pastor.”54 The previous record in the parish register of deaths was for a burial in April 1782, the following
53. The Obermosel wine district is composed of a thin strip of land along the Luxembourg border. The region starts just north of Igel and continues south to the village of Palzem where it meets the Moseltor district. Elbling, Müller-Thurgau, and Auxerrois Blanc are some of the region largest plantings. Obermosel and Moseltor contain very few notable vineyards compared to the other districts of the region. The Moseltor wine district is the most southern area of the Mosel region, and is located together with the Obermosel along the Luxembourg border. The Elbling grape is the most commonly planted here producing a thin, rustic wine with high acidity. Sparkling wine production is growing in this area. The reason why tiny Moseltor with its around 110 hectares (270 acres) of vineyards is a separate Bereich is that it, in difference to the other 99% of Mosel's vineyard area, is located in the state of Saarland, and therefore is supervised by this state's government. All of Moseltor is located within the borders of Saarland.

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record for a burial on 3 May 1782. Thus, the probable month of Mathias I’s death was April, and his likely birth was in 1721 or 1722.55 The first certain date for the Blasius residence in Igel is the 11 Mar 1756 marriage of Mathias I to Elisabeth Six (about 1727-1761).56 Their grandson and Katherine Blasius-Reinert’s father, Peter Blasius II (1789-1846) was a vintner or vine dresser (vinitorius in Latin). We can only surmise that Peter owned vineyards near Igel, although he may well have plied his trade for a large landowner.
Geography — Lying at the opening of the narrow upper Mosel valley to the broad valley around Trier, the winegrowing area of Igel lies among steep rocks of colored sandstone and limestone. Two vintners operate in Igel: Winzerhof Löwener Mühle,57 and another vintner who produces Liersberger Pilgerberg.58 The town’s houses line the river and also perch above the Mosel valley, dividing into two neighborhoods and a business area. The neighborhood to the west, lining Waldstraße to Liersberg, is a hillier section that neighbors the vineyards. The homes there were built in the 1980s and 1990s. The eastern neighborhood of Igel, off the road to Zewen, is also newer, perhaps developed in the 1960s and added to through today.59 Igel might be considered an outlying suburb to Trier, offering a very manageable commute for day workers in the city. Parish — Since long ago, the parish church of St. Dionysius has stood on a prominent rock outcropping. Although the site has been a Catholic church since 1265, it also was a religious area of an older village that may have been resident as early as 750 A.D. The parish was dedicated to St. Dionysius because the town itself owns a relic of the saint.

In 1712 the choir and nave had fallen into disrepair, and by 1756 the chapel was little more than ruins. Beginning in 1759, the church was rebuilt, while the original romanesque tower was incorporated into the design. This church suited the needs of the town until after World War II, and it stood silent guard to the town cemetery while a new church opened for the parish. In 1986, the old church received a renovation from the foundation up. After several years of work, Figure 12. 1759 St. Dionysius, Igel. the old parish church was restored to its original decor and style, including its main altar and two side altars. The work brought the church to the glorious rococo style once again.
54. FHL 0585855. Kirchenbuch 1706-1806, Item 10: v. 4, p. 100; Item 10: v. 4, p. 48 (repeated). Original text: “vigesima prima [no month cited] 1782 circa decimam vespertinam omnibus sacramentis praemunitus obiit mathias blasius vir sexaginta annorum altera die in coemiterio sepultus est Christph Junck pastor” 55. RSF, p. 2 cites his birth year as “about 1725.” 56. Katholische Kirche Igel, Taufen 1706-1713, 1720-1778, 1794, 1800-1806 Heiraten 1706-1713, 1748-1778 Tote 1705-1722, 1749-1778, 1790-1796 Taufen 1752-1759, 1784-1797 Tote 1790-1792 Heiraten 1753-1761, 1784-1795 Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1779-1783 Taufen 1797-1800 Heiraten 1797-1798 Tote 1797, 1792-1793 Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1784-1793 (FHL INTL Film 0585855 items 7-11; Mikrofilm aufgenommen von Manuskripten im Bistumsarchiv Trier)., (KBI 1706-1806). Item 7, p. 130. 57. This vintner produces Igeler Dullgärten. Contact at http://www.leckerwein.de/1025816.htm. 58. The wines are Liersberger Pilgerberg, Gruthenhäuser Elbling, Igeler Dullgärten, and Mesenicher Königsberg. Local vintners include Winzerhof Löwener Mühle, Löwener Mühle, 54298, Igel; telephone (0 65 01) 1 39 34; email: Loewener-muehle@tonline.de; http://www.leckerwein.de. 59. Letter from Werner Winkler, 2004.09.25. “Die Häuser im Bereich linke vom Wort Igel wurden erst in den Jahren 1985-2000 errichtet. Im Plan oben rechts beim Wort Zew (soll Zewen heißen), die Häuser links von Zew sind in den Jahren1965-20002004 gebaut worden.”

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The old church is indicated in Figure 13 with the upper circle.60 Around 1953, when the community outgrew the small church facilities, a new church (lower yellow circle) was built on Triererstraße. The church records from 1705 through 1908, an index of marriages, and a Familienbuch 1706-1798 are available on microfilm through the LDS61 and diocesan archives in Trier, Germany. A Familienbuch 1706-1899 was privately published by its author, Franziska Kandel, and it is available online at http://www.scribd.com/doc/161846102/Igel-Familienbuch-1706-1899-Kandel.

Figure 13. Igel from the air, 1998.

St. Dionysius is part of the Pfarreigemeinschaft Trierweiler, and Hermann Zangerle62 is the pastor. The community celebrates its annual Kirmes (wine festival) on the Sunday after the Assumption (August 15).
Local Development — I have received guesses on what type of neighbors our ancestors had. “Around 1850, only farmers lived in the village of Igel. The fields immediately near are not very large, and no farmers lived outside the town. Above in the hills near Liersberg was Heintzhof, one of the few homes outside the town. On the street leading from Igel to Wasserbillig was the Löwener-Mühle, which stood by itself in the vineyards about 2 miles from town.”63

Figure 14. 1954 St. Dionysius, Igel.

60. This photo of Igel from the air was generously provided 2004.10.09 by Werner Winkler, from his father’s papers. 61. Igel: Jean-Claude Müller—Fichier des mariages, 1706-1797, Igel (one 35 mm microfilm roll) Card index to marriages at Igel, Germany. Arranged by husband's (époux) and wife's (épouse) names. 1. Family History Library INTL Film 1981450, Item 9. H[einrich] Wurringen—Familienbuch 1706-1798 (one 35 mm microfilm roll). 1. Family History Library INTL Film 1336833, Item 3. Pastors of Katholische Kirche Igel—Kirchenbuch, 1705-1908 (four 35 mm microfilm rolls) Parish register of baptisms, marriages, deaths and family book. Table of contents precedes each volume. Text in German and Latin. 1. Family History Library INTL Film 585855 Items 7-9 “Taufen 1706-1713, 1720-1778, 1794, 1800-1806 Heiraten 1706-1713, 1748-1778 Tote 17051722, 1749-1778, 1790-1796 Taufen 1752-1759, 1784-1797 Tote 1790-1792 Heiraten 1753-1761, 1784-1795.” 2. Family History Library INTL Film 585855 Items 10-11 “Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1779-1783 Taufen 1797-1800 Heiraten 1797-1798 Tote 1797, 1792-1793 Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1784-1793.” 3. Family History Library INTL Film 464782 Items 1-2 “Tote 1818-1868 Taufen 1818-1860 Konf. 1867-1895 Heiraten 1818-1908 Tote 1818-1868 Taufen 1861-1907.” 4. Family History Library INTL Film 1197711 Item 3 “Andere Verfilmung: Taufen 1706-1713, 1720-1731 (l. S.) Taufen 1738-1778, 1794-1804 (l. S.) Heiraten 1706-1713, 1748-1778 (l. S.) Tote 1706-1778, 1794 (l. S.) Tote 1706-1778, 1794 (r. S. rückw.) Heiraten 17061713, 1748-1778 (r. S. rückw.) Taufen 1794-1804, 1738-1778 (r. S. rückw.) Taufen 1720-1731, 1706-1713 (r. S. rückw.).” 62. The parish office contact information is Katholisches Pfarramt, Kirchstr. 11, 54311 Trierweiler; pfarramt-trierweiler@tonline.de; phone 0651 / 88370. Website: http://www.pfarreiengemeinschaft-trierweiler.de.

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Before 1850, Igel was a small village, perhaps with up to 500 inhabitants. The railway system was not brought there before 1880. The town’s population included five to ten farmers’ families who worked in the vineyards, at times in the fields, and otherwise led livestock to grazing areas. These mixed agricultures for a single farmer occurs rather seldom, but it did happen in Igel. There were simple craftsmen also, but none who made their craft a full-time occupation. The parish register includes some occupations: one or two locksmiths or blacksmiths, a cabinet maker, a baker, a butcher, a transportation contractor, one grocer, one fisherman, one or two inns, a hotel. Perhaps in 1850 there were also some customs officers. Otherwise, the description is relevant to the time before 1850. It is unlikely there were other artisans or manufacturing. Igel was in the boundary area to Luxembourg, and not much more than a quiet village.64
History — Igel has a long-documented history. As early as 929 A.D. the area of Igel was identified as part of the Sankt Maximin zu Trier Abbey by the name Villa Agullia, from which the current name derives. The town’s name has had several transformations since then: Egela (1052–1145), Egla (1052–1195), Egele (12th C.), Egle (1220–1515), Egel (1400–1648), Egell (458–1541), Eggel (1501–1528), Eegel (about 1540). The local historian Dr. Eberhard Zahn holds that the name derives from the Middle Latin word “agulia,” which formed the modern French “aiguille” (needle). The term needle was used in the Medieval Period for the obelisks in Rome and other cities.

But much earlier even than the written records is the obelisk that is called the Igeler Säule. This monument is a well-preserved Roman artifact that was erected in the third Century on the paved road from Trier to Rheims, in France. Recognized around the world as notable art, it has been placed on the UNESCO World Legacy List. The 23-m (75.5 ft) high pillar of sandstone is the largest Roman columnar monument that has survived north of the Alps. Until excavations in 1911, it was believed that the monument was a tombstone. The monument survived only because the reliefs were mistakenly interpreted during the Medieval Period as a Christian scene.65 In fact, the obelisk was put up by the Secundiner family, a rich cloth trader of Trier. The pillar was spared while most other antiquities in north and central Europe succumbed to stone vendors and were torn down. Presumably the monument was located in or near the Secundiner villa or workplaces for the fabric manufacture.

Figure 15. The Igeler Säule.

63. Werner Winkler letter of 2004.10.08, that “um 1850 es nur Bauern in Dorf von Igel gab. Die Felder direkt in Igel sind nicht sehr groß, daher gab es eigentlich keine Bauern ausserhalb von Igel. Oben auf dem Berg bei Liersberg, da gab es Bauernhöfe ausserhalb vom Dorf (Heintzhof). Auch an der Strasse von Igel nach Wasserbillig (ca 3-4km) da gibt es die Löwener-Mühle, sie steht alleine in den Weinbergen.” 64. Freely translated from a letter from Werner Winkler, 2004.09.25. “Beschreibung vor 1850: Ich glaube das Igel vor 1850 ein kleines Dorf war, ich denke so mit 180-280 Einwohner. Vor 1880 war die Eisenbahn noch nicht gebaut. Igel muss ein Dorf gewesen sein mit überwiegender Anzahl von Bauern. In Igel gab es Bauern, die Weinbau, Ackerbau und Viehzucht hatten. Diese unterschiedlichen Anbauten (von einem Bauern) von Wein, Acker und Vieh ist in Deutschland eher selten, in Igel gab es sie aber. Ich denke, dass es so 5-10 Bauern in Igel gab. Ich denke auch das es in Igel die einfachen Handwerker gab, aber bestimmt nur je Handwerks-Beruf ein Betrieb. Ich stelle mir vor das es folgende Handwerker gab: ein oder zwei Schmiede (Schlosser), ein Schreiner, ein Bäcker, ein Fleischer, ein Transportunternehmer, ein Lebensmittelgeschäft, ein Mosel-Fischer, ein oder zwei Gaststätten, ein Hotel. Ich glaube nicht das es Industrie gab oder weitere Handwerker. Igel war Grenzland zu Luxemburg und damit nicht interessant. Vielleicht gab es1850 auch schon Zöllner. Diese Beschreibung soll für die Zeit vor 1850 sein. Es ist nur eine Einschätzung, kein Wissen.” 65. Photo of the full monument from http://www.gemeinde-igel.de/gemeinde/igelersaeule.htm.

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The pillar is embellished with scenes from cloth manufacture and Greek and Roman mythology. Shops of the traders, delivery by wagon and ship, a sumptuous repast, and the kitchen serving it are shown in basrelief panels. Another Roman monument from the Third Century in the Igel environs is the Grutenhäuschen, a small two-story structure in the vineyards overlooking the Mosel river. The Grutenhäuschen is visible in Figure 13 as an isolated white speck of a structure in the extreme top.66 The 1759 St. Dionysius chapel rises on the rocks above the Igeler Säule, and the Grutenhäuschen is about a mile west, in the middle of a vineyard.

Figure 16. Igeler Säule, detail of west face.

Around 275, Igel and many other towns and villages in the area were destroyed in the invasions of the Alemanni and Franks. Battles between these peoples and the vestiges of the Roman Empire continued for 250 years. In 496, the Alemanni were conquered by Clovis, the first king of the Franks and the first Christian king to rule Gaul, known today as France. Around 700, the Frank king Childerich III awarded Trier to Archbishop Lutwinus (695–713), and the deed included the former properties of the Secundiner in Igel. Presumably this time is when a chapel was erected and dedicated to St. Dionysius. The Merovingian dynasty was deposed with the consent of the Pope and the aristocracy in 751. In its place, Pepin the Short, a Carolingian, was crowned King of the Franks. The dynasty reached its peak under Charlemagne, who was proclaimed the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne’s death in 814 began a decline in the empire. During Easter week in 882, the city of Trier and the surrounding area fell to the second Norman invasion. The Igeler Säule withstood the plundering, although it was damaged by an iron hammer. The oldest standing secular building in the community is the Burghaus, a former home of nobility, which is used today as Gasthaus “Zum Löwen” (At the Lion).67 The hotel and restaurant just north of the Igeler Säule is owned by a second grand-nephew to Katherine Reinert, Oskar Blasius.68 The family built the establishment in 1976 and now the second generation has continued the hospitality. Liersberg, an outlying part of Igel, was called Lusica by 816. The church and civil records treat these two parts of Igel community separately until the Twentieth Century. Liersberg had its own church, and the pastors—often the same priest—maintained the records separately. However, over two centuries of parish records, each Kirchenbuch has frequent references to the other parish. In 1974, Liersberg and Igel were joined under the same community.69

Figure 17. Burghaus “zum Löwen,” Igel.

66. Detail photo and drawing from http://www.proarchaeologia.org/OnlinePaper/RSMeilen/grm_igel.html. Further descriptions available at http://www.roscheiderhof.de/kulturdb/kultur/kultur1198.html.

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Population records are not available before 1815. Since then, Igel has had a growing population over two centuries, with the exception of the periods of World War I and World War II.
Year 1815 1835 1871 1905 1939 1950 1961 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1987 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Population 406 666 694 745 1177 1006 1203 1181 1180 1418 1725 1829 1873 1916 2046 2068 2012 2028

Reinert History in the Area — John Reinert and Katherine Blasius were married in Igel, although the only documentation is the civil register that is filed at the Standesamt Trier. The registration occurred on 5 March 1847. The Bürgermeister Josef Aldringen of Igel attested that Johann Reiner, a Leinenweber (linen weaver) of age 24, born in Wasserbillig on 12 June 1822, residing in Wasserbillig, and the son of Paulus Reiner and Maria Weis, appeared before him with Catharina Blasius, unemployed of age 22, born in Igel Figure 18. Signatures, Reiner-Blasius civil marriage on 20 March 1824, residing in Igel, and the daughter of the deceased Acker (farmer) Peter Blasius and his wife Susanna Griver [sic] appeared before him to sign the marriage contract (Figure 18). Also signing were two unrelated witnesses, John’s father Paulus Reiner, and a proxy for Katherine’s mother, Susanna Giver-Blasius, who attested she could not read or write. The document is described completely at “Research Goal 1” on page 77.
67. In his letter from 2004.09.25, Werner Winkler estimated the periods of building during other times also. “Hier meine Einschätzung von Igel aus vergangener Zeit, so um 1850-1940. Ich schreibe nur so wie ich es glaube, es ist kein Wissen!! “... Der älteste Teil von Igel liegt um die alte Kirche und der Igeler-Säule. ... Alle anderen Straßen und Häuser sind nach ca. 1850 gebaut. ...Die Häuser direkt rechts über dem roten Kreis sind in den Jahren 1900-1960 gebaut worden. Dort stehen auch die alten Häuser von den Zöllnern und Eisenbahner. Die Häuser im Kreis sind in den Jahren1880-1940 gebaut worden. Die Häuser an der Eisenbahn wurden in der Zeit des Eisenbahnbaus errichtet. In welcher Zeit die Eisenbahn gebaut wurde kann ich nicht genau sagen, es muß so in der Zeit 1880-1920 gewesen sein. ... Links im Kreis das große schwarze Gebäude das ist der Igeler Bahnhof. Die Straße von links nach rechts am Bahnhof vorbei, dass ist die Bahnhofstrasse. In den Bahnhofstrasse ganz rechts, innen im roten Kreis, dort wo die zwei kleinen Strassen nach oben zeigen, genau dort habe ich gewohnt. Dort gibt es zwei Häuser mit je 8 Wohnungen, sie waren für die Arbeiter und Beamte der Eisenbahn, gebaut ca. 1910-1940. Neben diesen zwei Häusern hat mein Großvater 1934 ein kleines Haus gebaut, es sind die einzigen drei Häuser in diesem Gebiet.” 68. http://www.igeler-saeule.de/ 69. http://www.trier-land.de/vg_trier_land/Aktuell/Aktuelle%20Nachrichten/

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Five children were baptized by the pastor of St. Dionysius. applied for emigration in 1867. The baptismal entries in the Kirchenbücher are described at these locations. • • • • • “Susanna Reinert” on page 128 “Nicholas Reinert” on page 129 “Peter Reinert” on page 130 “Maria Reinert” on page 131 “Gertrude Reinert” on page 133

After all the couples’ parents had died, on 9 February 1867 John Reinert applied to emigrate. The commander of the Prussian militia granted approval, as no member of the family was subject to conscription. The application clarified that the permission was valid only until August 1867. The document is described completely at “About Our Great Grandfather and Great Grandmother in the Kohn Family, 1974” on page 94.

Areas in the United States
The Reinert family had a drive to succeed in a country that was composed of other immigrants. John and his children adapted their farming to a landscape that challenged them to tend larger fields and grapple with varied arability. Figure 19 shows cities and towns where the Reinert family visited or lived through the second generation.
Figure 19. Reinert family locations in the United States (map of 1866)

Houston county La Crosse Chicago St. Donatus Sheridan county Tipton area

New York/Hoboke

Our family arrived as immigrants at the ports in New York City, New York70 and Hoboken, New Jersey.71 The Blasius branch of the family spent significant time in Chicago, Illinois and nearby New Trier township.72 The Reinert branch spent significant time in these locations.
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• • • • •

Houston county and Caledonia, Minnesota73 La Crosse, Wisconsin74 St. Donatus, Iowa75 Osborne county and Mitchell county, Kansas,76 to include the towns of Tipton, Osborne, and Cawker City Sheridan county, Gove county, Logan county, and Thomas county, Kansas,77 to include the towns of Seguin, Oakley, Grinnell, Grainfield, Park, Quinter, Colby, Hoxie, Selden, and Dresden

Little other than the marriage location is known about the origins of many spouses of the Reinert family members. This lack in historical background is noted as a topic for future research, page 89. Sons- and daughters-in-law to John and Katherine Reinert • • • • • John M. Kohn (1839-1919, husband of Susanna Reinert) came from Wasserliesch, Germany and settled first in or near La Crosse, Wisconsin. Maria Simeon (1861-1960, wife of Nicholas Reinert) came from St. Donatus, Iowa, her birthplace in 1861.78 The family’s European origin is unknown. The family is not mentioned in Early Day Couples of Tipton, Kansas (EDC). Catherine Schwinden (1860-1940, wife of Peter Reinert) likely came from Houston county, Minnesota. The family’s European origin is unknown. The family is not mentioned in EDC or TPC. Michael Gillen (1854-1913, husband of Maria Reinert) was born in “Cruchten, Rhine Province, Germany” in 1854.79 Stephen Schandler (1861?-1938, husband of Gertrude Reinert) was likely born in Pratz, Luxembourg80 and likely resided in Dubuque, Iowa or Useldinger (perhaps Luxembourg) before settling in the Tipton area. Elizabeth Ottley (1880-1947, wife of Peter Kohn) was born in Osborne county. Her parents were born in Luxembourg, Martin Ottley in 1842 and Mary Huberty in 1855.81 The exact locations are unknown.

Sons- and daughters-in-law to John M. and Susanna Kohn •

70. New York City was the location of Castle Garden Immigration Center, where more than 8 million people arrived in the U.S. from 1855 to 1890, according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_Garden. Its official name was Castle Clinton. “In the first half of the 19th century, most immigrants arriving in New York City landed at docks on the east side of the tip of Manhattan, around South Street. On August 1, 1855, Castle Clinton became the Emigrant Landing Depot, functioning as the New York State immigrant processing facility. It was operated by the state until 1890, when the Federal Government took over control of immigration processing. Most of Castle Clinton’s immigrant passenger records were destroyed in a fire that consumed the first structures on Ellis Island on 15 June 1897. It is generally accepted that over 8 million immigrants (and perhaps as many as 12 million) were processed during its operation. Called Kesselgarden by Yiddish-speaking Eastern European Jews, the word was a generic term for any situation that was noisy, confusing or chaotic, or where a “babel” of languages were spoken (a reference to the multitude of languages heard spoken by the immigrant at the site).” 71. Hoboken was also a typical port of entry. According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoboken,_New_Jersey, “By the late 19th century, shipping lines were using Hoboken as a terminal port, and the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad developed a railroad terminal at the waterfront. It was also during this time that German immigrants, who had been settling in town during most of the century, became the predominant population group in the city, at least partially due to its being a major destination port of the Hamburg America Line.” 72. Chicago was home to two Blasius brothers among its estimated 1860 population of 112,172 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chicago#Founding_and_19th_century). New Trier township was home to Nicholas Blasius and Anna Catharina BlasiusSchmitz. 73. Houston county was the home of the John Reinert family from 1867 or 1868 to 1872 and the Schwinden family for about the same time. 74. La Crosse was the home of John M. Kohn and Susanna Reinert from 1880 to 1887. 75. St. Donatus was the home of Maria Simeon, born there in 1861. 76. Tipton was the community center for the family. Located near the county line, the farm homes that were within ten miles from Tipton were in Osborne and Mitchell counties. Somewhat more distant, Cawker City was the documented home of Michael and Maria Gillen before 1905.

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• • • •

Louise Ohnsat (1875-1959, wife of Mike Kohn) was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and her family settled in Osborne county in 1878.82 Her father emigrated from Grüben, Ostpreußen (modern-day Grabin, Poland); her mother emigrated from Breisach-am-Rhein, Germany. Phillip Gasper (1877-1964, husband of Katherine Kohn) was born in Osborne county. One of his brothers was born in “Schlertweiler bei Trier Germany”83 in 1873. Frank Streit (1882-1956, husband of Annie Kohn) was born in Osborne county. His brother John came to America as a small child in 1877,84 and the family came from Trier around 1877. Barbara Streit (1887-1974, wife of Ben Kohn) was born in Osborne county. She is a sister to Frank Streit. Barbara Boden (1883-1969, wife of Peter Anton Reinert) was born in Osborne county.85 The family’s European origin is unknown. Mary Rohlman (1885-1971, wife of John Peter Reinert) likely was born near Willowdale, Kansas. The family’s European origin is unknown.86 The family is not mentioned in EDC or TPC. Annie E. Rohlman (1889-1918, wife of Nicklous B. Reinert) likely was born near Willowdale, Kansas. The family’s European origin is unknown. The family is not mentioned in EDC or TPC. Maggie Bach (1881-1955, wife of Nicklous B. Reinert) was born in Osborne county.87 Her father was born in “Province, Germany” in 1837 and first settled in Wisconsin; her mother in “Hargartin, Rhine Province, Germany” in 1848. Elizabeth A. Boberg (1897-1964, wife of Joseph S.H. Reinert) was born in Wallenhorst, Germany, and her family lived in Delphos, Kansas and Glen Elder, Kansas for short times.88 Emma Reinert (Sr. Borgia), Bertha Reinert (Sr. Lambertine), Anton A. Reinert, and Mary Reinert did not marry. Barbara Deges (1888-1966, wife of William Joseph Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Thomas Thummel (1877-1942, husband of Mary Catherine Reinert) was born in Ishpeming, Michigan.89 No information on his European origin is available.

Sons- and daughters-in-law to Nicholas and Maria Reinert • • • • • •

Sons- and daughters-in-law to Peter and Catherine Reinert • •

77. Peter moved his family to Sheridan county in 1906. Michael Gillen moved there in 1905 and died there in 1913, Maria Reinert-Gillen in 1939. Thomas Thummel moved from Osborne county also, but the date is not known. At least the Gillen family was in the 1920 census of Sheridan county. 78. Richardson, Joyce et al, The People Came: In their prairie schooners, through the waves of the seas of grass, and stayed (TPC). Osborne County Genealogical and Historical Society, 1977; p. 53. 79. EDC, p. 49 mentions no other residences in America, but the biographical sketch for Michael’s cousin, Nicholas Carl on p.42, might indicate a short residence in Houston county, Minnesota. The cited “Cruchten” might be modern-day Kruchten, Rheinland-Pfalz, which is 24 mi (39 km) northwest of Trier or perhaps Cruchten, Nommern, Luxembourg, which is 57 km west from Trier and 16 mi (26 km) north of the city of Luxembourg. 80. EDC, p. 55 cites Pratz in a biographical sketch for Stephen’s brother, Peter Schandler. TPC p. 54 states the Schandler “family had first moved to Useldinger where they operated a grocery store before coming to America..” 81. EDC, p. 37. 82. EDC, p. 20. The European origins are the result of my own research into this family line. 83. EDC, p. 1. This may refer to modern-day Zemmer-Schleidweiler, Germany (postal code 54313), which is 13 mi (21 km) from the center of Trier. See also TPC, pp. 39-41, which provide more exact locations of their homes in Bloom township. 84. EDC, p. 7; TPC, p. 58 includes a biographical sketch of Henry Streit, Sr. that cites the birthplaces as Trier, Germany for him and Schleidtweiler, Germany for his wife Anna Maria Schmitt. 85. EDC, p. 12. The Boden biographical sketches in TPC (p. 36) do not name a European location, but a passing reference on p. 39 might indicate Franz Boden came from Schleidtweiler, Germany. 86. EDC, p. 58. 87. TPC, p. 35. 88. EDC, p. 69. Wallenhorst is in Niedersachsen, Germany.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Mathias Schuetz (1883-1968, husband to Elizabeth Susanna Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Bertha Holdforth (1890-1968, wife of Carl Mathias Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Anna Catherine Arendt (1896-1946, wife of Henry Nicholas Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Anton George Feldt (1890-1973, husband of Anna Catherine Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. William Schwinden (1890?-1945?, husband of Anna Catherine Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Florentz Henry Neff (1899-1981, husband of Margaret Cleophas Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Anna Geerdes (1904-2007, wife of Theodore Mathias Reinert) was born in Leoti, Kansas but has no information on family origins. Ruth Adeline Smith (1912-1995?, wife of Gervase Thomas Reinert) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Gertrude Hubertine Reinert and Alex Gregory Reinert did not marry. John Tucker (1900?-1965?, husband of Catherine Gillen) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Gertrude L. Gillen, John Gillen, and Margaret E. Gillen did not marry. Henry Mindrup (no dates, husband of Mary Schandler) has no information on birthplace or family origins.90 Bernice Shore (no dates, wife of Arthur Schandler) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Gertrude Govreau (no dates, wife of Edward Schandler) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Arthur Steinke (no dates, husband of Loretta Schandler) has no information on birthplace or family origins. Delorosa Schandler and Grace Schandler did not marry.

Sons- and daughters-in-law to Michael and Maria Gillen

Sons- and daughters-in-law to Stephen and Gertrude Schandler

Houston County, Minnesota
John Reinert and his wife Katherine Blasius-Reinert arrived in the U.S. around March of 1867. To date, no passenger list has been found to document their exact arrival. The family traveled with five children aged 19 (Susanna), 16 (Nicholas), 14 (Peter), 7 (Maria), and 3 (Gertrude). Their most likely port of arrival was New York City, and they may have been processed through Castle Clinton91 (also called Castle Garden). However, it is possible their ship landed in Hoboken NJ. The family stayed some time with one or more of
89. EDC, p. 19. 90. See EDC, p. 55 for a biographical sketch of Catherine Mindrup and her husband Peter Schandler. Perhaps the Mindrup family is the same. Catherine’s home is given as New Almelo, Norton county, Kansas. Catherine’s son, Joseph Schandler is documented in the same sketch as the husband of Delorose Steichen and a farmer east of New Almelo. 91. On August 3, 1855, Castle Garden opened as an immigrant landing depot. The creation of Castle Garden represented a country at a crossroads, signaling a change in American immigration policy, and in the ways through which immigrants became Americans. Two out of every three immigrants to the United States in this period passed through the Castle Garden. It was closed on April 18, 1890 and immigrant processing was moved to Ellis Island.

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Katherine’s siblings. Her brother Nicholas Blasius lived in New Trier township, Cook county, Illinois; her sister Anna Catharina Blasius-Schmitz-Simon also in New Trier township or the nearby town of Wilmette; and her brother Johann Blasius lived in Chicago. An informal family history holds that they had settled near Caldedonia in or after 1867. By the Ninth U.S. Federal Census of 1 June 1870, John Reinert and his family lived in Houston county, Minnesota. Their home in Minnesota was a farm about one and one-half miles north and three to four miles west (red square in Figure 20) of the village of Caledonia (red polygon). The farm might have included crops like flax, which the father John Reinert had experience with in Germany. No deed exists to show ownership, so it is likely they leased the farm.
Figure 20. Caledonia township, Houston county MN, 1871

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The enumeration of household 127 in the 1870 census (Figure 21)92 identifies John Reinert as “John Rinerd” (age 50, farmer with real estate valued at $1700 and personal estate valued at $400) and his family as Catherine (46, keeping house), Susanna (22), Nicholas (19), Peter (17), Mary (10), and Gertrude (5).
Figure 21. John Reinert Household entry, U.S. Federal Census 1870

Other families enumerated before and after the Reinerts include these households. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • William Paddock (dwelling 118, household 112, in section 10) James Mulligan (dwelling 119, household 113, in section 10) Delmer Irvin (dwelling 120, household 114, section 10) Michael Lorig (dwelling 121, household 115, not found as an identified land owner) James Lochead (dwelling 122, household 116, “Lockard” in section 3) John Schmitt (dwelling 123, household 117, in section 3) Gunder Knudson (dwelling 124, household 118, in section 3) Edmund Powell (dwelling 125, household 119, in section 3) Jacob P. Bakin (dwelling 126, household 120, “Becker” in section 3) Dwelling 127, household 121 is the John Reinert family Daniel McCarty (dwelling 128, household 122, in section 3) Michael Allen (dwelling 129, household 123, “M. Ellings” in section 9) Patrick Jennings (dwelling 130, household 124, in section 9) Catherine McGloughlin (dwelling 131, household 125, “Laughlin” in section 9) Michael Jennings (dwelling 132, household 126, perhaps occupant of “P.Jennings” in section 4) John Hashite (dwelling 134, household 128, “M.Hastings” in section 4?) Nicholas Pirrotte (dwelling 135, household 129, in sections 9 and 10) Frank Wis (dwelling 136, household 130, not found as an identified land owner) Anna Shields (dwelling 137, household 131, not found as an identified land owner)

The household locations are shown as numbers in Figure 22. Two small squares indicate dwellings that are not enumerated with a family. They are possible locations for the John Reinert family.

92. Ninth U.S. Federal Census of Houston county, Minnesota; page 18, dwelling 127, household 121, lines 10 through 16.

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Figure 22. Neighboring households to John Reinert, Caledonia township

118 Knudson

115 Lorig 121 Reinert 130 F Wis 131 Shields

128 J Hashite 126 M Jennings 120 123 131

119

117

122 114 116 113

124

125 129 127 112

It is likely that John swore his intention to become a citizen at the District Court of Minnesota in Caledonia on 23 October 1867. However, the signature could be read as “John Reinart,” who was a different immigrant who lived in Houston county at the same time. John Reinert died from throat or neck cancer in March of 1871. The parish registers do not include burials of 1871,93 and his grave is not recorded in the Caledonia parish cemetery. Katherine and the children kept the farm running for about a year.

93. Email of Oct 17, 2013 “Re: Parish records from 1871” from Maria Keefe (stmaryschurch@acegroup.cc) “Unfortunately, we have very few records dating as far back as 1871. Of the few we have, I was not able to locate any burial records for John Reinert.”

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Geography — The land features of Houston county, and for that matter, much of Minnesota and Wisconsin along the upper Mississippi River, resemble those of the middle Mosel River. Meandering tributaries feed the broadly flowing Mississippi, which is bounded by the hills rising sharply from the river. The Root River flows east through the north third of Houston county and beside the towns of Houston and Hokah.

Money Creek RO OT Houston

Pine Creek La Crescent
Root River R IVER

Hokah Brownsville RIVER

MIS SIS SIP PI

North of Houston on Money Creek, a tributary of the Root River, is the unincorporated village of Money Creek. Also north of the Root River are Pine Creek (unincorporated) and the largest town of the county, La Crescent, which overlooks the Mississippi floodplain across from La Crosse, Wisconsin. South along the Mississippi are the towns of Brownsville and Reno (unincorporated).

Yucatan Sheldon Black Hammer Riceford Spring Grove Newhouse Caledonia Wilmington

Freeburg Reno

Eitzen

The southern three-fourths of the county rise as much as 500 feet above Figure 23. Map of Houston county, Minnesota, 2003. the Mississippi, and most of the climb occurs in the bluffs above the western bank of the river. Caledonia sits in the center of the broad plateau above the rivers, among gently rolling hills that might have reminded John Reinert and his family of the plateaus above Wasserbillig and Igel. The land is fertile but often steeply sloped. The farming typical to the area includes raising soy beans, corn, and livestock feed crops. The area is not populated very heavily today, with the average town size of about 700 residents. The other towns on the plateau are a combination of unincorporated areas (Yucatan, Sheldon, Black Hammer, Riceford, Newhouse, Wilmington, and Freeburg) and incorporated villages (Spring Grove and Eitzen).
Parish — In 1867 to 1871, the Reinert family likely were members of St. John the Baptist church in Caledonia. Other Catholic churches in the county were more distant, in Hokah, Brownsville, and La Crescent. The St. John church was built in 1857 on the site now occupied by Merchant's Bank at Washington and Kingston streets. The church was rebuilt in stone in 1862. The church served the Irish, German, and Luxemburg Catholics who settled in the Caledonia area until 1870 when a second, German-speaking parish formed. Both parishes used the same cemetery, which is named Calvary Cemetery and located on Route 249, about 3/4 mi southeast of the Catholic church.

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The German parish constructed St. Peter’s Church from Brownsville limestone, hauled by wagon 14 miles uphill over rough roads. Primary construction was completed in 1872, a bell tower was completed in 1873, and three bells were installed. In 1925, the bell tower was replaced with the current structure. In the early 20th Century, St. Peter’s church was renowned in the region for its large and densely planted gardens.94 After a fire destroyed part of the St. John church in the 1950s, the two congregations merged instead of rebuilding the Irish church. The St. Peter’s church was renamed St. Mary’s in 1976. The history of these parishes are documented in the painted glass windows: John the Baptist is on the north side, St. Peter on the south side, and St. Mary is between them in the apse.

Figure 24. St. Peter Catholic church, Caledonia, about 1900.

In 2002 St. Mary’s received a major refurbishment. Two transepts were added and the altar was moved forward. A foyer was added to the front of the church, as well as a corridor to Holy Family Hall. In 2004 the parish of St. Patrick’s in Brownsville joined St. Mary’s in a diocesan clustering plan. The churches have separate pastoral offices, but they share a pastor, who currently is Matthew Fasnacht.95 The St. Mary’s Bazaar usually falls on the last Sunday of October. The parish records from 1866 (marriages), 1868 (baptisms), and 1874 (burials) through the present are handwritten. They are neither microfilmed nor duplicated in the diocesan archives in Winona, Minnesota. I have seen the

Figure 25. St. Mary Catholic church, Caledonia.

94. Neill, Rev. Edward D., History of Houston County including Explorers and Pioneers of Minnesota and Outline History of the State of Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society, 1882. pp. 360-361: “The present pastor [of St. John the Baptist] is Rev. Father Shanahan, who has a residence near the county buildings on Marshall Street. The building ... was erected during the earlier years of the [Civil War]. the Rev. Charles Koeberl being the resident priest at the time. The earliest meetings in town must have been held in 1855, when itinerant missionaries from Wisconsin, and perhaps Winona, visited the settlement, and held mass at private houses; the first of these remembered was Michael Pendergast. ... Rev. Father F. Essing was the first regular priest here, and he was followed by Rev. Mathew Sturenberg, who was familiarly called Father Mathew; Rev. Father Muchelberger, and then Rev. Charles Koeberl. The language using in this church, aside from the Latin ritual, is the English, as most of the congregation have this as their mother tongue. “St. Peter’s Church.—This congregation and church is made up of those Catholics in Caledonia and vicinity, who use and understand the German language. A separation was made in the year 1873, when the present church was completed. ... In connection with the church is a parochial school under the charge of the Sisters of Notre Dame. There are about 100 pupils. The Rev. Charles Koeberl was in charge when the church was built. Rev. John Zuzek has been the pastor since June, 1878, and the congregation now numbers 165 families.” 95. The church is located at 513 S. Pine St. The parish office is immediately north of the church. Enter from the parking lot at the corner of South and Pine Streets. Addresses: P.O. Box 406, 453 S. Pine St., Caledonia MN 55921-0406. Bookkeeper and secretary: stmaryschurch@acegroup.cc. Phone 507-725-3804. Hours: Monday through Thursday: 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Friday: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m Current information at http://www.churchofstmary.net/about/about.htm.

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parish records and photocopied several pages. Two loose, unnumbered sheets are inserted before the bound pages. These sheets document baptisms from mid-1868 on one sheet and from late 1868 through February 1869 on the other. The handwriting differs from handwriting on the numbered, bound pages, and the entries are not signed. I infer that the two loose sheets indicate another parish register existed, perhaps to document the acts performed in St. John parish. More research is needed to find the missing parish register, which might document the burial of John Reinert. Neill’s statement that the sacraments were performed as early as “1855, when itinerant missionaries from Wisconsin, and perhaps Winona, visited the settlement, and held mass at private houses” and identifies the priest Michael Pendergast.96 The bound and numbered pages begin with marriages of 1866, 1867, 1868, and 1869 on pages 2 and 3. Page 35 is the next I have photocopied. The handwriting is the same as on pages 2 and 3, and its baptismal entries of 1868 have the pastor’s signature, Mathias Hurenberg. Page 51 is the fourth page I have, and its baptismal entries of 1870 are signed by pastor K. Körbel. The remaining photocopied pages 56-59, 61, 62, 68, 70, 71, 75, 76, 78, and 70 also contain baptisms 1870 to 1873 entered by Körbel.
Local Development — As part of southeastern Minnesota, the county is in the “Driftless Zone,” which is marked by the absence of glacial drift97 and presence of bedrock cut by streams into steep hills. The plateau that surrounds Caledonia includes flat, fertile farm land and hilly, verdant pasture land.

Navigation up and down the Mississippi encouraged growth of the county. Records of river transport document shipping from as early as 1844. The shipping season typically opened in April, after the river is free from ice. In 1855, a ferry from La Crescent to La Crosse was licensed. Named the “Wild Kate,” it operated without a regular timetable from its normal berth at La Crosse. Two horses powered a treadmill for the crossing. An unreliable steam ferry named “Honey Eye” soon replaced Wild Kate. However, its steam engines had little capacity, and often the ferry “had to tie up to an island, let the steam go down, take off the safety valve, and with buckets fill the boiler, then get up steam again and finish the trip.”98 After two years of such service, the ferry was abandoned and another company provided better service through 1878. Railroad companies were provided bonds for building by the Minnesota Supreme Court in 1857, in the face of popular and legislative opposition. However, referenda and laws were passed that obstructed state bonds for railway development through 1860. Although the battle over state funding of railway building raged until 1881, the private companies began to install their lines. “A part of the great St. Louis and Minneapolis line runs through the county north and south near the Mississippi River. Another road runs in the valley of the Root River east and west, connecting with the Mississippi road at the river. The third railroad in the county is the ‘Caledonia and Mississippi,’ which, from the junction on the river, follows up the Crooked Creek in a northerly direction to Caledonia, the shire town, where it deflects toward the south, and passes through Spring Grove, and thence on to Preston, its present terminus. This line was undertaken by local enterprise and is of the standard narrow gauge.”99 It is possible that John Reinert brought tools of his trade with him to pioneer America, where there would be a ready market for both linen thread and cloth. This hypothesis may be hard to prove, since tax records have not been found to date. Writing in 1882, Neill reported that flax cultivation had begun with one acre in 1878, which produced four bushels of seed.100 Even through the 20th Century, Minnesota was one of several states that devoted many acres to flax.101 Flax had become competitive in northern states like Minnesota because these states need fast maturing, cool season crops. Flax can be planted in April, as soon
96. Neill, p. 361. 97. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulee_Region, accessed 2013.10.22. 98. Neill, p. 285. 99. Neill, p. 258 (writing in 1882 about the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul company). 100. Neill, p. 292. 101. 378,000 acres in 1920 Minnesota, 1.6 million acres in 1943, and diminishing lately to only 10,000 acres, as cited in http:// www.mda.state.mn.us/mgo/publication/flax.pdf.

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as the soils begin to warm, and it can be harvested in August, well before early frosts.102 However, since about 1970, American flax production has failed to compete with imported textiles, whether as raw materials or as finished goods. The plat maps of 1931103 report that neighboring farms to the Reinert home had cattle, hogs, chickens, and geese. An average 120 acres of each farm supported the livestock with grain and pasture. The county population grew quickly in the 1860s, decreased slightly from 1900 to the 1930s, and gradually grew to the 2010 population of 19,000. The town of Caledonia has grown steadily, although slowly. La Crescent growth began only in the middle of the 20th Century, and its growth has been the driver of county growth since then. Of the other villages and townships, only Spring Grove village, Houston village, and La Crescent township have 1000 residents or more. The remaining 19 villages and townships have not grown much beyond populations of 500 each.
Year 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Houston Caledonia La County city Crescent 6,645 14,936 16,332 14,653 15,400 14,297 14,013 13,845 14,735 14,435 16,588 17,556 18,382 18,497 19,718 19,027 470 894 927 1,175 1,372 1,570 1,554 1,985 2,243 2,563 2,619 2,691 2,846 2,965 2,868 372 373 520 815 1,229 2,624 3,296 3,674 4,311 4,923 4,830

The Root River and its broad floodplain divide the county into a north third and a south two-thirds. In the north are the villages of Money Creek (unincorporated), Pine Creek (unincorporated), Houston (population 979 in 2010), Hokah (population 580), and the largest town of the county, La Crescent (population 4,830). La Crescent overlooks the Mississippi floodplain and slow-moving river, almost directly west from La Crosse, Wisconsin. South along the Mississippi are the towns of Brownsville (population 466) and Reno (unincorporated). The southwestern two-thirds of the county populate the rolling plateau above the Mississippi. Caledonia (population 2,868) sits in the center. The other towns on the plateau are Yucatan (unincorporated, township population 351), Sheldon (unincorporated, township population 289), Black Hammer (unincorporated, township population 326), Riceford (unincorporated), Newhouse (unincorporated), Spring Grove (population 1,330 and Spring Grove township population 422), Wilmington (unincorporated, township population 472), Eitzen (population 243 and Winnebago township population 257), and Freeburg (unincorporated, Crooked Creek township population 323).104

102. Thomas Jefferson Agricultural Institute, in their online essay on flax at http://www.jeffersoninstitute.org/pubs/flax.shtml. 103. Unattributed, Atlas and Farmers’ Directory of Houston County,. Webb Publishing Company (St. Paul MN), 1931. Personal copy available as scanned images.

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The town of Caledonia is a typical American small town. The streets are broad and mostly planned in a matrix of parallels and right angles. The businesses form a tightly-knit downtown that has stood for one hundred years or more. The largest buildings in Caledonia are the county courthouse, which was built in the 1890s, and St. Mary Catholic church, which was originally built in the 1880s. Both are located in the southern central area of town, within a few blocks of each other. The brick or stone buildings that date from before 1885105 have weathered well, although some façades have received incongruent modernizations. A line of newer businesses skirts the western edge of town along Highway 44-76. The homes developed clearly in separate additions: a few frame homes from the end of the 19th Century still stand, a group of homes built in the 1920s occupies one section of town, more modest homes built after the Great Depression are in another pocket, and in several groupings are the homes Figure 26. Map of Caledonia, Minnesota, 2003. built to house the smaller families that formed after soldiers returned from World War II. Here and there, you can find homes built in the 1960s through the 1990s that fill in vacant lots left during the other periods of development. Along State Route 44-76 are the most recent businesses that include gas stations, motels, fast food, and restaurant-bars. The nearest city for movies and other entertainment is seventeen miles away: La Crosse, Wisconsin.106
History — When, by the early 18th Century, the French fur traders from Canada made their way to the Root River Valley, they made little or no change in the life style or sense of possession of the land. If anything, they chose to adapt rather than change the Native American way. The less trouble, the more furs they could send back to Canada. However, the French claim to the area by right of discovery and first use was tenuous at best.107

The Louisiana Purchase. The end of the French and Indian War in 1763 saw the transfer of French influence to England in the north and French land claims west of the Mississippi River to Spain. For 35 years the rulers of Spain did little or nothing with the destiny of the region. Spain owned the Mississippi
104. Population figures cited in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston_County,_Minnesota and linked entries for each township and town. 105. Neill, p. 271. 106. Nine years after Susanna Reinert had left the Caledonia area for Tipton, Kansas with her mother, sisters, and brothers, she moved to La Crosse with her husband John M. Kohn and three children. They had moved there at the encouragement of her brother-in-law Mathias Kohn, who had owned and operated a well-respected and successful saloon and boarding house in La Crosse since 1864. 107. The historical notes in this section are derived from an essay by the Houston County Historical Society, available at http:// www.houstoncountymn.org/historic.html and accessed 2013.10.19. Some corrections were made based on information in Neill.

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River valley by right of discovery, even though they had possession of only the lands west of the river. In 1800, France regained control of the area, but Napoleon’s grand campaigns in Europe drew attentions away from America. By this time, the United States gained control of the lands ceded them at the end of the Revolutionary War. Citizens settled the Ohio River Valley and explored the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico. Understanding that Napoleon needed to finance his empire’s expansion, the United States made overtures to the French about selling. Fifteen million dollars was a windfall to Napoleon, and the deal was concluded. The United States took possession of New Orleans and the west bank of the Mississippi in 1803. Meanwhile, the French and English fur traders followed their trade. The Native Americans took advantage of the trade goods, but ignored the more abstract idea of land ownership. Population growth in the more settled East and demand for land resulted in an American presence in the upper Mississippi River Valley. With the granting of statehood to Iowa in 1846 and Wisconsin in 1848, the Indian lands on the upper reaches of the Mississippi River grew more attractive. Congress on 3 March 1849 created the Minnesota Territory, which included lands all the way west to the Missouri River and north to Canada. Only a small portion of the lands had been ceded to the United States by the resident Native Americans. Everything else was tribal land and not yet open for settlement. The Dakota and Ojibwe to the north and the Sauk and Fox to the south made incursions into the area that would soon be Houston county, but none really controlled it. In hopes to avoid conflict, in 1825 the United States established a line across northern Iowa below which the Dakota were not to hunt. However, the line was indeterminate, and no one, least of all the Native Americans, knew exactly where the southern border was. The border was further confused in 1830 by the establishment of the “Neutral Ground,” a swath of land 20 miles north and south of the 1825 hunting grounds line. In 1832, the north half of the Neutral Ground was ceded to the Winnebago as they were being pushed out of Wisconsin. The Native Americans used the land with little change, since they little cared about the strange idea of “owning” land. On the other hand, the Native Americans understood the fur traders and their harvested pelts, and the trade was left undisturbed.

Territory of Minnesota. With the establishment of the territory in 1849 came a need for governmental structure, counties, and townships. The territorial legislature created nine counties by October 1849. One was Wabasha county that encompassed the southern portion of the territory, with the Iowa state line as its south border. The county included lands claimed by Native Americans, and these areas were closed to settlement. Nonetheless, white men were squatting in what would become Houston county. Despite the county’s closure for settlement, the Census of 1850 lists six or eight people living in what is now Houston county. Some were timber cutters who worked the Mississippi River bottoms and the Root River valley, cutting trees in winter and floating them downstream during the spring thaw. Though timber poaching was illegal, the Iowa sawmill operators could claim the timber was from areas that were open for logging.
The Winnebago and Dakota ceded their rights gradually. After a treaty ceded the land, the United States ratified the agreement, then opened the land for settlement, and established a land office. Brownsville, in 1854, became the site of the first land office in southeastern Minnesota. The office soon had a booming business with the rush of settlers and speculators. The office was relocated to Chatfield in 1866, as more western land was opened for settlement. On 5 March 1853, the county of Fillmore was created from the southeastern portion of Wabasha county. Four months later, the Fillmore county commissioners created the first subdivision, the Root River voting precinct. The precinct was bounded by the Root River on the south, and it extended west to the county line. Another month later, the commissioners created the second voting precinct, which encompassed all the land south of the Root River. On 24 February 1854, Houston county was set off from the eastern half of Fillmore county. Three county commissioners were elected on 4 April 1854. Convening in Brownsville, the new county seat, on

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26 May 1854, the county commission identified five voting precincts: Brownsville, Caledonia, Pine Creek, Root River, and Spring Grove. The villages of Brownsville and Houston were platted in 1854; Caledonia, Hokah, and Spring Grove followed in 1855, and La Crescent in 1856.108 Eitzen was also platted about this same time. Numerous other villages were platted in the county by optimistic entrepreneurs. Some existed on paper only, others had a business or two and a post office for a time, and a few are still in existence today with larger populations than any time in the past. The county seat was the village of Houston for a few years, but the county commissioners moved the official records to Caledonia for safe storage in the cabin of Commissioner Samuel McPhail. The first court hearings were held in that cabin, and a one-story courthouse and jail was built in Caledonia in 1857.

Minnesota Statehood. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd state on 11 May 1858. A month before, in anticipation of statehood, the county commission established 15 townships, and on 13 August 1858 the state legislature confirmed them: Hamilton (later renamed Money Creek) in the northwest corner, Yucatan, and Spring Grove at the west and in Range 7; Houston, Sheldon, Caledonia, and Wilmington in Range 6; Union, Mayville, and Winnebago in Range 5; and La Crescent, Hokah, Brownsville, Crooked Creek, and Jefferson at the east border of the county and generally in Range 4. Mound Prairie and Black Hammer townships were created in 1858 and 1859 from land once part of surrounding townships.
At first the villages operated as part of the township that surrounded the village. Gradually seven villages each were granted legal status as incorporations sep- Figure 27. Map of Houston county, Minnesota, 2001. arate from the township. Brownsville, Caledonia, Eitzen, Hokah, Houston, La Crescent, and Spring Grove were later upgraded to cities by an act of the legislature. These seven cities and 17 townships form the local level of government in Houston County in existence today. Turmoil over the county seat continued, a two-story building was built in Caledonia in 1867, and several referenda allowed Caledonia to prevail as the county seat by 1874. From that point on, Caledonia prospered, and Houston slowly diminished. The only other area of prominence was La Crescent, which benefited from its connection to La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Immigration Waves. Soon after the region was open to settlement, agents published stories of the
verdant land and new opportunities109. “The earliest settlers were largely Irish. Norwegians settled in the western and southwestern parts of the county near Spring Grove. Germans settled near Eitzen and the northern part of the county. Luxemburgers [sic] settled around Caledonia and Freeburg.” Among the settlers from Luxembourg—the Palens from Harlange and Schwindens from Kaundorf—were German fam108. Neill, p. 274. 109. How did agents receive information about the county? Do advertisement schemes exist that document the agents’ work? These simple questions might require a great deal of research.

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ilies from the Trier area, including the Reinerts from Igel, the Arnoldy families from Kaschenbach, and Konzems from Temmels and Igel (or other towns). Several immigrant families set up as shop keepers, but the majority became farmers. The University of Minnesota documented how farming developed in the county.110
Farming in Houston county has passed through several periods in which different systems of farming were tried and abandoned. During the pioneer period, nearly all products were consumed at home. In the mid 1860s, wheat growing became profitable because of the rapid development of farm machinery and the increased demand for food stimulated by the Civil War. For several years wheat was the only crop grown on some farms. During this time Brownsville was an important shipping center, receiving wheat from as far as 50 miles inland. Wheat growing was nearly discontinued by the end of the 1880s due to crop losses from disease and insect damage. After the decline of wheat as a main crop, hog raising became the major farming enterprise. Corn grown in large fields was not well suited to the highly erodible sloping soils. Corn growing during this period involved intensive tilling of the soil to prepare a seedbed and many cultivations to control weeds. The resulting loss of organic matter, poor soil tilth, and large fields of exposed soil led to severe gully erosion. Erosion was so severe that some fields were abandoned. Dairy farming began in the 1890s but did not become important until about 1910. Dairying and beef production are well suited to the sloping to very steep topography. Dairying largely utilizes the more productive soils on the summits and upper side slopes of the ridge tops. Forage crops are fed in large amount to dairy cattle. These crops are very productive on the silty soils; at the same time forage crops provide a cover of sod that protects the soil from erosion. Relatively large areas are too steep for cropland but are suitable for pasture that supports beef cattle enterprises. Today’s system of livestock farming is basically in harmony with the climatic and soil conditions in the county. Since 1935, conservation practices have been applied to most farms. Most ridge top farms have contour strips. Gullies have been filled, shaped, and seeded to grassed waterway. Terraces are also used on some farms. These practices, along with diversions and dams that have been built, help reduce flooding in the valleys. Corn and hay are presently the most important crops grown in Houston county. In 1977, 66,000 acres of corn was planted to grain or silage, 57,300 to hay, 16,400 acres to small grain, and 2,800 acres to soybeans. Livestock numbers have been increasing steadily in Houston county. In 1977, 91,600 head of cattle and calves were in the county, of which 17,600 were dairy cows. Additionally, there were 140,000 hogs, 55,000 chickens, and 500 sheep. In 1977, there were 1,395 farms in the county. The average farm was 237 acres. Approximately 165,000 acres were used as crop land.

Neill provided notes on the development of religious congregations from about 1840 to 1880.111 He documented Catholic communities in Brownsville, Caledonia, Crooked Creek, Hokah, Houston, Jefferson, La Crescent, and Wilmington; Evangelical Lutheran communities in Brownsville, Crooked Creek, Hokah, Houston, Mound Prairie, Sheldon, Spring Grove, Union, Wilmington, and Winnebago; Episcopal communities in Caledonia and Houston; Presbyterian and Congregational communities in Brownsville, Caledonia, Hokah, Houston, La Crescent, Sheldon, and Yucatan; Methodist communities in Brownsville, Caledonia, Crooked Creek, Hokah, Houston, La Crescent, Money Creek, Sheldon, Union, Wilmington, and Winnebago; Baptist communities in Houston, Money Creek, and Winnebago; German Reformed communities in Mound Prairie, Union, and Winnebago; a United Brethren in Christ community in Houston; a Disciples community in Union; a Christian community in Brownsville; and a non-denominational community in Black Hammer. Catholic churches remain today in La Crescent, Hokah, and Brownsville. However, only two rectories are occupied by resident priests.
110. Soil survey of Houston County, Minnesota, Robert A. Lueth, United States. Soil Conservation Service, University of Minnesota. Agricultural Experiment Station. Pages 2-3. Accessed 2013.10.19 at http://books.google.com/ books?id=xwCRki7LV9YC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=%22houston+county%22+caledonia&source=bl&ots=KY1FNG9w9I &sig=VCoV0EttWBAJ4VBEKsoLpvh6PNs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McNeUqmmGZPJ4APutoGwBQ&ved=0CEYQ6AEwAzh 4#v=onepage&q=%22houston%20county%22%20caledonia&f=false. 111. Neill, pp. 327 (Black Hammer), 340 (Brownsville), 359-361 (Caledonia), 382 (Crooked Creek), 393-394 (Hokah), 408-410 (Houston), 420 (Jefferson), 429-430 (La Crescent), 439 (Money Creek), 450 (Mound Prairie), 455-456 (Sheldon), 467-469 (Spring Grove), 485-486 (Union), 491-492 (Wilmington), 501-503 (Winnebago), and 510 (Yucatan).

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Reinert History in the Area — Although the Reinert family lived in Houston county only five years, their life should have left these records, which require further research.

• • • • • •

School attendance for Nicholas (age 16 through perhaps 18), Peter (ages 14 through perhaps 18), Mary (ages 7 to 12), and Gertrude (ages 6 to 8)112 Burial of John Reinert Confirmations of Nicholas and Peter, possibly Mary and Gertrude Lease agreements for the farm property Tax forms for 1868 through 1872 Auction notices and receipts for the small property that could not fit in a wagon

A news item and advertisement in the Houston County Journal of 25 June 1872113 received some attention.
Buffalo Land.
We are in receipt of this new and most agreeable volume of over 500 pages from the press of E. Hannaford & Co., (Publishers of First Class Subscription Books, Cincinnati and Chicago) The author is Hon. W. E. Webb, of Topeka, Kansas, long and widely known from his connection with the interests of emigration, and a strikingly original and jocular humorist. He describes the wealth and wonders, the mysteries and marvels of the boundless West—that wild region so much talked about, yet as little understood, whose growth and development seem like a tale of Eastern magic. It is superbly illustrated, containing no less than fifty-three original and striking engravings, from actual photographs and designs by Prof. Henry Worrall, and executed (the enterprising publishers assure us) at a total cost of over $2,800. In a short review like this, it is, of course, impossible to convey a perfect idea of this admirable work. To any one who has the least touch of “the Western fever,” it must prove really invaluable; and for all classes of readers, without execution, it is the liveliest and most laugh-provoking book we have seen for many a day. It abounds with valuable information, the reliability of which is vouched for by Governor Harvey, of Kansas, and others. It fairly brims over with wit and humor, and many of its chapters rival Mark Twain’s happiest style. “Buffalo Land” embraces a wide and varied range of topics, among them the following: Details of great interest and importance concerning the natural features, vast resources, rapid development, and almost incredible progress of the far Western States and Territories, with glimpses of their mighty future; Curious and interesting facts connected with the climatic and other changes consequent upon the settlement and denser population of the newly-reclaimed Western lands; Fresh and authentic information, from official sources, respecting the supply of fuel and lumber available for use on the Great Plains: the cost of a farm, what the emigrant should bring with him, stock-raising at the West, &c. A full summary of the Homestead and Preemption laws and regulations, prepared by a former Register of the U.S. Land Office.

112. Neill reports (p.357) that “Schools No. 35 and 36 were the outcome of school started in 1856 or ‘57, in a log house on section eleven, where it was kept up until the winter of 1873, when two houses were put up, No. 35, on section eleven, and the other, No. 36, soon after on section nine. Mr. L.D. Churchill was among the first teachers in the log houses.” 113. Volume VII, number 32, page 2. The book Buffalo Land is available in a Kindle edition at http://www.amazon.com/dp/ B00845B9YY.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Full and accurate descriptions of the habits, characteristics, etc., of the savage red man, buffalo, elk, antelope, etc., as found in their native wilds and on the out-skirts of civilization; Graphic and thrilling narratives of hunting adventures, stalking the bison, encounters with Indians, etc.; Vivid pictures of life on the frontiers; the past and present of the Great Plains; the vast inland sea, and the marvelous animal life with which it once teemed; Highly interesting accounts of the geological wonders of the West, antiquarian and scientific researches, etc. The publishers desire agents for t everywhere, allowing exclusive territory and the most liberal commissions. The firm is a prompt and reliable one. We give their address in full: E. Hannaford & Co., 192 West Madison Street, Chicago, Ills. Many of our readers will want this book, and agents will make money rapidly in its sale.

The book created excitement among residents of the county. A couple residents travelled to Kansas and returned to verify many of the claims made in Buffalo Land. In September 1872, Nicholas Arnoldy liquidated his business, and with his brothers Michael, Peter, and Chris formed a wagon train, and Katherine decided to join Peter Jacobs, Franz Mergen, Matt Ellenz, William Schwinden, Nick Gasper, Philip Schroeder, John Beck, John Elser, Mike Cordel, and John Cordel—about a dozen families who left for Tipton, Kansas114

Areas near Tipton, Kansas
Katherine Reinert and her family of five children arrived in Tipton after a trip of 600 miles or more. Although a family document asserts the travel was by wagon train, no established trails cut a diagonal path from southeastern Minnesota to central Kansas. Even today, the route would pass by larger cities like Dubuque, Omaha, and Topeka to reach the destination. Travelling first down the Mississippi River to some terminus downstream seems more logical (Figure 28). Clinton, Davenport, or Burlington in Iowa or Hannibal in Missouri are possible locations for the transition from river barge to wagon. However, the Missouri River is navigable from its confluence with the Mississippi north of St. Louis, and steamboats made the journey upstream on a regular schedule. Four river towns were growing in importance along the Missouri River border with Kansas: Kansas City115, Leavenworth116, Atchison117, and St. Joseph118. From Kansas City, steamboats operated on the Kansas River as far upstream as Fort Riley, with the height of activity stretching from 1854 to 1866. However, this extension of river travel is less likely, since from the middle of the 1860s, rail service took over the freight transport.119 Whatever route was used, the land travel, whether 414 miles from Hannibal MO, 200 miles from Atchison KS, or 105 miles from Fort Riley KS, logically would have been used in combination with river travel.

114. Dreiling, Michael P., A Brief History of the Saint Boniface Parish, (Saint Boniface Church, Tipton; 1937). Section XI: The Parishioners. 115. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_City,_Missouri#History 116. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leavenworth,_Kansas#History and http://www.lvks.org/category/?categoryid=3 117. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atchison,_Kansas#History 118. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Joseph,_Missouri#History 119. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_River

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 28. Rivers and cities from Caledonia to Tipton

Through the early 1870s, the lower section of the Kansas River as it approached Kansas City provided the eastern termini of the Oregon Trail, the California Trail, and the Santa Fe Trail (Figure 29).120 Our current understanding of “the Trail” is misleading. No trail had long-lasting markers, and the verbal directions were shrouded by the vastness of the American frontier prairie. Frederick A. Wislizenus wrote in his 1846 diary of travelling the Santa Fe Trail, “This morning we passed the road to Oregon, that leaves, about eight miles from Round Grove, the Santa Fe Road, and turns to the right towards the Kansas [river]. A way post had been put there, marked: ‘Road to Oregon.””121 He was lucky to have seen the way post, since the usual directions referred to a grove of trees or a bend in the river.

120. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_River as accessed 2013.10.29. 121. Quoted in http://www.santafetrailresearch.com/spacepix/santa-fe-oregon-junction.html, as accessed 2013.10.29.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 29. Trails of the American prairie, 1860s

California Trail

Pony Express Trail

Oregon Trail

Santa Fe Trail

Perhaps the Caledonia-Tipton wagon train followed the Oregon Trail as far as Topeka and then headed west for Fort Riley (Figure 30). It is likely that trails following the Smoky Hill River122 and Solomon River123 were well established by 1872. The likely route continued from Fort Riley along the Smoky Hill Trail and, at the confluence of the Solomon River, the group might have chosen to follow the Solomon River northwest, while the Smoky Hill Trail headed west toward Abilene, Salina, and Fort Hays. Travel by stage coach could be as fast as seven miles per hour, but loaded wagons might travel only three miles per hour—or even less with wet weather or wagon breakdown. The stage coach travelled through the night and stopped only to allow momentary rest and a meal. While stage coaches sped from one station to another and received a fresh team of horses, the oxen or horses pulling the load of the wagon train needed rest overnight. Making camp, tending the livestock, and bedding down for the night made for a shorter daytime of travel. The likely time on the trail would have been more than 3 days for the trip from Fort Riley, and possibly as much as 60 days for a trip from St. Joseph MO.

122. The 1868 promoters of Kansas exploration and development called it the “Smoky Hill Road” to suggest an ease of travel. (Staab, Rodney: The Smoky Hill route and Fort Fletcher, http://contentcat.fhsu.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/thesis/id/2568/ rec/8) 123. Caldwell, Martha B. (ed.) Exploring the Solomon River Valley in 1869. Kansas Historical Quarterly: February 1937 (vol. 6, no. 1) (http://www.kshs.org/p/kansas-historical-quarterly-exploring-the-solomon-river-valley-in-1869/12699)

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 30. Rivers, towns, and forts in Kansas

Father Michael Dreiling documented the arrival of the wagon train in Tipton in the parish history.
As has already been stated, the first Catholic families came to the territory in the fall of 1872. Some of the present settlers seem to dispute this fact and try to put the date of the arrival of the first Catholics in the fall of 1873, but, according to very reliable sources, this opinion is less probable and cannot be established with any degree of certainty; whereas, the date of l872 has many weight arguments in its favor. The Tipton Times, 1934, giving a short history of the first settlers says: “Others who were here from the start are M. Ellenz, Peter Jacobs, etc.” and then gives the date 1872. Mrs. Catherine Greif, Sr., who was one of the very first (being then eight years old) states positively that it was in the fall of 1872 that they arrived. She also gave the names of the families of the first arrivals. They came from Caledonia, Minnesota, in the fall of 1872. The names of those families are: Nick Arnoldy, Sr., Peter Jacobs, Franz Jergen [sic, actually Mergen], Matt Ellenz, William Swinden, Nick Gasper (single), Philip Schroeder, John Beck, John Elser, Mike Cordel, John Cordel, and Mrs. Catherine Reinert. Before the families arrived, Mr. Peter Jacobs had been sent, earlier in the same year, to inspect the territory. These families were followed by many others, and by 1879 the number of families had increased to seventy. 124

By the Kansas State Census of 1 March, 1875, Katherine Reinert and her family lived in Osborne county, Kansas. Their home was a farm eight miles sourth and three to four miles west of the town of Tipton. Figure 31 shows properties owned by the Reinert family and their in-laws (red polygons). Other settlers from Caledonia are shown as green outlines.

124. Dreiling, Rev. Michael P. A Brief History Of The Saint Boniface Parish (1937, Section XI: The Parishioners).

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 31. Map of original land owners, Bloom township

Tipton

The enumeration of dwelling 62 in the 1875 census (Figure 32)125 identifies Katherine as “Catherine Reinert” (age 59, farmer) and her family as Mary (15) and Gertrude (10). Peter (22) and Nicholas (24) are
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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

in dwellings 63 and 64. No values are entered for the real estate, and personal property is valued at $269.00 for the whole family.
Figure 32. Katherine Reinert Household entry, Kansas State Census 1875

Schedule 2 of the Osborne county census (Figure 33) lists these facts. • • • • • • • Katherine, Nicholas, and Peter equally have 160 acres without fencing. They value the property at $310, and Katherine has $12,000 in equipment. Katherine has the most varied crops, with 1 acre spring wheat, 8 acres corn, 82 acres oats, 79 acres Irish potatoes, and 4 acres sorghum. Peter has sown 8 acres spring wheat. Nicholas has sown 18 acres spring wheat and 2 acres corn. Only Katherine tends a garden and produces 75 pounds butter annually. Only Katherine owns 4 horses, 8 milk cows, and 18 cattle, with a total value of $14,000.

125. Second Kansas State Census of Bloom township, Osborne county, Kansas; Schedule 1: page 5, dwellings 62 through 64, lines 24 through 28; Schedule 2: page illegible, lines 10 through 12. Microfilm number 570214, Kansas State Historical Society: Board of Agriculture Census of 1875, reel 16.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 33. Katherine Reinert Schedule 2 entry, Kansas State Census 1875

Schedule 2, Page 1

Schedule 2, Page 2

Other families enumerated before and after the Reinerts include these households. • • • • • • • • • J.C. Smith (dwelling 57, family of 5) George Albricht (dwelling 58, family of 9) Andrew Niemehr (dwelling 59, single person) John Dantz (dwelling 60, single person) W.H. Burke (dwelling 61, family of 7) Flank Nicolau (dwelling 65, single person) Nicholas Gasper (dwelling 66, single person) Anthony Gasper (dwelling 67, family of 3) J.B. Brown (dwelling 68, family of 4).

Absent from the Osborne county census is the eldest daughter, Susanna. She married John M. Kohn on 5 Sep 1874 at Waconda, a small community that did not grow beyond a few buildings. The couple appears in the Kansas State Census of 1 March 1875 in Mitchell county, Kansas. Their home was a farm five miles north and four miles east of the town of Tipton. Figure 34 shows properties owned by John M. and Susanna Kohn and William and Catherine Schwinden, in-laws to the Reinert family (red polygons). Other settlers from Caledonia are shown as green outlines.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 34. Map of land owners 1884, Carr Creek township

The plat map of 1884 shows H. Hodge as the owner of the southwest quarter of section 25, Carr Creek township. Unfortunately, no plat map exists of the original owners of land patents in the township. A deed is on file at the Mitchell county Register of Deeds for the transfer of this property from Railway right-ofway to John M. Kohn, dated 27 August 1879.126 Research in 2001 did not find the property transfer to H. Hodge, which was likely made between 1880 and 1884.

126. Carr Creek township is the incorporated Town 7 South, Range 10 West of the 6th Principal Meridian. The deed of transfer to John M. Kohn is in Deed Book E, page 582. Summary: 1879.08.27, grantor: Railway, grantee: Kohn, John M., Township: 7 south, Range: 10 west, Section: 25, Description: SW 1/4, Book: E, Page: 582.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

The enumeration of dwelling 24 in the 1875 census (Figure 35)127 identifies John M. Kohn as “J M Kohn” (age 36, farmer) and his wife as S Kohn (27), no children. The values are $1000 for the real estate and $35 for personal property. The couple
Figure 35. Katherine Reinert Household entry, Kansas State Census 1875

Schedule 2 of the Mitchell county census (Figure 36) lists these facts. • • • • • John M. has 160 acres without fencing. He values the property at $1000 and has no valuable equipment. He has varied crops, with 11 acres spring wheat, 10 acres corn, 2 acres oats, 1/4 acre Irish potatoes, and 1/8 acre sorghum. He has no garden but produces 30 pounds butter annually. He owns 2 horses, 1 milk cow, and 1 cattle, without a total value.

The 1879 deed and the 1875 census present a discrepancy in the actual date of ownership. I believe the situation is a case of “proving” the land, which was a requirement of the Homestead Act of 1862.128 A homesteader was required to file an application, improve the land, and file for the deed of title.

127. Second Kansas State Census of Carr Creek township, Mitchell county, Kansas; Schedule 1: page 4, dwelling 24, lines 1 and 2; Schedule 2: page 49 (as marked for microfilming), line 23. Microfilm number 570212, Kansas State Historical Society: Board of Agriculture Census of 1875, reel 13. 128. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestead_Act and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_improvement, which describe “land improvement” as investments making land more usable by humans. In terms of accounting, land improvements refer to any variety of projects that increase the value of the property. Home building and containment were two of the most historical common improvements. In terms of agriculture, land amelioration includes land levelling, drainage, irrigation, leaching of saline soils, landslide and flood control; soil improvement, fertilization; soil stabilization and erosion control; and road construction.

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Figure 36. John M. Kohn Schedule 2 entry, Kansas State Census 1875

Schedule 2, Page 1

Schedule 2, Page 2

The Reinert family history in the Tipton area include the occurrences summarized in .
Date 1873.12.22 Names Occurrence Location

William Schwinden and wife sold mortgage to W.P. Mudgett for NW 1/4 of Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp NE 1/4 and E 1/2 & SW 1/4 of NW 1/4 Sect 14 T7 R10 (160 ac) Susanna Reinert and John M. married Kohn John Nicholas Kohn John Nicholas Kohn Peter Kohn Mike J. Waconda

1874. 1875.06.17 1875.08.22 1877.07.17 1879.03.18 before 1881.01 1879.04.01 1879.08.27 1879.08.27

Kohn
died

born to Susanna

Reinert and John M.

Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp

Kohn Kohn

born to Susanna born to Susanna

Reinert and John M. Reinert and John M.

Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp La Crosse WI

Susanna Reinert and John M. moved Kohn family Peter Reinert John M. Kohn John M. Kohn

bought lots 4 & 9, block 43; and lot 11 block Mitchell county, Pittsburg (Tip59 from Mark J. Kelly ton) bought SW 1/4 Sec 25 T7 R10 west from U.S. Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Ralroad Rct transferred title of SW 1/4 Sec 25 T7 R10 west Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp to Travellers Ins. Co. (mortgage)

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Date 1879.09.08

Names Nicholas Reinert and Maria married Simeon Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwinden

Occurrence

Location St. Boniface church, Tipton

1874.06.29

Stephan Schandler and wife transfered title of SE 1/4 less 3 acre of town 9, Osborne county, Bloom twp range 11, section 1 for mortgage to Tuthill, George George Tuthill transferred clear title of SE 1/4 less 3 acre of town 9, range 11, section 1 to Schandler, Stephan et ux born to Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon born to Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon Osborne county, Bloom twp

1879.03.31

1880.10.28 1884.05.01 1881 1881 1882 1882 1883 1880.06.01 1880.06.01 1885.01.18 1880.07.09 1884.04.04 1882.07.12 1885.03.01 1885.03.01 1886.02.06 1889.01.06 1886 1887 1889 1887.04.24 1887.01.26 1890 1888.01.25

Peter Anton Reinert John Peter Reinert Anna Reinert Anna Reinert Catherine Reinert Catherine Reinert William Joseph Reienrt

Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp

born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den died Osborne county, Bloom twp born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den died Osborne county, Bloom twp born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den enumerated in census enumerated in census Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Mitchell county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp

Peter Simeon (father-in-law) died Kohn, John M. Schwinden, William Kohn, John M. et ux Patent transferred from United States of SW 1/4 T7 R10 S25 title transferred from United States (rail) of NW 1/4 T9 R9 S1 title transferred from Stimson, Harry P. of SW 1/4 T7 R10 S25 enumerated in census enumerated in census Emma Reinert (Sr. Borgia) Nicklous B. Reinert Mary Catherine Reinert Elizabeth Susanna Reinert Carl Mathias Reinert Maria Reinert and Michael Gillen Gertrude Reinert and Stephen Schandler born to Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon born to Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon

born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den married married St. Boniface church, Tipton St. Boniface church, Tipton Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp

William Schwinden (father- died in-law) Simeon, Peter transferred patent from United States of SE 1/4 of NE 1/4 T8 R11 S33 and W 1/2 & NE 1/4 of NW 1/4 T8 R11 S34

1888.01.16

Simeon, Peter et ux

transferred mortgage title to Penn. Invest. Co Osborne county, Bloom twp of. SE 1/4 of NE 1/4 T8 R11 S33 and W 1/2 & NE 1/4 of NW 1/4 T8 R11 S34

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Date 1888.09.01

Names Ohnsat, Robert (father-inlaw) Reinert, Nicholas

Occurrence transferred patent from United States of N 1/2 of NE 1/4 and NE 1/4 of NW 1/4 T9 R11 S17

Location Osborne county, Bloom twp

1888.10.22

transferred title from Anna Maria Simeon of Osborne county, Bloom twp SE 1/4 of SE 1/4 of T8 R11 S28 and N 1/2 of NW 1/4 of T8 R S32 and NE 1/4 & W 1/2 of NE 1/4 and N 1/2 of NW 1/4 of T8 R11 S33 enumerated in census enumerated in census Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp

1890.06.01 1890.06.01 1892.09.24 1892 1894 1891.02.08 1895.03.01 1895.03.01 1896.01.08 1899.02.19 1896 1898 1900 1900 1898 1899 1901 1896 1900.06.01 1900.06.01 1916 1901 1904 1906 1901 1903 1901 1903 Mary Theodore Mathias Reinert Alex Gregory Reinert Gervase Thomas Reinert Catherine Margaret Delorosa Arthur Joseph S. H. Reinert Anton A. Reinert Gertrude Hubertine Reinert Margaret Cleophas Reinert John Reinert John Reinert Gertrude L. Gillen John Gillen Catherine Gillen Mary Schandler

Bertha Reinert (Sr. Lamber- born to Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon tine) Henry Nicholas Reinert Anna Catherine Reinert Katherine Reinert

born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den died enumerated in census enumerated in census born to Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon born to Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon Osborne county, Bloom twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp

born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den died born to Maria Reinert and Michael Gillen born to Maria Reinert and Michael Gillen born to Maria Reinert and Michael Gillen born to Gertrude Reinert and Stephen Schan- Osborne county, Bloom twp dler enumerated in census enumerated in census adopted by Nicholas Reinert and Maria Simeon Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Osborne county, Bloom twp

born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Peter Reinert and Catherine Schwin- Osborne county, Bloom twp den born to Maria Reinert and Michael Gillen born to Maria Reinert and Michael Gillen born to Gertrude Reinert and Stephen Schan- Osborne county, Bloom twp dler born to Gertrude Reinert and Stephen Schan- Osborne county, Bloom twp dler

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The Family of John Reinert (1822-1871) in Europe and America from 1812 to 1985

Date 1903 1903.01.03 1905.03.01 1905.03.01 1907 1906 1910.06.01 1910.06.01 1910.06.01 1912.06.24 1913.07.31 1913.09..24 1915.03.01 1915.03.01 1915.03.01 1920.06.01 1920.06.01 1920.06.01 1925.03.01 1925.03.01 1925.03.01 1930.06.01 1930.06.01 1930.06.01 1933.05.13 1934.05.28 1935.03.01 1935.03.01 1935.03.01 1938 1939.07.26 1940.06.01 1940.06.01 1940.06.01 1940.12.29 1945.03.01 1945.03.01 1945.03.01 1960.06.04 Maria Loretta Grace

Names

Occurrence

Location

born to Gertrude Reinert and Stephen Schan- Osborne county, Bloom twp dler died enumerated in census enumerated in census Osborne county, Bloom twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp

Anna Zillig-Simeon

born to Gertrude Reinert and Stephen Schan- Osborne county, Bloom twp ? dler

Peter Reinert and Catherine moved to Sheridan county Schwinden enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census Catherine Reinart-Schwinden Michael Gillen died died enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census Nichoas Reinert Peter Reinert died died enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census Stephen Schandler Maria Reinert-Gillen died died enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census Catherine Schwinden-Rein- died ert enumerated in census enumerated in census enumerated in census died Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Sheridan county, twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp Sheridan county, twp Mitchell county, Carr Creek twp Osborne county, Bloom twp Sheridan county, twp

Gertrude Reinert-Schandler died

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